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The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution (PowerPoint)

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					The Great West and
the Agricultural
Revolution

1865-1890
Clash of Cultures on the Plains
   360,000 Native Americans in 1860.
   Mirgration and conflict were common in the
    West.
   Native American groups were displacing each
    other in the centuries following expansion.
   White invaders spread disease, typhoid, cholera,
    and smallpox.
   Bison population steadily decreasing with
    advancements west: Killing and raising
    livestock.
How to deal with Native American
Population West
   Signed treaties at Fort Laramie in 1851, Fort
    Atkinson1853. Beginning of Reservation system
    in the West.
   Attempt to separate into 2 great colonies.
    North/South of expansion.
   Problems: Tribes and Chiefs were not common
    organizations among the groups.
   Nomadic living vs. confined space. Culutral
    differences.
   Native Americans promised rations and to be left
    alone.
   Indian agents often corrupt. Spoiled meat, and
    poor blankets.
   Warfare common between Native Americans and
    Army troops.
   Buffalo soldiers- African American troops.
   Fighting was often brutal and aggressive.
   Sand Creek, Colorado; Chivington’s militia
    massacred 400 Native Americans. Immunity?
   Sioux massacred Fetterman’s 81 soldiers and
    civilians attempting to block construction of the
    Bozeman trail.
 Fort Laramie 1868 treaty giving the Great Sioux
  Reservation.
 Custer’s expedition into the Black Hills
  announces discovery of Gold.
 Sioux respond to gold seekers with war.
 Custer’s last stand at Little Bighorn, wiped out.
  U.S. Army pursues the warriors relentlessly.
 Chief Joseph with the Nez Perces tricked into
  reservations into Kansas, eventually allowed
  back to Idaho.
 Apache of Arizona and New Mexico difficult to
  subdue. Geronimo led the charge. Apache
  eventually end up in Oklahoma as farmers.
 White policy finally shattered the Native
  American spirit.
 Placed onto reservations, theory was cultural
  autonomy, became wards of the government.
   Trains a big factor as to why conquered.
   Bring unlimited amount of troops, farmers,
    cattlemen, settlers.
   Disease ravaged the people.
   Disappearance of the buffalo as a way of
    life also.
Buffalo Significance
 Used for food, fuel (buffalo chips), and hides for
  clothing and harnesses.
 End of Civil War 15 million still on the plains.
 Locomotives slowed by the herds. Began to be
  killed off for amusement or basic parts.
 By 1885 fewer than a thousand and danger of
  complete extinction.
Plight of Native American’s.
 Helen Hunt Jackson “A century of Dishonor”
  1881. Record of governments ruthless treatment
  of Native Americans.
 Humanitarian efforts to treat Native Americans
  kindly and persuade them to become like the
  white man.
 Other side insists on containment and force.
 Often times Christian reformers tried to force
  them to assimilate to white culture. Withholding
  food for not giving up religious ways.
   Outlaw dances like the sun dance.
   “Ghost Dance”, resulted in Battle of Wounded
    Knee 1890. Dakota Sioux were slaughtered.
   The reform of Indian policy was the Dawes Act.
    Reflected force civilization.
   Dissolved tribes as legal entities, wipe out tribal
    land ownership, individual families on 160 acres.
   Get full title’s to land and citizenship in 25 years if
    they behaved.
   Reservation land not sold to Native Americans
    was to be sold to railroad and white settlers.
   Proceeds go to civilize the native Americans.
   Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania. Children
    separated from tribes, and give white values and
    customs. “Kill the Indian and save the man”
    school’s motto.
   Tried to make individuals out of tribal groups.
    Ignored cultural ties.
   1900 lost half of the 156 million acres.
Mining in the West
   1858 discovery of gold in Colorado “Pikes
    Peakers” Countless busts. Many stayed in silver
    mines or to grow wheat.
   Comstock Lode; Gold & Silver $340 million,
    1860-1890, brought into the Union prematurely.
    (Provide Lincoln 3 electoral)
   Other small discoveries in Western States,
    “Helldorados” boomtowns with saloons,
    prostitutes, lynch laws, and vigilante justice.
   Gold was gone the towns disappeared.
   Replaced by corporations, mine hard to reach.
Mining of the West
 Attracted wealth and populations to the region.
 Women found opportunity.
 Equality of vote, Wyoming 1869, Utah 1870,
  Colorado 1893, & Idaho 1896.
 Help finance Civil War, facilitate railroads,
  intensify conflict with Native Americans, enable
  Treasury to resume specie payments in 1879,
  inject silver issue into politics.
Cattle Drives and Beef Bonanza
   Grassy plains of Texas supported several million
    tough long horned cattle.
   Transcontinental railroad brought opportunity to
    bring the beef to markets in stockyards, to meat
    packing plants (Kansas City, Chicago), ship fresh
    produce in refrigerator cars to the east coast.
   “Long Drive” 1 to 10 thousand driven across the
    unfenced plains feeding as they went.
   Terminals Dodge City, Abilene (Wild Bill Hickok),
    Ogallala, and Cheyenne.
   Dangers of Native Americans, stampedes, cattle
Cattle continued…
   1866-1888 over 4 million cattle to markets.
   Eventually homesteaders and sheep ranchers
    enter the area fencing up the range.
   1886-87 Winter blizzard, overgrazing,
    overexpansion took its toll.
   Cattle raising became big business, fence
    ranches, lay in winter feed, import blooded bulls,
    produce fewer and meatier animals.
   Wyoming Stock-Growers Association, virtual
    control of the state and legislature.
Farmers frontier
 Homestead Act of 1862; land given away to
  encourage filling empty space, provide stimulus
  to the family farm. (backbone of democracy)
 1/2 million families took advantage of the act
  over 40 years. 5 times as many purchased their
  land from railroads and land companies.
 2 out of 3 homesteaders failed, poor rain
  conditions and less than ideal land. Many
  corporations grabbed the best land using
  dummy homesteaders.
 Railroads induced many immigrants into the
Continued…
 Myth “Great American Desert”, treeless and
  tough sod must be sterile.
 Sod broken by the heavy iron plows and oxen
  proved fruitful. Built homes out of sod and
  burned corncobs for warmth.
 100th meridian, imaginary line with distinction of
  two climate regions, water to east, dry to the
  west.
 Wesley Powell warned not suitable for agriculure
  to west, “Dry Farming”-shallow cultivation-dust
  bowl.
Fading Frontier
   Government begins to set aside land such as
    Yellowstone in 1872, Yosemite and Sequoia
    1890.
   Safety Valve theory, during times of hardships
    mobility options. How Valid is it?
   Western cities Chicago, Denver, San Fransisco.
   The last in a chapter of colonizing different ideas
    of what the West was.
   Native American’s most desperate stand, Anglo
    and Hispanic culture collide, along with countless
    environmental challenges and economic and
Farm becomes the factory
 Influence towards single cash crop focus.
 Use profits to buy other food at general store and
  products in catalogs.
 Farmers become tied to banking, railroads, and
  manufacturing. Buy expensive machinery, twine
  bender and combine expensive machinery used
  for more efficient growth.
 Farmers skills at business was short, blame goes
  around.
   Mechanization of agriculture pushed out
    marginal farmers and produced farms
    attaining factory status.
   Wheat farms numbering a half dozen at
    15,000 acres.
   Agriculture becomes big business, advent
    of refrigerator car allows for fruit and
    vegetable crops sold in eastern markets.
 Danger of cash crops wheat same as cotton at
  the mercy of world markets. Bankruptcy falls
  upon the Farm belt.
 1880’s and 1890’s facing competition of other
  countries. Low prices and deflated currency.
  What is the problem of deflation? Borrow $1000
  wheat worth 1 a bushel, expected to pay back
  1000 bushels plus interest, but 1890 fell to 50
  cents, how many bushels does it take to pay
  back?
 Deflation partly from the static money supply.
  Government policy hard money.
 Farmers operating at a loss year after year,
  Machinery increase output which drops prices of
  grain, and deeper into debt.
 % rates of 8-40 on mortgages, despair against
  the eastern bankers.
 Tenant farmers continued to increase through
  out the region. 1/4
 Droughts and infestations ^ the problems.
 Government problems, land overassessed, local
  taxes, and paid for protected manufactured
  goods while competing in an unprotected world
  market for food.
 Mercy of trusts (Fertilizer, barbed-wire,
  harvester), railroad freight rates, storage rates.
 Disorganized, by nature independent, never
  successfully organized to limit production until
  federal government steps in 50 years later.
Farmers take stand
   The Grange organized by Oliver Kelly (MN)
   Individual improvement promotion to collective
    farm improvement.
   Escape trusts through cooperatively owned
    stores for consumers, grain elevators, attempt to
    manufacture harvest machinery.
   Politics; Grange through state legislation, strove
    to regulate railway rates and storage fees.
   Granger influence faltered through repeal in
    judicial law of court cases Wabash decision 1886
Pullman Strike
   Eugene V. Debs labor leader organized the
    American Railway Union.
   Pullman Palace Car Company hit hard by the
    depression of 1893. Cut wages to 1/3 but
    maintained line on rent for company houses.
   Strike occurs paralyzing railway traffic from
    Chicago to the Pacific.
   U.S attorney Richard Olney urged for Federal
    troops; ground U.S. mail can’t get through.
   Federal troops crush the strike. Debs in Jail for
    ignoring injunction. “government by injunction”
McKinley vs. Bryan
   Issue of 1896 election; Monetary policy
   Maintain gold standard or inflate with silver
   McKinley leading candidate of Rep. (Ohio)
   Influenced by Marcus Hanna (Iron). Believed
    gov’t to aid business.
   Declared gold standard even with McKinley
    modest voting towards silver.
   Condemn hard times; support protective tariff.
McKinley vs. Bryan
 William Jennings Bryan (Nebraska)
 Cross of Gold Speech, “You shall not press
  down upon the brown of labor this crown of
  thorns, you shall not crucify mankind on a cross
  of gold”
 Platform demand inflation through unlimited
  coinage of silver at 16 oz. to 1 of gold. Silver in
  the dollar would be worth 50 cents. (32 to 1)
 “Gold Bugs” democrats who left over the silver
  issue.
Continued
   Populists joined Democrats platform because
    support of their 16 to 1 ratio on silver.
   Feared a McKinley victory if they split their votes.
   Bryan creates a panic among eastern
    conservatives.
   Gold bugs also vented their concerns over the
    monetary policy.
   Marcus Hanna created a large slush fund from
    trusts for the campaign. $16 million to $1 Million
    for the democrats.
   Rep. slogan “ McKinley and the Full Dinner Pail”
   Fear was McKinley’s ally and Bryan’s enemy.
   Republican business placed contracts with
    manufacturers contingent on victory. Intimidation
    (Don’t come to work if Bryan wins)
   McKinley victory.
   Significance: Resounding victory for big
    business, big cities, financial conservatism. Last
    serious effort to win the Presidency with farmer
    vote.

				
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