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					        Chapter 19

Renewing the Sectional Struggle
          Popular Sovereignty
•   The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican-
    American War, but it started a whole new debate
    about the extension of slavery.
•   Northerners rallied around the Wilmot Proviso
•   The Southerners were able to vote the proviso down
    in the Senate.
•   Sectional political parties meant the Union was in
    jeopardy.
•   Lewis Cass was the Father of Popular Sovereignty.
•   It was acceptable because it was a compromise
    between the extremes of the North and the South, and
    it stuck with the idea of self-determination, but it could
    spread slavery.
                   Election of 1848
•   Democrat – Lewis Cass
     – Father of Popular Sovereignty
•   Whigs – Zachary Taylor
     – Ignored all issues
     – Had never held office or voted
     – Southern slave owner
•   Free Soil – Martin Van Buren
     – Committed against extension of slavery in the territories
     – Advocated federal aid for internal improvements and urged free
       government homesteads for settlers
     – Wanted to stop the spread of slavery to west because they wanted
       wages to rise so a working class could climb social ladder
      President Zachary Taylor
• Won a narrow victory in the election
• He was the second president to die--from illness-- in
  office and the second president to die in the White
  House.
• He was the first president not previously elected to any
  other public office.

• President Taylor was one of six Presidents born in a log
  cabin. He was one of seven Presidents from Virginia.
• Zachary Taylor never lived in one place long enough to
  register to vote. He voted for the first time when he was
  62 years old. Taylor had never voted in a Presidential
  Election until he voted for himself in 1848.
         California Gold Rush
•   In 1848, gold was discovered in California, and
    thousands flooded into the state.
•   Had a huge effect on the slave issue
•   Most people didn’t “strike it rich,” but there
    were many lawless men and women who
    settled in California.
•   Shortly after California was ready to become a
    state
•   California drafted a constitution and then
    applied for statehood.
Sutter’s Mill
California Goldmining
49ers
     Sectional Balance in 1849
•   In 1850, the South was very well off, with a
    Southerner as president (Taylor), a majority in
    the cabinet and on the Supreme Court, and
    equality in the Senate.
•   With 15 free states and 15 slave states, the
    South could veto any proposed amendment
    that would outlaw slavery.
•   The balance of 15 free states and 15 slave
    states was in danger with the admission of free
    California.
Senate Debate of Californian Issue
• John C. Calhoun
   – Argued that the South should get more representation in the
     House and there should be two presidents – one from the North
     and one from the South.
• Daniel Webster
   – “Seventh of March” speech argued for compromise. Was
     considered a “fallen angel” by many Northerners because he did
     not come out against slavery.
• William Seward
   – A young senator from New York, was flatly against concession
     and hated slavery, but he didn’t seem to realize that the Union
     was built on compromise, and he said that Christian legislators
     must adhere to a “higher law” and not allow slavery to exist
• Henry Clay
   – Argued hard for compromise (Compromise of 1850)
     Clay’s Compromise of 1850
1.   Californian admitted as a free state
2.   The Utah and New Mexico Territories could decide the slave
     issue with popular sovereignty
3.   Outlawed slave trade in DC
4.   Slavery still legal in DC
5.   Stricter fugitive slave laws

•    President Taylor was against the compromise but he died in
     office. This helped the bill get passed since Millard Fillmore was
     for it.
•    By far the most controversial aspect of the compromise was the
     fugitive slave law. Led to “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” and Personal
     liberty laws.
•    Helped put off Civil War for 11 more years
       Death of President Taylor
• On Independence Day 1850,
  President Zachary Taylor
  stood hatless in the sun for
  hours listening to long-winded
  speeches. He returned to the
  White House and attempted to
  cool off by eating cherries,
  cucumbers and drinking iced
  milk. Severe stomach cramps
  followed and it is likely that
  Taylor's own physicians
  inadvertently killed him with a
  whole series of debilitating
  treatments
           Clay’s Compromise
• Senator Henry Clay of
  Kentucky proposed the
  Compromise Measures of
  1850, a set of five bills
  favoring compromise
  among the states on the
  issue of slavery.
  President Millard Fillmore
  signed all five measures
  into law
Slavery in 1850
                     Millard Fillmore
•   He signed the Compromise of
    1850 as an alternative to war, but
    it alienated both sides
    nonetheless. However, it did stave
    off war for 10 years.

•   President Fillmore never ran for
    President. He became President
    after the death of Zachary Taylor.
•   When the Library of Congress
    burned in 1851, Fillmore and his
    Cabinet helped fight the blaze.
•   Millard Fillmore was a founding
    member of the Buffalo Chapter of
    he American Society for the
    Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
                      Harriet Tubman
•   Born into slavery, she escaped to
    Philadelphia in 1849, and
    subsequently became one of the
    most successful “conductors” on
    the Underground Railroad.
    Returning to the South more than
    a dozen times, she is generally
    credited with leading more than
    300 slaves (including her parents
    and brother) to freedom,
    sometimes forcing the timid ahead
    with a loaded revolver. She
    became a speaker on the anti-
    slavery lecture circuit and a friend
    of the principal abolitionists, and
    John Brown almost certainly
    confided his Harpers Ferry plan to
    her.
Underground Railroad
             Election of 1852
• Whigs – Winfield Scott
  – Hero of War of 1812
  – Whigs 3rd war hero (Harrison and Taylor
• Democrats – Franklin Pierce
  – Dark horse candidate
  – Considered a pro-southern northerner
  – His Secretary of War was Jefferson Davis the future
    President of the Confederacy
  – Expansion fever gripped Pierce. The desire to even
    out the imbalance between free and slave states
                Franklin Pierce
• Each of his three children
  died before he was
  president and before
  reaching adolescence.
• Two months before his
  inauguration, the Pierce
  family was involved in a
  train wreck and their 11-
  year-old son, Benjamin,
  was thrown from the car
  and crushed to death
  before their eyes.
Southern Targets of Expansion
                  Cuba
• Pierce offered Spain (who owned Cuba)
  $100 million for Cuba – Spain refused
• Ostend Manifesto – Top secret plan
  written by Pierce to offer Spain $120
  Million for Cuba and if they refused the
  U.S. would take it by force
• Word leaked out and Pierce was branded
  pro-slavery which eventually led to his
  demise
             Gadsden Purchase
•   The Southerners wanted a
    route through the South, but
    best one would go through
    Mexico, so Secretary of War
    Jefferson Davis arranged to
    have James Gadsden
    appointed minister to Mexico

•   Purchased land south of
    Arizona for $10 million
                Kansas-Nebraska Act
•   Proposed by Senator Stephen Douglas of
    Illinois. Wanted Illinois to be the eastern
    terminus of the Transcontinental railroad.
•   In order of the RR to extend west from
    Illinois, unorganized territories had to be
    organized and made official U.S. territories
•   Kansas and Nebraska territories were
    formerly part of Louisiana territory
•   Douglas needed southern support to pass
    Kansas-Nebraska Act. South was originally
    against passage because of their desire to
    have the RR travel through the South
•   Douglas enticed the south into voting for the
    act by agreeing to let Popular Sovereignty
    decide the slave issue thereby allowing
    slavery to potentially spread to where it was
    originally prohibited by law (Missouri
    Compromise)
•   Essentially overturned the Missouri
    Compromise

				
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