# Succeeding With Technology

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```					           Chapter 2

Hardware Designed to Meet
the Need
   The Digital Revolution
   Integrated Circuits and Processing
   Storage
   Input, Output, and Expansion
   Selecting and Purchasing a Computer

of cell phone
and turn off the ringer.

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
The Digital Revolution
 What does it mean to be digital?
 Key Terms
 Binary number system
 Digital convergence

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
The Digital Revolution
DIGITAL TV
DIGITAL                              Understand the
importance of
What’s all the fuss
Digital Camera                                  digitization
all types use
DIGITAL                                         bytes.

Digital Convergence
Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Recall from chapter 1….
The Bit (binary digit)
 Bits are the 1’s and 0’s that allow us to
represent, store, and manipulate data
 They are the smallest unit of data in a digital
electronics device

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
The Bit
 Bits aren’t really 1’s and 0’s, they are
devices that can be set to one of two
states.
A bit can be a capacitor that is
electronically charged or not
charged.
A bit can be an area of metal
particles on the surface of a disk that
are either magnetically charged or
not.
A bit can be a microscopic spot on a
highly reflective disk surface that
either has a pit burned into it or not.
Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
The Bit
 How can a bit (an on-off switch) represent
useful data and information?
 Information can be assigned to the two
states of the bit:
On =
Off =

1 and 0 are typically used to describe the state of
a bit, but you could use anything; black/white,
true/false, male/female, etc.

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
The Bit
 How many units of information could be
represented with 2 bits?

00 =
01 =
10 =
11 =

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
The Bit
• How many units of information could be stored
using 3 bits?

000 =                          100 =
001 =                          101 =
010 =                          110 =
011 =                          111 =

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Bit & Bytes
 Bytes can represent any
collection of items using a
“look-up table” approach
 ASCII is used to represent
characters

ASCII
American Standard Code for Information
Interchange
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASCII

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
The Value of Going Digital
 Anything that can be expressed
through words, numbers, sounds,
pictures, and even scents can be
digitized.
 Digital information is easy to
manipulate.
 Digital information is easy to copy
and transfer.
 Digital information is long lasting.
 Digitization standardizes the
format of all different types of

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Digital Convergence

 Digital convergence
is the trend to merge
multiple digital
services into one
device.

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Integrated Circuits and
Processing
 Key Terms
 Consider PC Choices                 Random Access Memory (RAM)
 Transistor                          The machine cycle
 Integrated circuit                  Megahertz (MHz)
 Central Processing Unit (CPU)       Gigahertz (GHz)
 Motherboard                         Gigaflop
 Arithmetic/logic unit               Moore’s Law
 Control unit

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Let’s go shopping!

CompUSA
Sony
Apple
In order to shop intelligently, you
processors, storage, input/output,
and peripherals.
Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Key Components

Processor
Memory
Storage
Removable Storage

Video
Networking

Security
OS
Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Transistor

 A transistor is an
electronics component,
composed typically of
silicon, that opens or
closes a circuit to alter
the flow of electricity to
store and manipulate
bits.

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Integrated Circuit
 An Integrated Circuit (chip)
combines transistors and
capacitors in a tiny module
to store and process bits and
bytes in today’s digital
electronic devices.

http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/physics/integrated_circuit/history/index.html

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
The Central Processing Unit
 The Central Processing
Unit (CPU) is a group of
integrated circuits that work
together to perform the
processing in a computer
system.

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
The Motherboard
 The motherboard is the primary circuit board
of a computing device that houses the digital
device’s circuitry including the microprocessor
and memory.

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Processing
 The microprocessor accesses instructions
stored in memory over the system bus.

Random Access
Memory (RAM) is
temporary, or volatile,
memory that stores
bytes of data and
program instructions
for the processor to
access.

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
CPU Components
 Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU):
contains the circuitry to carry out
the instructions in the
processors instruction set.
 Control Unit: sequentially
accesses program instructions,
decodes them, and coordinates
the flow of data throughout the
system.
 Registers: hold the data and
instructions currently being
processed (~300 bytes).

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Latest Technology
 Multicore technology refers
to housing more than one
CPU on a chip.
 Dual-core processors and
two and four CPUs on one
chip that work together to
provide twice and four times
single-core chips.

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
System Bus

 The system bus
connects the CPU to
the chipset, and
through it to RAM and
other components on
the motherboard.

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Processing – The Machine Cycle
 The four stages of
the machine cycle
are (1) fetch the
instruction from
memory, (2) decode
and (3) execute the
instruction, then (4)
store the results.

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
CPU Characteristics
 The first consideration in selecting a computer is
typically its speed: how quickly it can carry out such
to a CD.

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Computer Performance ~ Factors

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Moore’s Law
 Gordon Moore,
cofounder of Intel,
observed in 1965 that the
technological innovation
reduce the size of
transistors, doubling their
density on the chip every
two years.

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Storage
 Key Terms
 Magnetic Storage                 CD-RW
 Optical Storage                  Solid State Storage
 CD-ROM                           Flash memory card
 USB

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Secondary Storage
 Secondary storage is used to
store data more permanently
without the need for electricity.

Tape Drive

One of the storage silo robots in NERSC’s    Mini Cards
8.8-petabyte High Performance Storage
System.

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Secondary Storage
Storage Media Type
 Magnetic storage devices use the
magnetic properties of iron oxide particles
to store bits and bytes more permanently
than RAM.
 Microdrives can store gigabytes of data on
a disk one or two inches in size.
 Optical storage media store bits using an
optical laser to burn pits into the surface of
a highly reflective surface.
 Solid State storage devices use flash
memory to store bits.
Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >   23
System Storage
 System storage is storage that is used by a
computer system for standard operations.
 Forms of system storage, include
 RAM
Cache
Video RAM
ROM
CMOS

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Graphics Memory
 Graphics memory,
sometimes called video
RAM or VRAM, is used
to store image data for
a computer display in
order to speed the
processing and display
of video images.

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Magnetic Storage
 Hard Disk Drives
 Magnetic Tape
 High-capacity Disks &
Floppy Disks (outdated)
 Microdrives

Microdrives from Toshiba
provide iPods with their ultra
high storage capacity.

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Optical Media
 CD, DVD, Blu-laser Disk (BD)

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Universal Serial Bus or USB is a
standard that allows a wide variety of
Solid State                                devices to connect to a computer
through a common port.

 A flash memory card is a
chip that, unlike RAM, is
nonvolatile and keeps its
memory without the need for
electricity.

 USB Flash Drives use flash
memory to provide high
capacity storage through the
USB port.

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Input, Output, and Expansion
 Key Terms
 Input device
 Output device
 Touch screen
 Game controller
 Display resolution
 LCD

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
I/O Concepts
 An input device assists in
capturing and entering raw
data into the computer
system.
 An output device allows
you to observe the results of
computer processing with
one or more of your senses.

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
I/O Concepts

 Speed and Functionality
 Human vs. Machine
 Source Data Automation

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Input Devices
 Keyboard, Mouse,
Trackball
 Touch screen, stylus,
kiosks
 Microphone, speech
recognition
game-centered
devices
 Digital cameras
 Scanning devices
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/tabletpc/default.mspx

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Output Devices
 Displays Liquid crystal display (LCD) or Flat
panel
 Printers and Plotters
 Sound Systems

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Computer

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Researching a Computer Purchase
 Web sites such as www.cnet.com and
computer type and platform.

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Online Vendors
 Online merchants allow you to compare
packages from varying manufacturers to find
the best configuration and price.

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Strategies for Computer Shopping
 Choose type: notebook,
desktop, tablet, smart
phone, or netbook
 Choose platform
 Windows/Mac/Linux
 Choose Manufacturer
 Choose Model

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
    Research
    www.zdnet.com
    www.cnet.com
    www.macworld.com
    Computer Retailers
    www.cdw.com
    www.compusa.com
    Direct from Manufacturer
    www.apple.com
    www.dell.com
    www.sony.com
    www.hp.com
    www.gateway.com
    www.toshiba.com

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >
Chapter 2 Questions?

Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

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