New York Charter Schools by xiuliliaofz

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									New York Charter Schools


     Legislative Advocacy
        January 2010
   History of charter schools
• The charter school movement began in the early
  1990s

• Minnesota was the first state to pass a charter
  school law in 1991

• New York followed in 1998 with the New York
  State Charter Schools Act (Education Law no.
  2850-2857)

• Currently 41 states and the District of Columbia
  have laws allowing for Charter Schools

                                 http://www.nyccharterschools.org
Charter schools by the numbers
• Currently, there are nearly 5,000 charter
  schools in 39 states and the District of
  Columbia, attended by more than 1.5 million
  students

• As of fall 2009, New York City has 99 charter
  schools serving more than 30,000 students
• For the 2009-10 school year, approximately
  40,000 students applied for 8,500 available
  seats in New York City

                              http://www.nyccharterschools.org
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Graphic source: The Effects of New York City’s Charter Schools on Student Achievement (2009) by Caroline
Hoxby, Sonali Murarka, & Jenny Kang
  Charter school governance
• Charter schools operate independently, and
  are governed by a not-for-profit board of
  trustees
• They are exempt from many state and local
  regulations regarding curriculum, personnel
  hiring, and financial management
• However, all charter schools are accountable
  for student achievement on state exams;
  students must take and pass NY Regents
  exams
                                 http://www.nyccharterschools.org
      Charter school funding
• charter schools are public schools, funded by tax
  dollars, but they can also receive funding from private
  donors and non-profit organizations

• primary revenue source: per-pupil allocation from the
  state government, determined by a standard formula
  that assures fewer dollars per pupil than the local
  district schools

• charter schools are eligible for federal funding for
  disadvantaged and disabled students

• unlike traditional public schools, charter schools do
  not receive any funding for school facilities

                                       http://www.nyccharterschools.org
 Charter school student selection
• Student entry to charter schools must be
  based on a lottery system

• Research shows that lotteried-in and
  lotteried-out applicants are alike on every
  observable dimension: race, ethnicity,
  gender, poverty, disability, English proficiency

• Students in New York City charter schools
  may not be selected on the basis of factors
  such as demographics or test scores

                                   http://www.nyccharterschools.org
   NYC Charter school: KIPP
• KIPP = Knowledge is Power Program
• KIPP NYC serves 1,300 students and 700 alumni;
  80% from low-income families, 98% African American
  or Latino, all selected by lottery
• 95% of KIPP NYC students scored at or above grade
  level in state math testing; 83% in English
• 93% of KIPP NYC students graduated from high
  school (twice the New York City average)
• 86% of students go to college (more than twice the
  national average for low income students)
• Innovative programs: longer school days, Saturday
  school, music program, college support team
                                     http://www.kippnyc.org/about/overview
      NYC Charter school:
The Equity Project Charter School
• The Equity Project is a 480-student middle
  school in Washington Heights that opened in
  September 2009 (5th grade, building to 8th)
• Based on the premise that teacher quality is
  the most important school-based factor in
  academic success
• three-pronged strategy “the 3 R’s”: Rigorous
  Qualifications, Redefined Expectations, &
  Revolutionary Compensation

                              http://www.tepcharter.org/philosophy.php
            New York City
  Charter Schools Evaluation Project
            Caroline Hoxby et al. 2009
• Funded by a grant from the U.S. Institute of
  Education Sciences (IES), part of the U.S.
  Department of Education
• Data on absolute test scores, value added
  performance, lottery-in vs. lottery-out data and
  social demographics
• Data analyzed for this study ranges from the 2000-
  2001 through the 2007-2008 academic years
                                       http://www.nyccharterschools.org
Hoxby et al. 2009



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                                       http://www.nyccharterschools.org
        Hoxby et al. 2009
math and language arts grades 3 to 8



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                                               http://www.nyccharterschools.org
             Hoxby et al. 2009
 Regents performance, grades 9 to 12



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The impact of these incremental increases is that for every
 year of charter school attendance, students are 7% more
   likely to pass the Regent’s examination on graduation
        Scarsdale-Harlem model
              Hoxby et al. 2009

• The Scarsdale-Harlem achievement gap is a term
  used to compare achievement levels of students
  from one of the most affluent New York suburbs,
  Scarsdale, with those of students in Harlem

• Hoxby's report shows that, on average, students
  who attended a charter school from kindergarten
  through eighth grade closed the Scarsdale-Harlem
  achievement gap by 86 percent in math and by 66
  percent in English
                                   http://www.nyccharterschools.org
   Hoxby et al. 2009: key factors
• In evaluating the progress made by charter school students
  versus students who were lotteried-out, the Hoxby report
  cites policies that seem to be tied with school success:

   – Long school year
   – Larger amount of time devoted to English every day
   – Disciplinary policies that offer small rewards/small
     penalties for student behavior
   – Teacher pay based on performance rather than solely
     based on seniority/tenure
   – Mission statement that underscores academic
     performance over other goals
                                         http://www.nyccharterschools.org
Hoxby et al. 2009: conclusions
• Charter schools have a positive effect on
  student achievement
• The nearly always positive effect is due to
  things charter schools share: autonomy,
  governance, incentives, flexibility
• The size of the effect is moderate for a single
  year, but adds up over time to close the
  achievement gap
• Certain policies should be tested more
  broadly, such as longer school year and
  flexible pay
                                    http://www.nyccharterschools.org
           Center for Research on Education
             Outcomes (CREDO) Report
             Charter School Performance (2009)
          by Margaret Raymond, Stanford University

• study examined 20,640 students from 49 public charter
  schools and compared them to demographically matched
  students in nearby public schools
• 17% of charter schools reported academic gains that were
  significantly better than traditional public schools

• 46% showed no difference from public schools

• 37% were significantly worse than their traditional public
  school counterparts
                                           http://credo.stanford.edu June 2009
       CREDO Study 2009:
          conclusions
• U.S. Charter schools showed a significantly
  greater variation in quality as compared with
  the more standardized public schools

• Many charter schools seem to fall below
  public school performances, while a small
  number few exceed them significantly




                                http://credo.stanford.edu June 2009
           Race to the Top

“ It's time to stop just talking about education
   reform and start actually doing it. It's time
       to make education America's national
                     mission.”

- President Barack Obama, November 4, 2009
     Race to the Top legislation
• Signed by President Obama on February 17, 2009
• Sponsored in the Senate by Ted Kennedy
• 4.35 billion dollar incentive program designed by
  the US Dept of Education to promote progressive
  reform in the US education system, grades K
  through 12
• Competitive program whereby states will be
  appropriated funding based on the merits of their
  reform proposals

                      http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop/executive-summary.pdf
          Race to the Top: goals
• Adopting standards and assessments that prepare students
  to succeed in college and the workplace and to compete in
  the global economy

• Building data systems that measure student growth and
  success, and inform teachers and principals about how
  they can improve instruction

• Recruiting, developing, rewarding, and retaining effective
  teachers and principals, especially where they are needed
  most

• Turning around the lowest-achieving schools

                         http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop/executive-summary.pdf
   Race to the top: selection criteria
A. State Success Factors (125 points)
* (A)(3) Demonstrating significant progress in raising achievement and closing gaps

B. Standards and Assessments (70 points)
* (B)(1) Developing and adopting common standards

C. Data Systems to Support Instruction (47 points)
* (C)(1) Fully implementing a statewide longitudinal data system

D. Great Teachers and Leaders (138 points)
* (D)(2) Improving teacher and principal effectiveness based on performance

E. Turning Around the Lowest-Achieving Schools (50 points)
* (E)(2) Turning around the lowest- achieving schools

F. General Selection Criteria (55 points)
* (F)(2) Ensuring successful conditions for high-performing charters and other
innovative schools

                                    http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop/executive-summary.pdf
 Race to the Top: Charter Schools
(F)(2) Ensuring successful conditions for high-performing charter schools

(i) The State has a charter school law that does not prohibit or effectively inhibit
     increasing the number of high-performing charter schools in the State…

(ii) The State has laws, statutes, regulations, or guidelines regarding how charter
      school authorizers approve, monitor, hold accountable, reauthorize, and close
      charter schools; in particular, whether authorizers require that student
      achievement be one significant factor, among others, in authorization or
      renewal…

(iii) The State’s charter schools receive equitable funding compared to traditional
      public schools, and a commensurate share of local, State, and Federal
      revenues…

(iv) The State provides charter schools with funding for facilities…and the extent to
     which the State does not impose any facility-related requirements on charter
     schools that are stricter than those applied to traditional public schools


                                    http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop/executive-summary.pdf
 “Right now, there are many caps on how many
  charter schools are allowed in some states, no
 matter how well they're preparing our students.
That isn't good for our children, our economy, or
                  our country.”


     - President Barack Obama, March 10th 2009
       Race to the Top: timeline
• Phase 1 applications for funding were due on
  January 19th, 2010
• 40 states applied for funding
• Phase 1 winners will be announced in April 2010
• The deadline for submitting Phase 2 applications is
  June 1st; phase 2 decisions will be announced in
  September 2010
• New York State’s share of the funding could be as
  large as $ 700 Million dollars
  New York charter schools:
      new legislation
• New York Charter Schools Act of 1998
  allowed for 100 charter schools in the state
• Cap on charter schools in New York was
  raised to 200 in 2007
• Charter Schools in NY are evaluated and
  selected by The New York State Board of
  Regents and the State University of New
  York’s Board of Trustees
         NYC charter schools:
         understanding the cap
• 100 charters may be authorized by the SUNY
  Board of Trustees
• 100 charters may be authorized by the NYC
  Schools Chancellor (Joel Klein), other local school
  boards, or the state Board of Regents
• When an authorized school closes (or if it never
  opens at all), it still counts against the cap

                                      www.nycchartercenter.org
          Hoyt legislation 2009
• Part of New York’s application for educational
  funding through Race to the Top
• Proposed by State Assemblyman Sam Hoyt (D-
  Buffalo) in October 2009
• Bill would double the number of charter schools
  allowed in the state (from 200 to 400)
• Reserves at least 50 of the new schools for large
  urban districts like New York City


                           www.nytimes.com/2010/01/18/nyregion/18charter.html
     Hoyt legislation: limitations
• Bill would impose new regulations on the
  process of evaluating and approving new
  charter schools, particularly in NYC
• Removes authority from the city (Mayor
  Bloomberg and Chancellor Joel Klein) and
  the SUNY Board of Trustees to approve new
  schools, giving ultimate authority to the
  state’s Board of Regents

                       www.nytimes.com/2010/01/18/nyregion/18charter.html
      Hoyt legislation: limitations
• Requires a more stringent review process, in
  particular requiring parental approval from schools
  where new charter schools will be built alongside
  existing public schools

• Mandates public hearings each time a charter
  schools is opened or moved
• Also prohibits for-profit corporations from opening
  charter schools

                           www.nytimes.com/2010/01/18/nyregion/18charter.html
    Bloomberg on the new bill
 “The bill is a wolf in sheep’s clothing, plain and
 simple, that would destroy a charter law that is a
national model -- and surely weaken our application
for federal dollars…There are tens of thousands of
 New York City children on charter school waiting
      lists, and they deserve better than this.”

    - Michael Bloomberg, January 18, 2010


                        www.nytimes.com/2010/01/18/nyregion/18charter.html
  Sheldon Silver on the new bill
“Contrary to Mayor Bloomberg’s statements, this bill
  would place no limit on continued charter school
  growth in New York City. The only limits it places
 are on his and Chancellor Klein’s unchecked ability
   to completely disregard the voices of traditional
                public school parents”

    - Sheldon Silver, State Assembly Speaker


                          www.nytimes.com/2010/01/18/nyregion/18charter.html
Governor Paterson on the new bill

• Governor backs the lifting of the charter cap, but
  not the additional restrictions

• Likely to veto the bill if it is passed in the New York
  State Assembly

“It would ultimately undermine the improvement that
   the Race to the Top grants intend to achieve”


                             www.nytimes.com/2010/01/26/opinion/26tues2.html
  Current status: NYC RTTT
• New York State submitted an application to
  the Race to the Top program on January
  19th, 2010
• The bill lacked a plan allowing for more
  charter schools (no change to the cap on the
  number of NY charter schools)
• It remains to be seen what funding will be
  allocated to New York, given its failure to
  include this fundamental element of RTTT
• Second round of applications are due June
  1st, 2010…what will happen then?

								
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