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PENGURUSAN ORGANISASI

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PENGURUSAN ORGANISASI Powered By Docstoc
					PENGURUSAN ORGANISASI
Pengurusan: Ringkasan Sejarah
   Ancient:
    – Masyarakat Sumaria mengamalkan sistem
      perniagaan dan postal;
    – Sistem kerajaan di Mesir dan pembangunan
      piramid;
    – Babylonians (Mesopotamians) mengamalkan
      kerajaan berpusat, penyatuan budaya dan kod
      perundangan mengenai kontrak, pemilikan
      harta dan perundangan mencegah penipuan
      perniagaan.
    – Ancient Greek & China
Pengurusan: Ringkasan Sejarah
   Pengurusan Saintifik (F.W. Taylor; 1856-1915):-
    – Pengurus perlu menyediakan kaedah yang standard
      bagi melaksanakan sesuatu kerja;
    – Pemilihan pekerja hendaklah berdasarkan kepakaran
      dan keupayaan untuk melaksanakan sesuatu kerja
      khusus;
    – Pekerja hendaklah dilatih mengenai cara untuk
      melaksanakan sesuatu pekerjaan;
    – Pengurus perlu merancang dan mengadakan
      pengagihan kerja;
Pengurusan: Ringkasan Sejarah
   Prinsip-prinsip Pentadbiran (Henry Fayol; 1841-1925);
     – Division of work : To produce more and better work
       the same amount of effort.Managerial and technical
       work are amenable to specialization.
     – Authority and responsibility : Authority is needed to
       carry out managerial responsibilities. This includes the
       formal authority to command and personal authority
       deriving from intelligence and experience.
       Responsibility always goes with authority.
     – Discipline :Discipline is absolutely essential for the
       smooth running of business.
     – Unity of command:Each subordinate receives orders
       from one – and only one – superior.
–   Unity of direction : Similar activities in an
    organization should be grouped together under one
    manager.
–   Subordination of individual interest to general
    interest : Individuals’ interests should not be placed
    before the goals of the overall orginazation.
–   Remuneration of personnel : Compensation should
    be fair to both employees and the organization.
–   Centrallization : Power and authority tend to be
    concentered at upper levels of the organization.
    Degree of centralization must vary according to the
    situation ; the object is the optimal utilization of all
    personnel faculities.
–   Scalar chain : A chain of authority extends from the
    top to the bottom of the organization. However,
    horizontal communication is necessary for swift
    action.
–   Order : A place for everything and everything in its
    place; a place for everyone and everyone in his or her
    place.
–   Equity : Managers should be kind and fair when
    dealing with subordinates.
–   Stability of personnel tenure : High employee
    turnover should be prevented.
–   Initiative : Subordinates should have the freedom to
    take initiative.
–   Esprit de corps : Harmony, team spirit, and a sense or
    unity and togetherness should be fostered and
    maintained.
     Definisi Pengurusan

Attainment of organizational goals
in an effective and efficient manner
   through planning, organizing,
       leading and controlling
           organizational
             resources.
        The Organization
 The social entity (two or more
 people) and system (set of
 interrelated that transform input to
 output) –goal directed & deliberately
 structured (divided task &
 responsibility for performance to
 organization’s members) to achieves
 common objectives.
           The organization’s environment

                       General        Technolo
  Economics
                                      gical
                           TASK
           Competi                   Custo
           tors                      mers

                           INTER-             Social-
                                              cultural
Legal/
politics                    NAL
                                     Labor
               Suppliers             supply




                     International
    The Internal Environments Of The
              Organization:
 Directional Strategies-Vision, mission and
  objectives;
 Planning & implementation policies,
  strategy & system (4M+ information)
 Behaviors & Culture of the organization;
 workplace
 Style of the management & leadership.
      Task (external) environment
 The government & stakeholders- policies &
  the expectation;
 The clients-socio-economy, geography,
  demography, expectation, need & demand;
 The labors market-policy & capabilities;
 The suppliers/ providers
 The agencies/ organizations & competitors
 Technology & information.
The General (External) Environment

    Politics
    Socio-economy
    Geography & demography
    Industrialization & marketing
    Technology
    Information
    Organizations
Organization’s processes To produce
        output (Objectives)
      Internal/task/ general environment




 Input          Process              Out-
                                     put


 Internal/task/ general environment
   Input-resources to produce output/
                product.

 Men/women     power;
 Money/ fund/allocation of budget,
 Infrastructures;
 Equipments
 Technologies,
    Process-transformations of input to
                 output:-
 Structure-allocation of task, resources,
  chains of command, hierarchy, authority.
 Work process/flow, system, procedures,
  Manuals, standard & regulations.
 Implementations, control & preventive.
    Output- Goods or Services
 Fulfill the objective/ requirement/
  expectation/ need & demand;
 Quantity;
 Quality;
 Productivity
 Efficient & effective.
 Non conformance cost.
        The hierarchy of the
            managers
 Top managers- The highest in the structure &
  hierarchy, responsible for entire organization.
 Middle managers- middle in hierarchy & chains of
  command, responsible for the major department
 First line managers-directly responsible &
  accountable for the production/ delivery of
  products/ services (output).
     The Management Function
                     Planning
           (select goals, future, performance,
            Task & resources to attain them)



                                   Organizing
   Controlling                   (assign responsibility
                                   For task & allocate
(monitor & correction)                 Resources)




                      Leading
               (influence to motivate)
                      Planning
  Defining goals for future organizational performance
   And deciding on the task & resource use needed
                      To attain them

Implementation/       Define Org.          Set specific
Control/ evaluate                             goals
                       Current
                       situation
    Finalize                                Formulate
 Strategic plan                             strategies



 Dev. Tactical/        Set timetables/    Analyze risks
  Operational            schedules        & resources
 Goals & plans
       Planning: direction of the organization

   VISION: general statement long-term direction to
    archive.
   Mission: The organization’s reason for existence.
   Goals: What the org. want to be in the future,
    pertain to the org. as a whole rather than to specific
    department.
   Objective: A specific short-term target for which
    measurable result/ output can be obtain.
   Strategy: how to responding to the ever changing &
    dynamic environment to fulfill mission & objectives.
    Strategic Planning/ Management
   Is focused on the future within a context of a
    changing, but relatively predictable
    environment. It consists 3 activities:-
    – Formulation of the future mission
    – Developing the competitive strategy
    – Creation of organization structure- deploy
      resources.
    The Strategic Planning/ Management

 The comprehensive & Long period plan/
  blueprint (2-5 years)
 overall organization
 The set of decision & actions used to formulate
  and implement strategies that will provide
  competitively superior fit between the
  organization and its environment (Internal &
  external) so as
 to achieve organizational future
  goals/objectives.
    Strategic Planning/ Management
Evaluate        External-
Current:      Opportunities
                              New/ Strength
                    &
                 Threats
-Mission                      -Mission/
                              -Goals/
-Goals                        -Strategies
                              -leadership style
                              -restructure
-Strategies                   -HRD
               Internal-      -Information
-Output/      Strengths &     -system & procedures
 Perfor-      Weaknesses      -technology
 mence
      Operational plans
 Short period Plans developed at the
 organization’s lower levels
 (departments, branches, unit) that
 specify action steps toward achieving
 operational (daily, weekly, monthly or
 yearly) goals and support strategic
 plans.
                  Strategies:
   The plan of action that prescribes activities
    and resources for dealing with the
    environment to attain the organization’s goal.

Situation Analysis:
 Search for characteristics SWOT from
  internal & external environment which
  directly/ indirectly may prevent/ can be
  exploit to achieve organization goal.
 Function Of Management 2
       ORGANISING
The creation of framework
in which organization
defines how task are
divided, resources are
deployed and departments
are coordinated and
communicated.
        Organizing Process
 Created  the organization structure/ chart
  based on the interrelated elements as
  bellow;
 departmentalization-nature of work/
  function/specialization task,
  geographical location, product.
 set of formal task assigned to individual/
  departmental/ unit;
   Allocate the reasonable resources to
    implement task;

   Formal reporting relationship &
    communication- centralization/
    decentralization, line of authority, decision
    responsibility, number of hierarchical level
    & span of managers control/ command

   Formalization-written documentation use
    to direct/ guide & control employees.
  Management function 3-
LEAD THE ORGANIZATION
      LEADERSHIP

    The ability to
influence other people
 toward the attainment
of organizational goal.
                 Leaders
            The task to influence
     (self-apparent, intelligent & styles,
communicate, motivation, educate, guidance,
        supervise, control, punishment)
subordinate and others to do the thing right, to
                  enhance the
     excellence and to achieve the goals/
         objectives of the organization.
    Sources of leader influence-
                power
    (potential ability to influence
               others)
 Legitimate power: formal management
  position & authority granted to it.
 Reward power: authority to bestow reward
 Coercive power: authority to punish or
  recommend punishment
 Expert power: special knowledge & skill
 Referent power: characteristics to respect,
  admiration & desire to emulate.
…potential ability to influence-situation
        leadership style (personal
    characteristics & work environment)

 Leader-member relation (humanisms) – highly
  respect, confident & trust to subordinate knowledge
  & skill, commitments & responsibilities.
 Task structure- emphasis to achieve goals, output,
  specifics system & procedures, commitments & how
  subordinate carried-out the task;
 Position power- shown the formal power/ authority
  to direct, evaluate, reward & punish.
            MOTIVATION
 Thearousal, direction and
 persistence of behavior.

 Factors that influence job
 satisfaction based on fulfillment of
 higher-level needs such as
 achievement, recognition,
 responsibility and opportunity for
 growth.
 A Simple Model Of Motivation

  NEED-
    Creates                     Fulfill needs/
     desire      Behavior-       Not fulfill
    to fulfill
     needs
                  Action to
     (food,      Fulfill need
                                 Satisfied/
  friendship,                       not
recognition &
achievement)
      Mallow's Hierarchy Of Need
                                            Self actualization
                                           (training, growth &
                                                Creativity)
                                  Esteem need (recognition,
                                     High status & incr.
                                       responsibilities

                              Belongingness needs


                           Safety needs
  Physiological needs
(air, food, water, sex &
      place to stay)
  Management function 4-
       controlling.
 The systematic process through
 which managers regulate
 organizational activities to make
 them consistent with the
 expectations established in plans,
 target, and performance standard.
             What to control
 Subordinate behavior and performance
 Allocation, utilization, functional,
  maintenance & performance of funding,
  facilities, infrastructures, equipments &
  technologies.
 Processes & procedures
 Task/ units, departmental, organization
  performance/ output
              The control process

 Establish
 Indicators
                     Data
     &                            Compare
                  Collection
 Standards                      Performance   Corrective
                (Performance)
Performance                          Vrs        action
     &                           standards
   Method
     &
Mechanisms
     Of
  measure
        Managing Change

 The adoption of new idea or
 behavior by an organization, that
 is designed and implemented in
 an orderly and timely manner to
 meet current and anticipated
 future need
         Forces for change
 External forces: customers, competitors,
  technology, economics & international.
 Internal forces:
 Performance gap: disparity between
  existing and desired performance level.
         Initiating Change
 Search-learning  about current
  developments inside/outside. used to
  meet a perceived need for change.
 Creativity- development of novel
  solutions to perceived organizational
  problems
 Entrepreneurs-individual who anticipate the
  need for productive change & champion
  within the organization.
 Venture team-a group separate from
  organization.
 Skunk works- a small & informal and some
  time unauthorized group who create
  innovation
    Resistance to change

 Selfinterest - loss of power,
  authority, prestige, pay & other
  benefits.
 Uncertainty - lack of information
  about change and future events.
 Different assessments and goals-

				
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