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5a NSU CHILD MOLESTERS Part II - L. Dennison Reed_ Psy.D

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 45

									PART TWO
        EXTRAFAMILIAL
       CHILD MOLESTERS

Target children who are not family members
 Extrafamilial Child Molesters
       Who Target Girls
• They are believed to abuse an average
  of 20 different girls.
   Extrafamilial Child Molesters
        Who Target Boys
• Often ―obsessed‖ with their victims
• Quite likely to be ―pedophiles‖
• Known for having the largest number of
  victims. They average 150 victims!
• Likely to have a collection of ―child erotica‖
  and/or child pornography, which they use as
  stimuli for masturbation.
         Extrafamilial Child Molesters
              Who Target Boys
• ―Human evidence machines‖ (Ken Lanning,
  FBI)
• They frequently take photos and videotapes of
  their victims and sometimes of the abuse itself
• A timely (unexpected) search of the offender‘s
  residence is especially critical with this type
  child molester!
• [Especially when interviewing victims of this
  type of molester, ask whether the offender has
  a camera]
It is not unusual for Child Molesters to
Molest When Other Adults are Around
 • For many child molesters, their behavior is
   quite compulsive—like an addiction—and
   they take considerable risks in order to
   molest
 • Many child molesters are emboldened by
   the fact that they usually get away with
   molesting—even in high risk situations
     CASE EXAMPLE
A school athletic director with
      ―no boundaries‖
 PSYCHOPATHIC
CHILD MOLESTERS
              PSYCHOPATHS
• Psychopaths
  – start their criminal careers at a younger age than
    other criminals (usually before age 12)
  – commit more violent crimes at every age
  – their violent crimes do not decrease with age
  – lack remorse and are unaffected by punishment
           PSYCHOPATHIC
          CHILD MOLESTERS
• They are often superficially charming and tend to be
  excellent manipulators
• They delight in ‗duping‘ others - even if they get
  nothing else out of it (―duping delight‖)
• They lack empathy for others, but are attuned to
  other‘s reactions and perceptions
• They feel ‗entitled‘ to have whatever they ‗want‘

  Interviewer: Why did you molest that child?
  Psychopath: Why not? I wanted to.
      Tests for Psychopathy
• The ‗gold standard‘ for measuring
  psychopathy is the PCL-R (Hare
  Psychopathy Checklist-Revised)
• The ―Psychopathic Deviate‖ scale of the
  MMPI-2 (scale 4) is not a good measure of
  psychopathy. This scale was derived from a
  sample of primarily female ‗minor league
  delinquents‘ (e.g., who had engaged in
  stealing, lying, sexual promiscuity, alcohol
  abuse)
No treatment program has ever
     been successful with
 Psychopathic Sex Offenders
FEMALE CHILD MOLESTERS
TYPES OF FEMALE CHILD MOLESTERS
           (Salter, 2003)
1. Teacher/lover group: primarily molest
   teenagers; typically not sadistic but do
   tend to blame their victims
2. Coerced group: coerced by male partner
   to have sex with a child; some enjoy
   molesting children and eventually do so
   apart from any coercion
3. Incest offenders: largest group; molest
   their own children often when they are
   very young (under 6) and tend to be
   fused/enmeshed with their children; many
   of these mothers have sadistic tendencies
Female Child Molester
   Debra LaFave
 • Middle School Teacher
 • Had intercourse with a 14 year-old male
   student on multiple occasions:
   –   In her classroom
   –   In a car driven by the boy‘s male cousin
   –   In her own car
   –   In an apartment where the boy was visiting a relative
 • Arrested in 2004, after the police arranged
   a pretext call by the victim
      Can Adult Sex Offenders Be
              ―Cured‖?
• ATSA has noted that, although many if not
  most sex abusers are treatable, there is no
  known ‗cure.‘
• Management of sexually abusive behavior is
  a life-long task
    SADISTIC
CHILD MOLESTERS
  SADISTIC SEX OFFENDERS
    Actions and Motivation
• They torture and sometimes kill their victims
• Although it would seem that ‗anger‘ would
  motivate this crime, this is not the case.
  Rather, the sadistic behavior is engaged in
  because it is sexually arousing
• Whereas Psychopaths just ignore the pain of
  their victims, sadistic offenders feed on it
 SADISTIC SEX OFFENDERS
     First Impressions
• Tend to be excellent planners
• When courting adults, they frequently
  present initially as exactly the opposite of
  what they are, i.e., they are very romantic
  and shower their prospective partner with
  attention, gifts, and affection
  SADISTIC CHILD MOLESTERS
  Attitude Toward Their Victims

• Non-sadistic offenders project their own
  sexual desire onto their victims
• Sadistic child molesters project their own
  sense of evilness onto their victims
   SADISTIC SEX OFFENDERS
    Ritualistic Sexual Torture

• Their sadistic actions are generally
  planned out in detail and executed in a
  precise sequence every time
        Sadistic Sex Offenders
          and Memorabilia
• As many as 65% keep ‗trophies‘ (e.g., a lock
  of hair from the victim, or the victim‘s driver‘s
  license
• 45% video- or audio-record their offenses
• An unexpected search of their residence can
  be very telling (as with extrafamilial child
  molesters who target boys)
Fortunately, only about 2 - 5% of all
     sex offenders are Sadists
Interestingly, treatment makes
 Sadistic Sex Offenders worse
CASE EXAMPLE OF A
SADISTIC OFFENDER
   Recidivism (Re-Offense) Rates Vary
Greatly Depending on Length of Follow-Up
• Hanson Meta-analysis (61 studies; n = 28,972)

• 4 to 5 year follow-up:
New sex offense       13%

• 15 to 30 year follow up:
New sex offense      42%
Boy victims, never married 77%
          Established Predictors
           of Sexual Recidivism

1. Deviant sexual interest (e.g., pedophilia)

2. Antisocial Lifestyle (e.g., history of rule
   violation)
 The Jury is Still Out on the Long-
term Efficacy of Newer Treatments
• The best estimates, based on an analysis
  of 43 studies of treatment and re-offense
  rates, is that current methods of cognitive
  behavioral treatment can reduce sexual
  offending by close to half in the relatively
  short run (Hanson et al., 2002)
• Since current treatments (e.g., CBT) are
  relatively new, no one knows yet the long-
  term impact of these treatments
A substantial portion of child molestations
     are perpetrated by Juveniles
• It is estimated that 30%-50% of child
  molestations are perpetrated by juveniles
  (Rogers, et al).
• More than 50% of male child victims and
  15%-38% of female victims report being
  molested by a juvenile. (90% by male
  perpetrators).
   Most adult child molesters began
        molesting as juveniles


• Approximately 60% - 80% of adult child
  molesters began molesting when they were
  juveniles BUT . . .
• There is little empirical evidence to support
  the common assumption that the majority of
  juvenile sexual offenders are destined to
  become adult sexual offenders. (ATSA,
  1997)
   Juvenile Sex Offenders Often Differ
  Motivationally from Adult Sex Offenders
 ATSA (1997) has endorsed the position that:
• There is little evidence that juveniles sex
  offenders engage in acts of sexual perpetration
  for the same reasons as their adult
  counterparts.
• Poor social competency skills and deficits in
  self-esteem can best explain sexual deviance
  in a significant proportion of juveniles, rather
  than the paraphilic interests and
  psychopathic characteristics that are more
  common in adult offenders.
   Juvenile Sex Offenders represent a
         Heterogeneous Group
• Traumatized youth reacting to their own victimization
• Otherwise ‗normal‘ early-adolescent boys who are
  curious about sex and act experimentally but
  irresponsibly; teens responding to peer pressure;
  teens acting under the influence of drugs/alcohol
• Immature, impulsive youth acting without thinking
• Socially isolated/socially incompetent teens who turn
  to younger children instead of their age-mates for
  sexual exploration
• Persistently delinquent teens who commit both
  sexual and nonsexual crimes/rule violations;
Preliminary research suggests that female
   adolescent sex offenders may have
  sustained more extensive and severe
maltreatment than their male counterparts
Self-reported histories of child maltreatment
      among adolescent sex offenders
              (Matthews, et al, 1997)

• Sample: 67 female and 70 male juvenile
  offenders in inpatient or residential
  treatment.
• 78% of females reported they had been
  sexually abused and 60% reported they
  had been physically abused.
• 34% of males reported they had been
  sexually abused and 45% reported they
  had been physically abused.
   Case Example
Female juvenile sex offender
TREATMENT AND RISKS FOR
 JUVENILE SEX OFFENDERS
        ―One size does not fit all‖

• Given the great variability among juvenile
  offenders with respect to personality
  variables, motivation for offending, offense
  pattern, sexual arousal patterns, etc.,
  treatment should ideally be tailored to be
  most effective for the particular juvenile
  offender.
 Teenage Sex Offenders as a Group
Pose a Low Risk for Future Offending

• Future sex offense rates for teenage sex
  offenders is 5% to 15% (Chaffin, 2008)
• Even though most adult sex offenders
  began offending as juveniles, the vast
  majority of teenage sex offenders do NOT
  become adult sex offenders (just as the
  vast majority of teens who smoke pot do
  not become adult heroin addicts)
   Incarcerated sex offending teenage
   delinquents and nonsexual teenage
  delinquents were found to have similar
        rates of future sex offenses
• Caldwell (2007) followed two groups of
  juvenile delinquents for 5 years after they
  were released from juvenile detention
  facilities: teen sex offenders and non-sex
  offending teens
• There was no statistical difference in the rate
  of future sex offenses: 7% for teens who had
  committed a prior sex offense and 6% for
  non-sex-offending delinquents
Which group commits more future sex offenses?
          Teenage sex offenders or
   non-sex-offending teenage delinquents?


 • Caldwell (2007) found that 85% of all
   future sex crimes committed by juvenile
   delinquents were committed by former
   non-sex-offending delinquents.
 • The most violent subsequent offenses
   were not committed by former teenage
   sex offenders. All 3 sexual homicides and
   all 54 homicides were committed by
   former non-sexual-offending teens
  Pre-adolescents with Sexual Behavior
Problems (SBPs) are even LESS LIKELY
 than Teenage Sex Offenders to commit
    future sex offenses or to become
           Adult Sex Offenders
    Randomized Trial of Treatment for
 Children With Sexual Behavior Problems:
           Ten-Year Follow-Up
• Carpentier, Silovsky & Chaffin (2006). Journal of
  Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 74, No. 3,
  482-488
• Group #1: Kids ages 5-12 years with SBPs (n = 123)
   – Twelve 60-minute child & parent group sessions:
     separate groups for parents and kids
   – Treatments: TF-CBT or Unstructured/Play therapy
• Group #2: ‗Clinical‘ group of 5-12 y/o kids with
  disruptive behaviors (mostly ADHD) but no SBPs
• 10-year follow-up data were collected on juvenile and
  adult arrests and child welfare perpetration reports
     Results of 10-year follow-up of
   Treated Preadolescents with SBPs
     (Carpentier, Silovsky & Chaffin, 2006)

• The TF-CBT SBP group had significantly
  fewer sex offenses (only 2%) than the play
  therapy group (10%)
• The TF-CBT group did not differ significantly
  from the clinical/ADHD group (2-3%)
• These findings do not support assumptions
  about ‗persistent‘ or ‗difficult to modify‘ risk
  and raise questions about policies and
  practices founded on this assumption
     Labeling young children as rapists,
   pedophiles, ―perps,‖ etc. is unwarranted
         and potentially damaging
• Research has not established that juveniles
  who have SBPs or commit a sex offense are
  likely to become pedophiles or adult sex
  offenders—quite the contrary
• Such labeling has the potential to stigmatize
  children and punish them unfairly, e.g., sex
  offender registration, residence requirements
  barred from public schools/employment
• Labeling also has the potential of isolating
  children from their peers and important
  sources of support

								
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