TO BLOG OR NOT TO BLOG USING WEBLOGS IN THE CLASSROOM Statement of Purpose: Goal 1: Improve Student Performance in Region 2 Objective 1: TAKS performance within the region is moving toward or exceeding the state performance scores for all students and all student groups in the state and federal accountability systems. Reading/Ela scores will increase for all students from 81% toward state score of 83% Social Studies scores will increase for all students from 84% toward state score of 88% Science scores will increase for all students from 60% toward state score of 66% Writing scores will increase for all students from 81% toward state score of 83% SLIDE ONE – TITLE SLIDE SLIDE TWO – A TRUISM Have you ever felt like this? Like you were drinking through a fire hose? So my question for you is this… why would you want to take on one more task? Why would you want to go to the trouble of spending the time to set up a blog for you and your students, teach them how to use it, and then begin using it in your classroom? Don’t you already have enough to do? Aren’t you already overwhelmed? Haven’t you already petitioned your principle to add at least 4 hours to the existing 24 just so you can stay caught up? And yet, here you are at this workshop, presumably trying to learn another skill that you are going to add to your already overflowing plate. Why would you do that? Why would anybody do that? The answer is because you care… because you are teachers… and for some reason (maybe you read about blogging or heard another teacher talk about blogging) you think that blogging might help your students become better writers… or better readers… or better SOMETHING. If that is why you are here I want you to know that you are in the right place and you came with the best of motivations. And I believe, based on the research I did preparing for this workshop, that you won’t be disappointed, that making the investment in time and effort to learn and implement blogging in your classroom will yield results in your students in ways that you may not even be able to imagine yet. So, with that in mind, let’s turn on the water hose. SLIDE THREE - WHAT IS A BLOG? So what exactly is a blog and why is everybody so excited about them? (Some are excited about the potential and some are excited about the potential problems.) It has been very interested to see people, superintendents, technology directors, and teachers, respond when I suggest that maybe they should consider having a blogging workshop for their teachers this year. Some have been genuinely intrigued while others have gotten this horrified look on their faces and would not even consider it. Let’s spend a few minutes talking about what a blog is and maybe what it isn’t. I am going to focus the discussion here on definitions and explanations that apply to using blogs in your school. FIRST EXPLOSION – (A WRITING TOOL THAT SUPPORTS PRACTICING WRITERS AND PREVIOUS NON-WRITERS ) So a blog is a tool. Hmm. That’s interesting. Could we say that a blog is an instructional tool or a teaching tool? If I told you that anecdotal evidence suggests that students really enjoy writing on blogs, would you then agree that it could be a useful teaching tool? If I told you that students tend to divide their lives into two separate, distinct sections (the fun section and the boring section) and that blogging is definitely part of the fun section and that you could pull a piece of that fun section into your science or language arts or history class, would you then agree that blogging might really be a powerful tool for getting students to write? SECOND EXPLOSION – TRUNCATED FORM…. This is more along the lines of a definition. Blog is a shortened version of the term Web Log. Think about that for a minute. It is a log (record) of something that is on the Web, something you and/or your students (who will be known as bloggers when you start using blogs) put on the web in your blog. And the way that you will put this stuff on a webpage is by writing it. I included this here because sometimes you will see blogs referred to as Weblogs or Web Logs. Those terms are all interchangeable. THIRD EXPLOSION Again, a place to write. But this idea takes it possibly a little farther. It is a place for students to write about anything that interests them. There is some thought out there in academia that students are not really blogging unless they are writing about something that they want to write about it. And there are those that think that it is a good thing to allow students to do this in the context of school because it will promote writing (and with a blog, even reading and thoughtful commentary and constructive criticism). According to these proponents, writing about anything is better than writing about nothing and will tend to make student life long writers. I am not necessarily a proponent of limiting blogging to this type of writing. The other side of this instructional blogging coin is to make definite, precise writing assignments to be completed on a blog and grade them once they are complete. Make it something rigid. Enforce strict rules. Make it… like… well…make it like school work!!! YUK!!!!! I am not a proponent of limiting blogging to this type of writing either. There is a happy medium between those two extremes, a balancing point, if you will, where you encourage students to write about things that interest them and also give writing assignments and somehow try to communicate to their differently wired brain that writing is fun and enjoying and useful. I would like for you to take a few minutes to go to http://dekita.org/articles/classroom-blogging-two-fundamental-approaches and read this article. You can skip the first paragraph if you like, but really read the rest of the article. (The link can be found at http://chris.esc2.net/blogging) FOURTH EXPLOSION This seems to be back tracking a little bit. Didn’t we already talk about this? What I want to emphasize here is that a blog is a place on the WEB for publishing student writing. Actually, it is even simpler than that. It is a place on the WEB to which students can write directly. One person called it a piece of blank digital paper. And here is the cool thing about that. When a student is writing in a blog he is writing for a much larger audience an audience of one (you the teacher). They are potentially writing for an audience of millions or billions. Realistically, their audience has the potential to reach a lot of people and students know that when they are blogging. Researchers tell us that when students are writing for publication they tend to use better grammar. Better spelling, and write more complex sentences. Empirical evidence suggests that they are also more engaged in both the topic and the writing process when they are writing for a larger audience, especially when it is an audience of their peers. FIFTH EXPLOSION Have you ever used journaling in your classroom? Blogging can be very similar to journaling but I think, based on what I have seen on the web that you will find that students are much more intrinsically motivated to do journaling when it is in a blog. Remember, blogs are part of your students “fun” life as opposed to the boring school. (OK, I know that you are not boring teachers. I doubt if you would be here if you were. But how many of your students ever get bored in your classroom? Maybe blogging will help reach them too.) SIXTH EXPLOSION How many times have you heard school administrator harp on parent communication? (Oh wait a minute. I want to take that back until I find out if there are any administrators in the room? Yes? There are? Then the question should read “How many times have you heard administrators extol the virtues of communication with parents and the community at large?) During my preparation of this workshop I saw many excellent examples of teachers using blogs as a communication tool to communicate with parents. Just image being able to easily post (can you say “copy and paste”) your homework assignments on the web, or publishing the curriculum outline for the next 6 weeks session, or posting homework help, and the list goes on and on. It is only limited by your imagination and your need to communicate. I even saw one blog where students were asked (required?) to write a short, daily reflection on what went on at school today. Imagine that. Students (especially Junior High students) communicating (ostensibly with parents) about what went on at school today… what he learned… experiences he had. I thought that was a really cool idea. And guess what. It got students involved in writing! SEVENTH EXPLOSION The piece that I want to emphasize here is the fact that it is easy. Really, it is so easy that you are going to set up your very own blog today and do some posting before you go home. And that will be your blog… your very own blog… and you can do with it what you want after you leave today. It is far easier than learning FrontPage or Dreamweaver and creating your own website from scratch. You don’t need any special tools or special skills. All you need is a blog (most of which are available for free), a computer, a web browser, and a keyboard. It is sooooooo easy. EIGHTH EXPLOSION I really like this statement. It sums up many of the other ideas that we have mentioned on this slide. Think about the statement that blog have the potential to enhance writing and literacy skills. How are your students performing on the TAKS in writing and reading? SLIDE FOUR – WHY BOTHER BLOGGING We have already talked about this a little. If you were to take a survey of all the students in your school that have internet access at home, what percentage of them do you think have a blog that they are using on a regular basis. I don’t have any figures on that question, but I am quite certain that the percentage would be very high. Just look at the extreme popularity of sites like MySpace and MyFace. Those who aren’t currently blogging more than likely wish they could. So, with that in mind, why not bring a part of your student’s “fun” life into the “boring” part of their life and spice it up a bit. Maybe, just maybe, you will reach out and touch a student and create a true, honest to goodness writer, communicator, and who knows what else. Students are motivated to blog because this type of writing is actually fun for them. Many have observed that often times, when they begin blogging with their students, they find that some of those students who lack writing skills and who are unmotivated to acquire those skills become very motivated to acquire, improve, and sharpen those skills because of their blog. Another thing that motivates students is the fact that they are being published on the web. Their writing, their research, their thoughts, their reflections are being published. They are becoming an author. Blogs also allow others to respond to what your students write, providing real feedback from peers, teachers, and possibly many others. Students don't tend to write unless they have to. Blogs are one way to change that. Asking students to keep a blog gets them in the habit of writing regularly; what's more, it gets them in the habit of writing regularly in the kind of electronic environments they'll be asked to work in outside the classroom. Those who know best (teachers) have made the following random observations… o Even when they're out sick, students work on their blogs. o I've got 6th graders coming in during their lunch and after school to add articles to their blog and to respond to their classmates' articles o My students are floored when, as they say, "some random person from Texas commented on my blog!!" The students are getting real world experience with writing. o Why would my students want to write on paper for their teacher to see, when they could write on their blog for the whole world to see. o In fifteen years of teaching, I have never seen anything come along even CLOSE to motivating students to write - like blogging does. So, why should you use blogging in your classroom? Because it is a great motivator. This is an interesting thought, that blogging represents a “democratization of information dissemination.” But what does that mean and why should it motivate you to use blogging? Blogging provides each student with an opportunity that has never been available in the classroom. Your students actually have the ability to present their thoughts and opinions on any topic (of their choosing or your choosing or a combination of both) to an audience that far exceeds anything any other generation of students has had access to. As they blog you, the wise guide on the side, will help them develop and hone communication skills that enables them to present clear argument and support their opinions and thoughts, all the while developing writing skills that will enable them to perform well on the TAKS test. And many of them will enjoy doing it!! Blogging allows other students to see what their classmates have written in response to the assignments. This solidifies classroom community and implicitly creates collaborative learning. Blogs with a commenting feature allow you and other students to respond to journal postings, which only enhances the kinds of collaboration possible. Another thing that makes a difference with blogs is that the students are amazed when they realize that someone outside the classroom cares about what they are writing. It makes quite a difference. Many blog services allow multiple authors to contribute to a blog. Several students can work together on a blog centered on a single topic or assignment. Using a blog extends the collaborative space outside the classroom, allowing students to work together across time and space. At the same time, the blog records the process of collaboration, allowing teachers to observe, comment, and intervene as needed while allowing students to reflect on the process at the end of the assignment. (http://www.bgsu.edu/cconline/barrios/blogs/write/index.html) Students who know they have an audience other than their teacher write more credibly, accurately, and carefully. This is important on so many levels, including, but not limited to the TAKS test. Writing will continue to be a core skill for all students, because some information is simply communicated most effectively in text. However, other information might best be expressed using pictures, sound, animation, or video. Students must master a range of practical and technical skills involved in expressing ideas effectively and compellingly. o Students must learn not only the mechanics of writing, but how to use text to communicate knowledge and ideas more efficiently than ever. Blogs are a perfect place to develop these skills. o Students must also learn to match their message with the medium that best communicates it, and then use the appropriate tools to create and or modify it in order to attract the attention of an audience. (The TEKS actually say this in slightly different language). If students only write on paper, they will never be able to develop these kinds of skills. On a blog you can include all manner of multimedia elements to enhance communication. SLIDE FIVE – WHY BOTHER BLOGGING More than any other type of web presence, blogs are easy to create and maintain. You don’t need any special skills or any expensive tools. All you need is a computer connected to the internet and a computer with a browser. That’s it. If you can type (and even if you can’t type very well) you can blog. This bullet may be self evident, but I wanted to mention it anyway. Blogging as a writing genre (yes, it is quickly becoming a new writing genre) holds a great promise of developing all kinds of critical thinking skills and literacy skills in addition to the obvious writing skills. This alone, if there were no other benefit, would be reason enough to begin blogging with your students. So what is unique about the opportunities that blogging offers? Blogging, offers students a chance to… o reflect on what they are writing and thinking as they write and think it o carry on writing about a topic over a sustained period of time, maybe even a lifetime o engage readers and audience in a sustained conversation that then leads to further writing and thinking. …they have something to say …they have an authentic audience …they get feedback (Jeff Golub) And what offers all three of these things all the time? Blogging. Imagine that. Students writing when they want to because they want to. Or think about it like this… students practicing for the TAKS test when they want to because they want to. Is this real or is it Memorex? Well, many think it is real. It has become real in many classrooms across America. Whether it becomes a reality in your classroom is, in large part, up to you. SLIDE 6 – IDEAS FOR USING BLOGGING Now we get the meat and potatoes of this part of the workshop. By now, hopefully you have a fairly decent idea of what a blog is and you are at least giving serious thought to the idea that you should start using blogging in your classroom because it really could help your students in ways that you had never thought of before. You have probably even (again hopefully) thought of some ways that you might be able to effectively use blogging in your classroom to enhance learning. Over the course of the next few slides I am going to give you some more ideas. These are not my ideas (well, actually, a couple of them are my ideas). Most of these ideas come from teachers who are actually using blogs in these ways. But I think one of the best ways to get some ideas is to spend some time looking at some blogs. Go to http://chris.esc2.net/blogging and find the heading Sample Blogs To Explore. Take a look at a few of these blogs (at least three) in the next few minutes and then we will talk about some ideas for using blogs in your classroom SLIDE 7 – IDEAS Does that sound “TAKSish” to you? You could add a post to your blog with a writing prompt and have the students to a TAKS–like writing assignment using the comment feature in your blog. You could also post the prompt on your blog and have the students complete the writing assignment in their student blog. Chapter summaries. Hmm. That sounds somewhat boring, doesn’t it? Students have to read a chapter in the text book (or any other assigned reading) and summarize (high yield strategy) the chapter on their blog. Again, that seems pretty boring. But remember that when students are writing on their blog they are writing for a much wider audience than just you. That alone will make a difference in the quality of work that many students produce. But let’s take this assignment one step farther. As a part of the assignment, require students to go to other students’ summaries, read them, and provide constructive criticism (with strict guidelines and instructions from the teacher, of course). Now that begins to bring in the whole dynamic of collaboration, which, as we know, is a high yield strategy. Other Writing Assignments. This kind of builds on the chapter summaries idea. Almost any writing assignment that you can think of can be done on a blog, especially if students have their own blog. Think of the papers that students write in science and social studies. Students could post those writing assignments on their blog (wide audience) and comment on other students’ writing as part of the assignment and grade for that assignment. If you are a SS or Science teacher, you may even be able to involve LA teachers in the writing. It is so easy to make this cross- curricular. I might even undertake a project where students in higher grades mentor my lower grade writers via their blog. That is going to help both the upper grade students as well as my lower grade students. Some schools (teachers) are even soliciting professional writers to edit their student blog and provide some mentoring on writing. This could happen with writing as well as any content area such as science or math or social studies. Collaborative research project We know that collaborative learning is a high yield strategy. Blogs would be a useful addition to any research writing project or course, particularly as students turn increasingly to the web to perform their research. Students can use the blog to record their reflections on various sources, sketch out their emerging arguments, or point to links that relate to their topic. The visibility of blogs records this research process for evaluation, comment, and review. (http://www.bgsu.edu/cconline/barrios/blogs/write/index.html) Students can use their own blogs or the commenting feature of a teacher blog to reflect on read assignments or classroom discussions. They can share classroom experiences or do a daily reflection of the day’s activities in your classroom. This type of blogging activity is useful for writing, but can also serve to a window into you classroom for parents. And of course, anything that we can do to get parents more involved and more informed about the goings on in our classrooms is a good thing. Parents could even use these reflections as a discussion starter at the dinner table, if they are so inclined. Journaling. We have already mentioned this… sort of. If your course lends itself to journaling, you can use a blog for this activity. An English teacher might give writing prompts for different types of writing and require students to add an entry every day. A science teacher might have students write about the day’s lesson, demonstrating that they understood the key points. Or, you could just have students write about anything that interests them. They might be interested in a particular rock band or the Dallas Cowboys. Some might have an investigative nature and do some “investigative reporting” on their blog. Some might dream about traveling to far away places. The possibilities are pretty endless here and the important thing is that they are thinking and they are writing. And one of the nice things about this is that it can happen any time form anywhere that the student can connect to the internet… in the library in the morning before class, at home after dinner, or at midnight while they are sitting at their computer in their pajamas. Reactions. You can post thought provoking questions, questions that don’t have a yes/no answer and have students record (translate that “write”) their reactions to the question. This could be in preparation for the next day’s lesson or an after lesson assignment that leads to better understand of the topic or verifies that the students “got it.” They could express their opinions on topics you are studying in class. (On this one you would probably want to make it illegal to use the word “boring.) You could a “Daily News” journal where students write comments, opinions, and/or questions about daily news items or even issues of interest. In-Class Discussion Done Out of Class… Huh? Post a discussion question each week on your blog and have students debate it in the comments. There can be some real critical thinking skills development going on here if you write good questions. Plus, you will be able to monitor student participation (translate that grade) much more easily and fairly than if you were doing this as an in-class discussion (the old fashioned type). Both you and the students themselves will be able to go back and look at how their thinking, debating, and writing skills have developed over the course of the year. Class Webpage/Website As I mentioned earlier, there are no special programming or web authoring skills needed to create a blog. All you really need is a browser. So you could use your blog for you class website, posting important, relevant information in addition to the assignment type things mentioned above. You could post announcements, homework assignments (not just blogging assignments, but any kind of homework assignment), parent communication, examples of class work, vocabulary and spelling word, homework helping hints for parents, Internet resources for specific units with annotated links, show cases of student work, a class newsletter using student-written articles and photos they take, calendars, events, class activities, reminders, notices, course outlines, testing dates, class syllabi, and any other pertinent class information. In short (oh wait, it is too late for that) you can put anything in your blog that you would put on a full-blown website, but you can do it with almost no special skills. That is one of the really beautiful things about blogging. It is simple and easy. If you can surf the net and type, you can do blogging. Make It Personal I know I have already mentioned this, but I wanted to emphasize it because I think it is important. Some people believe that for a blog to really be a blog it must be personal. That is, I must be allowed to write about the things that interest me and interact on other bloggers’ blogs that interest me. So why not just create student blogs and let them write! Let them choose the topics. Let them be the content creators. But let them write. You can have requirements for how much they must write during the course of the year (one article per week or whatever is appropriate for your students) but it is entirely upon them to choose the topic. You might have a suggested category or two for each week for those who might struggle to think of something to write about, but let them write. You can even create a rubric to provide guidelines for their creativity and a way to assign grades if you need to do that. Maybe they are interested in the latest rock band. Let them write about that band or the latest fad in tennis shoes or the football game last week. Whatever it is that interests them, let them write. That is the true essence of blogging. SLIDE 9 – WHAT ABOUT GRADES? This is always an issue with teachers; as well it should be, if you ask me. Everyone wants (needs) to know how to grade such open ended assignments such as a “free style, write what you want to write about” blogging. Or, to use a bit more “educationese,” how do you take a qualitative-based activity like a blog and turn it into a quantitative grade? The obvious answer is with a well thought out rubric. You may have some other ideas and if you do, I would really be interested in hearing about them or seeing them. But for today I would like you to take a look at some samples of some rubrics for blogging. Go to http://chris.esc2.net/blogging and find the heading for Blogging Rubrics. Take a look at a few of these and let me know what you think. SLIDE 10 – BLOGGING DO’S AND DON’TS The risks of blogging are real and you should be aware of them before you begin blogging with your students. I hope that by now you would agree that the rewards are worth the risk. There are some suggestions on these next few slides that may help you be successful and reap the benefits of blogging with your students while mitigating the risks. HANDS ON 1. Sign up for an edublogs blog or log in to your existing one. 2. The Dashboard contains links to all the features, all the stuff you will want to do with your blog. a. Links across top of page (Write, Manage, etc) are the main navigation b. Each main navigation item reveals a set of sublinks. (Click on Write and take note of the three options) c. There is also a link to Write A New Page and Write a New Post (explain the difference) d. You will be able to see how much space you have used and how much is left. e. Also take not of the Getting Started with Edublogs section. This is a “Quick Link” type feature that links to the same features that the nav bar at the top links to. 3. The Write link (at the top) is where you will create all the content. You can… a. Add a title b. Add content c. Tags are optional but they are a great way to organize your site. d. There is a difference between Save and Publish. Save let’s you come back latter and work on the page but no one can see it yet. Publish makes it visible to the world. e. Take note of the formatting options on the toolbar. You can easily make text bold, add bulleted or numbered lists, add images and other media, and even do a spell check. i. If you want to link to an image on another website using the shortcut button on the standard toolbar. ii. If you want to add an image, a movie file, an audio file, or any other file such as PowerPoint, Word, or Excel, use the Add Media toolbar. f. At my blog (chrislharris.edublog.org) you will find a category (I will define that latter) named “Blogging Workshop.” Find the one named “Volcanos” and complete the assignment as your first post. I will give you a few minutes to complete the assignment and I will help you if you need help. g. Publish the page and then right click on the “Visit Site” button at the top of the page. Choose “Open In New Window” (or new tab) 4. Now let’s create a page and publish it. You will see that creating a page is the same as creating a post. I want to emphasize that only difference between a post and a page is that a page is static and the posts page (the home page of your blog) is updated every time you create a new post. a. Create an about me page that shares a bit of information about you that people coming to you blog might find interesting. 5. Create a link. Links will show up in the side bar of your site. You may have to add a widget for them to show up. (A widget is a program that adds some feature or functionality to your blog.) a. To add a widget go to Design and then click on widgets b. If there is an Add link next to the widget’s name, it has not been added to your blog. To add it, click on that link. c. You will see a list of widgets that have been added on the right hand side of the page. You can change their order by clicking and dragging. Add links, archives, and pages. And click Save Changes. 6. Click on the Manage link. This is the place that you can come to manage all the stuff that you put in your blog. a. Posts – From here you can edit or delete a post, a page, a link b. You can add Categories. Categories are filters. So if I have a category called “Freshman English” and I have assigned that category to 13 of my 21 posts, my users can easily filter the posts to see only posts in the Freshman English category. This may require adding another widget to your site. c. You can add and remove tags from this area also. Think of tags as “subfilters.” You usually only add a post to one category (although you can add more than one category if you choose). You can add many tags and should often do so. Maybe I have a category for Senior English. I can create tags for Shakespeare, Assignments, Romeo and Juliet, etc. Now my users can view all posts related to Senior English, or just view posts related to Romeo and Juliet. Tags are also used by the Google of Blogs search engine called Technorati. So if you use a tag “Shakespeare” and I search Technorati, there is a chance that I will find your post. d. The Media Library link will reveal all the files that you have uploaded. 7. The Design link is where you can change the look and feel of your site. a. Click on the Themes link. To change the theme of your blog, simply click on the one that you like. It is really that easy. b. The Widgets link opens a window that contains all the widgets that are available. Widgets can be placed in more than one location in some templates. In the one that I am using I only have one sidebar so that is my only option in the dropdown on the right hand side of the page. Add one and go look at your page to see the effect. These can add some really nice functionality to your site. c. The Custom Image Header allows you to customize your look and feel by changing the image at the top of the page. 8. Comments – On my blog (chrislharris.edublogs.org) you will find a category named “Blogging Workshop.” There are four posts in that category that contain assignments for you to complete. a. Find the assignment called “Pumpkin Poem.” This assignment deals with posting comments. Complete this assignment and then we will talk about comments. b. In the Manage – Comments section of edublogs you can do all the things that you need to do to manage comments, including delete them, mark them as spam, and “unapproved” them which will leave them in your blog but make them not show up in the comments section of the post. It has the effect of making them invisible. c. While we are talking about comments let’s go take a look at some settings related to comments. Click on Settings and then click on Discussion d. Notice the third checkbox in the “Default article settings.” You can allow people to post comments or uncheck that box and no one will be able to post comments. e. In the next section you can tell Edublogs to email you whenever someone posts a comment or when a comment is being held for moderation. f. The next section gives you some control on when and which comments appear g. The Comment moderation area gives you the ability to require approval from you before a comment appears based on content or where it came from. h. The Comment Blacklist gives you the ability to automatically mark comments as spam if they contain certain words or other content. i. Now open any post (Manage-Post) and scroll down to the bottom. Click on “Comments & Pings. Notice that you can “turn off” commenting for any individual article. j. And while we are talking about control, take a look at “Password Protect This Post.” 9. Go back to Settings a. General – The most significant item here is Membership. If I am not mistaken this means that before a person can comment on any post or page, they must have an edublog account and log in. That might be something to think about for a school or class blog but it does have some drawbacks. b. Writing – You can change the size of the post box and choose to convert emoticons. This is pretty much fluff stuff. c. Reading.- Here you can choose whether the home page of you blog is the page that contains all the latest posts or one on the static pages that you have created. You might choose the static page option if you are going to use this blog as your primary website. 10. Plugins – this link allows you to add more functionality to your site. The only one that is not somewhat geekish is the Widget Pack. Click on it then return to Design-Widgets and see what this plugin adds. 11. Users – In this section you can control who can do what in your blog by assigning roles to users. a. There are five types of users and each type has a set of capabilities associated with it. i. Administrator - Somebody who has access to all the administration features ii. Editor - Somebody who can publish posts, manage posts as well as manage other people's posts, etc iii. Author - Somebody who can publish and manage their own posts iv. Contributor - Somebody who can write and manage their posts but not publish posts v. Subscriber - Somebody who can read comments/comment/receive news letters, etc. b. Your Profile – This is some basic stuff about your identity on the blog. Some of it is changeable and some of it is not. Take note that you can change your password here. c. The Blog and User Creator allows you to create blogs in batches, for students or colleagues, for example. d. The Add User page lets you add users and choose a role for them. Email is required. e. The Authors and Users page allows you to manage all the users that have been added to your site. BLOG PLAY If time permits, complete the other two assignments (Mt. McKinley and Political Cartoons) found on my blog. These assignments involve finding pictures and writing posts with images.