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Abraham Lincoln

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					           Abraham Lincoln
 Abraham Lincoln was
 president of the United
 States from 1861 until
 his shocking
 assassination in 1865.
 As president he is best remembered for
 leading     theUnion through the Civil War
and freeing Confederate slaves with the 1863
Emancipation Proclamation; for delivering the
Gettysburg Address, the most famous oration
 in American history, on 19 November 1863;
   and for his tragic assassination by John
Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater in Washington,
D.C. Upon Lincoln's death, Andrew Johnson
    assumed the presidency. The Lincoln
Memorial, with its famous statue of Lincoln by
   Daniel Chester French, was dedicated in
             Washington in 1922.
            John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy's 1963
  assassination was one
  of the most shocking
  public events of the
  20th century.
 FK was elected to replace President Dwight
   Eisenhower in 1960 (narrowly defeating
Eisenhower's vice-president, Richard Nixon);
   he swept into office with a reputation for
  youthful charm, impatience, wit and vigor.
  Kennedy's term was sometimes called the
   New Frontier, a phrase he coined in his
 acceptance speech at the 1960 Democratic
  convention. Kennedy was shot to death by
 sniper Lee Harvey Oswald during an open-
    car motorcade in Dallas, Texas on 22
 November 1963; two days later, Harvey was
 shot and killed by another man, Jack Ruby.
Kennedy was succeeded by Lyndon Johnson.
        Martin Luther King, Jr.

 Martin Luther King,
  Jr. was an African-
  American clergyman
  who advocated
  social change
  through non-violent
  means.
  A powerful speaker and a man of great spiritual strength, he
  shaped the American civil rights movement of the 1950s and
1960s. King was pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in
Montgomery, Alabama from 1954-59. There he led blacks in the
 Montgomery bus boycott of 1955-56, an action inspired by the
arrest of Rosa Parks when she refused to give up her seat on a
      public bus. Racial segregation on city buses was ruled
unconstitutional in 1956; the boycott ended in success, and King
had become a national figure. King returned to his home town of
   Atlanta in 1959 and became co-pastor with his father of the
 Ebenezer Baptist Church, a position he held until his death. On
    the 100th anniversary of Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation
 Proclamation in 1963, King organized a march on Washington,
    D.C. that drew 200,000 people demanding equal rights for
  minorities,at which time he gave the famous lectture ―I have a
dream‖. King won the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize, becoming at the
  time the youngest recipient ever. His writings included Stride
    Toward Freedom (1958, a history of the Montgomery bus
   boycott), Why We Can't Wait (1963) and Where Do We Go
   From Here? Chaos or Community (1967). King was shot to
     death by James Earl Ray in 1968 while visiting Memphis,
                            Tennessee.
                 Bobby Kennedy

 Robert Francis "Bobby"
  Kennedy (November 20,
  1925 – June 6, 1968), also
  called RFK, was one of two
  younger brothers of U.S.
  President John F. Kennedy
  and served as United States
  Attorney General from 1961
  to 1964.
 Robert F. Kennedy boldly faced tough problems and challenged
  the comfortable and complacent. To keep his vision alive, his
  family and friends founded a living memorial in 1968.
 Today the Robert F. Kennedy Memorial is dedicated to
  advancing the human rights movement through providing
  innovative support to courageous human rights defenders
  around the world. Through long-term partnerships and cutting
  edge methods, we assist advocates who have won the RFK
  Human Rights Award to boldly confront injustice in support of
  human freedom. We support investigative journalists and
  authors who bring light to injustice and encourage the human
  rights movement through the RFK Book and Journalism Awards.
  Our Speak Truth to Power program educates the public on the
  value of the human rights and the courage of its defenders.
             Text Structure:
Parts   Paragraphs


One     Para 1-5     It is high time to honor the heroes who
                     helped liberate slaves by forging the
                     Underground Railroad in the early civil-
                     rights struggles in America.

Two     Para 6-23    By citing examples the author praises the
                     exploits of civil-rights heroes who helped
                     slaves travel the Underground Railroad
                     to freedom.
John Parker
 February 2, 1827
 Norfolk, Virginia
 Mobile, Alabama
 education
 iron foundry
 moved to the North
 Indiana and in Cincinnati, Ohio
 from Kentucky escape to the North
 John Rankin
 January 30, 1900
          Levi Coffin



 Levi Coffin was an important figure
 in the Underground Railroad
 network that helped thousands of
 runaway slaves escape to freedom
 in the years before the American
 Civil War.
 Coffin was born on October 28, 1798, in North
  Carolina.
 In 1826, he moved to Indiana and established
  a pork-processing business.
 Due to his religious beliefs, he became a
  strong opponent of African-American slavery.
  By the time he turned fifteen, Coffin already
  had begun to assist runaway slaves
 In 1847, he opened a business that sold
  only goods produced by free laborers. He
  also became an active participant in the
  Underground Railroad.
 He purportedly helped more than three
  thousand slaves escape from their
  masters and gain their freedom in
  Canada.
 Many former slaves went to Canada, where
 Southern slave owners did not have the
 legal right to retrieve them. Coffin's active
 participation in the Underground Railroad
 caused his fellow abolitionists to nickname
 him the "president of the Underground
 Railroad."
 Levi Coffin helped African Americans in
  other ways as well .
 He pressured the federal government during
  the Civil War to establish the Freedmen's
  Bureau.
 In addition, Coffin helped African Americans
  establish their own businesses and obtain
  educational opportunities.
 He died on September 16, 1877, in
 Cincinnati. Several years after his death,
 African Americans in Cincinnati erected a
 monument over Coffin's grave to honor his
 contributions.
   Everyone was born the same .
    We are all the sons of God.

Everyone was born the same .
We are all the sons of God.
 Josiah Henson

Childhood
  In Maryland

Be sold

  Make the best
  Josiah Henson

Be send →Kentucky
        →Deep South

Be separated forever


        →flight!

(Cincinnati →N.Y.
  →Canada)
Josiah Henson


Roll in the sand
Dance around

        because


  “I’m free!”
                 True or Fault
 1. Just like Uncle Tom in Uncle Tom’s Cabin,
    Josiah Henson was a long-suffering slave who
    was unwilling to stand up for himself. ( )
                                             F
   2. All the men and women who forged the
    Underground Railroad were blacks. ( )  F
   3. These railroad conductors were frequently
    faced with death threats and warnings from the
    local government. ( )T
   4. Many fugitives chose Canada as their primary
    destination because slavery had been abolished
    there.( T)
   5.Character in Uncle Tom‘s Cabin represents
    nothing but everything opposite to Josiah Henson.
    ( )         T
                  True or Fault
 6.Josiah Henson is the only person who forged the
    Underground Railroad.( ) F
   7.The exploits of building Underground Railroad
    are well sung.( F)
   8.By night, John Parker was a worker in the
    Underground Railroad.( F  )
   9.The Bible insist that every person created to be
    equal.( ) T
   10.Canada was the primary destination for many
    fugitives because there were plenty of food.( F)
               Point sentences

In paragraph 2:
For Josiah Henson has lived on through the character in
American fiction that he helped inspire: Uncle Tom , the
long-suffering salve in Harriet Beecher Stowe‘s Uncle
Tom‘s Cabin.


This sentence means that :Josiah Henson helped the
author Harriet Beecher Stowe to create the famous
character ,so he is still remembered by others.


―Uncle Tom , the long-suffering salve in Harriet Beecher
Stowe‘s Uncle Tom‘s Cabin. ― 是 character 的同位语。
Inspire means stir up the inspiration of somebody.
In line 15
I had traveled here to Henson‘s last home-now a
historic site that Cater formerly directed to learn more
about a man who was ,in many ways, an African-
American Moses.


In many way means to a great extent.
―now a historic site that Cater formerly directed‖ is
used to decorate the word ―home‖.
In line 29
And it‘s about time . For the heroes of the Underground
Railroad remain too little remembered , their exploits still
largely unsung . I was intent on telling their stories.


In these sentences ,the second ―remain‖ is abridged in
sentence ―their exploits still largely unsung‖ because its
structure is similar with the first one‖ the heroes of the
Underground Railroad remain too little remembered ―.


―It‘s about time‖ means ―it‘s high time‖ . We should use
conjecture tone after it.
Eg:
It ‗s about time that we started work.
The usage of ―but‖ :
1.Henson is but one man on a long list of
 courageous men and women.
 ―but ―means ―only‖ or ―just‖.
2.There was room for all but two.
 ―but‖ means ―except‖ or ―other than‖.
3.I‘d love to go ,but I have something to do
 first.
 ―but― means ―however‖.
After reading the text, let‘s
learn some advice on writing
skills which may be of some
help to you.
               Using library resources
    You will by now be used to using brainstorming to
generate information on topics you write about. However,
in writing about complex and serious issues, you cannot
expect to generate all the ideas by brainstorming, which
focus on what you already know. Suppose you want to
write about the impact of the civil-rights movement in
American. You may already have some ideas on this issue.
By brainstorming, you can develop a general framework.
However, that is not sufficient(enough) for you to write a
paper on such a serious and complex topic. You will find
it necessary to do some library research on the issue.
   A college library usually has the following basic
sources which help you locate the information you need:
General References
   General references include dictionaries, encyclopedias(百科全书),
atlases(地图), etc. They can give you a basic understanding of a topic.
Index, Catalogs
   They give information on what has been written and published about
a subject.
Abstracts(摘要)
   Abstracts not only list subject headings, but also summarize key
information in a highly condensed(高度浓缩) form.
Bibliographies
  A bibliography——a list of publications on a subject——gives you an
overview of what has been published on a given subject.



Follow the research guides provided by each library and you should be
able to find the necessary information for your essay.

				
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