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					Introduction to Systems
      Architecture
          Chapter 2




      Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   1
            Objectives
• Discuss the development of automated
  computing
• Describe the general capabilities of a
  computer
• Describe computer system components
  and their functions
• List computer system classes and their
  distinguishing characteristics
              Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   2
               Objectives
• Define the role and function of application
  and system software
• Describe the economic role of system and
  application development software
• Describe the components and functions of
  computer networks



               Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   3
    Automated Computation


Computer – a device that can accept
numeric inputs, perform computational
functions, such as addition and subtraction
and communicate results.




             Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   4
      Automated Computation
Computer Implementation Methods -
• Mechanical
  – limitations of mechanical implementation
• Electrical
• Optical




                Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   5
   Mechanical Implementation
• The difference engine is an early
  mechanical computation device that was
  designed to perform repetitive
  mathematical computations.

• The mechanical implementation of
  computers used gears and wheels and
  other mechanical movements
              Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   6
Mechanical Implementation




       Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   7
Quantum Computing




    Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   8
        Quantum Computing
Quantum Computing
• The particles exhibit behaviors that are not
  seen in larger units of matter.
• The device operates on both values of a
  quibit simultaneously, producing two
  results.
• Build from subatomic particles.

                Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   9
       Computer Capabilities
Characteristics of a Computer
• General-purpose processor
• Storage capability to hold large number of
  instructions
• Flexible communication capability




               Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   10
     Computer Capabilities
Computer Processor
• General-Purpose
• Special-Purpose




            Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   11
     Computer Capabilities
A processor is a device that performs
data manipulation and/or transformation
functions including:
– Computation
– Comparison
– Data movement




             Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   12
        Computer Capabilities
Computer processors also can perform a more complex
class of processing tasks called algorithms.




                    Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   13
        Computer Capabilities
• The procedure for computing United States
  income tax is an example of an algorithm.

• The program examines the income value and
  decides which set of instructions to execute to
  compute the tax.




                  Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   14
Computer Capabilities




     Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   15
     Computer Capabilities


When a comparison condition is true, the
program jumps or branches to the first
instruction that implements the
corresponding formula.




             Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   16
Computer Capabilities




     Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   17
Computer Hardware




    Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   18
       Computer Hardware
Computer System Components:
• Central Processing Unit (CPU)
• Primary Storage
• Secondary Storage
• Input/Output Units
• System Bus


             Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   19
Computer Hardware




    Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   20
      Computer Hardware


Central Processing Unit (CPU) is a
general-purpose processor that executes
all instructions and controls all data
movement within the computer system.




            Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   21
Computer Hardware




    Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   22
        Computer Hardware
Storage Types:
• Register
• Primary Storage - Primary storage is
  referred to as Random Access Memory
  (RAM). The data is volatile.
• Secondary Storage - refers to nonvolatile
  storage devices.

               Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   23
Computer Hardware




    Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   24
        Computer Hardware
Input/Output Devices
• Input devices accept input from a human
  and convert that input into something the
  computer can understand.

• Output devices display information to the
  user and implement communication
  among computer systems.

               Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   25
    Computer System Classes
• A microcomputer (personal computer
  or workstation) is a computer system
  designed to meet the information-
  processing needs of a single user.

• A network computer is a microcomputer
  with minimal secondary storage capacity
  and little or no installed software.
              Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   26
     Computer System Classes
• A minicomputer is designed to provide
  information processing for multiple users and to
  execute many application programs
  simultaneously.

• A mainframe computer system is designed to
  handle the information processing needs of a
  large number of users and applications.


                 Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   27
    Computer System Classes
• A supercomputer is designed for one
  purpose, to quickly perform many
  mathematical computations.




              Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   28
Computer System Classes




       Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   29
Computer System Classes




       Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   30
The Role of Software




     Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   31
         The Role of Software
Software Types:
Application software is a stored set of
  instructions for responding to a very specific
  request.
System software is a collection of programs that
  are used to implement utility functions, allocate
  computer resources and manage computer
  resources


                  Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   32
The Role of Software




     Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   33
          The Role of Software
System Software Layer Functions:
1.   System management
2.   System services
3.   Resource allocation
4.   Hardware interface




                 Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   34
The Role of Software




     Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   35
           The Role of Software
Operating system functions:
•   Program storage, loading and execution
•   File manipulation and access
•   Secondary storage management
•   Network and interactive user interfaces




                   Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   36
    Economics of System and
Application Development Software
   Three economic facts of computer
   hardware and software:
  1. System software requires hardware
     resources.
  2. The cost per unit of computing power has
     decreased at nearly an exponential rate.
  3. Software is more cost effective when it is
     reused many times.


                Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   37
    Economics of System and
Application Development Software




            Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   38
    Economics of System and
Application Development Software




            Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   39
      Computer Networks
A computer network is a set of hardware
and software components that allows
information, software and hardware
resources to be shared among multiple
users and computer systems.




            Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   40
Computer Networks




    Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   41
        Computer Networks
Computer network functions:
• External Resources
• Network Software
• Network Communication and the Physical
  Network




              Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   42
                Summary
• A computer is an automated device for
  performing computational tasks.
• Computer capabilities include processing,
  storage, and communication.
• A computer system consists of a central
  processing unit, primary storage,
  secondary storage and input/output
  devices.
               Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   43
                  Summary
• A computer system can be classified as a
  microcomputer, minicomputer, mainframe and
  supercomputer.
• The role of software is to translate user
  processing requests into machine instructions.
• An operating system is the most important type
  of system software on most computer systems.



                 Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   44
                Summary
• A computer network is a set of hardware
  and software components that permits
  information, software, and hardware
  resources to be shared among multiple
  users and computer systems.




               Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   45
 Summary




Systems Architecture, Fourth Edition   46

				
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posted:6/11/2011
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