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Social Studies Review for CRCT

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					6th Grade Social Studies
    Review for CRCT
         Distribution of Power in
            Government
• Unitary – 1 central authority like a political party,
  monarch or dictator – United Kingdom, France, Russia,
  Cuba

• Confederation – states unite to share power – Panama,
  European Union, United Nations

• Federal – A national government shares power with
  several states- Germany, Brazil, Mexico, Canada,
  Australia, United States
 Role of the Citizen in Government
• Democracy – Citizen has power. Voting, freedom of speech,
  religion, protest, etc. – United Kingdom, France, Germany,
  Brazil, Mexico, Canada, Australia, United States
Presidential – head of government and head of state is president
  – runs gov’t and hosts parties – Brazil, Mexico, United States
           (president is elected by the citizens)
Parliamentary – head of government is prime minister – runs
  gov’t. - head of state is president or monarch – hosts parties
  – United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, Australia
          (prime minister is elected by legislature)
• Oligarchy – Citizens power is limited. A small group has
  power – Russia
• Autocracy – Citizens power is limited. Usually one authority
  in power – Cuba,
• How many basic types of economic systems are
  there? 3

• Name the economic systems. Traditional,
  Command, Market

• Which economic system do most textbooks say is
  the most common throughout the world? Mixed.
                  Economies
• Mixed Economy – Usually a mix of Command and
  Market. Buyers, sellers, and government decide what to
  make, sell, and buy – U.S.A., United Kingdom, Germany,
  Mexico, Brazil, -Venezuela and Russia (close to
  command though)
• Command Economy – Government decides what to
  make, sell, and buy – Cuba
• Market Economy – Buyers and sellers decide what to
  make, sell, and buy – Canada and Australia
• Traditional – Culture and customs decide what to make,
  sell, and buy.
          Economic Systems




  Pure                        Pure
Command                      Market
Economics
• Opportunity cost: the value of what
  is given up when a choice is made.
• Tariffs: taxes placed on imported
  goods.
• Quotas: a limit on the amount of
  imported goods.
• Embargos: forbid trade with another
  country.
     Economics
• NAFTA (North America Free Trade Agreement):
  – An agreement between the United States,
    Canada, Mexico creating a free trade zone.

• European Union (EU): A free trade zone between
  many European countries. Currency=Euro
                                  Religions
Religion       Place    Founder     Basic          Holy    Place of    Day of
               of                   Teachings      Book    Worship     Worship
               Origin

Judiasm        Israel   Abraham     Ten            Torah   Synagogue   Saturday
                        and Moses   Command-
                                    ments-
                                    Messiah will
                                    come.
Christianity   Israel   Jesus       Ten           Bible    Church      Sunday
                                    Command-
                                    ments-
                                    Jesus is the
                                    Messiah-
                                    resurrection-
                                    love-
                                    forgiveness
                                    of sins-
Islam          Saudi Muhammad       Five Pillars   Koran   Mosque      Friday
               Arabia               of Islam-      or
               - holy               Jesus was      Quran
                 Religions
    What do Judaism, Christianity and Islam
               have in common?
•   Created in SW Asia
•   Monotheism- belief in one God
•   Moses
•   10 Commandments
•   Abraham
•   Exodus
       Enduring Understandings
What is Nationalism? How does it lead to
 Independence?
  - nationalism is pride in one’s country and it leads to independence b/c
  people begin to believe that they can do it better than those governing them



Ethnic group vs religious group
  - ethnicity CAN NOT be changed – its who you are
  - religious group is a choice



Types of Trade Barriers – embargo, tariff, and quotas
      Words / People / Events

Early Exploration
  –Reasons…
        GOLD, GOD, GLORY
              People to Know
• Prince Henry the Navigator from Portugal– He
  sponsored a school for sailors, and sponsored
  exploration

• Montezuema– Ruler of the Aztecs

• Hernan Cortes– A Spanish conquistador who conquered
  the Aztecs

• Atuahalpa- Ruler of the Incas

• Francisco Pizarro- A Spanish conquistador who
  conquered the Incas.
       Words / People / Events
Historical Events in Latin America-
• European colonization
• Columbian Exchange- trade cycle between
  Europe, the far East, Africa, and Latin
  America- new technology (tools), animals,
  crops, and other products, including labor, were
  introduced and traded among those continents
• Latin American countries’ quest for freedom
  from European rule
       Words / People / Events
Liberators from European Powers
• Miguel Hidalgo
  – Father of Mexico- Liberated Mexico from Spain



• Toussaint L’overature
  – Leader of the Haitian Revolution against France



• Simon Bolivar
  – Father of South America; Bolivia was named after him- Liberated much
    of South America from Spain
     Words / People / Events
• Zapatista Movement in Mexico
  – ended with a democracy; native Indians
  are still fighting for improved rights
• Cuban Revolution
  ended with a dictatorship (Fidel Castro)
       Words / People / Events
Historical events in the Russia…


• Russian Revolution
  – brought about technological and cultural
    change in Russia
  In more recent times…

• 2 Super Powers after WWII
  – US/ Russia- competed in the Cold War
      Words / People / Events
• Treaty at Versailles
  – Ended WWI
  – Said that Germany:
     • Had to admit to starting the war
     • Had to pay money to the places they destroyed
     • Had to promise to never rebuild an army
• Adolf Hitler
  – Leader of the NAZI Party who broke all the
    rules set out in the Treaty at Versailles
     Words / People / Events

• WW II and The Holocaust (genocide)
  – The systematic extermination of 11 million
    Jews and other ‘undesirables’
     Words / People / Events
• NAFTA
  – North American Free Trade Agreement
  – Allows the countries of Mexico, the US and
    Canada trade with fewer restrictions / taxes


• Reasons to form the European Union…
  – To form a common currency
  – To strengthen their trading abilities
   Words / People / Events

– Why are Portuguese and Spanish most
  commonly spoken in Latin American
  countries??
  • BECAUSE THEY WERE THE FIRST TO SETTLE THERE



– Why are English and French most commonly
  spoken in Canada??
  • BECAUSE THEY WERE THE FIRST TO SETTLE THERE
        General Understandings
        LITERACY RATE UP = GDP UP



  LITERACY RATE UP = STANDARD OF
             LIVING UP


(Literacy Rate = the rate at which people in an area have the ability to
                              read and write)
        Enduring Understandings
What is Nationalism - pride in one’s country. How does it lead to
  Independence? How does it lead to Imperialism?

Ethnic group – share culture.
Religious group – share beliefs on God


Trade Barriers – embargo – law ending trade, tariff – tax on imported goods,
   quotas – limit on quantity of imported goods

Human Capital – EDUCATION- knowledge and skills needed to do a job,
  Capital Goods – FACTORIES, MACHINERY, and TECHNOLOGY needed
  to do the job, Entrepreneur- person who takes financial risk of opening a
  business, also creates jobs

What is the purpose of the European Union? -to strentghen the economies of
  European countries
     Enduring Understandings
• Trade Barriers – embargo – law ending
  trade, tariff – tax on imported goods, quotas
  – limit on quantity of imported goods

• Human Capital – EDUCATION- knowledge
  and skills needed to do a job,

• Capital Goods – FACTORIES,
  MACHINERY, and TECHNOLOGY needed
  to do the job,
     Words / People / Events


• An entrepreneur is someone who takes on
  the RISK of starting a business.
          Money Management
• Credit:
  – Money that you borrow from a bank and pay
    back with interest over a period of time


• Income:
  – The money you literally have coming in


• Debt:
  – The amount of money you owe
     Words / People / Events
• Environmental Concerns:
  – Brazil – Deforestation of the Amazon
  – Mexico City – Smog/Air Pollution
  – Venezuela – Oil Spills
  – Canadian Shield – Deforestation / Being
    stripped of Natural Resources
  – Great Lakes – Pollution causing acid rain
  – Germany – Pollution causing acid rain
  – Great Britain – Pollution causing SMOG
     Words / People / Events


• Nuclear Disaster happened in
  CHERNOBYL, UKRAINE
     Words / People / Events

• People (especially in 2nd and 3rd world
  countries) live near……….
  – NATURAL RESOURCES
     • Water, etc.
  – Usually for jobs and sustainability
                          Geography
• Europe– Danube River, Rhine River, English Channel, Mediterranean
  Sea, European Plain, the Alps, Pyrenees Mountains, Ural Mountains,
  Iberian Peninsula, and Scandinavian Peninsula, Belgium, France,
  Germany, Italy, Poland, Russia, Spain, Ukraine, and United Kingdom
  Major climates and resources –.
• Latin America– Amazon River, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Pacific
  Ocean, Panama Canal, Andes Mountains, Sierra Madre Mountains,
  and Atacama Desert, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Haiti, Mexico,
  Panama, and Venezuela- Major climates and population –
• Canada- St. Lawrence River, Hudson Bay, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific
  Ocean, the Great Lakes, Canadian Shield, and Rocky Mountains,
  most people live in the southern provinces near Toronto, Montreal,
  and British Columbia’s Victoria, southern Vancouver Island, and
  Calgary-Edmonton Major problems
• Australia- Great Barrier Reef, Coral Sea, Ayers Rock, and the Great
  Victoria Desert- Australia, Tasmania (a large island off of southern
  coast of Australia), and several small islands in the Indian and Pacific
  Oceans- Major climates and population –

				
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