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IS112 – Chapter 1 Notes

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					 IS112 – Chapter 1 Notes

Computer Organization and Programming
     Professor Catherine Dwyer
                2003
Systems Architecture                   Chapter 1


                       Chapter Goals
  • Describe primary activities of
    information systems professionals.
  • Describe technical knowledge of
    computer hardware and systems
    software needed by IS professionals.
  • Identify sources of information for
    continuing education in computer
    hardware and systems software.
Systems Architecture                      Chapter 1




                   IS Professionals
  • Responsible for acquisition and installation
    of technological devices
  • Responsible for design, development, and
    installation of information systems
Systems Architecture                                 Chapter 1


         Acquiring and Configuring
          Technological Devices
  To purchase a computer, you must:
      – Know business hardware and software
        preferences.
      – Know business hardware and software
        requirements.
      – Have sufficient knowledge of the available
        alternatives.
      – Understand related technical terms.
Systems Architecture          Chapter 1


    Information System Development
Systems Architecture                             Chapter 1



               Systems Survey Step
  • Examines user information needs, how needs are
    currently being addressed, and feasibility of
    developing or acquiring an information system to
    address those needs.
  • Takes days or weeks to complete.
  • Determines cost/benefits of alternative systems, and
    whether the estimated benefit of new solution is
    justified.
  • Requires knowledge of hardware and systems
    software to assess the degree to which user needs
    are currently being met, and to estimate the
    resources required to address unmet needs.
Systems Architecture                        Chapter 1


              Systems Analysis Step

  • Examines the user needs and the extent to
    which they are being met.
  • Called needs analysis or requirements
    analysis.
      – Takes weeks or months to complete.
      – Produces a requirements document.
      – Reexamines and answers systems survey
        questions in more detail.
Systems Architecture                               Chapter 1


       Systems Analysis Step – cont.
  Typical outcomes:
      – Detailed descriptions of user interfaces and data
        access speed
      – Detailed data-processing and storage
        requirements
Systems Architecture                             Chapter 1


                Systems Design Step

  • Determines the exact configuration of all
    hardware and software components.
  • Design step tasks:
      – Selecting computer hardware
      – Selecting computer software
      – Selecting application program development tools
Systems Architecture                             Chapter 1


          Systems Design Step – cont.
     Design decisions made based on earlier
     decisions:
      –   Files or database design
      –   Program design
      –   User interface design
      –   Design of system backup and recovery
          mechanisms
Systems Architecture              Chapter 1


         Systems Design Step – cont.
Systems Architecture                              Chapter 1


         Systems Design Step – cont.
  Technical knowledge needed:
      – System requirements and the capabilities of that
        hardware and operating system
      – Development tool selection
Systems Architecture                      Chapter 1


       Systems Implementation Step

  • Constructed based on the “blue prints”
    created during systems design
  • Hardware and systems software are
    acquired, installed, configured and tested
  • Application programs and files are developed,
    installed and tested
  • The entire system is tested
Systems Architecture                              Chapter 1


     Systems Implementation Step- cont.

  Technical knowledge needed:
      – Knowledge of hardware and systems software
      – Installation and configuration of hardware and
        systems software
      – Knowledge of how to format storage devices, set
        up security systems, install application programs
        and establish accounting and auditing systems
Systems Architecture                      Chapter 1


                  Maintenance Step

  • System is evaluated for errors that escaped
    undetected during installation and testing.

  • Minor changes are made as maintenance
    changes.
Systems Architecture                            Chapter 1


            Maintenance Step – cont.
  Technical knowledge needed:
      – Knowledge is needed to classify the proposed
        change as minor or major
      – Knowledge is needed about the hardware and
        software components that are affected by the
        change
Systems Architecture                      Chapter 1


           Management of Computer
                 Resources
  • Knowledge is needed to manage the
    computer resources within a large
    organization.

  • The manager of a collection of information
    systems must contend with a great deal of
    technical complexity.
Systems Architecture                    Chapter 1


           Management of Computer
                 Resources
     Attention must be paid to two important
     technological issues:
      – Compatibility
      – Future trends
Systems Architecture                                 Chapter 1


           Management of Computer
                 Resources
  Compatibility:
      – The new system must not only operate correctly
        by itself, but also operates smoothly with all of the
        other systems in the organization.
Systems Architecture                            Chapter 1


           Management of Computer
                 Resources
  Future Trends:
      – The manager must have a broad understanding of
        current technology, as well as future technology
        trends.
Systems Architecture                          Chapter 1


               Roles and Job Titles
  Computer Professional Groups:
      –   Application Development Personnel
      –   Systems Software Personnel
      –   Hardware Personnel
      –   Systems Management Personnel
Systems Architecture                          Chapter 1


   Computer Technology Information
              Sources
  Sources to keep you up-to-date in the field:
      –   Periodical literature
      –   Technology-oriented Web sites
      –   Vendor and Manufacturer Web sites
      –   Professional Societies
Systems Architecture                  Chapter 1


   Computer Technology Information
              Sources
  Periodical Literature:
      –   ACM Computing Surveys
      –   Computerworld
      –   Communications of the ACM
      –   Computer
Systems Architecture          Chapter 1

   Computer Technology Information
              Sources
Systems Architecture                             Chapter 1


   Computer Technology Information
              Sources
  Technology-Oriented Web Sites:

        There are many Web sites that are devoted to
        serving the information needs of computer
        professionals.
Systems Architecture         Chapter 1


   Computer Technology Information
              Sources
Systems Architecture                       Chapter 1


   Computer Technology Information
              Sources
  Vendor and Manufacturer Web Sites:

     Vendor Web Pages are oriented to sales, but
     they usually contain detailed information on
     products either directly or as links to
     manufacturer Web sites.
Systems Architecture             Chapter 1


  Computer Technology Information
                       Sources
Systems Architecture                    Chapter 1




               Professional Societies

  • Association for Information Technology
    Professionals (AITP)
  • Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
  • Institute for Electrical and Electronics
    Engineers (IEEE) Computer Society
Systems Architecture                      Chapter 1


                       Summary
  • Technical knowledge of computer hardware
    and systems software is required to develop
    information systems.
  • Technical knowledge also is required to
    manage the computer resources of an
    organization.
  • Technical knowledge constantly must be
    updated due to changes in hardware and
    software technology.
Systems Architecture                   Chapter 1


                       Summary
  • Information about computer hardware and
    software is readily available on the World
    Wide Web.
  • An understanding of computer technology is
    necessary.
  • Computer knowledge can be updated through
    reading periodicals, using Web sites and
    joining professional societies.

				
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