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					The Chemical Educational
     Foundation’s




       2006 - 2007
   Basic Question Bank
                                                         YOU BE THE CHEMIST




                                                            Table of Contents

Section 1: Parts of the Atom ........................................................................................................................................ 4
    a. Atomic Number, Mass Number, & the Mole ............................................................................................................ 5
    b. Isotopes ........................................................................................................................................................................ 6

Section 2: Properties of Matter ................................................................................................................................... 9
    a. Mass, Weight, Volume, & Density ............................................................................................................................. 9

Section 3: Phases of Matter ........................................................................................................................................ 11
    a. Properties of Solids ..................................................................................................................................................... 13
    b. Properties of Liquids ................................................................................................................................................... 15
    c. Properties of Gases ..................................................................................................................................................... 17

Section 4: Physical vs. Chemical Changes ............................................................................................................. 21
    a. What’s the Difference? ............................................................................................................................................... 21
    b. Phase Transformations .............................................................................................................................................. 22

Section 5: Composition of Matter ............................................................................................................................. 24

Section 6: Mixtures and Separations ...................................................................................................................... 26
    a. Types of Mixtures ...................................................................................................................................................... 26
    b. Separation Processes ................................................................................................................................................ 29

Section 7: Periodic Table & Grouping of Elements ............................................................................................. 31

Section 8: Properties and Uses of Individual Elements .................................................................................... 36

Section 9: Man-made Elements ................................................................................................................................. 42

Section 10: pH, Acids, Bases, & Indicators ........................................................................................................... 43

Section 11: Organic vs. Inorganic Compounds ..................................................................................................... 46




                                                                                                                                                                                             2
Section 12: Chemistry in Your Home ...................................................................................................................... 47

Section 13: Chemical Reactions ................................................................................................................................ 49

Section 14: Forms and Transformations of Energy ............................................................................................ 51

Section 15: The Scientific Method ............................................................................................................................ 53

Section 16: Metric System & Units of Measure.................................................................................................... 56

Section 17: Laboratory Equipment ............................................................................................................................ 61

Section 18: Chemical Safety ....................................................................................................................................... 62

Section 19: Important Chemists ............................................................................................................................... 64




                                                                                                                                                                         3
Section 1: Parts of the Atom
   (1)   Electrons…

                A.   Are the smallest known particles in the universe
                B.   Have no electrical charge
                C.   Are found in orbitals surrounding the nucleus
                D.   A&C
                E.   B&C

   (2)   In comparison to a neutron the mass of an electron is about …

                A.   The same
                B.   2000 times less
                C.   200 times greater
                D.   200 times less
                E.   2000 times greater

   (3)   The mass of a neutron is…?

                A.   2,000 times greater than a proton
                B.   2,000 times less than a proton
                C.   2,000 times greater than an electron
                D.   2,000 times less than an electron
                E.   Equal to the mass of both protons and electrons.

   (4)   Which elementary particle has an electrical charge?

                A.   Electron
                B.   Proton
                C.   Neutron
                D.   A and B
                E.   B and C

   (5)   Which two elementary particles have approximately the same mass?

                A.   proton and electron
                B.   neutron and electron
                C.   electron and neutrino
                D.   proton and neutron
                E.   electron and quark

   (6)   An electrically neutral atom has the same number of protons and …

                A.   neutrons
                B.   electrons
                C.   quarks
                D.   nucleii
                E.   orbitals




                                                                             4
   (7)   Atoms are made up of…

                A.   A nucleus
                B.   Electrons
                C.   Quarks
                D.   A and B
                E.   A, B, and C

   (8)   What is distinguishes one element from another at the atomic level?

                A.   Electons
                B.   Neutrons
                C.   Quarks
                D.   Protons
                E.   B and D

   (9)   The current theory of quarks believes quarks to have about ____the charge of electrons.

                A.   1/3
                B.   2/3
                C.   the same
                D.   twice
                E.   A or B


a. Atomic Number, Mass Number, & the Mole
   (10) What is a mole?

                A.   A large mammal
                B.   6.02 x 1023
                C.   Aristotle’s number
                D.   A and B
                E.   B and C

   (11) Elements in the Periodic Table are arranged by…

                A.   Mass number
                B.   Avogadro’s number
                C.   Atomic number
                D.   The number of electrons
                E.   The date discovered

   (12) What is the atomic number of an element that has 14 protons, 15 neutrons, and 14 electrons?

                A.   14
                B.   15
                C.   28
                D.   29
                E.   The periodic table is necessary to determine this number.




                                                                                                      5
   (13) What is the mass number of an element that has 11 protons, 12 neutrons, and 11 electrons?

                     A.   11
                     B.   23
                     C.   12
                     D.   22
                     E.   34

   (14) Which element was used in developing Avogadro’s number?
                  A. Carbon
                  B. Potassium
                  C. Calcium
                  D. Nitrogen
                  E. Oxygen

   (15) What does the atomic number of an element correspond to?

                     A.   Neutrons
                     B.   Protons
                     C.   Electrons
                     D.   Atomic Mass
                     E.   Nucleus

   (16) What does the mass number of an element refer to?

                     A.   Neutrons
                     B.   Protons
                     C.   Nucleus
                     D.   Atomic Mass
                     E.   All of the above



b. Isotopes
   (17) The process used to identify the age of organic materials is called…

                A.   Biological aging
                B.   Radioactive dating
                C.   Carbon dating
                D.   Macrobiotic measurement
                E.   Radiometric aging

   (18) Carbon-14 has a half life of 5,730 years. About how much of a one-gram sample will be left after
        17,000 years?

                A.   0.5 grams
                B.   0.25 grams
                C.   0.125 grams
                D.   0.0625 grams
                E.   None




                                                                                                           6
(19) Which of the following statements about isotopes is not true?

            A.    Isotopes do not undergo chemical reactions
            B.    Isotopes are almost chemically inseparable from one another
            C.    Isotopes have different mass numbers
            D.    All isotopes occur in nature in the same quantity
            E.    Isotopes vary in the number of protons in the nucleus

(20) The half-life is…

            A.    The time it takes for an element to change physical states
            B.    5,200 years for the isotope Carbon-14
            C.    The time it takes for half of the nuclei to decay
            D.    A and B
            E.    B and C

(21) The atomic mass of an element is…

            A.    The number of protons in an atom
            B.    The number of neutrons in an atom
            C.    The number of protons plus the number of neutrons
            D.    The average mass of all of the element’s isotopes
            E.    The mass of the element’s most common isotope

(22) In a particular environment, there is one carbon atom (Carbon-12), one Carbon-11 isotope, one
     Carbon-10 isotope, and one Carbon-14 isotope. What is the atomic weight?

            A.    10
            B.    12
            C.    14
            D.    12.25
            E.    11.75

(23)How many protons are there in an atom of Carbon-14?

            A.    6
            B.    8
            C.    12
            D.    14
            E.    28

(24) How many neutrons are there in an atom of Carbon-14?

             A.   6
             B.   8
             C.   12
             D.   14
             E.   28

(25) How many electrons are there in an atom of Carbon-10?

             A. 6
             B. 8




                                                                                                     7
             C. 10
             D. 12
             E. 14


(26) How many neutrons are there in an atom of Potassium-40?

             A.   40
             B.   21
             C.   20
             D.   19
             E.   9

(27) Carbon isotopes are used to…

             A.   Define Avogadro’s number
             B.   Determine the age of organic materials
             C.   Determine the age of ancient rock structures
             D.   A and B
             E.   B and C

(28) Atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are called…

             A.   isomers
             B.   anions
             C.   cations
             D.   allotropes
             E.   isotopes

(29) The atomic mass of an element is...

             A.   The average of all its electrons
             B.   The average of all its neutrons
             C.   The average of all its protons
             D.   The average of all its orbitals
             E.   The average of all its isotopes

(30) When a element exists in more than one form, its atoms differ in the amount of...

             A.   Electrons
             B.   Protons
             C.   Neutrons
             D.   Orbitals
             E.   None of the above

(31) Scientists can determine the age of organic materials up to _____ years ago using what isotope?

             A.   5,730, Potassium-40
             B.   50,000, Carbon-14
             C.   80,000, Nitrongen-14
             D.   10,000, Oxygen-16
             E.   6 million, Calcium-41




                                                                                                       8
Section 2: Properties of Matter
   (32) All of the following are physical properties except…

               A.   Melting point
               B.   Density
               C.   Viscosity
               D.   Color
               E.   All are physical properties

   (33) Which indicates a chemical property?

               A.   It does not flow easily
               B.   It is less dense than water
               C.   It is hard and coarse
               D.   It tastes sour
               E.   It melts at 42◦F

   (34) Which particles are exchanged during a chemical reaction?

                    A.   Neutrons
                    B.   Protons
                    C.   Electrons
                    D.   Isotopes
                    E.   Quarks


a. Mass, Weight, Volume, & Density

   (35) Which element is less dense than water?

               A.   Carbon
               B.   Nickel
               C.   Sodium
               D.   Mercury
               E.   Calcium

   (36) An object that is more dense than pure water…

               A.   Will float
               B.   Will sink
               C.   Has a density greater than 1.0 g/mL
               D.   A&B
               E.   B&C

   (37) The density of an object…

               A.   Can be calculated using the object’s mass and length.
               B.   Varies according to the size of the sample.
               C.   Changes with temperature.
               D.   The measure of how much space it takes up
               E.   None of the above




                                                                            9
(38) The pull of gravity on an object is a measure of…

            A.   Mass
            B.   Weight
            C.   Density
            D.   Pressure
            E.   Electronegativity

(39) The measure of how much matter is present in an object is…

            A.   Mass
            B.   Weight
            C.   Volume
            D.   Density
            E.   Length

(40) On the surface of Mars…

            A.   An object weighs 1/6th of its weight on Earth
            B.   An object’s mass is equal to its weight
            C.   An objects mass is proportional to its weight
            D.   A and B
            E.   A and C

(41) What is the most dense state of water?

            A.   Vapor
            B.   Liquid
            C.   Solid
            D.   B and C
            E.   The density of water is equal in all states

(42) Mass measures _____ present in an object.

            A.   Protons
            B.   Electrons
            C.   Neutrons
            D.   Bonds
            E.   A, B and C

(43) Weight is the measure of…

            A.   Total mass of an object
            B.   The pull of a some force on an object
            C.   Gravity’s pull on an object
            D.   A and B
            E.   B and C

(44) Mass and weight are measured in…

            A.   g/ml
            B.   Grams or pounds




                                                                  10
                C. Degrees
                D. Both A and B
                E. None of the above

   (45) Mass is measured using a…

                A.   Thermometer
                B.   Scale
                C.   Balance
                D.   Both B and C
                E.   None of the above

   (46) Weight is measured using a…

                A.   Thermometer
                B.   Scale
                C.   Triple-beam balance
                D.   Both B and C
                E.   None of the above

   (47) Volume is a measured in…

                A.   Liters
                B.   Cubic centimeters
                C.   Quarts
                D.   A&B
                E.   All of the above



Section 3: Phases of Matter
   (48) Which of the following statements about matter is not true?

                A.   Matter exists in only one state and does not change
                B.   Matter is anything that takes up space
                C.   Matter can be classified into pure substances and mixtures
                D.   Matter has a definite mass
                E.   Matter can be characterized by physical and chemical properties

   (49) What material has a solid phase that is less dense than its liquid phase?

                A.   Carbon dioxide
                B.   Sodium chloride
                C.   Water
                D.   Gold
                E.   Mercury

   (50) Which phase of matter is associated with extreme conditions?

                A.   Solid
                B.   Liquid
                C.   Gas
                D.   Plasma




                                                                                       11
             E.   Liquid crystals

(51) Under most conditions, matter exists in what phases?

             A.   Liquid and gas
             B.   Solid and liquid
             C.   Solid, liquid, and gas
             D.   Liquid, gas, and plasma
             E.   Solid, liquid, gas, and plasma

(52) A fluid…

             A.   Is the same as a solid
             B.   Could be either a liquid or a gas
             C.   Cannot be compressed
             D.   Has molecules that are arranged like a solid but move as a liquid
             E.   Is not associated with the phases of matter

(53) When referring to the different states of matter, plasma…

             A.   Is a clear fluid given to patients in hospitals
             B.   Is something you can touch
             C.   Occurs under ordinary conditions
             D.   Is located at the sun’s interior
             E.   Is associated with very cold climates

(54) Liquid crystals…

             A.   Are classified as a unique state of matter
             B.   Describe both solids and liquids, just like fluids describe liquids and gases
             C.   Have molecules that are arranged like a solid but move as a liquid
             D.   A and C
             E.   All of the above

(55) Which phase of matter has molecules that are arranged like a solid but move as a liquid?

             A.   Fluid
             B.   Liquid Crystal
             C.   Plasma
             D.   Liquid
             E.   Solid

(56) Which phase of matter always conforms to the shape of its container?

             A.   Liquid
             B.   Gas
             C.   Plasma
             D.   Liquid Crystal
             E.   A and D




                                                                                                  12
a. Properties of Solids
    (57) Solids with covalent bonds are held together by…

                 A.   Bonds formed by contributing to a “sea” of share electrons
                 B.   By the attraction between their cations and anions
                 C.   Bonds formed by the sharing of electrons between adjacent atoms
                 D.   Bonds formed by chared ions
                 E.   Van der Waals forces

    (58) Ionic bonds…

                 A.   Are created by the attraction of charged ions
                 B.   Involve anions and cations
                 C.   Are formed from the sharing of electrons
                 D.   A and B
                 E.   B and C

    (59) Anions are…

                 A.   Positively charged ions
                 B.   Negatively charged ions
                 C.   Opposite in charge to cations
                 D.   A and C
                 E.   B and C

    (60) Which type of bond is especially stable?

                 A.   Inert bond
                 B.   Covalent bond
                 C.   Ionic bond
                 D.   Metallic bond
                 E.   All are equally stable

    (61) Ionic, metallic, and covalent bonds hold ____ together.

                 A.   Ions
                 B.   Cations
                 C.   Allotropes
                 D.   Solids
                 E.   Mixtures

    (62) A solid…

                 A.   Has a definite size
                 B.   Does not conform to the shape of its container
                 C.   Is held together with ionic, metallic, or covalent bonding
                 D.   Does not have the ability to compress
                 E.   All of the above




                                                                                        13
(63) The ability for heat or electricity to travel through a material is called…

             A.   Enthalpy
             B.   Convection
             C.   Conduction
             D.   Radiation
             E.   Electronegativity

(64) The rate at which heat or electricity travels through a material is…

             A.   Conductivity
             B.   Enthalpy
             C.   Kinetic energy
             D.   Resistance
             E.   Potential energy

(65) Which of the following statements is not true?

             A.   Metallic solids are held together by metallic bonds
             B.   Cations are positively charged
             C.   The stable network of covalent bonds makes diamonds strong
             D.   Anions in covalent bonds are shared.
             E.   All of the above are true

(66) Which element has the highest conductivity?

             A.   Gold
             B.   Silver
             C.   Copper
             D.   Tin
             E.   Mercury

(67) Which of the following statements is not true?
           A. Electrons in metallic bonds remain stationary
           B. Metallic bonding is not highly directional
           C. Metallic solids are easy to reshape
           D. Metallic bonds can shift position without breaking apart
           E. All of the above are true

(68) Electricity does not move through mercury as easily as it does through gold because of…

             A.   Magnitism
             B.   Conductivity
             C.   Electronegativity
             D.   Resistance
             E.   Melting point

(69) Ductility…

             A.   Is the measure of the difficulty for electricity to travel through a material
             B.   Allows a metal to be easily drawn into wire
             C.   Is an adhesive property that joins two different objects together
             D.   Is the ability of a material to be hammered into a thin sheet without breaking




                                                                                                   14
                E.   Describes the mobility of electrons throughout a material


   (70) An ounce of gold can be hammered into a thin sheet of about…

                A.   3 square feet
                B.   10 square feet
                C.   50 square feet
                D.   100 square feet
                E.   300 square feet

   (71) Wire is often made out of…

                A.   Copper
                B.   Silver
                C.   Aluminum
                D.   Tin
                E.   Zirconium

   (72) What is the most malleable metal?…

                A.   Silver
                B.   Zirconium
                C.   Aluminum
                D.   Gold
                E.   Copper


b. Properties of Liquids
   (73) The shape of rain drops is due to…

                A.   Viscosity
                B.   Ductility
                C.   Volatility
                D.   Surface tension
                E.   Resistivity

   (74) The properties viscosity and melting point relate to what phase of matter?

                A.   Solid
                B.   Liquid
                C.   Supercritical fluid
                D.   Gas
                E.   Plasma

   (75) Molecules in a liquid…

                A.   Experience weak attractive forces
                B.   Move freely
                C.   Form bonds affected by melting and boiling point
                D.   A and C
                E.   All of the above




                                                                                     15
(76) Which liquid has the lowest viscosity?

            A.   Ketchup
            B.   Chocolate syrup
            C.   Honey
            D.   Cola
            E.   Shampoo

(77) An example of a liquid with high viscosity is…

            A.   Ketchup
            B.   Rubbing Alcohol
            C.   Milk
            D.   Apple juice
            E.   Egg nog

(78) A liquid with high viscosity…

            A.   Has stronger bonds between molecules than a liquid with low viscosity
            B.   Has weaker bonds between molecules than a liquid with low viscosity
            C.   Is resistant to flow
            D.   A and C
            E.   B and C

(79) When the temperature drops below freezing, people may add butane to gasoline because it has…

            A.   Low viscosity
            B.   Low flammability
            C.   High volatility
            D.   High boiling point
            E.   High freezing point

(80) When water boils, it changes from…

            A.   Water vapor to liquid water
            B.   Liquid water to water vapor
            C.   Water vapor to ice
            D.   Ice to liquid water
            E.   Liquid water to ice

(81) The strength of the bonds between liquid molecules affects all of the following EXCEPT:

            A.   Volatility
            B.   Boiling point
            C.   Surface tension
            D.   Viscosity
            E.   None of the above

(82) Stronger bonds between molecules will increase all of the following EXCEPT:

            A.   Volatility




                                                                                                    16
                B.   Boiling point
                C.   Surface tension
                D.   Viscosity
                E.   Melting point

   (83) When oil and water are poured out onto separate plates, which one spreads farther and why?

                A.   Water spreads farther because it has a higher surface tension than oil
                B.   Water spreads farther because its molecular bonds are weaker than those in oil
                C.   Oil spreads farther because it has a lower surface tension than water
                D.   Oil spreads farther because it is more slippery than water
                E.   Both liquids spread out the same

   (84) Which of the following has a high volatility?

                A.   Orange juice
                B.   Water
                C.   Ketchup
                D.   Cola
                E.   Rubbing alcohol


c. Properties of Gases
   (85) A gas will spread out over an area as molecules mix with one another due to…

                A.   Diffusion
                B.   Osmosis
                C.   Radiation
                D.   Synthesis
                E.   Displacement

   (86) When a gas is heated, the molecules…

                A.   Move slower
                B.   Move farther apart
                C.   Move closer together
                D.   A and B
                E.   A and C

   (87) Gas molecules…

                A.   Have a large amount of space between them
                B.   Can be easily compressed
                C.   Are in constant random motion
                D.   All of the above
                E.   None of the above


   (88) The force that gas molecules exert on their container is called…

                A.   Temperature
                B.   Energy




                                                                                                      17
             C. Work
             D. Pressure
             E. Volume

(89) Which gas laws make up the Ideal Gas Law?

             A.   Boyle’s, Avogadro’s, Graham’s, Bohr’s
             B.   Avogadro’s, Charles, Graham’s, Gay-Lussac’s
             C.   Boyle’s, Charles, Avogadro’s, Gay-Lussac’s
             D.   Bohr’s, Avogadro’s, Charles, Pasteur’s
             E.   Charles, Boyle’s, Grahams, Pasteur’s

(90) The Gas Laws relate what measurements?

             A.   Temperature
             B.   Pressure
             C.   Volume
             D.   A and B
             E.   All of the above

(91) Which of the following is an example of diffusion?

             A.   The movement of a ball from the top of a hill to the bottom
             B.   The deflating of a helium balloon over time
             C.   The increase in Earth’s temperature from the sun’s rays
             D.   A and B
             E.   A and C

(92) As the movement of gas molecules decreases…

             A.   Their kinetic energy increases
             B.   Their temperature increases
             C.   Their pressure in a constant volume vessel decreases
             D.   Their temperature decreases
             E.   Their movement eventually stops

(93) Which is not a characteristic of a gas?

             A.   Has a fixed volume
             B.   Can be easily compressed
             C.   Does not have strong bonds or attractions between molecules
             D.   Mixes freely with other gases
             E.   All of the above are characteristics of a gas

(94) A measurement of how fast the particles in a gas are moving is detected by…

             A.   Pressure
             B.   Radar
             C.   Heat
             D.   Magentic waves
             E.   None of the above


(95) Heating a gas in a constant volume container will…




                                                                                   18
             A.   Cause the container to deflate
             B.   Cause the container to expand
             C.   Cause the container to spin
             D.   Increase pressure on the container
             E.   Decrease entropy in the container

(96) According to Charles’ Law, what happens when the absolute temperature of a gas doubles?

             A.   Its density will double
             B.   The pressure will double
             C.   Its volume will double
             D.   The pressure will decrease by factor of two
             E.   The volume will decrease by factor of two


(97) What is the Universal Gas Constant?

             A.   6.02 x 1023
             B.   PV/nT
             C.   n
             D.   A and B
             E.   A and C

(98)   “STP” conditions (Standard Temperature and Pressure) for the metric system are…
            A.     0K, 1 atm
            B. 100C, 1 atm
            C. 0K, 0 atm
            D. D. 0C, 1 atm
            E. E. 100C, 0 atm

(99) Molecules diffuse…

             A.   From a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
             B.   From a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration
             C.   When the concentration of molecules is uniform
             D.   Only under STP conditions
             E.   None of the above


(100) Molecules in a _____ can undergo diffusion.

             A.   Gas
             B.   Crytal
             C.   Solution
             D.   A and B
             E.   A and C


(101) Joseph Guy-Lussac discovered what property of ideal gases?

             A.   The pressue of a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures that each individual gas
                  would exert if it were alone




                                                                                                           19
             B. Pressure exerted by a gas is directly proportional to temperature in a vessel of
                fixed volume
             C. The rates of effusion of two gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of
                their molar masses at the same temperature and pressure
             D. One mole of every gas takes up the same volume at the same temperature and pressure
             E. None of the above


(102) In the equation “V1/T1 = V2/T2,” temperature is measured in…
              A. Degrees Fahrenheit
              B. Degrees Celcius
              C. Newtons
              D. Ohms
              E. Kelvins


(103) In the equation “PV = nRT”, R is…

             A.     the universal gas constant
             B.   the normal boiling point
             C.   the gas density
             D.   the number of moles of gas
             E.   the compressibility exponent


(104) At a constant temperature, if a gas has a volume of 3.5 liters at a pressure of 230 mmHg, when the
      volume is increased to 7 liters, the pressure will be…

             A.   115 mmHg
             B.   230 mmHg
             C.   350 mmHg
             D.   460 mmHg
             E.   700 mmHg


(105) At a constant temperature, if 35 mL of oxygen gas is compressed from 15 atm to 30 atm of
      pressure, what is the resulting volume of the gas?

             A.   35 mL
             B.   17.5 mL
             C.   20 mL
             D.   50 mL
             E.   70 mL

(106) At constant pressure, what will happen when the temperature of a gas increases from 37C to
      87C? (Remember to use the correct units when applying the gas laws.)

             A.   Its volume will increase by a factor of about 1.16
             B.   Its volume will increase by a factor of about 2.25
             C.   Its volume will remain constant
             D.   Its volume will decrease by about a factor of 2.35
             E.   Its volume will decrease by about a factor of 50




                                                                                                           20
Section 4: Physical vs. Chemical Changes
a. What’s the Difference?
   (107) Which is an example of a physical change?

                A.   Baking a cake
                B.   Melting a gold nugget
                C.   Forming rust when oxygen interacts with iron
                D.   Lighting a match
                E.   Digesting food


   (108) Which is an example of a chemical change?

                A.   The boiling water
                B.   The chopping wood
                C.   The sublimation of dry ice to CO2 gas
                D.   The explosion of fireworks
                E.   The molding of clay into the shape of a pot

   (109) You leave a glass of water outside on a warm, sunny day, and when you return later, there is no
         water in the glass. What happened?

                A.   The water underwent a physical change
                B.   The water underwent a chemical change
                C.   The molecular properties of the water changed
                D.   A and B
                E.   A and C

   (110) You burn a piece of paper until it has turned to ashes. What happened?

                A.   The paper underwent a physical change
                B.   The paper underwent a chemical change
                C.   The molecular properties of the paper are now different
                D.   A and C
                E.   B and C

   (111) If you rip a piece of paper into many pieces…

                A.   A chemical change occurred
                B.   The composition of the paper changes
                C.   No change occurred.
                D.   A and B
                E.   None of the above

   (112) A chemical change is usually accompanied by:

                A.   A size change




                                                                                                           21
                B.   A shape change
                C.   A phase change
                D.   An energy change
                E.   All of the above

   (113) A physical change is usually accompanied by:

                A.   A size change
                B.   A shape change
                C.   A phase change
                D.   A and B
                E.   A, B, and C


b. Phase Transformations
   (114) The transformation from solid phase directly to a gas phase is…

                A.   Evaporation
                B.   Condensation
                C.   Sublimation
                D.   Melting
                E.   Freezing


   (115) Which of the following is not true?

                A. Boiling point varies with pressure
                B. Boiling point is the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid
                C. Boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals its
                   surroundings
                D. All of the above are true
                E. None of the above

   (116) What material commonly sublimes?

                A.   Ice
                B.   Solid CO2
                C.   Iron crystals
                D.   A and B
                E.   A and C

   (117) When matter changes states from a liquid to a solid, this change is called…

                A.   Melting
                B.   Evaporation
                C.   Freezing
                D.   Condensation
                E.   Sublimation

   (118) Which of the following statements is true?

                A.   Sugar contains the element sodium




                                                                                                         22
             B.   Sodium is lost from the body through breathing
             C.   Salt can be used to lower the freezing point of water
             D.   Sodium is soft and ductile semi-metal
             E.   Sodium is unreactive

(119) Conductivity is to resistance as…

             A.   Boiling point is to dew point
             B.   Solid is to liquid
             C.   Sublimation is to condensation
             D.   Freezing point is to boiling point
             E.   Boiling point is to melting point

(120) Salt can be used to…

             A.   Increase the boiling point of a liquid
             B.   Decrease the boiling point of a liquid
             C.   Decrease the freezing point of a liquid
             D.   A and C
             E.   B and C

(121) Keeping all other conditions constant, where will pure water boil most quickly?

             A.   In coastal Miami
             B.   In the mile-high city of Denver
             C.   In the Shenandoah Valley
             D.   On the Great Plains
             E.   Water will boil at the same rate at all locations

(122) Which evaporates most rapidly?

             A.   water
             B.   salt water
             C.   alcohol
             D.   mercury
             E.   vegetable oil

(123) Which evaporates most rapidly?

             A.   Liquids with high viscosity
             B.   Liquids with high volatility
             C.   Liquids with high boiling points
             D.   A and B
             E.   All of the above

(124) A gas turns to a liquid at its…

             A.   Boiling point
             B.   Melting point
             C.   Evaporation point
             D.   Condensation point
             E.   Dew point




                                                                                        23
   (125) Cation is to anion as …

                A.   Freezing point is to melting point
                B.   Weight is to mass
                C.   Sublimation is to condensation
                D.   Ductility is to malleability
                E.   Boiling point is to freezing point

   (126) On a cold day, “fog” forms on the windows of houses because…

                A.   The ice on the windows is melting
                B.   Water particles in the air are condensing on the windows
                C.   Water is freezing on the windows
                D.   Water is evaporating off of the warm windows
                E.   None of the above

   (127) Salt is thrown on sidewalks in the winter because...

                A.   Salt causes the ice to sublime into the atmosphere
                B.   Salt creates friction on the sidewalks
                C.   Salt lowers the freezing point of water
                D.   Salt prevents the cement from cracking
                E.   Salt lowers the melting point of ice

   (128) Which of the following statements is/are true?

                A.   The melting point of ice equals the freezing point of water
                B.   Melting point always equals freezing point
                C.   Dew point is characterized by evaporation
                D.   Boiling point always equals dew point
                E.   All of the above


Section 5: Composition of Matter
   (129) There are generally about ______ types of matter.

                A.   2
                B.   10
                C.   100
                D.   1 million
                E.   Infinite

   (130) Which of the following statements about elements is true?

                A.   There are 92 naturally occurring elements
                B.   The fundamental unit of an element is called a molecule
                C.   An element is a pure substance
                D.   A and B
                E.   A and C




                                                                                   24
(131) Any substance composed of only one type of atom is called ______________.

             A.   An isotope
             B.   A compound
             C.   An element
             D.   A homogeneous mixture
             E.   All substances must contain more than one atom


(132) Approximately how many known elements are there?

             A.   2
             B.   10
             C.   100
             D.   1 million
             E.   Infinite

(133) When two or more atoms interact with one another, they form a larger unit called a(n)…

             A.   Element
             B.   Mole
             C.   Mixture
             D.   Solution
             E.   Molecule

(134) _______ are composed of large quantities of molecules.

             A.   Units
             B.   Elements
             C.   Atoms
             D.   Compounds
             E.   None of the above

(135) Upon the separation of a mixture, the properties of each part are…

             A.   Changed
             B.   Lost
             C.   Retained
             D.   The same as that of the mixture
             E.   Separated

(136) Sweet tea is an example of a…

             A.   Homogeneous mixture
             B.   Heterogeneous mixture
             C.   Solution
             D.   A and C
             E.   B and C

(137) Italian salad dressing is an example of a…

             A.   Homogeneous mixture
             B.   Heterogeneous mixture
             C.   Solution




                                                                                               25
                D. A and C
                E. B and C

   (138) What does the prefix “hetero” mean?

                A.   The same
                B.   Different
                C.   Unusual
                D.   Produced by or composed of
                E.   None of the above

   (139) A water molecule is composed of…

                A.   2 oxygen atoms and 1 hydrogen atom
                B.   2 oxygen atoms and 1 helium atom
                C.   2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom
                D.   2 helium atoms and 1 oxygen atom
                E.   2 oxygen atoms and 2 nitrogen atoms


Section 6: Mixtures and Separations
a. Types of Mixtures
   (140) In a solution of 50% water and 50% ethanol, which substance is the solvent?

                A.   Water
                B.   Ethanol
                C.   Both are considered the solute
                D.   Both are considered the solvent
                E.   Water and ethanol cannot be combined

   (141) Which of the following is true?

                A.   Emulsions consist of liquids dispersed in solids
                B.   Whipped cream is an emulsion
                C.   All emulsions are translucent
                D.   Emulsions are completely stable
                E.   Emulsions may separate or cream if not continuously mixed

   (142) The point at which a solution can become saturated…

                A.   Is constant for all solutions
                B.   Generally requires more solute as temperature is increased
                C.   May vary with environmental factors
                D.   A and B
                E.   B and C

   (143) A gel is an example of a…

                A.   Gas dispersed in a solid or liquid
                B.   Liquid dispersed in a gas




                                                                                       26
             C. Liquid dispersed in a solid
             D. Liquid dispersed in a liquid
             E. Solid dispersed in a liquid

(144) Which statement is not true?

             A.   Salt water is a mixture
             B.   A mixture is composed of two or more substances
             C.   A mixture can be separated into the original components
             D.   A mixture can be classified as a compound or solution
             E.   All of the above are true

(145) Increasing a solution’s solubility and then decreasing its solubility creates as ________ solution.

             A.   Dilute
             B.   Unsaturated
             C.   Concentrated
             D.   Saturated
             E.   Supersaturated

(146) To concentrate a glass of sugar water, you would…

             A.   Add more water
             B.   Add more sugar
             C.   Add more sugar and water
             D.   Leave the solution undisturbed
             E.   Continue mixing the solution

(147) Which of the following is true?

             A.   A colloid is a three-phase system of matter
             B.   A colloid is an intermediate between compounds and mixtures
             C.   A colloid may be colored or translucent
             D.   Aerosols, gels, and fluids are types of colloids
             E.   None of the above

(148) Butter and cheese are examples of…

             A.   Compounds
             B.   Sols
             C.   Gels
             D.   Emulsions
             E.   None of the above

(149) How much water must be added to dilute one liter of a 1 Molar solution to make a 0.5 Molar
      solution?

             A.   0.5 L
             B.   1L
             C.   2L
             D.   5L
             E.   None of the above




                                                                                                            27
(150) A heterogeneous mixture…

             A.    Has a compostition that is not uniform
             B.    Is composed of very large particles
             C.    Is uniform throughout
             D.    A and B
             E.    B and C

(151) Which is a colloid?

             A.    Ice
             B.    Salsa
             C.    Vinegar
             D.    Jelly
             E.    Grape juice

(152) A single ball of gas in a liquid is called a(n)…

             A.    Aerosol
             B.    Emulsion
             C.    Bubble
             D.    Foam
             E.    Vapor

(153) Salad is an example of a(n)…

             A.    Alloy
             B.    Element
             C.    Compound
             D.    Homogenous mixture
             E.    Heterogeneous mixture

(154) Which statement is not true?

             A.    A homogenous mixture is uniform throughout
             B.    Solutions are homogenous mixture
             C.    Milk is an example of a homogenous mixture
             D.    A homogenous mixture can be separated
             E.    All of the above are true


(155) One liter of a 20% salt solution is added to one liter of a 75% salt solution. What is the
      concentration of the resulting solution?

             A.    20 %
             B.    33.3 %
             C.    47.5%
             D.    50%
             E.    65.5%

(156) Which of the following is not an example of fine solid particles dispersed in a liquid or another
      solid?




                                                                                                          28
                A.   Paint
                B.   Opals
                C.   Sewage
                D.   Hand cream
                E.   None of the above

   (157) Homogenous mixtures with one or more substances dissolved in another are called…

                A.   Solutions
                B.   Solutes
                C.   Colloids
                D.   Cations
                E.   Allotropes

   (158) Air is a(n) …

                A.   Pure substance
                B.   Vacuum
                C.   Mixture
                D.   Compound
                E.   Orbital

   (159) Solvents can be classified as…

                A.   Pure or complex
                B.   Polar or non-polar
                C.   Saturated or Unsaturated
                D.   Electronegative or electropositive
                E.   Homogeneous or heterogeneous

   (160) Which of the following are made up of molecules that have an even distribution of electrons
         (neutralized molecules)?

                A.   Saturated solvents
                B.   Polar solvents
                C.   Electronegative solvents
                D.   Non-polar solvents
                E.   Electropositive solvents

   (161) In polar solvents, most electrons are located on which side of the molecule?

                A.   The positive side
                B.   The negative side
                C.   The center
                D.   The electrons are concentrated in the nucleus
                E.   The electrons are evenly distributed throughout the molecule


b. Separation Processes
   (162) A separation process…




                                                                                                       29
             A.   Transforms a mixture into two or more products
             B.   Creates products that have similar compositions
             C.   Makes use of similarities in the properties of the components of a mixture
             D.   All of the above
             E.   None of the above

(163) Which is an example of absorption?

             A.   Using a sieve to separate rocks and sand
             B.   Purifying drinking water using filters
             C.   Using a paper towel to clean up spilled milk
             D.   A and B
             E.   B and C

(164) The process in which atoms, molecules, or ions become bound to the surface of a solid is called…

             A.   Osmosis
             B.   Absorption
             C.   Catalysis
             D.   Adsorption
             E.   Condensation

(165) When using filter paper to separate a solid from a liquid, the material that is stopped by the filter
      paper is called…

             A.   Precipitate
             B.   Residue
             C.   Substrate
             D.   Solute
             E.   Filtrate

(166) The separation process tha reacts a component in the solution with another substance to form a
      solid is called…

             A.   Distillation
             B.   Precipitation
             C.   Filtration
             D.   Crystallization
             E.   Adsorption

(167) Which of the following devices can be used in filtration?

             A.   Filter paper
             B.   Carbon paper
             C.   Sieve
             D.   A and C
             E.   B and C

(168) The separation process that makes use of differences in boiling points is called…

             A.   Distillation
             B.   Precipitation
             C.   Filtration




                                                                                                              30
                D. Crystallization
                E. Adsorption

   (169) Boiling seawater enables scientists to separate the salt and water. When the water vapor is
         condensed into liquid form and collected, it is called the…

                A.   Filtrate
                B.   Precipitate
                C.   Distillate
                D.   Condensate
                E.   Byproduct

   (170) In modern refineries, which process is used to separate components of petroleum?

                A.   Adsorption
                B.   Filtration
                C.   Distillation
                D.   Diffusion
                E.   None of the above


Section 7: Periodic Table & Grouping of Elements
   (171) Semi-metals…

                A.   Have characteristics of metals
                B.   Have characteristics of non-metals
                C.   Are located in the two rows below the Periodic Table
                D.   A and B
                E.   A and C

   (172) Which of these elements are very stable?


                A.   Alkali metals
                B.   Transition metals
                C.   Halogens
                D.   Inert gases
                E.   None of the above

   (173) Elements from what two parts of the Periodic Table would be most likely to form compounds
         together?

                A.   Alkali metals and noble gases
                B.   Alkali metals and halogens
                C.   Alkaline earth metals and halogens
                D.   Transition metals and semi-metals
                E.   Lanthanide series and actinide series

   (174) A 5 gram bar of pure gold and a 2 gram bar of pure gold have…

                A.   A total mass of 10 grams
                B.   The same chemical properties




                                                                                                       31
             C. Different densities
             D. The same volume
             E. None of the above.

(175) Elements in which section of the Periodic Table form salts when they react with metals?

             A.   Transition metals
             B.   Halogens
             C.   Noble gases
             D.   Lanthanide series
             E.   Actinide series

(176) Which group does not contain any gaseous elements?

             A.   Alkali metals
             B.   Halogens
             C.   Semi-metals
             D.   All of the above contain gaseous elements
             E.   None of the above contain gaseous elements

(177) Elements from what part of the Periodic Table have good electrical and thermal conductivity?

             A.   Alkali metals
             B.   Alkaline earth metals
             C.   Transition metals
             D.   Noble gases
             E.   Halogens

(178) The transition metals in group(s) ______ are more brittle.

             A.   Groups 3-5
             B.   Groups 6 and 7
             C.   Groups 8-12
             D.   A and B
             E.   B and C

(179) The elements located along the zigzag line between metals and non-metals are called…

             A.   Transition metals
             B.   Semi-metals
             C.   Precious metals
             D.   A and B
             E.   B and C

(180) Which group contains at least one element naturally occurring in the liquid state?

             A.   Group 1
             B.   Group 2
             C.   Group 12
             D.   Group 18
             E.   No elements occur naturally in a liquid state

(181) Elements from what part of the Periodic Table would be expected to have the lowest density?




                                                                                                     32
             A.   Period 2 of Group 1
             B.   Period 6 of Group 1
             C.   Period 2 of Group 2
             D.   Period 7 of Group 2
             E.   Period 7 of Groups 3-12

(182) Members of the same group on the Periodic Table…

             A.   Have the same number of electrons in their outer shell
             B.   Have similar atomic masses
             C.   Do not undergo the same types of reactions
             D.   Are aligned horizontally
             E.   None of the above

(183) Alkali Metals…

             A.   Need only one electron to fill their outer shell
             B.   Include hydrogen
             C.   Can be cut by a knife
             D.   A and B
             E.   B and C

(184) Elements from what part of the Periodic Table have the smallest atomic radii?

             A.   Period 2 of Group 1
             B.   Period 3 of Group 17
             C.   Period 6 of Group 1
             D.   Period 6 of Group 17
             E.   Transition elements

(185) Elements from what part of the Periodic Table have the lowest ionization energies?

             A.   Period 2 of Group 1
             B.   Period 3 of Group 17
             C.   Period 7 of Group 1
             D.   Period 4 of Group 17
             E.   Transition elements

(186) Which of the following statements is true?

             A.   Alkali metals are less reactive than alkaline earth metals
             B.   Alkali metals have more electrons in their outer shells than alkaline earth metals
             C.   Alkali metals are softer than alkaline earth metals
             D.   Alkali metals have smaller atomic radii than alkaline earth metals in the same period
             E.   None of the above

(187) Which of the following is not a precious metal?

             A.   Nickel
             B.   Platinum
             C.   Silver
             D.   Paladium




                                                                                                          33
             E.   All are precious metals

(188) Alkaline earth metals…

             A.   Have only one electron in their outer shell
             B.   Have many of the same properties as alkali metals
             C.   Include calcium and magnesium
             D.   A and B
             E.   B and C

(189) Precious metasl…

             A.   Are transition metals
             B.   Are found in groups 10-12
             C.   Include silver, nickel, and gold
             D.   Have low melting points
             E.   None of the above

(190) Which of the following statements is not true?

             A.   Strong electronegative elements are located at the top right of the Periodic Table
             B.   Strong electronegative elements have almost completed electron shells
             C.   Strong electronegative elements have small atomic radii
             D.   The noble gases are strong electronegative elements
             E.   All of the above are true

(191) Many elements in this series emit colored light when bombarded with a beam of electrons.

             A.   Alkali metals
             B.   Halogens
             C.   Noble gases
             D.   Lanthanide series
             E.   Actinide series


(192) Most of these elements, such as uranium, are radioactive.

             A.   Alkaline earth metals
             B.   Halogens
             C.   Noble gases
             D.   Lanthanide series
             E.   Actinide series

(193) Which group(s), of transition metals, has/have very low melting points?

             A.   Group 2
             B.   Groups 3-7
             C.   Groups 8-12
             D.   Groups 10 and 11
             E.   Group 12

(194) The most ductile and malleable solids are…




                                                                                                       34
             A.   Alkali metals
             B.   Alkaline earth metals
             C.   Precious metals
             D.   Transition metals
             E.   Metalloids

(195) Inner transition metals…

             A.   Are also know as core earth metals
             B.   Are not considered to be part of the 18 groups of the Periodic Table
             C.   Are located in Periods 5 and 6
             D.   A and B
             E.   B and C

(196) Which element from Period 2 of the Periodic Table is likely to produce the most acidic solution?

             A.   Lithium
             B.   Beryllium
             C.   Carbon
             D.   Nitrogen
             E.   Fluorine

(197) Electropositive elements…

             A.   Pull electrons strongly toward itself
             B.   Give up electrons easily
             C.   Include fluorine, oxygen, and chlorine
             D.   A and C
             E.   B and C

(198) Which of the following sections of the Periodic Table has elements with the least
      electronegativity?

             A.   Period 2 of Group 1
             B.   Period 2 of Group 17
             C.   Period 7 of Group 1
             D.   Period 5 of Group 17
             E.   Transition elements

(199) Non-metals….

             A.   Are normally found on the right side of the Periodic Table
             B.   Are normally found on the bottom left of the Periodic Table
             C.   Include carbon and phosphorus
             D.   A and C
             E.   B and C

(200) These elements form a variety of complex ions that have bright-colored solutions.

             A.   Alkali metals
             B.   Alkaline earth metals
             C.   Transition metals
             D.   Halogens
             E.   Actinide series




                                                                                                         35
   (201) The pull that the nucleus of an element has on the electrons in a chemical bond is called…

                A.   Magnetism
                B.   Atomic force
                C.   Electronegativity
                D.   Ionization energy
                E.   None of the above


   (202) Which elements are normally found as diatomic molecules?

                A.   Alkali metals
                B.   Alkaline earth metals
                C.   Transition metals
                D.   Halogens
                E.   Inert gases


   (203) Elements in this group have one less electron in their outer shell than the alkaline earth metals.

                A.   Alkali metals
                B.   Transition metals
                C.   Inner transition metals
                D.   Halogens
                E.   None of the above




Section 8: Properties and Uses of Individual Elements
   (204) This element is essential for the processes of repiration and combustion.

                A.   Carbon
                B.   Nitrogen
                C.   Hydrogen
                D.   Oxygen
                E.   Sodium

   (205) This element is the 6th most abundant element and is found in many minerals.

                A.   Nitrogen
                B.   Hydrogen
                C.   Phosphorus
                D.   Sodium
                E.   Carbon

   (206) This colorless, odorless gas is the most common element in the earth’s crust.

                A.   Carbon
                B.   Helium
                C.   Hydrogen
                D.   Oxygen




                                                                                                              36
             E.   Nitrogen

(207) Which of the following solid elements, with atomic number 19, is less dense than water?

             A.   Carbon
             B.   Potassium
             C.   Iridium
             D.   Magnesium
             E.   None of the Above


(208) This element is a main component of fuels, such as coal and oil.

             A.   Hydrogen
             B.   Sulfur
             C.   Nitrogen
             D.   Carbon
             E.   Fluorine

(209) Which element is a component of many proteins, including hemoglobin, which helps transport
      oxygen in the bloodstream?

             A.   Carbon
             B.   Sodium
             C.   Nitrogen
             D.   Potassium
             E.   Iron

(210) Which isotope is commonly used to date rocks?

             A.   Carbon-14
             B.   Carbon-12
             C.   Potassium-20
             D.   Potassium-40
             E.   Uranium-236

(211) Every gallon of seawater contains about 0.25 lbs of the common compound that is made up of
      chlorine and…

             A.   Nitrogen
             B.   Sodium
             C.   Calcium
             D.   Hydrogen
             E.   Carbon

(212) At high temperatures, which element reacts with oxygen to form the pollutants that cause smog
      and acid rain?

             A.   Radon
             B.   Phosphorus
             C.   Nitrogen
             D.   Hydrogen
             E.   Fluorine




                                                                                                      37
(213) Which element is the 4th most common element on earth and occurs naturally as a reddish-brown
      metal?

             A.   Iron
             B.   Zinc
             C.   Copper
             D.   Gold
             E.   Magnesium

(214) Which element is sometimes added to salt to provide the minimum amount necessary for good
      health?

             A.   Carbon
             B.   Iron
             C.   Calcium
             D.   Iodine
             E.   Potassium

(215) Which halogen gas gets its name from the Greek word for pale green?

             A.   Phosphorus
             B.   Calcium
             C.   Sodium
             D.   Chlorine
             E.   Sulfur

(216) Which colorless, odorless gas gives fuel to stars, so they shine brightly?

             A.   Carbon
             B.   Hydrogen
             C.   Oxygen
             D.   Helium
             E.   Nitrogen

(217) The soft black substance used in pencils is what element?

             A.   Lithium
             B.   Carbon
             C.   Lead
             D.   Iron
             E.   Aluminum

(218) The calcium compound that was useful for making casts to set broken bones is called…

             A.   Calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
             B.   Lime (CaO)
             C.   Calcium chloride (CaCl2)
             D.   Plaster of paris (CaSO4)
             E.   Calcium fluoride (CaF2)

(219) The most reactive element is…

             A.   Helium




                                                                                                      38
             B.   Hydrogen
             C.   Cesium
             D.   Radon
             E.   Fluorine

(220) This lightweight and soft metal is the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust.

             A.   Oxygen
             B.   Iron
             C.   Fluorine
             D.   Phosphorus
             E.   Aluminum


(221) Which element oxidizes in air to form rust?

             A.   Potassium
             B.   Iron
             C.   Calcium
             D.   Nitrogen
             E.   Sodium

(222) Which element is used to make safe drinking water?

             A.   Carbon
             B.   Iron
             C.   Oxygen
             D.   Chlorine
             E.   Hydrogen

(223) This element, found naturally in limestone and gypsum, is an essential component of leaves, bones,
      and shells.

             A.   Carbon
             B.   Iron
             C.   Sodium
             D.   Potassium
             E.   Calcium

(224) Which element forms a very toxic gas and is a component of an acid that can dissolve glass?

             A.   Helium
             B.   Hydrogen
             C.   Sulfur
             D.   Chlorine
             E.   Fluorine


(225) Which element is an essential building block for all “organic” compounds and life?

             A.   Nitrogen
             B.   Oxygen
             C.   Calcium




                                                                                                           39
             D. Hydrogen
             E. Carbon

(226) Aluminum is used to make…

             A.   Cars
             B.   Cans
             C.   Coins
             D.   Transmission wires
             E.   All of the above

(227) The element carbon is found in four different forms that occur in the same physical state. These
      include all of the following EXCEPT:

             A.   Charcoal
             B.   Amorphous carbon
             C.   Diamond
             D.   Methane
             E.   Graphite

(228) This colorless, odorless gas, with atomic number 7, forms compounds that are used to make
      explosives, such as TNT.

             A.   Chlorine
             B.   Phosphorus
             C.   Nitrogen
             D.   Carbon
             E.   Helium

(229) Which element is a bluish-black, lustrous solid that is changes into a blue-violet gas at room
      temperature?

             A.   Iodine
             B.   Fluorine
             C.   Iron
             D.   Calcium
             E.   Potassium

(230) Which element, with atomic number 6, occurs in nature in four different solid forms?

             A.   Hydrogen
             B.   Oxygen
             C.   Nitrogen
             D.   Carbon
             E.   Calcium

(231) Which element is a component mortar and was used by the Romans for construction?

             A.   Calcium
             B.   Carbon
             C.   Lead
             D.   Sodium
             E.   Potassium




                                                                                                         40
(232) The liquid form of which element is used to freeze foods?

             A.   Oxygen
             B.   Phosphorus
             C.   Carbon
             D.   Helium
             E.   Nitrogen

(233) Which element is not found in its elemental free state in nature but instead is found abundantly in
      the salt compound that makes up seawater?

             A.   Nitrogen
             B.   Chlorine
             C.   Calcium
             D.   Sodium
             E.   Potassium

(234) This element makes up two-thirds of the human body by weight, mainly in the form of water.

             A.   Hydrogen
             B.   Helium
             C.   Carbon
             D.   Oxygen
             E.   Nitrogen

(235) Adding carbon and other alloying metals to form steel reduces which element’s brittleness and
      increases its resistance to corrosion?

             A.   Zinc
             B.   Copper
             C.   Gold
             D.   Iron
             E.   Magnesium

(236) Which element is the lightest and most abundant element in the universe?

             A.   Hydrogen
             B.   Helium
             C.   Oxygen
             D.   Nitrogen
             E.   Carbon

(237) Which element, found near hot springs and volcanoes, is a pale yellow color?

             A.   Chlorine
             B.   Sulfur
             C.   Iodine
             D.   Iron
             E.   Magnesium

(238) This soft, silvery, alkali metal may ignite spontaneously in water.




                                                                                                            41
              A.   Iron
              B.   Hydrogen
              C.   Calcium
              D.   Potassium
              E.   Sodium

  (239) Which element has only one proton in its nucleus?

              A.   Hydrogen
              B.   Helium
              C.   Lithium
              D.   Oxygen
              E.   All elements have more than one proton?


Section 9: Man-made Elements
  (240) Elements with an atomic number greater than 92…

              A.   Occur naturally on Earth
              B.   Are all named after important chemists
              C.   Have been discovered in the last 20 years
              D.   Include Curium, Silicon, and Francium
              E.   None of the above


  (241) The elements Curium and Bohrium are classified as eponyms because they are named after…

              A.   Places
              B.   Chemical discoveries
              C.   Awards
              D.   People
              E.   None of the above


  (242) Which of the following are Nobel Prize categories?

              A.   Chemistry
              B.   Medicine
              C.   Journalism
              D.   A and B
              E.   A and C

  (243) Some man-made elements have been synthesized by bombarding which element with neutrons or
        other particles?

              A.   Platinum
              B.   Hydrogen
              C.   Iridium
              D.   Uranium
              E.   None of the above

  (244) A cyclotron is used to…




                                                                                                    42
                A.   Accelerate charged particles to high energies
                B.   Determine the density of a substance
                C.   Measure air pressure
                D.   Produce a steady flame for lab experiments
                E.   None of the above

   (245) Most man-made elements…

                A.   Have an atomic number greater than 72
                B.   Are heavy elements
                C.   Can be created using a cyclone
                D.   A and B
                E.   A and C

   (246) The element, Rutherfordium, was named after…

                A.   A university in California
                B.   The chemist who developed the Periodic Table
                C.   The chemist who developed the modern understanding of the atomic nucleus
                D.   A country in Europe
                E.   None of the above

   (247) What is the atomic symbol for Curium?

                A.   Cu
                B.   Cr
                C.   Cm
                D.   C
                E.   Ma


Section 10: pH, Acids, Bases, & Indicators
   (248) Which of the following substances are ordered from least acidic to most acidic?

                A.   Battery acid, vinegar, ammonia
                B.   Lye, baking soda, ammonia
                C.   Milk, water, stomach acid
                D.   Baking soda, vinegar, lye
                E.   Bleach, vinegar, lemon juice

   (249) A beaker contains a baking soda solution with a pH of 9.5. What will happen if Phenolphthalein
         Solution is added?

                A.   The solution will change from colorless to blue
                B.   The solution will change from colorless to red/pink
                C.   The solution will change from blue to red/pink
                D.   The solution will change from red/pink to blue
                E.   The solution will not change color

   (250) Sea water usually has a pH of…




                                                                                                          43
             A.   4.8
             B.   5.6
             C.   6.5
             D.   7.0
             E.   8.0

(251) Which of the following statements is true?

             A.   Bases are generally fat-soluble
             B.   Acidic substances have higher numbers on the pH scale
             C.   When acids react with metals, oxygen is released
             D.   Acids can give up hydrogen ions
             E.   Basic solutions have a sour taste

(252) Acids generally donate what type of ion to acids?

             A.   Hydrogen
             B.   Hydroxide
             C.   H-
             D.   A and C
             E.   B and C

(253) An unknown liquid turns Litmus paper blue but does not change color when Phenolphthalein
      solution is added. Its pH could be…

             A.   3.5
             B.   6.2
             C.   7.0
             D.   8.5
             E.   9.8

(254) A pH of 14 is considered…

             A.   A strong acid
             B.   A strong base
             C.   Maximum acidity
             D.   A and C
             E.   None of the above

(255) Vinegar has a pH of about 3. Baking soda has a pH of 9. How many times more acidic is vinegar
      than baking soda?

             A.   1/6
             B.   10-3
             C.   6
             D.   610
             E.   106

(256) Which of the following is a common indicator?

             A.   Linus Paper
             B.   Fehling’s Solution
             C.   Phenolphthalein Solution




                                                                                                      44
             D. A and B
             E. A and C

(257) What will happen if litmus paper is placed in cola?

             A.   The litmus paper will turn blue
             B.   The litmus paper will turn red
             C.   The litmus paper will turn purple
             D.   The litmus paper will not change color
             E.   The litmus paper will disintegrate

(258) Which of the following substances is a base?

             A.   Rainwater
             B.   Milk
             C.   Hand soap
             D.   Wine
             E.   None of the above

(259) What value on the pH scale is neutral?

             A.   0
             B.   1
             C.   5
             D.   7
             E.   10

(260) Which has an almost neutral pH?

             A.   Milk
             B.   Vinegar
             C.   Apple juice
             D.   Sea water
             E.   Lye

(261) Which of the following is correctly ordered from most acidic to least acidic?

             A.   Cola, baking soda, vinegar
             B.   Ammonia, water, orange juice
             C.   Water, hand soap, battery acid
             D.   Lemon juice, vinegar, milk
             E.   Sulfuric acid, ammonia, water


(262) If Phenolphthalein Solution is added to a cup of bleach…

             A.   No change will occur
             B.   The solution will change from a pink/red color to clear
             C.   The solution will turn a pink/red color
             D.   The solution will turn blue
             E.   The solution will turn from a blue color to clear

(263) What will happen when litmus paper is dipped in pure water?




                                                                                      45
                  A.   The paper will turn blue
                  B.   The paper will turn red
                  C.   The water will turn yellow
                  D.   The paper and water will remain the same color
                  E.   The paper will dissolve

   (264) Which of the following are corrosive?

                  A.   Stomach acid
                  B.   Cola
                  C.   Baking soda
                  D.   A and B
                  E.   A and C

   (265) Acid rain is classified as rain having a pH …

                  A.   Greater than 7
                  B.   Greater than 5
                  C.   Less than 5
                  D.   Between 5 and 7
                  E.   Equal to 7

   (266) Which of the following statements is true?

                  A.   Acids are typically water-soluble
                  B.   Acids can conduct electricity
                  C.   Acids are able to give up hydroxide ions to bases
                  D.   A and B
                  E.   B and C


Section 11: Organic vs. Inorganic Compounds
   (267) What is one type of inorganic compound?

                  A.   Fatty acids
                  B.   Carbohydrates
                  C.   Proteins
                  D.   Polysaccharides
                  E.   Iron

   (268) Which of the following is an organic compound?

             A.   Table salt
             B.   Protein
             C.   Water
             D.   Steel
             E.   Bleach

   (269) Organic compounds…

             A. Have mostly covalent bonds




                                                                           46
            B.   Are produced by living things
            C.   Are composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen atoms
            D.   A and C
            E.   All of the above

   (270) Which of the following statements about organic compounds is false?

            A.   They have mostly covalent bonds
            B.   They primarily come from mineral sources
            C.   They are composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen atoms
            D.   A and C
            E.   None of the above

   (271) Inorganic compounds…

            A.   Have mostly ionic bonds
            B.   Primarily come from mineral sources
            C.   Are composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen atoms
            D.   A and B
            E.   All of the above

   (272) Which of the following statements about inorganic compounds is false?

            A.   They have mostly ionic bonds
            B.   They primarily come from mineral sources
            C.   They are composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen atoms
            D.   A and B
            E.   All of the above

   (273) Proteins are made up of…

                 A.   Fatty acids
                 B.   Amino acids
                 C.   Sugars
                 D.   Nucleic Acids
                 E.   None of the above


Section 12: Chemistry in Your Home
   (274) Acetylsalicylic acid is the chemical name of what common household substance?

                 A.   Bleach
                 B.   Laundry detergent
                 C.   Mouth wash
                 D.   Vitamin D
                 E.   Aspirin

   (275) Which compound is used in cooking to neutralize stomach acids?

                 A.   Calcium carbonate
                 B.   Ethylene glycol
                 C.   Silicon dioxide




                                                                                         47
             D. Sodium bicarbonate
             E. Magnesium sulfate

(276) What is the chemical name of aspirin?

             A.   Sodium chloride
             B.   Hydrogen peroxide
             C.   Propane
             D.   Ethylene glycol
             E.   Acetylsalicylic acid

(277) What is the common name solid carbon dioxide?

             A.   Plastic
             B.   Dry ice
             C.   Sand
             D.   Chalk
             E.   Salt


(278) What is the chemical name of battery acid?

             A.   Sulfuric acid
             B.   Hypochlorous acid
             C.   Acetic acid
             D.   Carbonic acid
             E.   None of the above

(279) Hypochlorous acid is the chemical name of what common household item?

             A.   Bleach
             B.   Laundry detergent
             C.   Mouth wash
             D.   Vitamin C
             E.   Aspirin

(280) CH4 is a fuel source commonly called…

             A.   Propane
             B.   Butane
             C.   Ammonia
             D.   Methane
             E.   Antifreeze

(281) Sulfuric acid is a common component in car batteries. What is the chemical formula of sulfuric
      acid?

             A.   SiO2
             B.   HClO
             C.   H2SO4
             D.   CH4
             E.   H2CO3




                                                                                                       48
   (282) Carbonic acid, H2CO3, is commonly used as what?

                A.   A soft drink ingredient
                B.   Pain-reliever
                C.   Laundry whitener
                D.   Anti-inflammatoryl
                E.   Both B and D

   (283) What is the chemical name for chalk?

                A.   Sodium chloride
                B.   Acetic acid
                C.   Silicon dioxide
                D.   Calcium carbonate
                E.   Hydrogen carbonate

   (284) Which of the following can be used as a cooking ingredient?

              A. Baking soda
              B. Hydrogen peroxide
              C. Vinegar
              D. A and B
              E. A and C
   (285) When you are sick, the doctor recommends that you drink orange juice. Why?

                A.   It contains aspirin
                B.   It contains vitamin C
                C.   It contains silver iodide
                D.   A and B
                E.   B and C

   (286) The chemical formula for sugar is…

                A.   NaCl
                B.   C12H22O11
                C.   C9H8O4
                D.   H2O2
                E.   H2CO3



Section 13: Chemical Reactions
   (287) The materials used to start a chemical reaction are called…

                A.   Catalysts
                B.   Reactants
                C.   Reagents
                D.   A and B
                E.   B and C

   (288) The reaction, 2H2 + O2  2H2O, is an example of what kind of reaction?




                                                                                      49
             A.   Synthesis reaction
             B.   Decomposition reaction
             C.   Substitution reaction
             D.   Double displacement reaction
             E.   Redox reaction

(289) The reaction, AgNO3 + NaCl  AgCl + NaNO3, is an example of what kind of reaction?

             A.   Synthesis reaction
             B.   Decomposition reaction
             C.   Substitution reaction
             D.   Double displacement reaction
             E.   Redox reaction

(290) A secondary product created at the same time as the primary product is called a(n)…

             A.   Precipitate
             B.   Resultant
             C.   Consequetial product
             D.   Byproduct
             E.   Ad-reagent

(291) Which of the following statements is not true of reversible reactions?

             A. Reversible reactions are usually represented by a double arrow
             B. In a reversible reaction, both reactants and products may be present at the same time
                in dynamic equilibrium
             C. Equilibrium is the state of a reaction at which the concentration of reactants
                and products is constantly changing
             D. Reversible reactions can go in the forward direction (reactants to products) or the
                backward direction (products to reactants)
             E. All of the above statements are true

(292) Rearrangement is to double displacement as…

             A.   Decomposition is to displacement
             B.   Synthesis is to decomposition
             C.   Degradation is to synthesis
             D.   Products are to byproducts
             E.   Reactants are to reagents

(293) Which of the following is not true about the rate of reaction?

             A.   The rate of reaction is not affected by the concentration of the products
             B.   The rate of reaction is usually proportional to the concentration of the reactants
             C.   The rate of a gas phase reaction is affected by pressure
             D.   The rate of reaction is usually sped up by temperature
             E.   All of the above statements are true

(294) Decomposition is to synthesis as…

             A.   Decomposition is to displacement
             B.   Displacement is to double displacement




                                                                                                        50
                C. Synthesis is to degradation
                D. Products are to byproducts
                E. Reactants are to reagents

   (295) A chemical reaction in which one reactant breaks apart into two or more products is called…

                A.   Synthesis
                B.   Disintegration
                C.   Displacement
                D.   Double Displacement
                E.   None of the above

   (296) A rearrangement reaction…

                A. Is a physical change in which parts of two reactants are rearranged to form two or
                   more different products
                B. Is always represented by a double arrow
                C. Is also called a double displacement reaction
                D. A and B
                E. A and C


Section 14: Forms and Transformations of Energy
   (297) A book on the edge of a table has what kind of energy?

                A.   Internal energy
                B.   Potential energy
                C.   Rotational energy
                D.   Kinetic energy
                E.   Relativistic energy

   (298) According to the Law of Conservation of Energy…

                A. Any time work takes place or energy is transformed, heat is lost
                B. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed
                C. During an ordinary chemical change, there is no detectable increase or decrease in the
                   quantity of matter
                D. Energy cannot be transformed
                E. None of the above

   (299) What is the first Law of Thermodynamics?

                A. Over time, differences in temperature, pressure, and density tend to even out in a
                   physical system
                B. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
                C. While energy is easily transformed, it can neither be created nor destroyed
                D. E = mc2
                E. Under constant pressure, the volume of a gas varies directly with the absolute
                   temperature

   (300) Which has the most potential energy?




                                                                                                            51
             A.   A stick on the ground
             B.   A boulder rolling off the side of a cliff
             C.   A pile of leaves
             D.   A beach ball floating in water
             E.   A feather falling down to the ground

(301) A reaction that gives off heat is called an….

             A.   Endothermic
             B.   Exoteric
             C.   Entopic
             D.   Exothermic,
             E.   Esoteric

(302) In the equation for calculating kinetic energy, KE = 1/2mv2, the “v” stands for…

             A.   Volume
             B.   Vector
             C.   Variable
             D.   Velocity
             E.   Viscosity

(303) Which has the most kinetic energy?

             A.   A stationary 10 kg mass
             B.   A 0.5kg mass moving at 15m/sec
             C.   A 2 kg mass moving at 10 m/sec
             D.   A 4 kg mass moving at 5 m/sec
             E.   All have the same kinetic energy

(304) The capacity to do work or produce heat is called…

             A.   Force
             B.   Efflorescence
             C.   Temperature
             D.   Energy
             E.   Synthesis

(305) What is the unit used to calculate scientific energy?

             A.   Calorie
             B.   Joule
             C.   Kinetic energy
             D.   A and B
             E.   A, B and C

(306) Kinetic energy is associated with _____?

             A.   Height
             B.   Density
             C.   Temperature
             D.   Motion
             E.   Pressure




                                                                                         52
   (307) Energy is present in…

                A.   Light
                B.   Heat
                C.   Chemical Bonds
                D.   A and B
                E.   A, B, and C

   (308) What describes the amount of motion that an atom or molecule has in a given material?

                A.   Temperature
                B.   Density
                C.   Velocity
                D.   Mass
                E.   Pressure

   (309) Which of the following is defined as stored energy?

                A.   Temperature
                B.   Mass
                C.   Potential energy
                D.   Kinetic energy
                E.   Velocity

   (310) Which of the following is the most common form of energy?

                A.   Electricity
                B.   Light
                C.   Heat
                D.   Sound
                E.   Energy occurs in all forms equally

   (311) How many scientific calories are in a food calorie listed on a Nutrition Facts label?

                A.   10
                B.   100
                C.   1000
                D.   1 million
                E.   The amount of scientific calories and food calories are equal

   (312) A substance that becomes cold after a chemical reaction can identify…

                A.   An increase in kinetic energy
                B.   An increase in potential energy
                C.   An exothermic reaction
                D.   An endothermic reaction
                E.   None of the above


Section 15: The Scientific Method
   (313) Which of the following sequences represents the correct order of steps in the Scientific Method?




                                                                                                            53
             A.   Observation, hypothesis, experimentation, analysis
             B.   Analysis, hypothesis, experimentation, observation
             C.   Observation, analysis, hypothesis, experimentation
             D.   Hypothesis, experimentation, observation, analysis
             E.   Experimentation, observation, experimentation, hypothesis

(314) In an experiment, a variable which is being observed and changed by the independent variable is
      called the…

             A.   Indeterminate variable
             B.   Random variable
             C.   Systematic variable
             D.   Control variable
             E.   Dependent variable

(315) The independent variable is…

             A.   The variable that you are going to change
             B.   The variable that is being observed
             C.   The variable that is not being changed
             D.   The variable that produces the intended results
             E.   None of the above

(316) The variable that is not changed during an experiment is the…

             A.   Independent variable
             B.   Dependent variable
             C.   Control variable
             D.   Random variable
             E.   Systematic variable

(317) If you are trying to determine whether fertilizer makes a plant grow bigger, what would be your
      independent variable?

             A.   The amount of fertilizer
             B.   The growth of the plants
             C.   The amount of light the plants receive
             D.   The speed of the plant growth
             E.   None of the above

(318) If you are trying to determine whether fertilizer makes a plant grow bigger, what would be a
      control variable?

             A.   The amount of fertilizer
             B.   The growth of the plants
             C.   The amount of light the plants receive
             D.   The speed of the plant growth
             E.   None of the above

(319) The process used by scientists to condust experiments and research is called…

             A.   The Atomic Model
             B.   The Scientific Theory




                                                                                                        54
             C. The Laws of Matter
             D. The Scientific Method
             E. All of the above

(320) A(n) _________________ is an educated guess or a possible explanation of an observed
      phenomenon.

             A.   Experiment
             B.   Hypothesis
             C.   Observation
             D.   Theory
             E.   Analysis

(321) A(n) ___________________ is a well-established principle that can explain a physical or chemical
      phenomenon and is based on a large body of experimental evidence.

             A.   Theory
             B.   Hypothesis
             C.   Law of nature
             D.   Observation
             E.   Analysis

(322) In the observation step of the Scientific Method, the ____________ of the experiment is defined?

             A.   Hypothesis
             B.   Materials needed
             C.   Outcome
             D.   Purpose
             E.   Design

(323) What is the second step in the Scientific Method?

             A.   Experiment
             B.   Hypothesis
             C.   Law of nature
             D.   Observation
             E.   Analysis

(324) What is the third step in the Scientific Method?

             A.   Experimentation
             B.   Hypothesis
             C.   Law of nature
             D.   Observation
             E.   Analysis

(325) If, after analysis, the experimental data do not support the hypothesis, what must be done?

             A.   The hypothesis must be accepted
             B.   A new law of nature must be established
             C.   The hypothesis must be rejected or modified
             D.   The President of the United States must be notified
             E.   All of the above




                                                                                                         55
   (326) An explanation of a physical or chemical phenomenon based on experimental evidence is called
         a(n)…

               A.   Hypothesis
               B.   Law of nature
               C.   Theory
               D.   Observation
               E.   None of the above

   (327) A law of nature…

               A.   Explains a physical or chemical phenomenon
               B.   Is based on a large body of experimental evidence
               C.   Is permanent and cannot be invalidated
               D.   A and B
               E.   B and C

   (328) It is important that experiments be…

               A.   Correct
               B.   Lengthy
               C.   Repeatable
               D.   All of the above
               E.   None of the above


Section 16: Metric System & Units of Measure
   (329) Energy is measured in what unit?

               A.   Ohms
               B.   Candelas
               C.   Amperes
               D.   Joule
               E.   Watts

   (330) In the SI system of measurement, the prefix deca is represented by which symbol?

               A.   De
               B.   de
               C.   da
               D.   d
               E.   D

   (331) In the SI system, the prefix mega is represented by which symbol?

               A.   M
               B.   m
               C.   me
               D.   Me
               E.   mm

   (332) Almost every country in the world, except _______, uses the SI system of measurement




                                                                                                        56
             A.   China
             B.   England
             C.   United States
             D.   Russia
             E.   France

(333) The SI system of measurement, measures pressure with what unit?

             A.   Newton (N)
             B.   Mole (mol)
             C.   Candela (cd)
             D.   Joule (J)
             E.   Pascal (Pa)

(334) In the SI system, dividing a volt by an ampere will give you what unit of measurement?

             A.   Ohm (Ω)
             B.   Watt (W)
             C.   Hertz (hz)
             D.   Joule (J)
             E.   Pascal (Pa)

(335) Which of the following does not measure temperature?

             A.   Rankine
             B.   Pascal
             C.   Fahrenheit
             D.   Celsius
             E.   Kelvin

(336) In the SI system of measurement, the prefix hecto is denoted by which symbol?

             A.   h
             B.   H
             C.   he
             D.   ht
             E.   Hecto is not an SI prefix

(337) In the SI system, what is the basic unit for length?

             A.   Liter (L)
             B.   Mole (mol)
             C.   Meter (m)
             D.   Kilogram (kg)
             E.   Watt (W)

(338) In the SI system of measurement, the prefix centi (c) denotes what numerical value?

             A.   0
             B.   10-2
             C.   10-4
             D.   102




                                                                                               57
             E.   104

(339) In the SI system, the numerical value 100 represents what prefix?

             A.   Deci
             B.   Deca
             C.   Micro
             D.   Nano
             E.   None of the above

(340) In the SI system of measurement, what prefix accompanies the numerical value 10-12?

             F.   Deci
             G.   Deca
             H.   Micro
             I.   Nano
             J.   Pico

(341) The three primary units of the SI system are…

             A.   Second, meter, Kelvin
             B.   Meter, kilogram, liter
             C.   Kilogram, ampere, second
             D.   Meter, kilogram, second
             E.   Second, watt, meter

(342) In the SI system, an ampere (A) measures…

             A.   Luminous intensity
             B.   Frequency
             C.   Electric current
             D.   Temperature
             E.   Weight

(343) The prefix, mega, represents which numerical value?

             A.   1012
             B.   109
             C.   106
             D.   103
             E.   None of the above

(344) To convert a degree Celsius temperature into Kelvins, you must add…

             A.   100
             B.   137
             C.   243
             D.   273
             E.   A degree Celsius and a Kelvin are exactly the same

(345) In the SI system, giga is a prefix for what numerical value?

             A.   109




                                                                                            58
             B.   101
             C.   10-6
             D.   0
             E.   103

(346) Giga is to nano as…

             A.   Mega is to milli
             B.   Kilo is to hecto
             C.   Hecto is to deci
             D.   Mega is to centi
             E.   None of the above

(347) The English units for volume include which of the following?

             A.   Ounce
             B.   Pint
             C.   Gallon
             D.   Quart
             E.   All of the above

(348) Which of the following prefixes are multipliers?

             A.   hecto
             B.   deca
             C.   deci
             D.   A and B
             E.   A and C

(349) Which of the following prefixes are fractions?

             A.   milli
             B.   nano
             C.   deci
             D.   micro
             E.   All of the above

(350) Which of the following is not a pressure unit?

             A.   mmHg
             B.   Atmosphere
             C.   Newton
             D.   psig
             E.   kg/cm2

(351) What SI unit is equal to (N• m)/s ?

             A.   Newton
             B.   Joule
             C.   Pascal
             D.   Candela
             E.   Watt




                                                                     59
(352) Which property is incorrectly paired with its SI unit of measure?

             A.   Force – Newton
             B.   Energy, Work, or Heat – Joule
             C.   Pressure – Pascal
             D.   Resistance – Ohm
             E.   Power – Volt

(353) The human body is about ______ degrees Celsius (C)?

             A.   25
             B.   34
             C.   37
             D.   50
             E.   100

(354) What number represents the prefix micro?

             A.   10-2
             B.   10-3
             C.   10-6
             D.   10-9
             E.   10-12

(355) Which of the following objects would have a mass of about 50 grams?

             A.   Dime (coin)
             B.   Apple
             C.   Egg
             D.   Infant
             E.   Grapefruit

(356) Which of the following is an SI prefix?

             A.   Picca
             B.   Zepta
             C.   Yoda
             D.   A and B
             E.   A, B, and C

(357) Blood pressure is measured using which element?

             A.   Carbon
             B.   Nitrogen
             C.   Magnesium
             D.   Uranium
             E.   Mercury

(358) Which of the following is an absolute zero temperature scale?

             A.   Celsius
             B.   Kelvin




                                                                            60
                C. Fahrenheit
                D. A and B
                E. A and C


Section 17: Laboratory Equipment
   (359) Which of the following can be used to measure the volume of an irregularly shaped solid?

                A.   Graduated cylinder
                B.   Volumetric flask
                C.   Triple-beam balance
                D.   Pipette
                E.   Beaker

   (360) This device is a long, skinny tube that is used to transfer liquid from one container to another.

                A.   Flask
                B.   Barometer
                C.   Pipette
                D.   Graduated cylinder
                E.   Beaker

   (361) A graduated cylinder is “graduated” because

                A.   It measures the volume of liquids
                B.   It is in a special classification of laboratory glassware
                C.   It is a tall, glass cylinder
                D.   It has markings along the side to measure volume
                E.   It is an all-purpose container for liquids and solids

   (362) A beaker is primarily used to…

                A.   Make very precise measurements of volume
                B.   Contain liquids and solids for general use
                C.   Hold liquids during a filtration or titration process
                D.   Measure air pressure
                E.   Transfer liquids from one container to another

   (363) Which of the following statements describes a volumetric flask?

                A.   It has a “neck”
                B.   It is used to measure a specific volume of a liquid
                C.   It has a rounded shape
                D.   A and C
                E.   All of the above

   (364) Which of the following statements describes an Erlenmeyer flask?

                A.   It has a “neck”
                B.   It is used to measure a specific volume of a liquid
                C.   It is used to hold liquids during a filtration or titration process
                D.   A and C




                                                                                                             61
                E.   All of the above


   (365) A(n) ________ uses natural gas to produce a steady flame.

                A.   Paraffin candle
                B.   Bunsen burner
                C.   Pipette
                D.   Beaker
                E.   Erlenmeyer flask

   (366) Who invented the water thermometer?

                A.   Aristotle
                B.   Robert Boyle
                C.   Neils Bohr
                D.   Galileo Galilei
                E.   Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit

   (367) Liquids are drawn up into a pipette by…

                A.   Gravity
                B.   Weights at the end of the tube
                C.   A rubber bulb at the end of the tube
                D.   A filter at the end of the tube
                E.   None of the above

   (368) A triple-beam balance is used to measure…

                A.   Mass
                B.   Weight
                C.   Volume
                D.   Force
                E.   All of the above



Section 18: Chemical Safety
   (369) Acids and bases…

                A.   Should be stored in the same closet
                B.   Should never be stored together
                C.   Should be stored in containers with water
                D.   A and C
                E.   B and C

   (370) An information sheet that contains detailed information about chemical characteristics, hazards,
         emergency information, storage and handling precautions, and disposal information is called…

                A.   Material Safety Protection Sheet (MSPS)
                B.   Safe Chemical Handling Sheet (SCHS)
                C.   Chemical Protection and Safety Sheet (CPSS)




                                                                                                            62
            D. Chemical Safety Information Guide (CSIG)
            E. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS )

(371) Before handling any chemical container, you should…

            A.   Touch it
            B.   Smell it
            C.   Call an emergency hotline
            D.   Read the label
            E.   Pour some out

(372) When an acid must be mixed with water, always ___________________ to prevent a violent
      reaction.

            A.   Quickly pour the acid into the water
            B.   Slowly add the acid to water
            C.   Slowly add the water to the acid
            D.   Quickly pour the water into the acid
            E.   Pour the water and acid into an empty container at the same time

(373) All storage containers should be…

            A.   Clearly labeled with warning labels
            B.   Kept with other chemicals
            C.   Have no warning labels
            D.   Uncovered
            E.   Kept in a refrigerated container

(374) When handling acids and bases, you should…

            A.   Keep your hands away from your face
            B.   Wear gloves
            C.   Dilute them with water
            D.   A and B
            E.   A, B, and C

(375) Product labels include…

            A.   Warning labels
            B.   Storage information
            C.   Handling information
            D.   First aid information
            E.   All of the above

(376) When performing lab experiments, you should…

            A.   Read all directions carefully
            B.   Estimate measurements
            C.   Wear a mouth guard
            D.   A and B
            E.   A, B, and C




                                                                                               63
Section 19: Important Chemists
   (377) Which of the following is not part of John Dalton’s proposed four-part atomic theory?

                A.   All matter is composed of indivisible particles called atoms
                B.   All atoms of a given element are identical
                C.   Chemical reactions involve the combination of atoms, not the destruction of them
                D.   Atoms of different elements have similar properties
                E.   When elements react to form compounds, they react in defined, whole number ratios

   (378) Albert Einstein developed the Theory of Relativity which provided the foundation for which
         branch of science?

                A.   Cosmology
                B.   Biology
                C.   Physics
                D.   Alchemy
                E.   Metallurgy

   (379) Which chemist patented dynamite in 1867?

                A.   Michael Farraday
                B.   Alfred Nobel
                C.   Marie Curie
                D.   Eleuthère Irénée du Pont
                E.   Antoine Lavoisier

   (380) In Rutherford’s atomic model, the lighter, negatively charged constituents that circulate the core
         at some distance are called…

                A.   Protons
                B.   Neutrons
                C.   Electrons
                D.   Oribitals
                E.   Isotopes

   (381) Which law states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases equals the sum of the pressures of
         the gases in the mixture?

                A.   The Ideal Gas Law
                B.   Dalton’s Law
                C.   Avogadro’s Law
                D.   Boyle’s Law
                E.   Rutherford’s Theory

   (382) Which scientist was best known for his work on the Periodic Table?

                A.   John Dalton
                B.   Robert Boyle
                C.   Ernest Rutherford
                D.   J.J. Thompson
                E.   Dmitri Mendelev




                                                                                                              64
(383) Which gas law states that as the pressure exerted on a gas increases, the volume of a gas
      decreases?

             A.   Avogadro’s Law
             B.   Boyle’s Law
             C.   Charles Law
             D.   Graham’s Law
             E.   Guy-Lussac’s Law

(384) Which chemist proposed under constant temperature and pressure conditions, the relative
      molecular weights of any two gases are the same as the ratio of the densities of the gases?

             A.   Amedeo Avogadro
             B.   Robert Boyle
             C.   John Dalton
             D.   Max Planck
             E.   J.J. Thompson

(385) Which chemist theorized that electrons should exist at set levels of energy and fixed distances
      from the nucleus?

             A.   Issac Newton
             B.   Neils Bohr
             C.   Henry Cavendish
             D.   Amadeo Avogadro
             E.   John Dalton

(386) Which scientist worked to change chemistry from a qualitative to a quantative science is and
      therefore referred to as the “Father of Modern Chemistry.”

             A.   Aristotle
             B.   Ernest Rutherford
             C.   Dmitri Mendelev
             D.   Albert Einstein
             E.   Antoine Lavoisier

(387) Which chemist developed a model that described the atom as having a tiny, dense, positively
      charged core called a nucleus, with light, negative particles, called electrons, circulating around it.

             A.   Albert Einstein
             B.   Ernest Rutherford
             C.   Antione Lavoisier
             D.   Dmitri Mendelev
             E.   Marie Curie

(388) The Law of Conservation of Matter states that…

             A.   Equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal
                  numbers of molecules
             B.   While energy is easily transformed, it can neither be created nor destroyed
             C.   During an ordinary chemical change, there is no detectable increase or decrease
                  in the quantity of matter




                                                                                                                65
             D. Although matter exists throughout the universe, it generally occurs in only four states
                – solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
             E. None of the above

(389) This German chemist developed a better heat source for lab work in 1855.

             A.   Robert Boyle
             B.   John Dalton
             C.   Robert Bunsen
             D.   Alexander Von Humboldt
             A.   Eleuthère Irénée du Pont

(390) The vulcanization process made rubber…

             A.   Waterproof
             B.   Winter-proof
             C.   Fireproof
             D.   A and B
             E.   A and C

(391) Which chemist named oxygen and discovered oxygen’s role in combustion?

             A.   Antoine Lavoisier
             B.   Jacques Charles
             C.   Joseph Gay-Lussac
             D.   Amadeo Avagadro
             E.   Dimitri Mendeleev

(392) Which scientist postulated a four-part atomic theory that became the basis for most future models
      of the atom?

                  A. Neils Bohr
                  B. Joseph Priestley
                  C. Lord William Thomson Kelvin
                  D. John Dalton
                  E. J.J. Thompson

(393) Which chemist arranged the 63 know elements (at that time)in order of atomic mass?

                  A. Amadeo Avogadro
                  B. Enrico Fermi
                  C. Neils Bohr
                  D. Joseph Proust
                  E. Dimitri Mendeleev

(394) This Danish physicist won the Nobel prize in 1922 for his contribution to the study of the
      electron.

                  A. Alfred Nobel
                  B. Albert Einstein
                  C. Neils Bohr
                  D. Max Planck
                  E. Ernest Rutherford




                                                                                                          66
(395) Which chemist used his fortune to endow prizes for human ingenuity?

                  A. Charles Goodyear
                  B. Alfred Nobel
                  C. E.I. duPont
                  D. Wallace Carothers
                  E. Joseph Pulitzer

(396) Which scientist changed the view of heat as being a fluid to an understanding of the energy of
      motion of molecules?

                  A. Phillipus Aureolus Paracelsus
                  B. Evangelista Torricelli
                  C. Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
                  D. Lord William Thomson Kelvin
                  E. Sir Isaac Newton

(397) This Irish Aristocrat developed one of the gas laws that comprises the Ideal Gas Law.

                  A. J.J. Thompson
                  B. Robert Boyle
                  C. Michael Faraday
                  D. Ernest Rutherford
                  E. Neils Bohr

(398) The work of this German-born physicist, known for the equation e=mc2, gave scientists the tools
      for understanding many features of the universe.

                  A. Max Planck
                  B. Werner Heisenberg
                  C. Erwin Schrodinger
                  D. Ernest Rutherford
                  E. Albert Einstein

(399) The “molar” constant based on the number of atoms in 12 grams of Carbon-12 is named after
      which scientist?

                  A. Sir Isaac Newton
                  B. Max Planck
                  C. Amadeo Avogadro
                  D. Jacques Charles
                  E. Michael Faraday

(400) This American-born chemist developed the “vulcanization” process, by which polymers are cross-
      linked with sulfur atoms.


                  A. E.I. du Pont
                  B. Wallace Carothers
                  C. Charles Goodyear
                  D. Thomas Edison
                  E. John D. Rockefeller




                                                                                                        67
Extra questions for Section 8 (same wording as last year):

(401) This element occurs naturally as a reddish brown metal. It is the fourth most common element,
      forming about 5.6% of the earth’s crust. Addition of carbon and other alloying metals to form
      steel reduces its brittleness and increases its mechanical strength and resistance to corrosion. It is
      an essential element for many living organisms where it is a component of many proteins,
      including hemoglobin, which helps transport oxygen in the bloodstream.

                   Answer: Iron

(402) This element is found in its elemental form near hot springs and volcanoes. In ancient times it
      was known as “brimstone”. It is purified by the “Frasch Process”. It is a component of many
      insecticides and fungicides and is used to cross-link rubber polymers in the vulcanization process.
      As an essential element for life, it is responsible for the proper folding of proteins.

                   Answer: Sulfur

(403) The name of this element comes from the Greek word for pale green. Because it is so reactive, it is
      not found in its elemental free state in nature, but combines directly with nearly all other
      elements. One important use is in making water safe to drink. This element is also found in
      bleaches and some solvents.

                   Answer: Chlorine

(404) This element was first isolated from seaweed. It is a violet-black solid that easily sublimes to a
      pungent gas. It is essential for human health, and is part of the hormone “thyroxin”, which is
      produced by the thyroid gland. Deficiency of this element leads to an enlargement of the thyroid
      gland called “goiter”. The free element will turn a starch solution to a dark purple blue. It is also
      used in a topical antiseptic to protect wounds from bacteria.

                   Answer: Iodine

(405) The largest commercial use of this element is in the manufacture of ammonia by the “Haber”
      process. When liquefied this colorless and odorless gas is used to freeze foods. Bacteria in the
      roots of certain plants have the ability to “fix” this element from the air. This element is found in
      all proteins.

                   Answer: Nitrogen

(406) The name of this element comes from the Latin name for limestone. It is the 5th most common
      element making up more than 3% of the earth’s crust. It is found in mortar, plaster, cements and
      gypsum wallboard. It is an essential component of leaves, bones and seashells.

                   Answer: Calcium

(407) This element was first isolated by electrolysis of molten potash. In its elemental form, it is soft,
      silvery metal that is easily cut with a knife. Except for lithium, it is the least dense metal with a
      density of 0.86 g/cc. Its salts burn with a lilac color in the flame test. This element is an
      important component of fertilizers and is essential for nerve and heart function. Bananas are an
      excellent dietary source for this element.

                   Answer: Potassium




                                                                                                               68
     (408) This essential element for life is produced commercially by steam reforming of methane, the
           reaction of iron with sulfuric acid, or naphtha reforming over platinum catalysts. It is a colorless
           and odorless gas and is the most abundant element in the universe. It has 3 common isotopes, one
           of which is used to make “heavy water”.

                       Answer: Hydrogen

     (409) This element is a pale yellow gas. It is the most reactive of all elements, has the highest
           electronegativity and is the most powerful oxidizing agent. Compounds containing this element
           include Teflon, Halon, and some air conditioning refrigerants.

                       Answer: Fluorine

     (410) This element is the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust, where it is found naturally only in its
           oxide form. Its oxide occurs naturally as ruby, sapphire, corundum and emery, and is used in
           glass-making and refractories. Charles Hall, an American, and Frenchman Paul Heroult
           developed a commercial process to produce the metal from its ore by electrolysis. It is a light-
           weight, soft metal that is easily formed, machined or cast and is used extensively in electrical
           transmission wires. Common household uses include cans, wrapping foil, and utensils

                       Answer: Aluminum



     (411) This element, symbol Au, is used as a monetary standard in many countries. It is formed into bars
           for accounting purposes.

                  A.   Gold
                  B.   Silver
                  C.   Aluminum
                  D.   Astatine
                  E.   Lead

     (412) Which term refers to the purity of gold?

                  A.   Metallic
                  B.   Genuine
                  C.   Carat
                  D.   Luminosity
                  E.   Chaste

Questions 411 and 412 are not supported by info in the study guide, but students should probably
know this, anyway.




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