NOAA P-3 in CalNex 2010 update and draft flight plans

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					                  2010 CalNex final planning meeting
                  Sacramento, CA – Tuesday, February 9, 2010



NOAA P-3 in CalNex 2010: update and draft flight plans
   Tom Ryerson and Michael Trainer – NOAA Chemical Sciences Division
                  http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/csd/calnex/




                                                                  J. Cozic photo
               NOAA WP-3D research payload for CalNex

                                                 scientific payload
NOAA WP-3D
                                Instrument           Measurement                       Time resolution
                                O3                   ozone                                1 sec
                                CO                   carbon monoxide                       1 sec
                                                                                                            greenhouse
                                SO2                  sulfur dioxide                       3 sec
                                CO2                  carbon dioxide                       1 sec             gases, ozone,
                                CH4                  methane                              1 sec             and tracers
                                N2 O                 nitrous oxide                        1 sec

                                AWAS                 VOCs, halocarbons, alkyl nitrates 72 per flight        VOCs and products
                                PTRMS                oxy-VOCs, aromatics, acetonitrile 15 sec
3.5-ton science payload
for studies of                  NO, NO2, NOy
                                PANs, ClNO2
                                                     reactive nitrogen oxides
                                                     peroxyacyl nitrates, nitryl chloride
                                                                                            1 sec
                                                                                            1 sec
                                NO3, N2O5            nocturnal nitrogen oxides              1 sec           nitrogen species
                                HNO3                 nitric acid                             1 sec
- Emissions sources             NH3                  ammonia                                1 sec

- Chemical processing           LTI                  aerosol low turbulence inlet           1 sec
                                NMASS-WLOPC          aerosol size from 0.004 to 8 m        1 sec
     (day and night)            CCN                  cloud condensation nuclei              10 sec          aerosol sizes,
- Gas-to-particle conversion    CRD-AES
                                Laser PAS
                                                     3- aerosol extinction as f(RH)
                                                     3- aerosol absorption
                                                                                            1 sec
                                                                                            5 sec
                                                                                                            optical properties,
                                                                                                            and composition
- Aerosol composition           SP2
                                PILS
                                                     soot mass and coating state
                                                     aerosol chemical composition
                                                                                            1 sec
                                                                                            80 per flight
- Aerosol radiative effects     AMS                  aerosol chemical composition           10 sec

- Aerosol-cloud interactions    UV-VIS radiometer    spectral actinic flux                   1 sec
                                VIS-NIR radiometer   spectral irradiances                    1 sec          solar radiation,
- Transport and mixing          TDL H2O              water vapor mixing ratio               1 sec           cloud probes,
                                cloud probes         drop size and morphology               1 sec           meteorology
                                position and met.    location, T, P, winds, etc.             1 sec
Altitude - 200 m to 7 km
Duration - 8.5 hours           Measurements from the surface to the
Range - 1300 km
                               mid-troposphere throughout California
           NOAA WP-3D schedule for CalNex
         Ontario Airport, California – May 1 through June 23
         180 flight hours, primarily in California




We are working closely with FAA, ATC, and Approaches to
secure permission for unique research flight plans in congested
airspace

Examples of draft flight plans follow -
Los Angeles Basin flight track examples   NOAA P-3 flight plan drafts - M. Trainer



                                           LA daytime #1
                                           (~7 hours duration)

                                           Addresses emission and aging of LA
                                           pollution during transport West to East
                                           across basin
                                           (influence of daytime sea breeze)

                                           Repeat loop across LA and mountains
                                           twice, ca. 2.5 hours apart

                                           alternate loops to capture emissions
                                           signatures in downtown LA

                                           outer loop at end of flight to observe
                                           transport to the high desert


                                           Repeat multiple times during study
                                               contrast weekday and weekend
Los Angeles Basin flight track examples   NOAA P-3 flight plan drafts - M. Trainer



                                           LA daytime #2
                                           (~7 hours)

                                           Profiles over PM2.5 monitors (green)
                                           and AOD monitors (locations TBD)
                                           Working with Brent Holben at NASA to
                                           supplement AERONET network in LA

                                           Use aircraft observations to reconstruct
                                           AOD, provide in-situ characterization of
                                           aerosol layers aloft

                                           Tie in-situ observations to longer-term
                                           surface monitoring network

                                           Characterize effects of AOD on satellite
                                           column retrievals of NO2


                                           Repeat multiple times during study
                                               contrast weekday and weekend
Los Angeles Basin flight track examples   NOAA P-3 flight plan drafts - M. Trainer



                                           LA nighttime – part 1 of 3
                                           (~5.5 hours)

                                           Missed approaches and spiral profiles
                                           in first part of flight to determine vertical
                                           extent of pollution layers

                                           Profiles near Pt. Dume and Catalina
                                           throughout the flight to capture pollution
                                           transport offshore


           1
Los Angeles Basin flight track examples   NOAA P-3 flight plan drafts - M. Trainer



                                           LA nighttime – part 2 of 3
                                           (5.5 hours)

                                           Missed approaches and spiral profiles
                                           in first part of flight to determine vertical
                                           extent of pollution layers

                                           Profiles near Pt. Dume and Catalina
                                           throughout the flight to capture pollution
                                           transport offshore

                                           Two level flight legs over LA Basin to
           1               2               examine chemical processing and
                                           transport East to West (land breeze)
Los Angeles Basin flight track examples       NOAA P-3 flight plan drafts - M. Trainer



                                               LA nighttime – part 3 of 3
                                               (5.5 hours)

                                               Missed approaches and spiral profiles
                                               in first part of flight to determine vertical
                                               extent of pollution layers

                                               Profiles near Pt. Dume and Catalina
                                               throughout the flight to capture pollution
                                               transport offshore

                                               Two level flight legs over LA Basin to
           1               2              3    examine chemical processing and
                                               transport East to West (land breeze)

                                               Profile towards end of flight near Joshua
                                               Tree to look for pollution transport to the
                                               high desert

                                               Repeat multiple times during study
                                                     two 1-week periods of night flights
Los Angeles Basin flight track examples   NOAA P-3 flight plan drafts - M. Trainer



                                           LA nighttime – Mohave
                                           transport
                                           (~2.5 hours)

                                           Nighttime flight to observe and quantify
                                           aging during transport to high desert
Imperial Valley flight track example   NOAA P-3 flight plan drafts - M. Trainer



                                        Imperial Valley flight
                                        (~4 hours)

                                        Evaluate longer-range export from LA

                                        Survey agricultural emissions

                                        Take advantage of contrasts in land
                                        use (desert vs. agriculture) to:

                                        Quantify CO2 uptake by crops
                                        Study isolated feedlot emissions
                                        Quantify effect of cultivation on
                                          mixed-layer heights & surface albedo
Imperial Valley flight track example   NOAA P-3 flight plan drafts - M. Trainer



                                        Imperial Valley flight
                                        (~4 hours)

                                        Evaluate longer-range export from LA

                                        Survey agricultural emissions

                                        Take advantage of contrasts in land
                                        use (desert vs. agriculture) to:

                                        Quantify CO2 uptake by crops
                                        Study isolated feedlot emissions
                                        Quantify effect of cultivation on
                                          mixed-layer heights & surface albedo
Northern Sacramento Valley flight track example   NOAA P-3 flight plan drafts - M. Trainer



                                                      Northern Sacramento
                                                      Valley
                                                      (~8.5 hours)

                                                      Cloud study

                                                      Sacramento urban emissions

                                                      Processing and transport of aged
                                                      air from San Francisco and Bay
                                                      Area towards northern valley
Northern Sacramento Valley flight track example   NOAA P-3 flight plan drafts - M. Trainer



                                                      Northern Sacramento
                                                      Valley
                                                      (~8.5 hours)

                                                      Cloud study

                                                      Sacramento urban emissions

                                                      Processing and transport of aged
                                                      air from San Francisco and Bay
                                                      Area towards northern valley




Rice field emissions near Sutter Buttes

Repeat multiple times during study
  - Prior to growing season
  - After flooding and fertilization
 - Through rapid growth phase
CO2 uptake; N2O & NOx from fertilization;
CH4 from anaerobic processes

Overflights of WGC tower to connect to
longer-term GHG record
Additional flight tracks are planned


       Other flight patterns are planned for P-3 in CalNex;
           details still being worked out


         Southern San Joaquin Valley
           processing of fresh and aged air in southern valley
           transport and layering aloft
           emissions from dairy and beef cattle operations
           NO2 column enhancements over cotton fields
           overflights of Bakersfield ground site


         Informally blind comparisons
            DOE G1, CIRPAS Twin Otter, NOAA Twin Otter, etc.


       Analysis of P-3 data will benefit from context of other data sets
           lidars (airborne and surface) ozonesonde network, radar profilers
           NOAA P-3 in CalNex 2010: update and draft flight plans
            data to be posted at www.esrl.noaa.gov/csd/tropchem/2010calnex/P3/DataDownload/

           42

                                                                      The NOAA WP-3D will be visiting
                                            P-3
                                                                      most corners of California during CalNex
           40                    G1                                   Upwind and downwind of source areas

                                                                      Processing of fresh and aged emissions
           38
                                                                      Daytime and nighttime contrasts
Latitude




                                                                      Capturing emissions, chemistry,
                                           B200                       and transport features as f(x,y,z,t)
           36



                                               Otters                 We hope not to be spread too thinly
           34
                                                                      Collaboration with CalNex partners
                                                                      will be key to accomplishing these tasks


                -124     -122     -120      -118        -116   -114

                                   Longitude

				
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