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					The Bologna Process – Towards the
  European Higher Education Area

          Pierre de Maret
         EUA Board Member
 Former Rector of Brussels University

         Melbourne, 15 November2007
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A borderless, interconnected, interdependent world.
We can now jump daily from the local to the global.

It is for this type of world that we should be
             educating our students

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a la

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           …the city

…its University
The oldest University of the world - 1088
A Millennium later,

Europe had a tremendous diversity of
 national higher education systems

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                          Bologna is also

   …a Process
  for the creation of a European Higher
Education Area (EHEA)

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             Why a European HE system
       Complicated study structures
   difficult to understand and operationalise

           Rigid study structures,
little flexibility, limited scope for reorientations

 Obstacles for international exchange,
               restricted mobility

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                         Bologna Process

Overarching Goals:
1. To facilitate the mobility of students, researchers and graduates within
2. To increase the international attractiveness of the European system of
   Higher Education..

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1998   Sorbonne, Paris: 4 European Education Ministers launch the
       process for a European Higher Education Area
1999   BOLOGNA 29 countries sign the Bologna Declaration
       – the Universities support the process
2001   PRAGUE 33 countries                          Goal: 2010

2003   BERLIN 40 countries

2005   Bergen 45 countries

2007   London 46 countries

2009   Leuven

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           Bologna, an evolving process

In 46 countries,

    the same structures

     … with sufficient flexibility for
for cultural differences and specific demands
                                       Key characteristics
 Successful movement for reform across 46 countries, in a
  relatively short period – over 74% of HEIs now say that they
  consider the EHEA necessary & desirable
 A vast reform agenda to enhance the quality of European HE –
  a shared responsibility between governments, HEIs, staff &
 A voluntary process with no legal obligations & a tiny
 Flexibility and partnership as principles: with a joint
  responsibility of all partners for successful implementation
 Growing interest from the rest of the world in the Bologna

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                   The same structure
                                            to Moscow
from Reykjavik

       Diplomas which are recognised all over Europe

From Lisbon                                   to Nicosia
European Higher Education Area (EHEA)
                               46 Countries (signatories of
                               European Cultural
                               Convention of 1957)
                               800 Mill. Inhabitants

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Recognition of diploma
Mobility of students and faculty
Employability all over Europe
Enhanced study structures
Attractiveness of the European Higher Education

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                 10 Bologna Actionlines
Bologna Declaration of 1999:
1. Adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees
2. Adoption of a system essentially based on two cycles
3. Establishment of a system of credits
4. Promotion of mobility
5. Promotion of European co-operation in quality assurance
6. Promotion of the European dimension in higher education
Prague Ministerial summit of 2001:
7. Focus on lifelong learning
8. Inclusion of higher education institutions and students
9. Promotion of the attractiveness of the European Higher Education Area
Berlin Ministerial summit of 2003:
10. Doctoral studies and the synergy between the European Higher Education Area
    and the European Research Area
Bergen Ministerial summit of 2005 : autonomous universities
London Ministerial summit of 2007: European Register of Quality Assurance
                                       Agencies EHEA in a global setting
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         Toward a European higher education area:

   3 years Bachelor + 2 years Master+ Doctorate
   European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)
   Diploma Supplement
   Quality assurance
   The Global Dimension of European Higher
    Education Area

              Our common model with Bologna
          is a model of cooperation and solidarity

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                       Three cycle system
 Pre-Bologna: a huge variety of national degrees
    Long first degree – 5 years
    Diplom, Candidature, Magister, License etc.
 Now: 3 compatible cycles
 Enormous progress since 1999: 82% of HEIs have the 3 cycles in
  place (fast increase: 2003 only to 53%)

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                     Recognition: European Credit System

 Pre-Bologna: few countries have national credit systems
 European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)
 Developed in 1980’s by European Commission
 Adopted by the Bologna Process
    60 credits per year – 1500-1800 workload hours
    1 credit 25-30 working hours

 Beginning: Transfer Credits for exchange of students
 Student workload-based
 Now: Transfer- and Accumulation
 Increasingly learning outcome oriented – Bologna
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                       Diploma Supplement
 Bologna Declaration: “a system of easily readable and
  comparable degrees”
 Diploma supplement produced by national institutions
  on the basis of a template developed by EC, Council of
  Europe, UNESCO
 Eight sections – among them
    information identifying the qualification
    information on the level of the qualification
    information on the contents and results gained,
    information on the function of the qualification,
    information on the national higher education system
 Issued in a widely spoken European language
 Benefits graduates, higher education institutions and
 Implemented by almost 50% of the – Bologna
                                 EUA universities (2006)   22
                  The European QA Agency Register
 Web-based: easily accessible for international
 Will be the responsibility of the stakeholders: HEIs,
  students, QA agencies and social partners.
 Central involvement of stakeholder organisations:
  European Colleges (EURASHE), European Student
  Union (ESU)
 Legitimacy to QA agencies beyond national level.
 Possibility of selecting a QA agency that uses methods
  most suited to their specific goals/institutional
  strategies and missions.         EUA – Bologna           23
 Making student centred learning a reality
   Using the different Bologna transparency instruments & tools
    properly: ECTS, DS
   Focus on learning outcomes
   At national level – developing qualifications frameworks
   Progression from one cycle to another

 Continued focus on quality – also in response to
  growing demands for transparency, growth in
  rankings etc..
 Engaging with society
 Removing obstacles to mobility
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                    The Global Dimension of Bologna (1)

   Bologna Declaration (1999): “objective of increasing the
    international competitiveness of the European system of higher

   Attract students and scholars from outside Europe.

   International partnership and cooperation.

   London 2007: European Ministers adopt Strategy for the European
    Higher Education Area in a Global Setting, comprising information,
    promotion, cooperation based on partnership, HE policy dialogue,
    and recognition.

   Strategy requires action at institutional, national & European level.

   Universities: continue to develop strategies and structures to
    enhance their international profiles. EUA – Bologna                  25
                       The Global Dimension of Bologna (2)

 growing interest across the globe
 demand for policy dialogue & enhanced cooperation
    How does the 3 cycle degree structure articulate with other regions
    What about ECTS and the Diploma Supplement
    Interest in the European Register of QA agencies
    What about joint degrees?
 Responses from around the globe include
    Francophone Africa and the MEDA countries of the southern
     Mediterranean are adopting Bologna Reforms
    Latin America considers the Process as model for regional integration
    Increasingly positive attitude in the US
    Developing dialogue with Asia, Australia and New Zealand

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 Raising the profile of European HE
 Giving European HEIs experience in implementing reforms
  & increasing their flexibility
 Many of the distinctive features are contributing to
  raising the attractiveness of European HEIs
 A catalyst for new thinking
 A renewed base for cooperation with other regions based
  on partnership and solidarity

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                             References for further information

o EUA website:
o EUA publications (Bologna Brochure, Trends reports etc.)
o Bologna Handbook
o ENQA – European Standards and Guidelines for QA:
o European Student Union
o EURASHE – European Colleges
o European Commission - DG Education
o Bologna-Bergen website
o Bologna Benelux website
o Universities UK Europe Unit

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