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					The Story of New Netherland
        1609-1664




          CS 150
  New York State Social Studies
  Standards
• STANDARD I – HISTORY OF THE
  UNITED STATES AND NEW YORK:
  Students will use a variety of intellectual
  skills to demonstrate their understanding of
  major ideas, eras, themes, developments,
  and turning points in the history of the
  United States and New York.
  NYC ELA Performance
  Standards
• E1c. Read and comprehend informational
  materials.
• E2a. Produce a report of information.
• E2b. Produce a response to literature.
• E5a. Respond to non-fiction, fiction, poetry,
  and drama using interpretive and critical
  processes.
  Performance Objectives
• Students will understand the development
  and historical impact of New Netherland on
  the history of New York and the United
  States.
• Students will complete one of four projects
  based on the information provided in the
  presentation, as well as information
  researched in textbooks, trade books,
  reference materials and the Internet.
           Beginnings of the Colony
                (1492-1609)
• Since the 1400s, European
  explorers have searched for
  a westward passage to
  Asia.
• Columbus, Cartier,
  Vespucci and Verrazzano
  all tried…and failed.
• In 1609, Henry Hudson
  was hired by the Dutch
  West India Company to find
  a “Northwest Passage”
  through North America to
  Asia.
       The Establishment of New
       Netherland
• Hudson did not find the
  Northwest Passage,
  but he did claim the
  land around New York
  harbor for the
  Netherlands.
• The Dutch West India
  Company saw this
  land as an opportunity
  to establish a trading
  post for beaver skins in
  North America.
       Establishment, cont.




• In 1614, the first group of colonists settle near
  present-day Albany, at Fort Orange.
• Problems at the colony forced the Dutch to
  abandon Fort Orange in 1624, for a new capital
  down the river – New Amsterdam. The entire
  colony was called New Netherland.
• In 1626, Peter Minuit,
director-general of New
Netherland, made an
agreement with the Lenni-
Lenape, guaranteeing Dutch
use of all of Manhattan Island
in exchange for various gems
and items.
• The picture on the left is the
letter Minuit’s secretary wrote
to his superiors in the
Netherlands. Called the
Schaghen Letter, it is the
only evidence we have of the
―sale‖ of Manhattan island.
Who were the Dutch?
            • The Dutch came from The
            Netherlands, a seagoing nation
            in Northern Europe.
            • Dutch power reached its
            height in the 1600s, when they
            established trading colonies in
            Asia, Africa, Brazil, the
            Caribbean and North America.
            • New Netherland would be the
            North American arm of an
            empire that traded in spices,
            sugar, coffee, furs and African
            slaves.
            • The Dutch were known as a
            hard-working, orderly people
            who tolerated diversity.
          What did New Netherland look
          like?
• New Netherland stretched up the
  Hudson River to present-day
  Albany and into New Jersey,
  Connecticut and Delaware.
• The capital city was New
  Amsterdam, but other
  settlements included Haarlem,
  Brueckelen, and Vlissingen.
• Outside the towns, land was
  divided into huge farming estates
  called patroons.
• The largest patroons include
  Rensselaerwyck, and the estate
  of Jonas Bronck (the Bronck’s).
       What was the government in
       New Netherland?
• New Netherland was a
  corporate colony of the
  Dutch West India
  Company.
• Directors-General
  governed the colony on
  behalf of the company.
• They were responsible for
  keeping order, maintaining
  trade, and dealing with
  Native American tribes.
• Colonists complained often,
  both to the Company and to
  the Dutch government.
Directors-General of New
Netherland
  Peter Minuit      Willem Kieft
  1626 -1632        1638 - 1647




  Wouter van        Pieter Stuyvesant
  Twiller           1647-1664
  1633 -1638
       Who came to New Netherland?
• The West India Company
  had a hard time recruiting
  Dutch settlers to New
  Netherland because of
  better opportunities
  elsewhere.
• In response, the
  company allowed anyone
  willing to work to settle in
  the colony.
• Promises of land and
  riches drove the new
  settlers to the colony.
         Who came to New Netherland?
         Cont.
• By 1664, the Dutch made up
  only 50% of the population of
  New Netherland. The rest
  included English, French,
  Italian, German, Spanish,
  Portuguese, Polish and
  African.
• Christians of all denominations,
  as well as Jews and atheists
  thrived in the colony.
• The first Jews arrived in 1654
  and were allowed to stay—
  against the Director-General’s
  wishes.
“…this colony will soon become a babble
of confusion. We have here Papists,
Mennonites and Lutherans among the
Dutch, also many Puritans or
Independents and many atheists and
various other servants of evil…it would
create still greater confusion, if the
obstinate and immovable Jews came to
settle here…so wild a country, with so
many loose people…”

             -- Pieter Stuyvesant, about 1654
         How did colonists make a
         living?
• The primary business of the
  colony was beaver skins. Skins
  were obtained by trading with
  Native Americans at Fort Orange.
• These skins would then be
  shipped to New Amsterdam,
  where large ships would transport
  them for sale in Europe.
• Beside furs, many colonists
  worked in various trades in the
  city, such as blacksmiths, barrel
  makers, etc.
• Farms were found in small plots in
  the city, as well as large rented
  farms in the patroons.
         What was life like for a
         colonist?
• New Netherland was a
  society divided into social
  classes: The rich
  merchants and landowners,
  the tradesmen, the farmers,
  workers, and slaves.
• Even for the very rich, life in
  the colony was a hard
  existence. In the city, people
  lived in cramped houses like
  in the Netherlands.
• Lack of services made it
  impossible to keep as clean
  as in Europe.
       Colonial Life, Cont.
• Clothes, tools and other
  equipment were made
  by hand. There was no
  running water,
  electricity, or health
  system.
• Most Dutch colonists
  made items like those
  found in their home
  country, such as Dutch
  doors, windmills and
  Delft tiles.
         Life Outside New Amsterdam




• For families living in the country, life was even more
  difficult.
• Besides the normal problems of 17th century farm life,
  rural farmers had to deal with the constant threat of
  native attacks, making relationships with Native
  Americans that much more important.
Case Study: Schools in New
Amsterdam
           • The first school was
             established in 1638 by
             Adam Roelantsen. It
             exists today as the
             Collegiate School.
           • By the 1650’s, schools
             could be found as far as
             present-day Albany.
           • There were both private
             schools and schools
             supported by the West
             India Company.
Report of the Board of Accounts in New
Netherland. 1644

Estimate of the Expenses which the [West
India] Company would have to bear in New
Netherland for the following persons, to be
rationed at their own expense :

1 director, whose monthly salary should be fl.
250 to board himself, is yearly
…………………………….…fl. 3,000
1 clergyman, a fl. 120 per month
……................………1,440
1 schoolmaster, precentor and sexton, a fl.
30................…360
Pictures of Colonial Life
     How did the Dutch get along
     with Native Americans?




• At first, the Dutch tried to maintain good
  relations, because of the need for beaver skins.
• As more settlers moved in, the colonists took
  more advantage of Native tribes to gain more
  land.
        Native Americans, cont.
• Colonists often tricked
  tribes into warring with
  each other, as well as
  spread diseases such
  as smallpox.
• Relations between the
  two groups worsened in
  1643, when Willem Kieft
  attempted to tax
  Lenape tribes in
  Manhattan, causing a
  brutal year-long war
  known as “Kieft’s
  War.”
“I value the blood of one
Christian more than that of a
hundred Indians.”
                -- Pieter Stuyvesant
         What was slavery like in New
         Netherland?
• The first African slaves arrived
  from Angola in 1626.
• The Dutch had established a
  rich trade in slaves by the
  1600s.
• Slaves were used in
  construction, building roads,
  as dockhands, on farms and
  patroons, and as household
  servants.
• Slaves were considered
  property; they could not move
  around or go where they
  pleased.
        What was slavery like in New
        Netherland? continued
• In New Amsterdam, slaves
  were often ―rented‖ out to
  colonists in exchange for a
  fee, of which the enslaved
  person received a small
  amount. Some Africans
  bought their freedom this way.
• The Dutch offered slaves
  “half freedom.” Africans
  could work small farms
  outside of New Amsterdam,
  but paid fees to their master
  and were forced to defend the
  colony in time of war.
         What was slavery like in New
         Netherland? continued




• Even freed Africans had restrictions. Africans could not
  be out late at night. They were not allowed in the city
  after a certain hour, and they had to live in certain areas.
• Recently, archaeologists have uncovered an African
  burial ground in Manhattan, proof that colonial society
  forced Africans to even bury their dead in a separate
  location from whites.
This is the inside of a
typical slave ship. Notice
how they are packed
together.
This painting
depicts a
slave auction
in New
Amsterdam
in 1643.
                          The Heer Straet, or          The wall of
                          Bredeweg—today’s                New
    Fort                                              Amsterdam,
                             Broadway—
 Amsterdam,                                          constructed by
                            maintained by
improved and                                            enslaved
                          enslaved Africans.
maintained by                                           Africans.
  enslaved
  Africans.
                                        The canal—now
                                        Broad Street—
                                       probably dredged
                                          by enslaved
                                           Africans.

                                            Households that may
                The dock, built by          have used enslaved
                enslaved Africans.          Africans as servants
                    They also                 and farmhands.
                unloaded much of
                    the cargo.
         The End of New Netherland
• By 1664, the English King
  Charles II decided to offer New
  Netherland to his brother James,
  Duke of York.
• On August 27, An English fleet
  sails into New Amsterdam, forcing
  the Dutch to surrender.
• The colonists give up the colony
  almost immediately—against the
  Director-General’s wishes.
• The English give New Netherland
  and New Amsterdam a new name
  – New York.
• The next day, trade resumed as
  usual.
Why did New Netherland fail?
           • The fur trade was not the
             money-making business the
             Dutch hoped.
           • The Dutch could never attract
             enough colonists to settle in
             North America due to better
             opportunities elsewhere in
             their empire.
           • The English were growing
             more powerful in the northern
             and southern coasts of North
             America, and they saw the
             Dutch as the last piece to
             owning the entire coastline.
     Why did New Netherland fail?
• The colonists were fed up
  with company government.
  Company policies often
  made free trade and
  business difficult.
• The Company and the
  Dutch government never
  tried hard enough to
  develop the colony,
  preferring to make money in
  the rest of their empire in
  Asia, Brazil and the
  Caribbean.
What was the legacy of the
         Dutch?
Dutch Place Names in New
York
                 •   Gin         •   Sketch
                 •   Howitzer    •   Sloop
                 •   Hoist       •   Smelt
•   Beaker       •   Holster     •   Smuggler   Some
•                •               •
•
    Blink
    Bluff        •
                     Landscape
                     Leak        •
                                     Snack
                                     Split      English
•
•
    Booze
    Boss
                 •
                 •
                     Loafer
                     Loiter
                                 •
                                 •
                                     Stove
                                     Tickle
                                                words
•
•
    Cookie
    Coleslaw
                 •
                 •
                     Mannequin
                     Measles
                                 •
                                 •
                                     Trek
                                     Trigger
                                                derived
•   Cruise       •
                 •
                     Pickle      •
                                 •
                                     Tulip      from
•   Dam              Plug            Waffle
•   Deck         •   Pump        •   Wagon      Dutch
•   Dock         •   Roster      •   Wiggle
•   Easel        •   Schooner    •   Yacht
•   Freight      •   Shoal
•   Filibuster   •   Skate
Objects brought by Dutch
colonists
Holiday and Sports Icons
New York – A center of international
business and finance
New York – A center of diversity. Different
peoples of the world living and working
together.
“If what made America great was
its ingenious openness to different
cultures, then the small triangle of
land at the southern tip of
Manhattan island is the New World
birthplace of that idea…Manhattan
is where America began.”
                    --Russell Shorto
 The Island at the Center of the World
                               (2004)
  Questions/Comments
• How did you like the presentation?
• What did you learn?
• Do you have any thoughts or
  questions to discuss further?
• Would you like more information about
  New Netherland and the Dutch
  colonial experience?
  Assignment – Projects
• Create an advertisement/brochure to
  persuade possible colonists to settle in New
  Netherland.
• Write a journal entry as a
  colonist/native/slave/religious minority in
  New Netherland.
• Create dioramas depicting scenes from the
  history of New Netherland.
• Write a report on a significant person in the
  history of New Netherland (Minuit, Kieft,
  Stuyvesant, etc.)

				
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