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INTRODUCTION Seameo Qitep In Science

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INTRODUCTION Seameo Qitep In Science Powered By Docstoc
					CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


A.    Rationale

            At the end of this 20th century, an advance in science and technology is
      very impressive indeed. Many things that are used to only dream can come true
      now. Lot of benefits and conveniences are enjoyed by people with this progress.
      But there are also some findings of scientists who now began to worry about
      society and the general debate of the pros and cons. The contradiction between the
      progress of science and technology with ethics or moral beliefs are always people
      there. History records how hard rejecting reaction of the religious circles of
      contraceptive technology, transplants, invitro fertilization, and the discovery lately
      about cloning and cryo-preservation technologies (cryogenic preservation or
      using liquid nitrogen) where the embryo / fetus can be preserved up to 300,000
      years old and turn it back. Now it is often discussed the critique of Science that
      "what can be done will be done by Science". There is a criticism to science and
      technology and it is very dangerous. Development of science and technology
      should be limited to the religious norms of ethics and morals.
            With the rapid developments in the field of Science, ethics is applied ethics
      (applied ethics) have got a lot of attention, such as medical ethics, business ethics
      and environmental ethics. Especially in this area that we are dealing with ethical
      issues that need to be addressed and solutions sought a wider range of ethical
      issues related to life has been found in the forms of "biomedical ethics" and
      "bioethics". This paper will elaborate specifically about bioethics that supports
      sustainability of life on earth.




Bioethics                                                                                 1
B.     Competences

       The competences of this content are to describe self internalization and to
       implement bioethics in school and daily life.


C.     Objectives

            After studying the contents of this paper, it is expected the lecturer can:
      1.    Explain understanding bioethics.
      2.    Explain the relationship and governance procedures dependence relation
            between humans and the 5 elements of the ecosystem (plants, animals,
            water, air, and soil).
      3.    Identify the elements of bioethics that support sustainability of life on earth.
      4.    Understand and can apply environmental ethics in daily life.


D.     Descriptions of Content

            This paper discusses about the understanding of bioethics, relationships and
      governance procedures, dependence relation between man and the 5 elements of
      the ecosystem (plants, animals, water, air, and soil), which are the bioethics
      elements that support the sustainability of life on earth and ethics on Sustainable
      Development and Environment Concept.


A.

     sesuai dengan Standar Isi dan Standar Proses. Contoh alur kegiatan mempelajari
     modul di KKG adalah sebagai berikut:




BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                          2
CHAPTER II
WHY DO WE NEED
THE ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS?

      It is undeniable that many cases of the environment today, both at globally,
nationally, regionally, and locally. In fact, human behavior irresponsible, do not care,
and selfish. Thus, environmental problems are not only technical issues, but also moral
issues and issues of human behavior, because those needs ethics and morality to
overcome. According to Arne Naess (1993) in Keraf (2002), the environmental crisis
can only be solved by changing the way people look and behavior of the fundamental
nature and the radical. What we need is a pattern / new lifestyle that is not only about
individuals, but culture of society as a whole. It is necessary to keep in environmental
ethics that will guide us in interacting with nature.
      Environmental degradation occurs because the fundamental error-philosophical
way of looking at human beings about him, nature, and man's place in the overall
ecosystem. Ethical anthropocentrism saw man as the center of the universe, and only
human beings have values, while the nature and everything in it are merely tools for the
interests and needs satisfaction of human life. This perspective leads to human
exploitative behavior toward nature.
      There are three fundamental errors of the anthropocentrism perspective. First,
human being conceived as a social creature's existence and identity is determined by the
social community. Second, ethics (norms and moral values) is only applies to human
social community. Ethics does not apply to otherside of human beings. Third, error
anthropocentrism outlook was reinforced by the paradigm of modern science with the
main character-reducsionist mechanistic. In this paradigm there is a strict separation
between natural objects and human science as a subject. Science is considered to be
autonomous, so that the entire development of science is directed only for the sake of




BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                     3
science. Thus the assessment of the merits of science and technology and all the impact
in terms of moral or religious judgments are not considered to be relevant. All of these
gave birth to the attitudes and behaviors of manipulative and exploitative nature, which
in turn they gave birth to various environmental problems.
     Anthropocentrism outlook is sharply criticized today by way of biocentrism or
eco-centrism. For human eco-centrism viewed not only as social beings, but rather
understood as ecological beings. Humans can only survive and thrive as a full human
being and not merely in the social community but also in the ecological community,
which are also creatures whose life depends on and are closely related to all other life in
the universe. Without nature, no other living human beings can survive because humans
are only one component of nature. Like all other living, human beings have equal status
in the web of life. So people are not parted or separate from nature, but they are part of
nature and all its contents. Thus, ethics is no longer limited by only humans, but also
are applied to all living creatures. Ecologically all life on earth has the same moral
status, it should be respected and protected their rights equally.
     As mentioned before, an eco-centrism revitalized outlook and behavior of
indigenous/traditional in interacting with nature. If we examine further the behavior of
indigenous peoples to the environment, we will realize how they do wisely care for
environment. For example, indigenous leader community members to prohibits hunting
and cutting down trees in the forest because it is taboos, It is not justifiable to kill
animals that are pregnant or still breast-feeding her child, taking the fish or hunt, etc. in
a particular season. Actually it is the form of conservation for sustainable use of the
environment.
     To overcome the ecological crisis, there has to be a paradigm change in science
that is no longer to be reductionist mechanistic. It has to be holistic and ecological. In a
holistic perspective, there is no longer a strict separation between object and subject
knowledge. Science and technology and all developments and their impact cannot be
judged morally too, including how the impact on the environment.
     Deep Ecology realizes that this new ethic cannot be realized by modern humans
who used to think and behave anthropocentric. It is necessary to realize the synergy
shared commitment to a shared global movement by involving all community groups to
get together to build a new culture, a new ethic and a new lifestyle. By building such a




BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                          4
movement together, the new culture can be started, maintained, taught and passed from
one person to another, from one group to another, and from one generation to another.


A.   Theory Of Ethics

           Ethics etymologically are derived from the Greek ethos, meaning "custom"
     or "habit". This means that the ethics is associated with the customs and
     procedures of the good life on someone or society. Good habits of living are
     standardized in the form of rules, regulations, or norms that contains the values
     and moral principles that must be held in guiding the behavior. In general, this
     value system has been taught and passed down from generation to generation.
     Morality comes from the Latin word “mos”, meaning "custom" or "habit". So in a
     literal sense, ethics and morality equally mean standardized customs in the form
     of rules about how people should live as a human right.
           Ethics is also understood in a different sense of morality, so has the sense
     that is much broader. In this second sense of ethics, it is understood as critical
     reflection on how people should live and act in a concrete situation, certain special
     situations. This critical reflection consists of three things. The first, critical
     reflection about the norms and values given by the ethics and morality in the first
     sense. The second, critical reflection about the special situation that we face with
     all the uniqueness and complexity. The third, critical reflection on ideologies held
     by people or groups of people about anything, for example the notion of man,
     God, nature, society and political system, economic system, etc. These three
     things must be reviewed and considered to be critical to arrive at a decision which
     of the norms and values that must be selected. Based on critical reflection, we
     must believe that what we decide and do in specific situations is true, and
     according to our moral convictions of all persons in the same situation would do
     the same thing as we regard the three critical reflection that there are three
     theories of ethics, which are deontology ethics, teleology ethics, and virtue ethics.
     1.    Deontology ethics
                 The term deontology comes from the Greek danger Deon meaning
           obligation, and logos, meaning knowledge. According to this ethic of an
           action is judged good or bad based on whether it is appropriate or not by



BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                        5
         obligation. In other words, an action considered is to be good because it is
         good for himself, so be an obligation that must be done. Instead of an action
         considered bad because it is morally bad, so do not become an obligation for
         us to do. For example, being fair is a good action is morally and it is our
         duty to do so. While cheating others is a bad action that must be avoided.
         In deontology ethical consequences of an action is never taken into account
         to determine the quality of an action. Therefore, it is opened opportunities
         for subjectivity and rationalization that will cause us to reject moral
         obligations. On that basis, the ethical deontology stresses motivation,
         goodwill, and strong character to act according to duty.
    2.   Ethics teleology
               Teleology term comes from the Greek telos meaning goal and logos,
         which means the science or theory. Ethics teleology assesses the pros and
         cons of an action based on the purpose or effect of such action. So the action
         is judged to be good because of well-intentioned and bring a good result.
         Teleology ethics are situational and subjective, we can act differently in the
         other condition depends on our assessment of the consequences of such
         action.
               Ethics teleology is classified into two ethical egoism and
         utilitarianism. Ethical egoism judges certain actions as well as be good for
         her selfish actions. Although this is considered to be morally justified just
         because everyone pursues happiness for himself.
               Utilitarianism assesses the pros and cons of an action based on the
         consequences for many people. Ethics was firstly developed by Jeremy
         Bentham (1748-1832). According to Bentham, the basis of objective criteria
         that can be used to assess a policy there are as follows:
         a.    Benefits, policies or actions will bring benefits both given.
         b.    Greatest benefit, policy or action to bring greater benefit or greater
               than the policy or other alternative measures.
         c.    The greatest benefit as many people, the more people who enjoy the
               good result of a policy the better policy or action.




BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                     6
               So the principle of utilitarianism ethics adhered to act in such a way as
         to actions that bring the greatest possible benefit to as many people as
         possible. This ethic has 3 advantages namely, rational (based on the
         assessment and rational moral considerations), to appreciate the freedom of
         every individual in determining the moral attitude in making decisions /
         actions, as well as more major importance many people. The third advantage
         is the utilitarian ethic causes consciously or not widely used to determine a
         variety of public policy.
               Despite this utilitarian ethics is seen to have weaknesses, too, and
         criticism is often raised some points as follows:
         a.    Utilitarian ethics to justify injustice, meaning although a small
               proportion of people who harmed their rights, that policy remains true
               only because it brings benefits to more people. This is clearly not fair.
         b.    Benefit is a broad concept that in fact creates difficulties. Often the
               benefit is only seen from the point of the material. Non-material
               benefits such as reputation, health, beauty, rights, and the like are
               often not taken into account.
         c.    Several variables are sometimes difficult to quantify, thus they arenot
               easy to determine where the greatest benefits compared to others.
         d.    Benefits are often seen in the short term, but in assessing the
               consequences of an action we should see it in the long term.
         e.    Utilitarianism does not take seriously the value of a norm or obligation
               but only for the consequences. These weaknesses are really
               recognized by the adherents of utilitarian ethics. Solutions dealing
               with the ethics of utilitarianism are divided into two levels of rule
               utilitarianism and act utilitarianism. With this distinction it is in
               applying a policy should be seen first whether the policy was in line
               with the rules or norms that have moral or not. If it isnot in line with
               prevailing norms in society, policies must be rejected even though it
               brings huge benefits. Furthermore, a policy needs to be taken into
               account in the long run and due to the non-material damages,
               including mental and moral as well as environmental destruction. If




BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                      7
                the policy has to be taken because no other alternatives are better,
                there must be a personal approach to the injured party to deliver their
                aspirations so that they can find a way out better.
     3.   Virtue ethics
                Virtue ethics is not based on moral judgments and liabilities to the
          universal moral law, and does not question the result of an action. This ethic
          is preferenced moral character development of everyone. Moral values
          rather than appear in the form of rules, restrictions, or command, but in the
          form of real moral example by certain figures in the community. People
          know and learn the values and moral virtues such as loyalty, trust, honesty,
          willingness to sacrifice for others, compassion, generosity, and so on.
                Personal moral is the one who managed to develop a disposition,
          attitudes, and moral trends through good habits so that the behavior and
          actions are always immoral. He's not just people who do something fair, but
          fair man who throughout his life. He is not just someone who did something
          good, instead of a good person.


B.   Environmental Ethics

          Environmental ethics is a discipline that speaks about moral norms and rules
     that govern human behavior in dealing with nature. In the process known, there
     are several theories of environmental ethics, namely Shallow Environmental
     Ethics (anthropo-centrism), Intermediate Environmental Ethics (Bio-centrism),
     and Deep Environmental Ethics (Eco-centrism).
     1.   Anthropocentrism
               This theory sees man as the center of the universe system. Human and
          interests are considered to be the most decisive in the structure of
          ecosystems and in every policy taken. The pattern of human relationships
          and nature are seen only in relation instrumental, natural means considered
          as a tool/instrument for the benefit of mankind. Even if humans have a
          caring attitude toward nature, it was done solely to ensure the needs of
          human life, not because of considerations that nature has intrinsic value that
          deserves to be protected. Anthropocentrism view is selfish, because only



BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                     8
         human interests. Because it has characteristics instrumentalist and selfish,
         this theory is considered as an environmental ethic is shallow and narrows
         (shallow environmental ethics).
               Anthropocentric perspective is accused to be the main cause of today's
         environmental crisis. Because of this way of exploiting human beings and
         nature resources drains to meet the interests of his life without regard to
         conservation of nature.
    2.   Biocentrism
               This theory considers every life and living things which have value
         and worth to themself. Because it applies the principle that every life on this
         earth has the same moral values that should be protected and saved. Thus,
         ethics is applicable to the whole community biotic, including human
         communities and communities of other living creatures. This theory has two
         main pillars of environmental theory centered on the life (life-centered
         theory of environment/biocentrism) and the ethics of the earth (the land
         ethic).
         a.    Environment-Centered Theory of Life
                        The essence of this theory is the human being that has a moral
               obligation to nature. This obligation is based on the consideration that
               life is something valueable. A well known expert of this is
               biocentrism Nobel winner Albert Schweitzer in 1952. The core
               environment theory of Albert Schweitzer is deeply respectful of life.
               So according to this theory, people are truly virtuous. They submit to
               the urge to help life when they were able to help and to avoid any
               risks of life.
                        According to Paul Taylor, biocentrism conviction is based on
               the following 4 believes:
                   1)   Human beings are the members of the community of life on
                        earth just like any other living creature.
                   2)   Human beings with other living creatures are part of an
                        interdependent system such that the survivals of all beings
                        depend on each other.




BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                     9
              3)    All organisms are centers that have the purpose of life itself.
              4)    Humans are not superior to other living creatures.
                    To understand biocentrism according to Taylor, we need to
              make a distinction between the moral actors (moral agents) and the
              subject of moral (moral subjects). Moral principals are creatures who
              have the ability to act morally, so has the obligation and
              responsibility. Those ability are reason, liberty, and the will. Moral
              principals can be understood what is good and morally bad. Based on
              these capabilities only humans can be said of moral principals. Moral
              subject is a creature that can be treated good or bad, and the actors
              have a moral obligation and moral responsibility to it. According to
              the moral subject is Biocentrism all living organisms. Abiotic objects
              such as land, water and air is not a moral subject, but we still treat it
              well and ethically because of the existence of abiotic elements that
              determines the life of the moral subject and object. All moral
              principals are moral subjects, but not the entire moral subjects are the
              moral principals.
                    For Taylor, the primary duty of man as a moral principal of
              nature is to appreciate and respect nature. Respect for nature is
              embodied in the obligations of: 1) Not doing anything harmful nature
              and all its contents. 2) Not to interfere with (manipulate, control,
              modify, or manage) the natural ecosystem. In this case there are two
              obligations that must be done. The first obligation is not to restrict and
              impede the freedom of the organism to grow and live freely in nature
              in accordance with its nature. For example, by way of caged, tied no
              available water or food, sprayed with chemicals, or genetically
              engineered. 3) Loyalty, like the promise of wild animals to not be
              fooled, tricked or snared. 4) Liabilities restitutive, the obligation to
              restore the natural man who had destroyed the original condition.
         b.   Earth Ethics
                    This theory was advanced by Aldo Leopold. The core of the
              ethics of earth consists of two principles. The first principle reads: A




BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                     10
               person is good if he maintains and protects the integrity, stability, and
               beauty biotic community; and he is not good if he does otherwise. In
               this way the earth is no longer just seen as a tool and object of human
               interest, but the same subject as moral human beings to be cherished.
               The second principle related to the idea of extending implementation
               of ethics to cover the earth. So, the moral community is not only
               limited to the human community, but also biotic community included
               entirely. Earth ethics primarily to arouse human’s respect for other
               living creatures as fellow members of the community biotic.
    3.   Eco-centrism
               Eco-centrism perspective focuses on the ethics of the entire ecological
         community, whether living or not. Living things and abiotic elements is
         depending on each other. Therefore a moral obligation is not only limited to
         living things but also on abiotic factors.
               One version of the theory is eco-centrism environmental or ethical
         theory known as Deep Ecology (DE). The term was coined by Arne Naess
         in 1973 in his article entitled "The Shallow and the Deep, Long Range
         Ecological Movement: A Summary. Moral principles developed by DE
         regarding the interests of the whole community effort to overcome the
         ecological and environmental issues environment. Ethics is designed as a
         practical ethics and as a movement. This means that the moral principles of
         environmental ethics must be translated into concrete action. DE more
         accurately described as a movement among people who have attitudes and
         beliefs similar to support a lifestyle in harmony with nature, and are both
         fighting for environmental issues and politics.
               Discussion of the DE will be divided into three main topics, namely
         DE platform action, the principles of DE environmental movement, and how
         to address DE environmental issues.
         a.    DE Platform Action
                     Ecosophy is the DE basic philosophy which means wisdom set
               to live in harmony with nature. Wisdom is transformed into a style or
               pattern of life in the formulation Naess' modest in means but rich in




BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                   11
              goals (simple in means but rich in ends ", i.e. a way of life in terms of
              a simple matter, but priority values that enrich life. This lifestyle must
              include a shift in perspective; attitude, behavior patterns of
              consumption and production patterns are revolutionary.
                    To realize these revolutionary changes there are several levels of
              critical components that form a unified pattern of behavior as a moral
              movement. First there must be a fundamental norm, which is
              considered the most valuable and it is a life directions. For example
              "Every form of life has value in itself". These norms may stem from
              cultural or religious differences. Both must have a platform that
              contains the moral principles of the norms above to unify the
              movement. Thirdly there must be a general behavior in dealing with
              the environment in line with the platform. Final level is a concrete
              action which is in line with those three things above.
                    In connection with the above, eight platforms of environmental
              action are formulated, which is the basis and driving force for DE
              motion, as follows:
              1)    Welfare and development of all creatures living on this earth has
                    value in itself.
              2)    The wealth and diversity of life forms contribute to the
                    realization of these values and for the development of all
                    organisms.
              3)    Human beings do not have the right to reduce this richness and
                    diversity except to satisfy vital needs.
              4)    The development of human life and culture go hand in hand
                    with a significant reduction of the total population.
              5)    The human intervention on the environment is highly
                    exaggerated and the situation worsened.
              6)    There needs to be policy changes that affect the economic
                    structure, technology, and ideology, so the results differ from
                    the current situation.




BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                   12
              7)    The ideological change especially with regard to respect for the
                    quality of life and not on the standard of living has increased.
              8)    People who receive points this thinking has an obligation
                    directly or indirectly to take part to realize the changes needed.
                    Eighth platform touches all the major issues personal, social,
              political, economic, philosophical, and environmental.
         b.   DE Principles of Environmental Movement
                    There       are   several   principles   that   embraced   the     DE
              environmental movement, as follows:
              1)    Biospheric egalitarianism, recognition that all organisms and
                    non-biological element is a member and have the same status in
                    the biosphere. This principle recognizes that everything in
                    nature must be respected because it has a value in itself and the
                    values are not only related to human interests.
              2)    Non-anthropocentrism, which is part of human nature, it isnot a
                    natural ruler.
              3)    The realization of self (Self Realization), humans realize
                    themselves by developing your own potential. This self-
                    realization takes place in ecological communities. Thus humans
                    evolve into full human beings precisely in relation to all life in
                    nature, not only in relation to fellow human beings. Only then
                    can sustain human life.
              4)    Recognition and respect for diversity and ecological complexity
                    in a symbiosis relationship. It means existence of a living being
                    supported by other living creatures. If the diversity is decline,
                    then the balance of ecosystem will be disrupted.
              5)    Eco-politics, a change not only individuals but need to touch the
                    structure of economic and ideological basis which is reflected in
                    the political and economic policies more environmentally
                    friendly.
         c.   Deattitudes toward Environmental Issues




BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                      13
              1)    The issue of pollution, the main priority of DE is to overcome
                    the main cause of pollution and it isnot just the impact of
                    pollution in a short term. In connection with that, awareness that
                    the third world countries should be helped to overcome the
                    pollution in their respective countries arises. Export of waste is
                    not only a crime against humanity, but also a crime against all of
                    life.
              2)    The issue of Natural Resources, contents of the universe is not
                    only seen as a resource that has economic value, but also has
                    cultural values, social, spiritual, medical, and ecological. This
                    gave rise to a critical attitude of production patterns and
                    consumption patterns.
              3)    The issue of population, DE acknowledges that extraordinary
                    pressure on nature caused by population explosion. Because it is
                    necessary to reduce the population in developed countries, not
                    only in developing countries.
              4)    The issue of cultural diversity and appropriate technologies, DE
                    trying to protect the cultural diversity of the invasion of
                    advanced industrial society. Developing countries should be
                    protected from the domination of Western technology; it needs
                    to be developed for appropriate technology in accordance with
                    the local culture.
              5)    The issue of land and sea, humans inhabit this land only and use
                    of natural resources available to meet their vital needs.
              6)    Education and Scientific Research, education should be directed
                    at improving patterns of thinking and environmentally friendly
                    actions. Exhumed traditional wisdom to enrich knowledge of
                    modern society.
                    Changing lifestyles and human behavior takes a long time,
              while the environmental damage continue to occur with a faster rate,
              therefore there are only two choices we and future generations will
              destroy, or we change it now.




BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                 14
                    Based bio-centrism and eco-centrism, then the principles of
              environmental ethics described as follows:
              1)    The attitude of respect for nature.
                    Humans are part of nature, and his life depends on the nature,
                    because that nature has a right to be respected.
              2)    Responsibility for nature.
                    Human beings have a responsibility towards the universe and
                    integrity, as well as to the existence and preservation of every
                    part of the universe and especially living things.
              3)    Cosmic solidarity.
                    Man must have a sense of solidarity, compassion with nature
                    and other living creature. This cosmic principle of solidarity
                    encourages people to always take pro-environment policies.
              4)    Love and concern for nature.
                    Man must love, cherish, and care for nature and all its contents,
                    without discrimination and domination. With the love of human,
                    nature will grow and develop with all the character and
                    personality of a quiet, peaceful, loving, broad minded nature
                    area and the nature of democracy like to receive and
                    accommodate difference and diversity.
              5)    The principle of "No Harm"
                    Human beings cannot do something harmful and threatening the
                    existence of other living creatures.
              6)    Life is simple and in harmony with nature.
                    The emphasized principle is the value, quality, a good way of
                    life, and not wealth, means, and standard material.
              7)    Justice
                    This principle is talking about how humans should behave
                    toward each other in connection with the universe and how the
                    social system must be set for a possitive impact on
                    environmental sustainability.




BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                15
                 8)    Democracy
                       Ensure the democratic principle of diversity and plurality of life,
                       aspirations, political groups, and values. This allows the value of
                       the environment have a place to fight the political and economic
                       agenda that is as important as other agenda.
                 9)    The moral integrity
                       This principle is primarily intended for officials to have the
                       attitudes and moral behavior and uphold respectable moral
                       principles that safeguard the public interest. For example at the
                       time of policy issue that affects the environment damage and
                       giving permission to have adverse environmental impacts.



C.   Biology And Sustainability Ethics On Earth

           Ethics is a system of human moral code, either individuals or community
     groups emerged international world. Ethics appears because humans live in a
     moral device (the values). Humans with natural resources and environment, and
     morals according to the device developed value systems are part of the ecosystem.
           The principle of integrating ecosystem presents humans in the environment
     and nature resources as an integral system inseparable. Ecosystem composed of
     biological elements of human, flora, and fauna and the element of nature, soil,
     water, and air.
           According Soeriaatmadja (1998), relationships and good governance
     dependence relation between humans and the other 5 elements form the principles
     of ecosystem:
     •    Harmony: Each element in an ecosystem supports each other in life,
          sustainability, and the balance of the ecosystem as a whole.
     •    Alignment: Any process that took place within one element facilitated other
          processes prevailing in other elements of a whole.
     •    Sustainability: All the elements of antibiotics derived from a relationship for
          generations in space and time travel from the presence of species by species




BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                     16
         in the various forms of the possibility of changes in environmental and
         natural resources.
    •    Recovery: Ecosystems have a biological element to the process of re-
         production, re-generation, re-juvenation, re-storation in space and time
         travel.
    •    Homeostasi: reciprocal relationship between elements of biodiversity and
         non biological ecosystem in self-control ability and self-regulation so as to
         achieve self-management skills increasingly mature.
    •    Savings: Each element of biodiversity requires natural resources were
         limited to a sustainable living while maintaining the ability of ecosystems
         carrying capacity itself.
    •    Integrity / Integrity: Unity element in the ecosystem is a very organized system, so
         as to preserve and maintain mutually between biological elements and non
         biological elements.

         According to Nash, 1991, Bioethics that supports sustainability of life on
    earth will contain elements:
    •    Sustainability means that human life must be in a range of abilities within
         intergenerative regenerative, reproductive, absorption, and the carrying
         capacity of ecosystems of the earth so that the needs of the present life and
         future can be met on an ongoing basis.
    •    Justice means the relationship between the distributions of basic necessities-
         spread human life since. Born to parents in accordance with the dignity and
         participation in the activities of life.
    •    Biodiversity, in the form of human commitment of their effort to maintain
         and preserve the population of living things.
    •    Suitability Life, namely to understand the reality of the natural obstacles in
         biosphere or ecosystem to be able to preserve and maintain the continuity of
         life and productivity. Environmental carrying capacity cannot be enforced
         without causing negative impacts on ecosystems and on human directly.
    •    Simplicity,    welfare      values   concerning    worth/controlling     must    be
         accompanied by the consumption of a frugal, efficient, effective and




BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                        17
         conservative (sustainable). Prosperity is not just measured by the material
         but also by the realization of a more noble.
    •    Humility, included self ability to admit limit knowledge and human science
         and technology developed to control the various elements of the network
         connections of life on earth.

         What was proposed by Nash will be difficult to materialize if the
    development model is still like today, where the objective of development only for
    economic growth. Because of economic development aimed at the place resource
    depletion and waste of natural resources. As a result, there is pollution and
    environmental damages.
         Impact on the environment as a result of depletion and waste of natural
    resources and environmental pollution include:
    •    clean water crisis;
    •    fertile soil shrinkage and improvement of critical land;
    •    biodiversity shrinkage of the earth;
    •    extinction of tropical forests at a rate of extinction of 100,000 km2/year;
    •    earth's climate changes that cause the symptoms of global warming pollution
         increased B3 waste (hazardous toxic waste);
    •    increase in acid rain;
    •    ozone layer depletion in the atmosphere, mainly by the CFC.

         Damage to the environment and natural resources has reached alarming
    levels. As a result of environmental damage is not only felt by local and national
    communities, but also in regional and even global scale. To overcome the effects
    of human activities (development impact) then the direction and development
    planning should be changed from conventional economic development are only
    concerned with economic growth only towards the sustainable development
    planning environmental perspective. Sustainable Development Goals and
    Environment Concept not only economic growth also includes social and
    ecological goals. Thus is created a harmony between the two important
    requirements, namely high-quality environment and development and healthy
    economic growth for the whole society.



BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                      18
         Sustainable Development (SD) will materialize if the environmental
    community, that is in the mindset and action patterns always consider
    environmental aspects. Therefore need to pioneer the SD ethics in life.
         According Soeriaatmadja, in 1997 SD ethics describe things as follows.
    1.    Reflection concern and willingness in managing earth. The so-called good
          in ethics SD if we implement the global commitments agreed upon in the
          agenda 21.
    2.    Pioneering and leadership to prevent the destruction of environment and
          waste resources on earth.
    3.    Ability to restore damage to the environment and resources of the earth.
    4.    The ability to enjoy and grateful for God's creation of the Merciful and the
          Giver.
    5.    The ability of environment and integrity while utilizing resources with the
          goal remains obtain sustainable results.
    6.    Willingness to understand and appreciate the earth ecosystem.

         In 1992 the Earth Summit, it has been agreed by 179 countries as a major
    work program for this century until the 21st century, the Agenda 21. Agenda 21 is
    a blueprint document in creating a global partnership in sustainable development
    and environmental protection in the world that now depend on each other.
         Agenda 21 consists of 39 chapters divided into 4 parts:
    1.   Social and economic dimensions. Discuss development issues focused on the
         human aspects and key issues such as trade and integration of decision-
         making.
    2.   Conservation and management of natural resources for development; Largest
         part of Agenda 21, to discuss various issues of natural resources,
         ecosystems, and other important issues. All that needs further assessment if
         sustainable development objectives to be achieved, both at the global level,
         national, and local levels.
    3.   The role of major groups. Discuss the issue of partnerships among
         environmental managers who need to be developed in realizing sustainable
         development.




BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                    19
    4.   Means of implementation. This section assess the natural resources used to
         support sustainable development, financing and technological aspects, the
         issue of education, institutional structures and legislation, data and
         information, and capacity development of national facilities.

          In general, Agenda 21 offers a variety of constructive and innovative
    activities that can be run either in industrial countries and developing countries.
    The plans of action in Agenda 21 are offered to human society to make new
    changes in the form of sustainable life. If these changes do not occur now, the
    damage caused by acts that are not environmentally sound will be more difficult
    for future generations in dealing with environmental damage. So that we can live
    a sustainable we must hold the view that mankind is just part of nature, where all
    the elements of nature as important and equal value. In this case we view as a
    natural environment that has intrinsic value (value in and of itself).
          Underlying Bioethics Agenda 21 is an intrinsicalism view, where the values
    of the natural environment free from the consciousness and human values. All
    natural elements have intrinsic value on their own, where there is a value we do
    not know but it must remain we value, In efforts to conserve natural resources &
    environment, we do not see whether a type of living creature would be preserved
    was useful or not human life at the moment, but looking at these kinds of living
    things as part of nature that should not be lost and must be preserved.
    Awareness that the view of the nature of human-centered has shifted from
    exploitative attitude toward conservationism. This is reflected in the actions of
    Agenda 21. Here is the recognition that natural resources were limited and this has
    aspired awareness of the need to preserve nature for the sake of present generation
    and future generations of mankind. This is justified by reference to human rights
    to life implies the right to a habitable environment (the Black Stone, 1974 in
    Martin, 1989).




BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                  20
CHAPTER III
APPLICATION
IN TEACHING LEARNING


   A. ASSIGNMENT 1
      Answer the following questions clearly!
      1. What do you think we should do to prevent damage the deteriorating
          environment?
      2. How do you apply bioethics to support sustainable livelihoods in earth in
          life?
      3. Explain the relation between human administration and governance
          dependence and to the 5 elements of ecosystems!
      4. In your opinion which environmental ethics are most appropriate for the
          sustainability of life?
      5. Why should we have a view of intrinsicalism of natural resources and the
          environment?


   B. ASSIGNMENT 2
      Bioethical Analysis Worksheet
      Context
      •   What is the bioethical issue or decision?
      •   Who must make the decision?
      •   What factual information is relevant?


      Stakeholders
      •   Who are the stakeholders?
      •   What values does each stakeholder have?



BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                             21
      •   What immediate priorities does each stakeholder have?


      Alternatives and Tradeoffs
      •   What are the alternative courses of action?
      •   How would each stakeholder be affected by the alternatives?


      Solution
      •   What solution do you propose?
      •   How would you convince each stakeholder?


   C. Mapping Value of Assumptions In Ethics


              By now it may be quite clear to you that “to be ethical” means very
      different things to all the philosophical traditions examined so far. Although
      those ethical perspectives have very different accents, priorities and concerns,
      there is a way to represent them graphically along some clearly distinguishable
      parameters (do they emphasize individuals or communities? Do they value the
      natural world intrinsically or instrumentally? Are they centered on humans
      (anthropocentric) or centered on ecosystems (ecocentric)?


              A quick glance at the history of philosophy in the West indicates that
      most ethical debates have centered until the arrival of the “environmental crisis”
      along a continuum having on the one end (human) individual freedom and in
      the other, community integrity and responsibility. However, since the 1970s the
      growing realization of environmental problems and the disturbing evidence all
      systems of support of life are in jeopardy, has created new debates that can be
      represented on a different, intersecting continuum.      These are the debates
      confronting human-centered ethics to eco-centric or bio-centric ethics. The
      new continuum does not invalidate the old concerns about individual freedom
      and community integrity and responsibility, but surely modifies the terms of the
      discussion. The readings in this section were a strong demonstration that is the
      case.




BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                   22
      Questions
      1.      What ethical combinations can you map from the intersection of the two
              continuums?
      2.      Where do other ideological systems that you are familiar with fit? (e.g.
              right-left politics; capitalism, socialism, communism, anarchism, Green
              politics; bio-regionalism traditional and local ecological knowledge of
              native peoples, peasants, corporations, eco-feminism, etc.?)


                  Framework – Environmental Ethics Paradigms

                                      Human Centris
                                    (Anthropocentrism)




 Individual                                                                   Community
  Freedom                                                                    Responsibility




                                        Bio-Centris
                                       (Eco-Centrism)




BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                      23
CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSIONS


         Environmental ethics is a discipline that speaks of moral norms and rules
    that govern human behavior in dealing with nature. Ethics is a system of human
    moral code, both individuals and community groups emerged international world.
    Ethics appears because humans live in a moral device (the values). Humans with
    natural resources and environment, and morals according to the device developed
    value systems are part of the ecosystem. The principle of integrating ecosystem
    presents humans in the environment and nature resources as an integral system
    inseparable.
         Relation between humans and the other 5 elements form the principles of
    ecosystem:
    •    Harmony: Each element in an ecosystem to support each other in life,
         sustainability, and the balance of the ecosystem as a whole.
    •    Alignment: Any process that took place within one element facilitated other
         processes prevailing in other elements of a whole.
    •    Sustainability: All the elements of antibiotics derived from a relationship for
         generations in space and time travel from the presence of species by species
         in the various forms of the possibility of changes in environmental and
         natural resources.
    •    Recovery: Ecosystems have a biological element to the process of re-
         production, re-generation, re-juvenation, re-storation in space and time
         travel.
    •    Homeostasi: reciprocal relationship between elements of biodiversity and
         non biological ecosystem in self-control ability and self-regulation so as to
         achieve self-management skills increasingly mature.



BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                   24
    •    Savings: Each element of biodiversity requires natural resources were
         limited to a sustainable living while maintaining the ability of ecosystems
         carrying capacity itself.
    •    Integrity / Integrity: Unity element in the ecosystem is a very organized system, so
         as to preserve and maintain mutually between biological elements and non
         biological elements.




BAB I PENDAHULUAN                                                                        25

				
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