Document Sample
Investigating levels of participation in the arts in Britain and Europe

                 James Evans, Political Researcher

                           September 2006

  Council for the Advancement of the Arts, Recreation and Education

                          41 Floral Street
                        London WC2E 9DG
                         Tel: 020 7836 7399

               CAARE – The Guardian of the Arts and Sport

CAARE, the Council for the Advancement of Arts, Recreation and Education,
was formed by Australian orchestral conductor Denis Vaughan following on
from the success of his Lottery Promotion Company. He has been described as
the Lottery's 'Founding Father' and the man who 'brought more money to sport
than anyone else in the 20th Century.'

Since its foundation as an independent registered charity in 1996, CAARE has
acted as a guardian of arts and sport. CAARE has campaigned vigorously to
promote the nation‟s well-being through an integrated approach to the arts,
physical recreation and education for all. The cultural and sporting interests of
the British public are staunchly supported through political campaigns, the
publication of independent research and the detailed archiving of information
on these themes.


Executive Summary                                                   6

      Europe
      United Kingdom
      Local Arts
      CAARE recommendations

Introduction                                                        11


Arts Participation                                                  14

    Eurobarometer
    Cinema

Arts Expenditure                                                    21

    Total spending on the arts
    Per capita spending on the arts

Culture Internationally                                             24

Conclusion                                                          26


Art Councils                                                        28

      The Arts Councils
      Partnership in the arts: Arts Council England and the BBC
      Arts Council Wales: the story behind the Wales Arts Review
      Four organisations, Four agendas

National Campaign for the Arts                                      32

    The NCA arts briefing paper for the House of Lords
    The role of an Arts Council: the perspective of the NCA

Arts and Mental Health                                             36

    A patchy progression: Arts and mental health in Scotland
    Arts and mental health: Arts Council England and the Department of

Other National Programmes                                          39

      Creative Partnerships
      Creative Apprenticeships
      Cultural Leaders
      Flight Paths

Arts for Children                                                  43

    Extended Schools
    Artsmark and Specialist Schools
    Education at a glance (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
     Development, 2006)

Music and Drama in Britain                                         46

    Music – The One Million More Young Musicians Campaign
    ABRSM Research
    Drama

Conclusion                                                         53


Arts Provision in Slough                                           55

    Arts and social cohesion in slough
    Slough‟s broad approach to the arts
    Towards the future in Slough: Funding and communication

Arts Over Time: Arts Institutions and Festivals in Windsor and
Slough                                                             61

    Windsor Arts Centre
    Windsor Festival
    Artistic partnership in Windsor

Independent - State School Partnerships: Eton College in Partnership
 with Local State Schools                                            67

Conclusion                                                          70

CAARE’s CONCLUSION                                                  71

Select Bibliography                                                 72



The results of the Eurobarometer survey carried published in 2002 put the
United Kingdom in a reasonable light, but behind some European countries,
especially Sweden and Finland, in terms of culture and artistic participation.

A good set of figures for cinema, our most popular attendance art form, puts us
second in Europe behind France as both producers and consumers.
Considering both the global language base offered by English, and the
culturally and linguistically diverse base offered by multicultural Britain, we
can do better. We need to do better: both French and British films have a
miniscule market share in Europe compared to America, and our film industry
will no doubt soon be facing stiff competition from Bollywood.

Although we have achieved parity with the French in many artistic areas, it is
sobering to think how much more we could achieve given public investment
parity. We spend 0.5% of our national budget on the DCMS, they spend up to
1% on their Department of Culture which does not even include sport.

Britain, like many of her western European neighbours has an international
cultural programme. It is led by the British Council, which has centres across
the world. They support artists‟ residencies and language learning, exchange
programmes and assistants. In partnership with the BBC, they even offer an
international radio play writing competition. In the UK, however, their
presence is weak. Unlike the Goethe Institut, their German equivalent, they
have no domestic language centres, only affiliated/approved schools. Unlike
their Austrian equivalent, KulturKontakt, they appear to lack a strong bilateral
approach to the mass migration occurring within the expanded EU. They did
have meeting and language centres, such as Polish Hearth, opened in 1940 to
be „a centre of Polish life in London‟, and which held English classes, concerts
and dances. These have gone, but with record immigration figures, we need to
invest in a new infrastructure to help us cope.

The United Kingdom

Recognition of distinctive local culture and latterly devolution were intended to
be positive for arts in the United Kingdom. It appears, however, that since
1994 different parts of the UK have been speaking similarly but acting
differently. A prime example of this is evident through a comparison between
Scottish First Minister Jack McConnell‟s St Andrew‟s Day speech in 2003 on
the role of the arts and James Purnell MP‟s 2005 „Making Britain the World‟s
Creative Hub‟ speech in 2005. Both talk about the importance of fostering arts
and the creative industries. But in England, the successful Creative
Partnerships scheme has been operating since 2002 yet still only impacts upon

a fifth of the school-going population. In Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland
the artistic wheel is being re-invented in other ways. It is not clear that these
involve any discourse between the Arts Councils.

We need to improve dialogue in the UK and ensure that the constituent parts
benefit from best practice. Without this, the 1994 decision to divide up Arts
Council Great Britain looks unwise. There are some positive signs, however.
Scottish pilot projects are mentioned in Arts Council England‟s visual arts
strategy, „Turning Point‟, which shows that they have at least considered what
is going on in the rest of the UK.

Strategy documents and new initiatives are very important to the way in which
Arts Councils and government operate in the UK. We need to make sure that
we invest in and spread best practice around the United Kingdom. Cultural
Leaders, a new £12 million programme launched by Gordon Brown on 20th
June 2006, could help to do this. A local training scheme in Slough, costing
c.£35,000 over 12 years has enabled residents to generate project funding
worth about £3 million, so there is already a strong precedent.

Accountability is supposed to be important to the government in all the projects
that they undertake. Accordingly, the DCMS have been set public service
agreement targets by the Treasury. They have commissioned the „Taking Part‟
survey to analyse their progress towards these targets. The final results should
become available late in 2006, but until then, provisional results are sketchy
and unhelpful, using frames of reference which are different to those agreed for
the targets. For instance, according to the nine months summary, 67% of the
survey population participated in at least one type of arts activity during the
past 12 months, but the target specifies participation in an arts activity at least
twice a year. The statisticians need to be careful to ensure that their figures are
not too vague to be meaningful. A recent independent report for the charity
RISE on Specialist Schools stated in its conclusion that „much of the evidence
provided by the government has been incorrect or methodologically suspect‟.
For any government statistics to be misleading or wrong raises questions about
their entire target driven modus operandi.

Britain‟s greatest current artistic strengths are in drama. Recent research done
for The Stage by Simon Grover in July 2006 suggests that we may have as
many as 60,000 professional actors in the UK. Acting is high-profile and
lucrative for those who make it, but television has eroded the local market for
live drama. We need to rebuild a local arts scene in order to develop a larger
market base to match the professional interest in acting and to support top-end
creative products such as British films.

Local Arts

The following schemes show the breadth of benefits which increasing public
support for the arts could bring to the community:

Art Beyond Belief – An organization based in Slough which uses art to address
issues from faith and to reach out to vulnerable groups in the community.
Their director David Sparrow asserts that core funding would enable them to
deliver better value for money with their projects.

The Windsor Arts Centre – The theatre/arts cinema, amateur performance
events and arts workshops, are used by some 5,000 people a year, but they are
run on a shoestring budget. The general manager believes that increased
funding could lead to a fourfold increase in the numbers of people using the
arts centre.

The Windsor Festival – Currently looking for funding for a new educational
workshop programme, the Windsor Festival is largely self-supporting and has
become the biggest arts, music and literature event in the area.

The Therapeutic Day Unit at Wexham Park Hospital – Long-term
rehabilitation schemes for the mentally ill are seen as the icing on the cake in a
target-driven healthcare culture. A greater investment would place arts for
positive mental health at the heart of the community, enabling a full re-
integration of the mentally ill back into their communities and over time a
reduction in new cases of mental illness. There would be big economic
benefits to reducing the length of absences from work and also to helping the
mentally ill to use their creativity to become more productive members of the

Slough versus Windsor and Maidenhead

In Windsor and Maidenhead, arts are funded in the traditional way, through
grants by the Council to local organizations and centres such as the Windsor
Arts Centre and Windsor Festival. Funding security is crucial to arts centres,
and expanding core funding might enable Windsor Arts Centre to quadruple
arts participation.

In Slough a different approach, empowering and encouraging local people to
set up their own projects and apply to outside funding sources, is yielding
impressive results: £3 million in grants have been generated with a council
outlay, over 12 years, of approximately £35,000. The Council has worked as a
team to enable a multi-million pound redevelopment of the High Street next
year. A new arts centre, the West Wing, has only been running for a year, but
already needs to expand to cater for increasing local interest. Slough Borough
Council‟s arts successes may be reflected in Labour‟s gains as Council
controllers, against the national trend.

Slough Borough Council‟s arts development scheme is succeeding for two
reasons: training local people to take the initiative with their own arts projects
complements the public grant-based funding scheme; lateral thinking and
cross-council co-operation have enabled money to be found from assorted
Council budgets for artistic projects. The Royal Borough of Windsor and
Maidenhead has no arts training scheme to help local people with grant
applications. The arts are part of one portfolio with small consistent outlays
and not at the heart of a Council plan for economic and social renewal.

CAARE recommendations

    International arts

        The UK should provide for the integration of immigrants through the
         renewal of venue-based arts programmes like „Polish hearth‟.

        These centres could be a British Council domestic cultural scheme,
         like Germany‟s Goethe Institut.

        The public sector needs to encourage artistic and creative businesses
         with international markets, in particular drama and film. Britain
         should be the best in Europe, not second to France.

        We must make more public money available and provide subsidy
         incentives to local authorities to invest in the arts. This would enable
         us to compete with countries like Finland in terms of arts

    Arts in the UK

        Discourse between UK arts councils needs to be improved and an
         end brought to the patchy implementation of good initiatives. An
         annual conference would be a good starting point.

        Good artistic and creative schemes like Flight Paths and Creative
         Partnerships need to have their funding secured and their future role

        Public arts bodies need to be independent of legislative bodies, and
         arts organisations should be consulted before any large structural
         changes are made.

        Arts investment by public bodies needs to increase significantly;
         government must recognise the economic and social benefits the arts

             o   Mental health and happiness
             o   Social integration
             o   Neighbourhood renewal
             o   Creative thinking
             o   Artistic excellence

 Initiatives like Creative Partnerships and Creative Apprenticeships need
  to be linked up to maximise their reach and public benefit.

 Partnership between arts organisations is crucial optimise resources,
  expertise and awareness in local and national arts.

 Joined-up thinking is needed for initiatives such as the Big Dance Class
  to have a sustainable local impact.

 The UK must invest more money in local arts training and initiatives.
  They will generate huge arts investment and participation dividends for
  a small outlay.


This CAARE report analyses artistic activity in Britain and Europe. It
considers the actions and initiatives that could increase levels of artistic
participation and uses case studies to illustrate the social and economic benefits
that increased public support for the arts would bring.

The main body of the report is divided into three sections. The first part covers
the big picture in Europe. This section comprises internet-based research, since
it is not practical over the course of this short project to visit other EU countries
and conduct interviews and research on the ground. Given the large number of
possible countries to survey, many of the EU countries are covered with no
more than headline data available from sources such as UNESCO and the
Council of Europe. There is a frustrating lack of comparability between the
published data from various different countries and surveys. Moreover, the
relative economic levels of different countries mean %GDP and spending per
capita comparisons can yield vastly different results. Conclusions are therefore
sketchy and rather speculative. Suggestions as to best practice and relative
achievements of the different countries will therefore remain inconclusive at

It is important to see the European picture both in terms of domestic initiatives
and in terms of the international organisations at the heart of the European
Union. To achieve this aim, the European section focuses on a few selected
countries within the EU and examines several cultural and artistic initiatives.

With Britain itself, a wider range of statistics is used to show artistic activity.
Sources include exam board data, national surveys such as the Arts Council‟s
arts participation survey and the DCMS‟s „Taking Part‟ survey, data from the
Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, and Creative Partnerships.

There is also some consideration of the barriers which exist to creating a
reliable national picture for the arts. Government budgets and agendas are
inconsistent as a result of devolution; moreover, the key deliverers of artistic
and cultural schemes beyond government, the Arts Councils, are independent
of one another, and have separate budgets, ideas and agendas. Arts Council
Scotland is investing in arts for mental health as a priority; every publication on
its website focuses on an inclusion agenda. Arts Council England is by far the
biggest Arts Council and is further complicated by having its separate regional

It is also important to be aware that official statistics can, as researchers for
RISE analysing the impact of Specialist Schools warned, be „methodologically
suspect‟. Care is needed to ensure that a somewhat distorted picture and patchy
coverage do not emerge.

Speaking to individuals and organisations that deliver initiatives on the ground
clarifies the practical impact of public support for the arts and gives the report‟s
findings a human face. Most professionals are positive about their work and
areas of expertise, but they also have candid insights, both negative and
positive, about different schemes. To „zoom in‟ on schemes like Creative
Partnerships and Independent State School Partnerships enables this report to
be more authoritative in its analysis and more effective in its final objective, to
make suggestions about how to increase participation in the arts in Britain. The
case studies and interviews are focused in East Berkshire. This is an ideal area
because there are strong social and economic contrasts between industrial and
ethnically diverse Slough and “Middle England” Windsor.

Although this report focuses on the arts and arts participation, it is important to
see the arts as part of a broader picture. A key part of this work is to examine
the importance of the arts to fulfilling key government agendas. As
exploratory and expressive faculties, the arts are an essential part of life and
recognition of their importance cuts across ministerial portfolios.

Arts contribute to health and well-being, especially positive mental health.
Arts, like sports, have a social and communal dimension, which could be at the
heart of neighbourhood renewal programmes. Arts are the key cultural media.
Arts have a key role to play in the education of our children both as expressive
and beautiful forms within themselves and also as the building blocks of
creativity. This has already been recognised by the DCMS in their funding of
the Creative Partnerships scheme which funds innovative educational projects
between creative professionals and schools. According to figures from James
Purnell‟s June 2005 speech to the Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR)
on Creativity, creative industries already „employ 2 million people and account
for a twelfth of our economy, more than in any other country‟1.

 James Purnell, „Making Britain the World‟s Creative Hub‟, speech to IPPR (16/6/05)

                                Section 1

                              The arts in Europe

This section starts with an analysis of Survey material available on Europe and
moves on to consider some further information about culture in France and
Austria relative to the United Kingdom. The usefulness of statistical
information available on arts in Europe is restricted by several factors: there are
not many comparative studies to draw from; a large proportion of the
information is available in the native languages only; creating comparative data
from different national studies is extremely difficult because the published
results and methodology are usually incompatible.

The best comparative statistics singled out for this study are from, a website supported by Europe‟s main cultural body,
the Council of Europe, and the Eurobarometer survey of culture and cultural
participation paid for by the European Commission. In both cases a proportion
of the information is no more recent than 2001 or 2002. In addition to
information provided in these sources, the proportion of British Government
spending on the DCMS has been isolated for comparison with other countries.
The comparison risks inaccuracies, however, which highlight the whole
statistical issue. For example, one result of devolution in the UK is that the
Scottish and Welsh executives have additional monies that they could choose
to spend on the arts. As a result, gives figures of £31
(Scotland), £23 (Wales) £21 (Northern Ireland) and £18 (England) for the
average per capita public spending on the arts between 1996/7 and 2001/2, a
disparity which also helps to make internal statistical comparability in the UK



The executive summary of the Eurobarometer survey is frustrating for two
reasons: because it gives no more than the top three and bottom three nations in
terms of participation in an approximate EU league table and because it is
significantly out of date, the fieldwork having been done in 2001 and the report
written in 2001.

Nevertheless, the following table in figure 1 shows some of the significant
comparative findings of the report.

Figure 1. Arts Participation in Europe2

Arts/Cultural area                Top Countries                      Bottom Countries
Internet use                  1.Sweden                               1.Greece
                              2.Denmark                              2.Portugal
                              3.The Netherlands
Reading books                 1.Sweden                               1.Portugal
                              2.Finland                              2.Belgium
                              3.United Kingdom                       3.Greece
Reading Newspapers            1.Finland                              1.Greece
                              2.Sweden                               2.Spain
                              3.Germany                              3.Portugal
Classical Music               1.Luxembourg                           1.Portugal
Listening                     2.Sweden                               2.Greece
                              3.United Kingdom                       3.Austria
Rock/Pop Listening            1.Denmark                              1.Austria
                              2.France                               2.Finland
                              3.Belgium                              3.Portugal
Folk Music                    1.Portugal
Most and least popular 1.Cinema                                      1.Ballet or dance
European        arts/cultural 2.Library                              2.Archaeol. Sites
attendance                    3.Monuments                            3.Museums abroad
                              4.Sports Event                         4.Theatre
Cinema                        1.Spain                                1.Portugal
                              2.Ireland                              2.Finland
Library                           1.Finland                          1.Greece
Concerts (Pop/Rock)               1.Denmark

 Eurobarometer Executive Summary (full report not available online)

Concerts (Classical)                1.Luxembourg
                                    3.United Kingdom

Concerts                            1.Greece
(Folk Music)                        2.Portugal

Photography or amateur film         1.Sweden
Dance                               1.Sweden

The UK‟s profile within these results is interesting. Although we are by no
means the worst performing country in the EU, never being listed amongst the
lowest numbers of participants, we come out in the top three (third) in only
three of the statistical measures, reading, listening to classical music, and
attending classical concerts. In almost every category, the UK is outperformed
by Sweden, Denmark or Finland. One area where the UK might come out top
is participation in acting. Although it has not been given an EU league table
for the online summary, a survey carried out for Arts Council England in 2003
suggests that as many as 7% of people in England took part in drama 3.
Numbers actively engaged in the arts overall, are disappointingly low, with
perhaps as few as 3.8% having acted4, and less than a third having danced or
made film/photography.

The value of these figures to an analyst in 2006 is dubious on account of their
age, the lack of background to the headline summary and apparent
inconsistencies in the published figures. Nevertheless, the figures suggest that
levels of practical artistic participation are disappointing for Europe in general.
They also suggest that the UK is not an artistic leader in Europe and would
need to make a considerable amount of progress before we could fulfil James
Purnell‟s ambition and become the world‟s creative hub.

National arts participation surveys

National arts participation surveys are carried out regularly in both France and
England. In England, the DCMS recently comissioned the „Taking Part‟
survey which covers all its areas of departmental responsibility, that is
  Clare Fenn, Ann Bridgwood, Karen Dust, Lucy Hutton, Michelle Jobson and Megan Skinner, Arts in
England in 2003 Executive Summary (Arts Council England, 2005)
  This figure is from a chart in the report, but is inconsistent with a figure of 6% implied in the body of
the text – see p.11 of the report

arts/culture, sport/leisure, media and gambling. In accordance with the
government‟s public service targets, figures have also been published to
indicate levels of ethnic minority involvement in the arts. The raw data itself
may provide a detailed picture of artistic activity in Britain, but most of the
provisional summary data published so far, however, tells us very little.

This is because the compiled statistics (see figure 4 below) generally require
only a low level of involvement in one of a very large range of activities or
events over a very long period of measured time (12 months). This has yielded
a headline statistic claiming that 94% of the population engaged in one cultural
or sporting activity during the past year and 67% participated in at least one
type of arts activity5. Since this twelve month measure for arts activity counts
buying (yet not necessarily reading) a novel as arts participation alongside
ballet dancing or musical composition, there is little or no qualitative value in
this statistic. Even when a specific activity such as attendance at a library has
been assessed, we cannot know whether people go in regularly or whether they
do so to read, to rent, or to get free internet access.

A more helpful survey was carried out by Arts Council England in 2003 6. The
geographical limitation to England is a potential shortcoming, but at least the
data has been categorised usefully (see figure 4 below). For example, in their
music category, they break the results down into attendance for different types
of concert and performance, listening categories and performance.

Taking information from the British surveys together and French information
from 2005, we can to some extent form a table displaying a comparative
picture of arts attendance and participation. This can be seen in figure 4 below.

  Taking Part Survey (2005-6), 9 month provisional results,
  Clare Fenn et al,., Arts in England 2003: attendance, participation and attitudes, (Arts Council
England, 2005)

Figure 4. Arts Participation in the UK, England and France

                                    „Taking        Arts        Council France mini chiffres
                                    Part‟(9        England 20038       20059
Museum/Gallery visit                42%            n/a                      29%      (voir un
Historic Site/monument              69%            n/a                      46%      (monument
Art Exhibition                      n/a            22%                (art, 28%
                                                   photography          or
Watched live play or drama          n/a            25%      (play   or       16%      (pièce        de
                                                   drama)                    theatre)
                                                   26% (musical)
Attended a concert                  n/a            20% pop/rock              25%
                                                   10% classical
                                                   6% opera
                                                   6% Jazz
Read at least one book              n/a            73% (for pleasure)        68%
Artisitic Creativity
Painting, drawing, Sculpture        n/a            13%              12%
Played a musical instrument         n/a            9% (pleasure)    9%
                                                   3% (audience)
Photography as art                  n/a            8%               12%
Acting                              n/a            2% (performed or 1% (du théâtre en
                                                   rehearsed play)  amateur)

Assuming an approximate comparability of figures in Arts attendance,
engagement and participation on an amateur basis between France and the UK
(England), this comparison favours the UK. We appear to be more avid
readers of books, as the Eurobarometer survey also suggested, much more
interested in drama and acting, and more frequent visitors to museums and sites
of historical interest.

The UK‟s much higher attendance figures for museums and galleries reflect the
efforts and the investment that the government has made in keeping museum
entry free. Mr Blair was right to point with pride to „free museum entry that
has seen a 50% rise in visitors‟10. New Labour need to learn from this success:
getting similar results for other forms of participation in the arts will require
similar investments and policy commitments.

  Taking Part Survey (2005-6), 9 month provisional results,
  Clare Fenn et al., Arts in England 2003: attendance, participation and attitudes, (Arts Council
England, 2005)
  Mini Chiffres Clés édition 2005 (
   Tony Blair‟s speech to the Labour Party Conference, 2006

Overall, the French government has shown greater financial commitment to
nurturing arts and culture. Moreover, the comparison is incomplete as a result
of the limited statistical/survey results available. Participation in arts
principally enjoyed in France, such as „spectacles son et lumière‟ are not
measured specifically in either British survey. No comparison could be made
either of cinema attendance or film-making, in which France would have come
out top11.


Going to the cinema is probably the largest cultural/artistic attendance event for
Europeans. No doubt because of the considerable national and international
economic, cultural and artistic importance of the film industry, comparative
statistics for cinema are much easier to find than for other cultural and artistic
activities. These factors make the film industry both straightforward and
desirable to consider in this study.

Figure 5. Cinema Attendance in European Markets in millions12

Country             2001         2002        2003        2004    2005          % change
                                                                 provisional   2004-5
Czech Republic      17.1         18.8        16.5        17.2    15.1          -12.2%
Germany             177.9        163.9       149.0       156.7   127.3         -18.8%
Denmark             12.0         12.9        12.3        12.7    11.8          -7.1%
Spain               146.8        140.7       137.5       143.9   126.0         -12.5%
France              187.5        184.4       173.5       195.3   175.7         -10.1%
United              155.9        175.9       167.3       171.3   164.7         -3.8%
Ireland             15.9         17.3        17.4        17.3    16.4          -5.0%
Italy               113.3        115.6       110.5       116.3   107.7         -7.5%
The Netherlands     23.8         24.1        24.9        23.0    20.5          -11.2%
Norway              12.5         12.0        13.1        12.0    11.3          -5.7%
Slovakia            2.8          3.0         3.0         2.9     2.2           -24.1%
Sweden              18.1         18.3        18.2        16.6    14.6          -12.0%
Switzerland         17.1         18.8        16.5        17.2    15.1          -12.2%
Turkey              28.2         23.5        24.6        29.7    28.0          -5.9%

The table in figure 5 can show us some interesting comparisons, although it is
important to bear in mind its limitations. There has been no difference in the
order of the five biggest markets in Europe, France, Germany Italy, Spain and
the United Kingdom in attendance terms (these figures are in bold text).
Significantly for Britain, the figures also suggest that of all the cinema markets
in Europe, the UK was the most consistent in attendance between 2004 and
  See below, pp.22-24
  Figures from European Audiovisual Observatory

The stability of the UK film market is further emphasised in a more detailed
study/presentation by European Audiovisual Observatory‟s analyst, Susan
Newman-Baudais13. The slides from her speech highlight the greater
consistency of the UK market over the other large European markets in 2004-5.
The analyst also considers the economic impact of European films, films
funded by sources within those European countries. The UK does not feature
on her table illustrating market share for national films, perhaps suggesting that
our own creative film industry is not a significant force.

There is a qualitative issue associated with film attendance that raw attendance
figures cannot analyse; the artistic value of the material watched. A failure of
the British film industry to attract a significant audience share also looks bad in
the context of the government‟s professed aim to promote creativity and
nurture our creative industries. Strangely, considering the lack of a mention for
the UK on Ms Newman-Baudais‟ table, the UK film industry is equal second
most successful for internal consumption in Europe with Denmark, counting
34.0% of its domestic market; French films represent 36.9% of the French

The top five European countries by home-grown films as a percentage of films
watched at the cinema according to provisional figures for 2005 are highlighted
in figure 6 below. Although it may simply be that 2005 was an exceptional
year, the chart suggests that with a strong investment in our film industry, the
UK could feasibly become the most important film producer in Europe.

Figure 6. Consumption of domestically-made films14

Country                         2004                             2005 provisional
Czech Republic                  23.8%                            24.4%
Denmark                         23.7%                            34.0%
France                          38.6%                            36.9%
Germany                         23.8%                            17.1%
Italy                           20.5%                            24.8%
The Netherlands                 9.2%                             13.6%
Norway                          14.9%                            14.0%
Spain                           13.4%                            16.7%
Sweden                          23.3%                            22.5%
Switzerland                     2.5%                             5.8%
United Kingdom                  23.4%                            34.0%

   Susan Newman-Baudais, The Outlook for European Exhibition: Film Attendance in Europe (Europa
Cinemas Conference: Budapest, November 2005)
   Figures from European Audiovisual Observatory

This domestic success needs to be put into perspective, however, taking into
account market share as a proportion of the overall European market.

Figure 7. Market Share Proportion in Europe 200215

United States                                      71%
France                                             11%
United Kingdom                                     7%
Italy                                              3%
Germany                                            2%
Other European                                     5%
Rest of the World                                  1%

In spite of having the second biggest film industry in Europe, the market share
for our films is still less than a tenth of that of Hollywood. The rest of the
world figure, which includes Bollywood, has also surely been catching up
some of this ground since 2002. Because of the predominance of American
production of and investment in films, they are also important to the future of
UK film professionals and facilities. Until recently, a good relationship with
American filmmakers attracted a considerable number of projects to the UK. A
decision by the Inland Revenue to remove a tax-incentive for foreign
filmmakers without consultation or notice last year caused a lot of projects to
be abandoned or moved abroad. Sympathy and respect for foreign investment,
like increased public support, is important for the UK film industry.

  Figures from European Audiovisual Observatory


Total spending on the arts

Considering the government‟s aim of nurturing creativity, it is worth
considering the support given by central government through the DCMS to
support cultural artistic and sporting initiatives. Figures available for other
European nations are problematic. Not all governments have the same
departmental structure as the UK, with France, for example, having sport and
leisure in a different department to culture. Furthermore, figures given by the
Council for Europe‟s website,, vary significantly in
how recently they were compiled and statistics given for different countries
depend on available published material which differs between countries – they
lack a consolidated source and therefore a consolidated measure by which to
make a reliable comparative judgement.
Figure 2. Spending on Culture Department (may include sport) as a proportion of the state

Finland                                            3%
Lithuania                                          1.7-2%
Sweden                                             1.3% (2006)
France (Culture only)                              0.96%17 (2006)
Ukraine                                            0.95-1.1% (2004-6)
Norway                                             0.8%
Serbia and Montenegro                              0.8% (2001)-1% (2002 planned)
UK (DCMS, not Lottery)                             0.5%18
Greece (not including lotteries)                   0.35%
Ireland                                            0.26%

The UK does not emerge particularly well from the comparison in figure 2. A
closer comparison with France, which has a comparable size of population and
cultural heritage, is somewhat embarrassing. The French government has made
cultural investment and development a priority in recent years, with investment
reaching a symbolic 1% of the national budget in 200219. Although that figure
has fallen a little in recent years, it is still nearly 0.8% of the total budget,
whereas the DCMS receives a fairly constant sum amounting to 0.4-0.5% of
the British Government‟s budget.
   Compendium Cultural Policies and Trends, most recent figures available, dates stated where known
(Council of Europe Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, 7 th Edition: 2006) website
unless otherwise stated (
DES FINANCES PUBLIQUES, (June 2005), part 1
   Departmental figures from the 2004 government spending review which indicate DCMS funding is
consistent at 0.5% of total expenditure
   Catherine Tasca, Press conference speech on 2002 French culture budget

Government supporters might argue that this funding shortfall in Britain is
made up by National Lottery funding. However, the Lottery is supposed to be
an independent source of funding for arts, heritage and sport according to the
principle of additionally. Embarrassingly, as recent news articles have
emphasised, a fair proportion of the Lottery money is also being put at the
disposal of other government departments such as the DfES and the
Department of Health; £45 million was recently given to fund healthier school
meals and £91 million to buy hospital equipment20. These are areas that should
be covered by Treasury. Equally, and more worryingly, a significant increase
in the amount of National Lottery money assigned as DCMS resources in 2005-
6 conceals a reduction in the government‟s own funding to the DCMS; the
budget sheet which they drew up in 2004 shows that funding to the DCMS fell
from £1,791,278,000 in 2003-4 to £1,542,392,000 in 2004-5 to £1,538,867,000
in 2005-621.

Unlike the DCMS, the French Ministry of Culture does not include the national
investment in sport, which makes it all the more impressive that the French
Government were prepared to invest 1% of their budget in the department in
200222. It also means that despite their cut in proportional expenditure on
culture, to 0.78% of the budget, they still spend a considerably higher
proportion of their budget on the arts than the British Government does.

Per capita spending on the arts

„Per capita‟ spending on the arts is not a helpful measure unless two countries
have approximate economic parity. The integration of countries within the
„Eurozone‟ will achieve this over time. That said there is reason to remain
sceptical for the time being about whether figures published on the internet
offer a fair comparison at this time.

Figure 3. Sample public spending on culture per capita23
Belgium (1999 study)                                            £16324
France (1996 estimate)                                          £126‫٭‬
England (Arts Council/Local Gov)                                £18
N.I. (Arts Council/Local Gov)                                   £31
Scotland (Arts Council/Local Gov)                               £21
Wales (Arts Council/Local Gov)                                  £23
(UK figures for years 1996-7 to 2001-2)
31 etontoof ees ‫٭‬
   Melissa Kite, „How Blair won £3bn on the Lottery‟, (The Sunday Telegraph, 30/7/06)
   DCMS Annual Report 2005
   „Budget de la Culture et de la Communication 2002‟
   Compendium Cultural Policies and Trends (Council of Europe Compendium of Cultural Policies and
Trends in Europe, 7th Edition: 2006) (
   Belgium and France figures (€245 and €189 respectively) have been converted to GBP to the nearest
pound using an exchange rate of 1.5 Euros to the pound.

 By comparison with Belgium and France, the UK figures seem extraordinarily
                                                          low. Although they potentially
                                                             miss out a proportion of the
Finland: A good funding system with high                      arts funding, they should
participation                                                  still    represent     the
In a European context, according to Eurobarometer, it is
                                                                majority of Britain‟s
the Scandinavian nations of Sweden and Finland, not             public investment in the
France, who are the European leaders in arts                    arts.    Public funding
participation. Finland‟s past close relationship with the       figures for England and
USSR, who imposed restrictions on artistic and creative         Scotland by level of
expression, makes their success particularly interesting.       government given by the
An international study of public spending on the arts           same source show that
published by Arts Council England in March 1998                 only 34% of England‟s
considered Finland‟s arts policy at length. In spite of a       funding and 38% of
highly centralised funding system, Finnish governments          Scotland‟s        funding
of the 1980s allowed the 455 municipal governments to           comes     from     central
take control of arts development through a system of                        25
subsidy incentives. As in the UK, a proportion of the
                                                                government .
money for the arts is raised from a national lottery and
the football pools. In 1992, 39% of Finnish lottery             Even if the figures do not
revenues were provided for the arts.                            bear comparison, it is
                                                                extraordinary          that
In the UK, by contrast, the National Lottery Act of 1993        provision of money for
provided for 20% of the 28% of Lottery revenue
apportioned to good causes to be spent on the arts, and         the arts is so variable
in 1998 that proportion was actually reduced to 16.23%.         within a single sovereign
The impressive Eurobarometer results for Finland                state,     the      United
suggest that prioritising the arts as recipients of Lottery     Kingdom.        Devolution
funding, and giving local councils the same incentives          and the splitting up of the
that Finnish municipalities get would significantly
increase arts participation in the UK. The arts in turn
                                                                Arts Council of Great
have the potential to play a central role in the                Britain have been key
government‟s aims of developing our creative industries         factors in creating a non-
and in fostering neighbourhood renewal.                        uniform arts funding
                                                              system in Britain of
                                                            perplexing complexity.

  Compendium Cultural Policies and Trends (Council of Europe Compendium of Cultural Policies and
Trends in Europe, 7th Edition: 2006) (


The British Foreign Office set up an international cultural organisation before
the Second World War, the body now known as the British Council. They do
sponsor some high profile international artistic prizes: In partnership with the
BBC, they have set up a radio play writing competition; the ninth biennial
International Playwriting Competition was held in 200526. But their main roles
are to support English language learning and facilitate international relations
through cultural exchange programmes. They have their own centres and
language schools abroad. They also arrange for „English assistants‟ to be
placed in schools abroad. Unlike the Goethe Institut in Germany who run their
own domestic language centres, however, in the United Kingdom the British
Council approve independent language schools but do not run their own.

A major current focus of the British Council‟s work is as a cultural liaison with
China with whom they have set up several high profile cultural exchange
programmes. With the support of HSBC, the British Council is setting up
school partnership projects between UK and Chinese schools, language
immersion courses, joint curriculum projects, Gap year schemes and language
assistant placements27.

Relations with China appear to have been given a significantly higher priority
than relations with Eastern Europe. This is surprising; since they joined the EU
in 2004, over 600,000 EU citizens from the A8 nations have come to Britain to
work28. In the 1940s, when the Second World War caused similarly high levels
of migration from Eastern Europe, the British Council set up Allied Centres.
At Allied Centres such as Polish Hearth, opened in 1940 to be „a centre of
Polish life in London‟, English classes, concerts and dances were organised for
migrants29. The British Council don‟t run any of these sorts of centres today.
Considering the sheer numbers of immigrants coming to Britain from these
areas, „integration centres‟ should surely be made a social, cultural and artistic

The French are also extremely pro-active in the field of international culture.
Since its foundation in 1922, the Association Française d’Action Artistique
(AFAA) has grown into an organisation that supports, for example:

      1500 projects in 140 countries on 5 continents
      5000 artists and companies

   BBC International Radio playwriting competition 2005
   British Council Learning: Partnerships with China
   Philip Johnston, „Biggest Migrant Influx in Britain‟s History‟ (The Daily Telegraph, 23/8/06)
  British Council (history): Allied Centres

      100 residencies for French artists abroad
      500 foreign professionals received in France
      in 2002

It has an annual budget of €20 million (2003)30.
AFAA promotes an international exchange of art and culture and presents an
enviable model.

Cultural organisations in other countries in Europe are prioritising creating
successful cultural exchange and integration programmes. In Austria,
KulturKontakt facilitates the cultural integration of central and eastern
European nations through their nine Project Offices and other
initiatives such as the Henkel Art.Award31. Domestically, they organise school
projects which bear slight resemblance to Creative Partnerships in England,
and a database of arts centres and organisations (KulturKontakt Austria CLUB).

   Une Histoire de L’AFAA, (10 of 11) (AFAA, 2002)
   KulturKontakt‟s website summary page: (


Eurobarometer shows that Sweden and Finland outperform us in most arts. In
cinema and theatre, arts participation in the UK compares favourably with the
rest of Europe. British arts participation compares well with France, and we
have the second biggest domestic film market and film production industry in
Europe behind them.

This does not change the fact that we could and should do better. In 2002 we
still lagged behind many European nations in artistic participation. It is
embarrassing that we do not obviously have a co-ordinated approach to
international cultural relations like the French or the Austrians or a British
equivalent of the Goethe Institut (Germany). It is conceivable that the British
film industry, given the stable domestic market, the advantageous linguistic
universality of English and perhaps the strong mix of different ethnic and
cultural influences that we encourage, could challenge the French to become
the biggest in Europe. Stronger funding support could help achieve this by
maximising participation at grassroots level and low budget film production.

Chairman Sir Christopher Frayling stated in his foreword to Arts Council
England‟s International Policy that „„international‟ is a state of mind and that
the arts council‟s aim was to put „„international‟ at the heart of what we do‟32.
To get the greatest economic and social benefit from the arts, we need the
government to put „international‟ at the heart of what they do as well. They
need to learn from the best practice abroad, invest in and implement it. They
need to show more ambition and invest more money, more consistently in
promoting and supporting our artistic industries, such as film, abroad. They
need to prioritise their creativity agenda. They need to recognise through
support for culture that the arts can provide effective solutions to important
international issues such as the acculturation of immigrants.

  International Policy (Arts Council England, June 2005)

                           SECTION 2

                         Arts: The National Picture

This section of the report focuses on the key public providers of arts and
support for the arts in Britain. It looks at campaigns in different areas of the
arts and assesses what can be done to increase interest and participation on a
national level. Where applicable, the implementation of national schemes is
considered on a local level.


The Arts Councils

UK arts provision is largely managed by local authorities and by the four Arts
Councils who distribute DCMS and Lottery money. In theory, their role is
apolitical, although in practice they often share government priorities. For
example, schemes such as Maximise, and Not for the likes of you, which
address ethnic minority engagement with and access to the arts, dominate both
issues of Arts Council England‟s 2006 audience development E-newsletters33.

The political climate in which the Arts Councils operate is also defined by
recent legislation. Key examples are the Human Rights Act (1998), the Race
Relations (Amendment) Act (2000) and the Disability Discrimination Act
(1995). The aims of these pieces of legislation are laudable: New Labour has a
„social justice‟ agenda aimed at helping excluded and minority groups in
society, just as the Old Testament laws in the book of Deuteronomy requires
provision to be made and assistance to be given to the widow, the fatherless
and the stranger.

The problem with their „legislation active‟ approach is that it can lead to
positive discrimination because a determination actively to incorporate these
groups into activities means that arts activities which do not specifically target
them can lose out to those that do. Moreover, for arts organisations to prove
that positive accommodation is being made for these groups, more and more
paperwork is involved in running artistic activities.

One of the UK‟s most famous circus entrepreneurs, Gerry Cottle, recently
spoke out about this issue. His comments are reported in The Daily Telegraph.
Having worked with Arts Council England as a member of the Circus Arts
Forum for several years, he is well placed to comment that they are „more
interested in “political correctness” issues such as diversity and disability than
in keeping old skills alive‟ and that the process has become „just more and
more paperwork about things like disadvantaged people. Are we going to
teach somebody high wire in a wheelchair‟34? Arts Council England‟s
response - „all public bodies have to abide by legislation like the Disability
Discrimination Act’35 - underlines the point that Mr Cottle is making: British
public bodies must be wary lest bureaucracy and positive discrimination
destroy our traditional arts.

   Audience Development E-news, Issue 1 and Issue 2 (Arts Council England, 2006)
   Nigel Reynolds, „Cottle opening circus school to safeguard Big Top skills‟, (The Daily Telegraph,
   Nigel Reynolds, „Cottle opening circus school to safeguard Big Top skills‟, The Daily Telegraph,

Partnership in the arts: Arts Council England and the BBC

Partnership, the sharing of skills and resources, and the ability of public bodies
to support arts and creativity schemes across a range of policy „portfolios‟ is
crucial to their future development. The BBC, with its secure core funding,
high market share in a range of media and local national and international
dimensions, is an ideal partner to the arts councils in their work. They have
already worked with the British Council to promote international art, and they
now have a formal partnership with Arts Council England which has already
led to the development of „new writing/ drama/ music and art films as well as
dance‟36. The partnership‟s work includes the celebrated film Billy Elliot37, and
the Big Dance event on Saturday 22nd July 2006 was broadcast nationwide on
television and radio.

A record-breaking day of dance, including the Big Dance itself, where 800
dancers performed 45 different styles of dance to the same piece of music, and
the Big Dance Class, held simultaneously at numerous venues around the
country, in which 8962 ordinary members of the public took part 38. This was
an event that clearly caught the imagination of the public. Alongside BBC
programmes such as Strictly Come Dancing it will help to build up interest in
dance. Still, it was to some degree an opportunity wasted. There was little
effort to advertise regular local dance opportunities through the local Big
Dance Class, nor to develop partnerships with local arts providers that would
have inexpensively given the programme sustainability as well as impact and
encouraged people to emulate the stars of Strictly Come Dancing and not just
sit and watch them.

This sort of work is an important step forwards. It generates significant
publicity for the arts in England. Moreover, there are signs that other arts
councils may co-operate in future projects of this nature. Such a move would
help to overcome the disadvantages of the 1994 split. Arts Council England‟s
visual arts strategy, „Turning Point‟ also reveals some positive signs. Scottish
pilot projects are mentioned in it which shows that they have at least
considered what is going on in the rest of the UK39. Arts Council England is
expanding its relationship with broadcasting and will soon publish a strategy of
collaboration with broadcasters in general. No concrete plans have been
developed yet, however, to incorporate the other arts councils and take
initiatives UK-wide40.

   Correspondence from Elonka Soros at the BBC (28/7/06)
   Billy Elliot production credits are listed by the Internet Movie Database
   Big Dance Class (BBC, 26/7/06) (
   Turning Point, (Arts Council England, 2006)
   Philip Cave (Arts Council England) telephone interview notes (James Evans, 9/10/06)

Arts Council Wales: the story behind the Wales Arts Review41

The Wales Arts Review arose from a crisis in Welsh arts created by the Welsh
Assembly Government‟s decision in late 2005 to seize control of many of the
Arts Council of Wales‟ (ACW) areas of responsibility. Culture Minister Alun
Pugh declared that six major organisations including Welsh National Opera and
the BBC National Orchestra of Wales would henceforth be funded directly by
the Culture Department; civil servants were to take over ACW‟s policy and
strategic responsibilities; ACW‟s chairman was not to be reappointed after
March 2006. All of these changes „were planned without any input from
hundreds of organisations across Wales, many of whom had profound doubts
about the proposals‟42.

Acting with the direct mandate of 25 Welsh arts organisations, the NCA
lobbied Welsh Assembly members to oppose the Assembly Government‟s
plans. On 1st February 2006, the opposition successfully halted the arbitrary
changes to Welsh arts and initiated the process leading to the ACW review.

Welsh arts organisations‟ successful resistance to the Assembly Government
provides reassurance about continued political support for arms-length
government involvement in arts provision. The Assembly Government‟s
attempt to seize control of ACW, however, indicates a controlling, top-down
approach to the arts. The Arts Council of Great Britain‟s independence could
not have been threatened by a Welsh Assembly. Subordinating the ACW to
become an instrument of policy was made possible and attractive by the joint
arts and political devolution in Wales.

Four organisations, Four agendas

Although the remit of the four Arts Councils within their separate spheres of
control is the same, their programmes for supporting the arts are different. The
Arts Council of Wales and the Arts Council of Northern Ireland appear to have
had comprehensive consultations about Lottery funding and impact which their
larger Scottish and English equivalents have not. The Scottish Arts Council
and Arts Council England seem to act like large armies passing in the night.
They create a lot of new initiatives, but don‟t necessarily share best practice.
For instance, Creative Partnerships only operates in England, whereas
Scotland has the only public arts and positive mental health project in the UK.
Currently, the only major area of Arts Council collaboration is the pooling and
analysis of their audience data led by Audience Data UK43.

When the Arts Council of Great Britain split into Arts Council England, Arts
Council of Wales and Scottish Arts Council in 1994, they cannot have intended

   Oliver Rickman, „Unleash the Dragon‟, in NCA News, (Spring, 2006)
   Oliver Rickman, „Unleash the Dragon‟, in NCA News, (Spring, 2006)
   Philip Cave (Arts Council England) interview notes, (9/10/06)

the lack of dialogue and failure to share best practice that has occurred. The
measure was no doubt seen as a means of enabling the safeguarding of local
culture and creating an independent voice for the devolved regions. Yet in
Wales, the Assembly Government attempted to sabotage their own Arts
Council in late 2005 to strengthen their control over the arts.

In Scotland too, devolved arts alongside devolved politics has created a
situation which has attracted the concern of leading artistic and creative
professionals. In a letter published by The Herald on 21st June 2006, some 45
Scottish film professionals wrote to express their fears about the Scottish
Executive‟s decision to amalgamate Scottish Screen and the Scottish Arts
Council to form Creative Scotland by April 200844.

On the one hand, this decision has caused Scottish Screen to drift creatively:
they are spending only £150,000 out of their £3 million Lottery budget on
script development. This is the same sum, less in real terms, that was available
to Scottish film development pre-devolution in 1989. Only £1.8 million (60%)
of the Scottish Screen budget is being spent at all. By failing to invest Lottery
money effectively to maximise film industry creativity, growth and
participation, Scottish Screen leave film-makers increasingly at the mercy of
third party production partners, making Scottish film companies „dependent
rather than independent, culturally as well as financially‟45.

Scottish Screen is clearly not succeeding at its job. Without a Scottish film
agency, however, the Scottish film industry could contract. Scottish film
professionals fear the impersonal scenario whereby international film-makers
calling Scotland will be answered by staff at a generic „talent and creativity‟
office. This lack of a dedicated and knowledgeable film agency staff, may
cause everything to „gravitate towards London‟46, which would carry a heavy
economic, artistic and creative cost.

   „Don‟t Let our film industry go down the pan‟, (The Herald, 21/6/06)
   „Don‟t Let our film industry go down the pan‟, (The Herald, 21/6/06)
   „Don‟t Let our film industry go down the pan‟, (The Herald 21/6/06)


The NCA arts briefing paper for the House of Lords47

On 5th May 2006, the National Campaign for the Arts put together a strong set
of arguments with supporting evidence for the economic contribution of the
arts to our economy and the well-being of society. This is a summary of their
key points:

      They assert the intrinsic importance of the arts to creativity48

„The arts and creative industries drive the UK‟s economy in many ways‟. We
must build on the arts to sustain and expand our creative industries.

      „The Tate Modern Gallery has brought the country an estimated £100
       million economic benefit, directly creating 467 jobs and supporting a
       further 1800‟

      „£25m of public investment allowed the theatre sector in the West
       Midlands to generate £264m of economic activity in the region‟

      Creative Industries exports contributed an estimated £11.6 billion to the
       balance of trade in 2003, around 4.1% of all goods and services exported
       from the UK

           ‘Creativity is a vital part of education’49.

      Creative Partnerships is doing a very good job. We need to ensure its
       future beyond 2008.

      Creativity changes minds: „50% of secondary school students in a study
       displayed radical change in their intellectual risk-taking capacity; and
       36% displayed radical change around thinking differently‟

      ‘The arts have the capacity to reach those people who find
       themselves disenfranchised and empower them to make a difference
       to their own lives’50.
   Briefing paper for the House of Lords debate on 11 May 2006:
“To call attention to the contribution of the arts to the economy and the well-being of society; and to
move for papers”
(National Campaign for the Arts, 5/5/2006)
( Available to NCA members only)
   Briefing paper for the House of Lords debate on 11 May 2006, (National Campaign for the Arts:
5/5/2006) ( Available to NCA members only)
   Briefing paper for the House of Lords debate on 11 May 2006, (National Campaign for the Arts,
5/5/2006) ( Available to NCA members only)
   Briefing paper for the House of Lords debate on 11 May 2006, (National Campaign for the Arts,
5/5/2006) ( Available to NCA members only)

      „The theatre company Cardboard Citizens have calculated that each year
       they enable 200 homeless people to engage with formal education,
       training and support services, and provide 400 weeks of paid
       employment to homeless actors and actresses‟.

      „The value of the arts and the creative industries in building cohesive,
       sustainable communities continue to be recognised across government,
       most recently in the inter-agency Where We Live! Initiative‟.

      The arts can transmit health messages and have a positive effect on
       health themselves51.

      A three-year Westminster and Chelsea hospital clinical scientific
       evaluation, A study of the effects of the visual and performing arts in
       Healthcare „demonstrated beyond doubt the arts‟ efficacy in improving
       patient outcomes, in reducing stress and anxiety levels, in reducing the
       need for analgesia and the length of hospital stay, as well as the
       importance of a pleasant environment in staff recruitment and retention‟.

      The international demand for arts and revenues generated from
       artists touring the UK are important to the economy. Arts also
       make an important contribution to intercultural dialogue and

The 2005 Edinburgh Fringe Festival featured 16,190 performers from all over
the world, in 1,800 shows across 247 venues, with more than one and a quarter
million tickets sold.

The role of an Arts Council: the perspective of the NCA

The National Campaign for the Arts‟ publication of 16th August 2006
responding to the recent Wales Arts Review provides a model for how an Arts
Council should operate. Their comments were made in relation to Arts Council
Wales, but stand as a general set of principles and priorities. The document is
available online to members of the NCA.

Here are a selection of the NCA‟s most important points with respect to arts
participation and the role of Arts Councils and government in promoting the

   Briefing paper for the House of Lords debate on 11 May 2006, (National Campaign for the Arts,
5/5/2006) ( Available to NCA members only)
   Briefing paper for the House of Lords debate on 11 May 2006, (National Campaign for the Arts,
5/5/2006) ( Available to NCA members only)

      Partnership: „the arts in Wales need a long-term and coherent funding
       strategy involving partnership between ACW, umbrella bodies, local
       authorities and individual organisations‟53.

      Access and Inclusion: „a central body is necessary to promote and co-
       ordinate increased involvement of the arts in social policy and to
       improve the pattern of arts education‟ but „access and inclusion are
       affected by many factors including education, transport, economics and
       social mores, and the arts cannot be expected to tackle these issues

      Arts not politics: „It is important that the body representing the arts and
       allocating government funding to arts organisations has no other agenda
       than that of serving the best interests of the arts sector‟55.

      Quality and quantity: „There must be a balance between development
       in terms of increasing audiences and participant numbers, and sustaining
       and improving artistic standards…. The body responsible for the
       strategic direction of development in the arts across Wales must be
       aware of the need for this balance, able to sustain it, and qualified to
       assess artistic merit‟56.

      Art not bureaucracy: „the primary function of arts organisations is the
       production of art and Government should seek to reduce bureaucracy
       and encourage long-term perspectives in arts funding‟57.

      Potential impact and funding requirements: „Government should
       recognise that arts funding can result in improvements in areas such as
       community life, health and education…a relatively small investment in
       the arts can yield big results both economically and socially. However,
       the arts sector is highly vulnerable to financial insecurity and a reduction
       in arts funding in real terms will have a detrimental impact on arts

Although „access‟ and „inclusion‟ are important issues in the arts, the NCA‟s
statements does not focus on an agenda of positive discrimination; they also
advise that the arts should be independent, not hostage to a political agenda.
The NCA advise a reduction of bureaucracy and a balance between broadening
participation and maintaining standards of artistic excellence. They also stress
the importance of coherent artistic provision achievable through secure funding

   National Campaign for the Arts Response to Wales Arts Review, (NCA: 16/8/06)
   National Campaign for the Arts Response to Wales Arts Review, (NCA: 16/8/06)
   National Campaign for the Arts Response to Wales Arts Review, (NCA: 16/8/06)
   National Campaign for the Arts Response to Wales Arts Review, (NCA: 16/8/06)
   National Campaign for the Arts Response to Wales Arts Review, (NCA: 16/8/06)
   National Campaign for the Arts Response to Wales Arts Review, (NCA: 16/8/06)

streams and an effective partnership between all the bodies and individuals
involved in the arts. This report broadly endorses the NCA‟s vision.


A patchy progression: Arts and mental health in Scotland

The system of multiple arts councils results in a patchy implementation of arts
projects across the UK, with different arts councils leading the way on different
projects. For example, one arts professional who had worked with the Scottish
Arts Council explains that there is no doubt that „Scotland having autonomy in
terms of health and cultural policy has meant that they were much further
forward‟ with their Arts and Mental Health strategy than the rest of the UK 59.
Arts Council England has not published a full arts and mental health strategy
even though detailed discussions were being held on this topic in England a
couple of years ago60, and a review of the medical literature with some very
positive findings was carried out for them by Dr Rosalia Staricoff in 200461.

It is a great pity that arts and mental health is not a priority on the political
agenda for England, since it could make a strong contribution to the
government‟s neighbourhood renewal programme. Mrs Cook, the occupational
therapist who runs Wexham Park Hospital‟s Therapeutic Day Unit asserts that
better funding would enable her to take her programme out into the
community, reducing the stigma attached to mental illness, help the mentally ill
to socialise in an unthreatening environment, and possibly double participation
in the programme62. She also envisages that this process could be taken even
further, with sufferers of mental illness being able to use their creativity to
return to economic productivity.

The urgent need to help Mrs Cook‟s vulnerable clients in this way is
emphasised by the comments of one of those clients, Ruth, in July 2006. In
spite of living in the Slough area for many years she doesn‟t „really have many
friends locally‟ where „there‟s meant to be a community and there isn‟t any‟63.

The cost of a lack of care, support, integration and understanding for the
mentally ill and those with learning disabilities is made clear by a report from
the Disability Rights Commission (DRC) released in September 2006. The
DRC‟s analysis of 8 million health records from England and Wales shows that
people from these groups are more likely to develop serious health conditions
younger and die of them sooner. Even so, they are less likely to to receive
some of the important evidence-based treatments and health checks than others

   Paul Murray telephone interview notes, (James Evans, 1/8/06)
   Culture and Health Think Tank at Alder Hey Children‟s Hospital, Liverpool (10/11/04)
   Dr Rosalia Stariacoff, Arts in health: a review of the medical literature (Arts Council England, 2004)
   Mrs Cook interview notes (James Evans, 13/7/06)
   Ruth interview notes (James Evans, 20/7/06)

with the same condition but without a mental health condition or learning

The DRC chairman blames a „lazy fatalism‟ within the system; the British
Medical Association accept that the findings of the report are „deeply
worrying‟, and the government could face legal action under the Disability
Discrimination Act if the situation does not improve65. The report points to a
culture of discrimination and misunderstanding. Scotland is not exempt from
the DRC‟s scrutiny and a call is also being made for a review of primary care
provision north of the border66. Investment in a preventive health and arts
programme across the UK, which would also strengthen understanding and
support within the community, is desperately needed.

Arts and mental health: Arts Council England and the Department of

Arts Council England are due to publish their prospectus agreement with the
government and a strategy on arts and mental health in November 2006. They
are interested and involved in this area, but they will continue to deliver
financial support exclusively through their application-based grant system.
Positive consultations with the Department of Health over issues such as care
in the community form key elements of the prospectus, but it is not clear that
the government has made any commitments yet to increased funding support.

A comparison of arts and health provision in Slough and South Downs reveals
the huge benefits that funding to increase arts participation and therapy could
bring. A priority in healthcare in the mid-1990s, Mrs Cook perceives that long-
term work with the mentally ill is now under threat due to lack of funding.
Occupational therapy jobs are being „frozen or cut‟ within a culture where there
is pressure to meet quantitative targets and secondary mental health care is seen
as „the icing on the cake‟68. As a result, the range of services that the Day
Centre can provide is dependent upon the non-professional aptitudes and
interests of the staff, and the ability of externally funded groups such as Art
Beyond Belief, to provide programmes for Mrs Cook‟s clients69.

Without additional funding, Mrs Cook cannot take her scheme into the
community, a move which might double participation and enable the economic
rehabilitation and resocialisation of her clients. Within the confines of the Day

   News Release, Disability Rights Commission, (14/9/06)
   BBC report, (13/9/06) (
   News Release, Disability Rights Commission, (14/9/06)
   Meli Hatzihyrsidis (Arts Council England) telephone interview notes (James Evans, 13/10/06)
   Mrs Cook interview notes (James Evans, 13/7/06)
   See below, pp.53-4

Centre, her work is having a profoundly beneficial effect. Her client Ruth
asserts that Mrs Cook saved her life70.

Mental illness is having a huge and increasing economic effect in the UK: a
recent survey by the Health and Safety Executive shows that an estimated 12.8
million working days per year in Britain are lost as a result of self-reported
work-related stress, depression or anxiety71. Community health schemes and
good mental health education could reverse this trend. As a result of learning
to express herself in a different way through art, Ruth‟s „not as uptight‟ and is
„more inclined to view my problems in a different way‟ 72. She‟s „sure there‟s
many who could benefit‟ from learning to create art in the way she has done
and is a firm advocate of teaching schoolchildren to do art in a less
prescriptive, more expressive way73.

South Downs NHS takes a much more positive approach to Arts and mental
health, which Jess, who has worked with the art therapy team at the Wish Day
Hospital in Hove, thinks is probably unusual74. They use art sessions to help
hospital patients acclimatise in a non-threatening environment. Art is available
for both for in and out-patients. The use of art in therapy has also been taken
out into the community; every General Practice has a mental health nurse, and
there are three drop-in centres in the area to which patients can be referred for
music, art and yoga. Their supportive partnership with the progressive local
council has been a key factor in enabling South Downs to provide this high
level of service.

The council also take a pro-active approach to art in schools, giving youngsters
the chance to perform at the Brighton Pavilion, for instance. Even here,
though, Jess believes that more could be done, citing an emphasis on emotional
education. In Brighton, there is also an inequality of artistic provision: most of
the facilities are located in and around the town centre, away from the deprived
housing estates which desperately need the health, social and economic boost
that community arts could provide. The message is the same as that from
Wexham: to maximise the impact of the arts we need to fund and locate them
at the heart of needy communities.

   Ruth interview notes (James Evans, 20/7/06)
   Health and Safety Executive website (
   Ruth interview notes (James Evans, 20/7/06)
   Ruth interview notes (James Evans, 20/7/06)
   Jess interview notes (James Evans, 21/8/06)


Creative Partnerships

Creative Partnerships is a strong example of a scheme that has a proven track
record under the aegis of Arts Council England. The programme brings artistic
professionals into schools to help invigorate the curriculum and foster young
people‟s creativity. Since it was launched in 2002, the scheme, which operates
in 36 LEAs, has:

      Worked intensively with 1100 schools and has disseminated best
       practice to another 4000. A total of about one in five schools in England
       have had contact with the programme.
      worked with 450000 young people and 46000 teachers
      trained 28000 teachers and creative practitioners
      employed 4250 creative practitioners and cultural organisations75

Creative Partnerships represents a significant investment in the artistic
industries and support for young people‟s creativity. Independent research by
Burns Owen has revealed that over 60% of Creative Partnerships‟ money is
invested in creative practitioners; by 2008 the total will amount to almost £80

Government in England and Scotland are very interested in the Creative
Industries and Creativity in education. In England James Purnell, then minister
for creative industries, emphasised in his speech to IPPR on 16th June 2005, the
Creative Industries in Britain already „employ 2 million people…and account
for a twelfth of our economy, more than in any other country‟ 77.In his St
Andrew‟s Day speech of 2003, Scotland‟s first minister, Jack McConnell
emphasised „the vital role of arts and culture in economic and social
development‟ and his desire to„make the development of our creative drive, our
imagination, the next major enterprise for our society‟78.

To have a chance of realising this vision, we need to expand the application of
creativity. One new initiative for doing this, Paul Roberts‟ 2006 report,
„„Nurturing Creativity in Young People‟‟, has recently highlighted new ways,
such as the Creative Portfolio, in which children‟s creative at school can be
endorsed as a qualification for future employment79.

   Patty Cohen (Creative Partnerships Slough) interview notes (James Evans, 6/7/06)
   Patty Cohen (Creative Partnerships Slough) interview notes (James Evans, 6/7/06)
   James Purnell, „Making Britain the World‟s Creative Hub‟, speech to IPPR (16/6/05)
   First Minister Jack McConnell, St Andrews Day Speech (30/11/03)
   Paul Roberts, Nurturing Creativity in Young People, (DCMS, 2006)

Creative Partnerships can also be significantly expanded; their work currently
only impacts on one school in five in England80, although Creative
Partnerships advises schools outside their LEA catchment areas. Public
funding for schools outside the Creative Partnerships LEAs wishing to set up
projects with creative partners is now available through the CARA (Creativity
Action Research Awards) scheme initiated in January 2005 with grants of
£4500 to almost 150 schools in England81. Funding for Creative Partnerships
is secured until 2008, and discussions are currently being held as to its future
form and role.

Managed through Arts Council England, Creative Partnerships currently only
operates in England; there are no plans to adopt a similar scheme in Wales or
Northern Ireland82. In Scotland there has been recent interest in the scheme
and they may be in the process of setting up a similar system. It is a shame that
the four Arts Councils system appears to have limited discourse and restricted
the spread of this scheme around the UK. Nurturing creativity through
partnership represents investment both in grassroots and professional creative
activities, with all the attendant economic and social benefits.

We may currently be ahead of Europe in our thinking on creativity, but we
must continue to develop our schemes and support them pro-actively and
financially if we wish to retain that position. It is significant that in continental
Europe, our historical rivals, France, have been quick to see the benefits of a
Creative Partnerships scheme. The French government is considering
establishing a similar scheme for all French schools. They have been in
discussions with Creative Partnerships in Paris and are due to cross the
Channel to observe Creative Partnerships‟ work83.

 Creative Apprenticeships

£400,000 of central government money has been invested in this scheme.
Launched in September 2006, the pilot will provide up to fifty youngsters with
an opportunity to take up professional positions with leading arts organisations
such as EMI, the Royal Opera House and the Sage music and arts centre at
Gateshead84. It is surprising that the government has not linked the scheme to
Creative Partnerships. The two would complement each other to maximise
young people‟s opportunities for ongoing participation in the arts by facilitating
pathways into professional participation in the Creative Industries. Modern
   Creative Partnerships Website (
   Creativity Action Research Awards Grants Scheme
   Summary of Conversation with David Parker, Head of Research at Creative Partnerships, (James
Evans, September 2006)
   Summary of Conversation with David Parker, Head of Research at Creative Partnerships, (James
Evans, September 2006)
   Alistair Smith, „Creative industries to launch apprenticeship scheme for teenagers‟, (The Stage,
18/07/06)) (

apprenticeship schemes in the arts could be publicised through Creative
Careers fairs such as the one that Creative Partnerships Slough runs annually
at Thames Valley University85.

Cultural Leaders

The government is investing £12 million in this new programme to create
“opportunities for people to move between the arts and business, to gain
experience, to gain leadership skills, to draw on some of the great management
expertise that exist in business”86. These are the words of the Chancellor of the
Exchequer, Gordon Brown, who, along with Tessa Jowell, has thrown his
weight behind the scheme.

The training this scheme will provide could be linked to progression in the arts
through Creative Partnerships and Creative Apprenticeships. Cultural Leaders
could also give a substantial boost to arts participation by empowering people
to create new arts initiatives and to fundraise for them effectively, in particular
through National Lottery community arts grant schemes such as „Awards for

It might have been hoped that the Cultural Leaders training scheme would
follow the excellent CATS (Community Arts Training in Slough) model
developed by Andy Lee and his Slough Arts Development Team. Since the
free training scheme was launched in 1995, Andy estimates that successful
local funding applications have generated some £3 million in grants, at a cost
of only £35–36,000 to the Borough87. The scheme worked particularly well
because it complemented the application-based grants scheme through which
National Lottery money is apportioned for the arts. Unfortunately, Cultural
Leaders’ focus is on continued professional development in the cultural
sector88. The provision of training and advice for local grant applicants is
therefore set to remain patchy.

Flight Paths

The British Council no longer provides Allied Centres to help immigrant
groups integrate socially and artistically into their new communities. The
Home Office Refugee Integration Challenge Fund does provide finance for 77
projects to support migrants. Incredibly only one of the projects funded in
2005, Flight Paths, was arts-based; this is in spite of the positive impression
that the scheme made on the Home Office, who awarded it a five star rating
and beacon status in December 200589. Flight Paths and similar schemes

   Patty Cohen (Creative Partnerships Slough) interview notes (James Evans, 6/7/06)
   Charlotte Higgins, „£12m Cultural Leaders' scheme launched‟, (The Guardian, 21/6/06)
   Andy Lee (Principal Arts Development Officer, Slough Borough Council) (James Evans, 22/8/06)
   Cultural Leader website (
   Susan Elkin, „Helping Refugees fly high‟, (The Stage, 16/2/06)

should be encouraged and expanded because they work towards a number of
political priorities.

Flight Paths helps refugees such as John Morales, from Columbia, who are
also performing arts professionals. By training Mr Morales as an arts in
education practitioner, Flight Paths is enabling him to use his talents to foster
artistic creativity in young people; both Tessa Jowell and James Purnell have
stressed the importance of creativity to DCMS policy in speeches within the
past two years. Moreover, teachers have identified a need for more adults in
schools with an ethnic minority background, and there is also a shortage of
people with drama skills helping to develop learning across the curriculum90.

Schemes like Flight Paths therefore support integration, ethnic diversity,
creativity amongst young people, artistic activity at professional and grassroots
levels, and fill skills gaps. The scheme also involves artistic expertise and
partnership from the private sector, having been set up jointly by Lyric
Hammersmith, Oval House Theatre, Greenwich and Lewisham‟s Young
People‟s Theatre, Green Candle and Cloth of Gold91.

     Susan Elkin, „Helping Refugees fly high‟, (The Stage, 16/2/06)
     Susan Elkin, „Helping Refugees fly high‟, (The Stage, 16/2/06)


Extended Schools

The government‟s programme to transform schools into year-round community
learning facilities is due to be initiated across the United Kingdom. By 2008, a
third of all secondary schools and half of all primary schools will be open from
8am-6pm all year round; by 2010, all schools will provide access to a range of
extended services92. Although these extended services will not consist solely
of extra-curricular arts activities, the extra funding will make it easier for
schools to find time for them; in many schools, arts clubs are currently
crammed into 45 minute lunch breaks.

The DCMS‟s current policy target, as iterated by both Tessa Jowell and James
Purnell, is to make Britain the world‟s creative hub. An emphasis on creativity,
a process whose basis is usually rooted in the arts, makes sense for
communities and for industry: the creative industries in London alone „generate
over £20 billion in turnover and display one of the fastest growth rates of job
creation in any sector‟, according to Graham Hitchen, the head of Creative

Artsmark and Specialist Schools

Arts provision in schools has been boosted by Artsmark and by the Specialist
Schools initiative. Artsmark is a series of awards set up by Arts Council
England which encourages schools to increase the range of arts they provide
and to raise the profile of arts education throughout England. In spite of the
fact that it carries no funding benefits, Arts Council England has received over
4000 applications for Artsmark status since the first awards were made in
January 200194.

Primary schools have been particularly interested in the scheme in spite of their
relatively low levels of arts resources95. Perhaps Artsmark has provided
primary schools with an opportunity to refocus their teaching system and
perspectives. At Gallions Primary School in Beckton, East London, the
majority of the curriculum is already taught through the arts. The positive
attitude of the students and the results at the school are impressive96.

Although Gallions have been able to fund their music tuition themselves, the
additional cost to the school is some £37,000 a year. It would be worth

   Paul Roberts ed., Nurturing Creativity in Young People, (DCMS, 2006)
   Graham Hitchen, „Creative Capital‟, in NCA News, (Spring, 2006)
   Matthews Millman, The Impact of Artsmark on schools in England: Executive Summary (Arts
Council England, 2006)
   Matthews Millman, The Impact of Artsmark on schools in England: Executive Summary (Arts
Council England, 2006)
   Notes from visit to Gallions Primary School, (James Evans, 26/6/06)

considering a form of financial assistance which rewards initiatives such as
theirs, like a Specialist Schools scheme for primary schools.

The Specialist Schools scheme for secondary schools was initiated by the
Conservatives in 1995 and follows on from the City Technology Colleges
scheme started in the 1980s. New Labour took on and expanded this education
reform and it has already been claimed as a great success. Specialist Schools
perform above the national average. Figure 8 below shows comparative data
on schools performances at GCSE in 2005 as provided on the Specialist
Schools and Academies Trust‟s website.

Figure 8. Educational outcomes and value added by specialist schools 200597

Type          of No. of KS2            Actual      Predicted     Value   Net Value Added vs.
Specialism       Schools 2000          5a-c        5a-c 2005     Added   Non-Specialist
                                       2005                              Schools
Academy           14        24.3       35.5%   29.5%             +6.0%   +9.0%
Humanities        16        27.4       64.4%   59.3%             +5.1%   +8.1%
Technology        533       27.1       58.8%   56.4%             +2.8%   +5.8%
Science           207       27.4       61.9%   59.3%             +2.6%   +5.6%
Language          175       27.5       61.8%   60.3%             +1.5%   +4.5%
Arts              298       26.9       55.9%   54.5%             +1.4%   +4.4%
Business          146       26.9       55.8%   54.5%             +1.3%   +4.3%
Maths             140       27.3       58.5%   58.4%             -0.1%   +3.1%
Engineering       33        26.9       51.9%   54.5%             -2.6%   +0.4%
Sport             273       26.7       50.8%   52.6%             -1.8%   +1.2%
Music*            3         n/a        n/a     n/a               n/a     n/a
Ave. for all 1,838          27.1       58.0%   56.4%             +1.6%   +4.6%
Ave. for all 1,090          26.4   46.7%       49.7%             -3.0%   n/a
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These figures are slightly misleading; 80% of all mainstream maintained
secondary schools are now Specialist Schools or academies, so there are a
dwindling number of schools to compare the specialist colleges to. Arts
colleges and music colleges do not stand out especially for the value-added
performance of their students in the table. The key message of the Specialist
Schools and Academies Trust‟s (SSAT) 10th Annual Lecture at the Royal
Opera House on 16 May 2006 was how schools raising standards across the
curriculum through the arts, with innovative activities and productive
partnerships between schools, business and the community leading the way 98.

   Specialist Schools website,
   Specialist Schools website,

The recent introduction, in 2003, of Humanities and music colleges, also makes
an assessment of their impact premature99.

For the objective observer, the importance of the academic boost given to arts
by Specialist Schools and vice versa is difficult to judge. The authors of a
recent independent research piece for the charity RISE by Frances Castle and
Jennifer Evans from the Institute of Education noted that „much of the evidence
provided by Government has been inconclusive or methodologically

The most important effect of having specialist arts colleges is the increased
emphasis and investment in local arts partnership and participation. Having
one specialist status gives schools a public funding boost of £100,000 plus up
to £129,000 a year101. A recent article in The Stage shows that Specialist
performing arts schools are investing in more academic courses, new facilities,
residencies for professional artists, and partnerships with artistic professionals
and the local community, including marginalised groups102. Windsor Boys
School invests in Windsor Arts Centre and the arts centre shares its facilities
and expertise and collaborates with the school on educational projects. The
Windsor Arts Centre has already made a big difference to local education with
the success of its project for students at risk of exclusion103.

Education at a glance (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development, 2006)

In the light of inconclusive evidence from the government about the effect of
Specialist Schools in boosting educational attainment, it is interesting to note
the concerns of the OECD, about the levels of educational attainment in the
UK. In a study of higher education in 30 countries, the UK came top in
investment in schools, but has fallen below the OECD average for numbers of
students participating in post-16 education104. The fact that record levels of
money going into schools have failed to produce a comparative increase in the
number of students taking A-Levels and going to university may indicate that
the focus of investment, rather than the quantity of investment is wrong. A
focus on arts, creativity, and human resources might yield better results than
the spending spree on computer equipment indicated by the Telegraph‟s
leading article on the report105.

  Specialist Schools website,
    Frances Castle and Jennifer Evans, Specialist Schools – What do we know?, (RISE, February 2006)
    Susan Elkin, „Aiming Higher‟, (The Stage, 27/4/06)
    Susan Elkin, „Aiming Higher‟, (The Stage, 27/4/06)
    See below, pp.60-1
    Liz Lightfoot, „Billions Spent but UK schools still fail‟, (The Daily Telegraph, 13/9/06)
    Liz Lightfoot, „Billions Spent but UK schools still fail‟, (The Daily Telegraph, 13/9/06)


Music – The One Million More Young Musicians Campaign

Music education and participation is an area that highlights the patchiness of
UK arts provision and also its fundamental importance to our creative

Numbers of students taking GCSE and A-Level Music Exams over the past 15
years have grown by nearly 71% from 34,249 in 1990 to 58,511 in 2005106.
Even when the changes made in Curriculum 2000 are taken into consideration,
this represents a steady growth in interest. There have only been two exam
years, 1991 and 1998, when numbers taking music been lower than the
previous year.

Figure 9. Numbers of students taking GCSE and A-Level Music Exams107

Year                                               Number of Candidates
1990                                               34,249
1991                                               33,440
1992                                               34,157
1993                                               35,127
1994                                               37,327
1995                                               38,313
1996                                               42,589
1997                                               43,738
1998                                               42,449
1999                                               45,375
2000                                               46,289
2001                                               46,310
2002                                               48,436
2003                                               51,954
2004                                               56,763
2005                                               58,511

Numbers of students taking practical instrumental exams, a key component in
instrumental teaching and learning have also increased in recent years. Figures
on the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music‟s (ABRSM) website
show that, in 2005, 277,732 practical music exams were taken compared to
268,170 in 2001, a 3.6% rise108. However, the figures have not risen
consistently; in both 2003 and 2005, numbers taking practical exams were
lower than in the previous year. Given these fluctuations, it would be
dangerous to claim that participation was being increased substantially.

    Statistics provided by AQA on request.
    Statistics provided by AQA on request.
    Exam entry statistics (ABRSM, 2001-6) (

ABRSM Research

Drawing from an online questionnaire e-mailed to 176 members of the Music
Masters and Mistresses Association (MMA), the Associated Board of the
Royal Schools of Music (ABRSM) created a detailed comparison of music
provision in state and private schools. Some headline statistics can be seen in
figure 10 below. Given the small number of respondents from State Schools,
State School data had to be obtained from a public survey of 23 Music Services
in 2005.

Figure 10. Music Provision in Schools109

                                     State Sector                         Private Sector
Average Pupil Numbers per teacher 117 pupils                              28 pupils
Percentage of pupils receiving 23%/77%                                    93%/7%
individual/group tuition
Proportion of learners playing in 35.5%                                   104.1%
music ensembles
Proportion of KS1-4 school students 8.4%                                  50%
receiving regular instrumental/vocal
Number of respondents                4                                    101

The consistent disadvantage of State School pupils in music provision is laid
bare in these figures. Surprisingly, although most music tuition in State
Schools takes place in groups, there is a much higher participation rate in
ensembles at Private Schools as well as a much higher rate of individual
tuition. These figures appear to reflect a tendency in state education to rely
upon the academic music teacher to organise instrumental and ensemble music
as well. This means that although students learn in groups in scheduled
academic music lessons, extra-curricular provision is subject to the time-
constraints of a small and pressurised music staff. In many state schools, all
the music tuition is provided by a full-time staff of one or two.

The danger of the erosion of financial support for music in State Schools is not
restricted to England. A recent article in Classical Music states that guaranteed
funding for music in Welsh schools has been removed110. Thirty-two leading
Welsh musicians including the composer Karl Jenkins and the operatic tenor
Bryn Terfel have recently written to the Welsh first minister, Rhodri Morgan,
to express their concerns. They want a Welsh „music manifesto‟ to ensure that
music provision does not become „a lottery‟ with „a profoundly destructive
effect on Welsh music‟111. The music development fund Estyn, which was set
    Instrumental/Vocal Tuition in Private and State Schools, (ABRSM, 2006)
    Glyn Môn Hughes, „Music Cuts hits Welsh Schools‟ in (Classical Music, 29/4/06)
    Glyn Môn Hughes, „Music Cuts hits Welsh Schools‟ in (Classical Music, 29/4/06)

up by the Welsh Assembly, has discovered that already nearly all local
authorities have reduced musical instrument budgets and teaching time for
music has been reduced112.

The importance of instrumental music education to encouraging creativity is
underlined by ABRSM‟s campaign. The supporters of the campaign include
not only the Music Education Council and Conservatoires UK, but also Music
Business Forum, whose members represent creative and progressive British
music businesses113. The benefits of music education to brain development are
scientifically proven and the ABRSM campaign cites supporting evidence from
the research of Professor Susan Hallam from the Institute of Education about
the general educational benefits of music114. Having to learn to play the violin
or cello has transformed the attitudes of children at Gallions Primary School. It
has made them „much kinder, much more tolerant, and much more able to

Children‟s education is a priority for the government: Gordon Brown pledged
to match education spending in the State sector to that in the private sector in
the long term. According to figures quoted in the National Campaign for the
Arts‟ Dance Manifesto which was presented to the Minister for Culture in July
2006, the government already invests £10 million a year in Youth Music, 100
times what they currently invest in Dance116.

Even so, the government‟s investment currently falls woefully short of meeting
the chancellor‟s budget commitment to equalling private educational provision
in state schools. To do this would require the additional funding and tuition to
create 2 million more young musicians, twice ABRSM‟s more realistic target.

In addition to this money, the government supports a range of music initiatives.
The DfES launched a dedicated Music Manifesto in July 2004, with five key
pledges to promote and sustain young people‟s interest in music117. Until 2008,
Local Authority (LA) Music Services receive £59 million from the Music
Standards Fund each year to promote musical development118.

The government have introduced many young people to instrumental music
through Youth Music Action Zones and Wider Opportunities programme.
These schemes have clearly been successful: Research conducted by Ofsted,

    Glyn Môn Hughes, „Music Cuts hits Welsh Schools‟ in (Classical Music, 29/4/06)
    For details see ABRSM material; MBF letter to Lord Adonis or Supporting organisations document.
    Professor Susan Hallam, „Music – as important as the three Rs‟ (Institute of Education, 30/1/06)
    Bernadette Thompson in „A future for Classical Music in Britain‟, Proceedings of the 2005
NCEM/ISM Conference on Classical Music, (NCEM/ISM, 21/9/05)
    NCA Dance Manifesto, (NCA, July 2006)
    The Music Manifesto and associated pledges, Music Manifesto website,
    One Million More Young Musicians Campaign Overview, (ABRSM, 2006)

following pilots of the Wider Opportunities programme, revealed that at least
70% and in some cases up to 100% of pupils participating in these schemes
wanted to continue their instrumental tuition119. However, as ABRSM also
point out in their One Million More Young Musicians campaign documents, „no
funding or strategy is in place to allow children who demonstrate an
enthusiasm or aptitude for learning to play an instrument to receive ongoing
instrumental tuition‟120. Extended Schools provides a framework to put that
tuition into place.

To maximise participation in music and make good on their educational
pledges, the government must show joined-up thinking in their approach. It is
unwise to Creative Apprenticeships and Creative Partnerships could both
generate enthusiasm and provide access to music for young people. The
government‟s Extended Schools programme is a fantastic opportunity to embed
creativity into school curricula across the UK. The strong industry support for
ABRSM‟s campaign shows that music participation is essential to achieving
that vision.


Britain has the second biggest film industry in Europe. A comparison of The
Eurobarometer culture survey and Arts Council England‟s arts participation
survey showed that, relative to other EU nations, Britain also has an extremely
strong stage drama sector; perhaps as many as 7% of the population participate
in drama121.

The proof of drama‟s marketability as an artistic skill in the UK is the
proliferation of private organisations such as Stagecoach Theatre Arts plc.
Stagecoach was set up in 1988 by Stephanie Manuel and David Sprigg. The
Stagecoach franchise has since proliferated to provide tuition for children and
teenagers at more than 500 schools throughout the UK122. There are also now
schools abroad in Germany, Australia, Canada, Gibraltar, Ireland, Malta, Spain
and the United States.

Figure 11, below, shows how a strong interest in acting amongst the young has
led to a substantial increase in the number of students taking theatre studies
exams for GCSE and A-Level.

    One Million More Young Musicians Campaign Overview, (ABRSM, 2006)
    One Million More Young Musicians Campaign Overview, (ABRSM, 2006)
    See above, p.14
    Stagecoach website (

Figure 11. Number of students taking Theatre Studies Exams123

Year                                                 UK Candidates for Drama exams (GCSE and
1990                                                 46593
1991                                                 50287
1992                                                 55858
1993                                                 59746
1994                                                 66848
1995                                                 71775
1996                                                 82559
1997                                                 85438
1998                                                 83130
1999                                                 87309
2000                                                 91305
2001                                                 96318
2002                                                 100268
2003                                                 98554
2004                                                 100119
2005                                                 99596

The number of candidates for drama exams in the UK has risen very
substantially since 1990, with numbers reaching the 100,000 mark in 2002.
Even given the increases which the inclusion of AS statistics since Curriculum
2000 may have caused, there has been a large growth in academic participation
and interest amongst the young.

There are signs that this interest has filtered through to professional acting; in a
July 2006 article for The Stage, Simon Grover investigated the increasingly
fierce competition for work amongst professional actors. Here is a summary of
his findings124:

        Positive indicators:

        BBC television and radio drama output up:

        First run hours: television – 453/year                radio: 1180/year

        More theatre production companies than ever – 1500 in London alone

        The Conference of Drama Schools (CDS) claims that „there are now
         more jobs available in the acting profession than at any time in its

      Statistics provided by AQA on request.
      Simon Grover, „No work but more plays‟, (The Stage, 6/7/06)

                Negative Indicators:

        Most CDS schools Mr Grover contacted „said there was less work than
         ever because…there are so many more actors chasing it‟

        For the last 30 years, one repertory theatre has closed every 18 months.

        Only around 30% of people calling themselves actors have more than 10
         weeks‟ acting work per year.
        Of the 4,000 annual drama degree graduates, only 20% find drama-
         related work within six months.

Mr Grover‟s conclusions were sobering: even if the number of jobs in drama is
increasing, it has not kept pace with a doubling of actor numbers over the last
fifteen years125.

There is a strong will to participate in drama at an elite level, but it is not
matched by the consumer base. This is partly because the economic profile of
drama in the UK has been skewed by television. At the top end of the UK
drama market, with an audience of millions, television shows like EastEnders
can offer lucrative salaries to a relatively small number of actors. In personnel-
heavy audience-light repertory theatres around the country, every show is a
financial risk. About a decade ago, financial problems nearly caused the
Theatre Royal in Windsor to close.

The Theatre Royal is not part of the high grossing top-end of professional
drama, but maintaining effective links between stage and screen is important.
Provincial stage drama provides a boost to tourism, and jobs for a large number
of actors and backstage workers. A large number of the UK‟s best-known
television and film actors, such as Patrick Stewart, Sir Ian McKellan and
Damian Lewis, trained and regularly perform on the stage. The well-known
British film director Sam Mendes first won acclaim as artistic director at the
Donmar Warehouse theatre. Playwright Alan Bennett‟s The History Boys and
The Madness of George III, both now adapted as films, were written as stage

The History Boys exemplifies the economic potential of professional drama and
the importance of continued financial support for it. The stage play was first
performed to great acclaim at the National Theatre in London. It has gone on
to be a huge success on Broadway. The film release coincides with the final
Broadway performances in early October 2006. The film is British-produced,
by BBC film and DNA film for a cost of only £2 million. The film is also

      Simon Grover, „No work but more plays‟, (The Stage, 6/7/06)

British-directed, by Nicholas Hytner, artistic director of the National Theatre.
Discussing the recent success of the play and his theatre, he emphasised to
Fiona Maddocks from the Evening Standard the importance of public money to
the arts: „life for the arts has been totally transformed‟ by „a small amount of
investment‟ and „turning off the tap at this point would be disastrous‟126.

Theatre work is crucial to maintaining the high standards of the UK‟s dramatic
output. Stage drama can also play an important role in community
regeneration and the promotion of cultural diversity within the UK. At the
West Wing arts centre in Slough, a locally-founded group, Rifco (the Reduced
Indian Film Company) Arts, performed their own work, „The Deranged
Marriage‟, to sell-out audiences last October127. Rifco decided to base
themselves in Slough from 2000 onwards „in order to refocus our successful
community work in our home town‟128. This link between community
development and the arts is supported by Arts Council England. It has already
helped the West Wing. Since „The Deranged Marriage‟ was performed there,
numbers of users and visitors to the centre have increased to the point where it
has hit capacity and is in desperate need of break out space129.

    Fiona Maddocks, „The Boys are back in Town‟, (The Evening Standard, 28/9/06)
    Yasmin Gurreeboo (West Wing Venue Manager) interview notes (James Evans, 2006)
    Rifco Arts‟ website (
    Yasmin Gurreeboo (West Wing Venue Manager) interview notes (James Evans, 2006)


National Arts development is patchy, hampered by the lack of a single UK-
wide arts body. Good ideas need to be discussed and disseminated better, and
we need a clear strategy to maximise the potential of existing systems or to
change them. It is also crucial that arts bodies retain a large measure of
independence from politicians. Although a positive attitude to „inclusion‟
agendas is important, the focus should be changed from monitoring the specific
individuals who participate to maximising the overall numbers and
opportunities. The benefits of investment in arts education, arts therapy, and
local arts provision need to be recognised with investment as well as words.
Only then can we be the best in Europe.

                            SECTION 3

           Local Arts: Funding, Empowerment and Partnership

It is impossible to understand the situation of arts participation in the UK
without a study of local arts. Local Authorities are the key public investors in
arts in the UK, and amateur arts participation at a grassroots level provides a
structure for creativity and a starting point for the development of professional
artists. Because they are important social activities, supporting community arts
also represents an investment in the developing and regenerating communities.
The section of this report focusing on local arts is based on a series of
interviews conducted with arts professionals and others with Windsor and
Slough providing the basis for detailed case studies.


Although the West Wing is a new venue, its success has a lot to do with longer-
term arts development in Slough. Slough‟s principal Arts Development
Officer, Andy Lee, has worked with Slough Borough Council since 1994, when
he became their first Arts Development Officer. In twelve years under his
leadership, the Arts Development Team have built up the Arts provision in
Slough from a very low resource base. When Mr Lee came to Slough, the
town had no gallery and no theatre. Now, through their free arts leadership
training programme, they have helped local organisations generate some £3
million pounds of investment for arts projects. Slough now has its own
performance venue, the West Wing. With cross-council co-operation, public art
has been put at the centre of a £5-£6 million pound regeneration scheme for
Slough High Street that is being created in 2007.

Arts and social cohesion in slough

In Slough, there is a particularly large immigrant population. Government has
not been able to cater fully for the social needs of this population; there has
been no attempt to revive the British Council‟s Allied Centres that sprung up in
the 1940s. Slough also has a high ethnic minority population, and is a useful
model to look at minority and disadvantaged groups.

Art Beyond Belief started up from David Sparrow‟s idea to re-interpret the „Via
Dolorosa‟ or „Stations of the Cross‟ by commissioning new art work for each
station by artists from a range of different faiths and traditions. Inter-faith
dialogue and artistic interpretation continues to be part of their work; Art
Beyond Belief is currently working on a project to represent the life of the ninth
Sikh guru, who is also a Hindu martyr. However, many of their projects focus
on using art to work with disadvantaged and marginalised groups in the Slough
community, with religious values as a guiding principle, but art as the medium.

For their Music into Upton project, Art Beyond Belief brought an Irish musician
to the geriatric unit at Upton hospital in Slough to perform and work with the
patients. The project ran for six months. During this time, the performer
played to:
     196 patients per month
     120 staff
     18 visitors per week (conservative estimate)

In another project, My Story, Mr Sparrow and his team set up video interviews
between 36 people from marginalised groups and minorities in the Slough area.
Their work with stigmatised groups continues; they are soon due to start their
Kaleidoscope project with victims of domestic violence and clients from Mrs

Cook‟s Therapeutic Day Unit at Wexham Park Hospital130. The project uses
digital photography and photo manipulation software.

Participants will be in control of the art they create. Ruth‟s experience at
Wexham Park Hospital illustrates the importance of client-led therapy. Before
Mrs Cook took over the unit, Ruth‟s recovery was hindered because she was
told to draw happy pictures and that „the best therapy was not to draw‟ the dark
images planted in her mind by years of abuse131.

Art Beyond Belief has great potential, both as an organisation that promotes
inter-faith co-operation and discourse focused around art and as an organisation
that uses art to reach out to disadvantaged social groups. However, the nature
of the current funding system is a barrier to their work. Whether their
applications are successful or not, Mr Sparrow and his team have to spend an
enormous amount of time filling in applications and waiting for responses, and
he believes that they could offer much better value for money if a public
organisation „could instigate core funding‟ for their work132.

Slough’s broad approach to the arts

Mr Lee emphasises how Slough‟s unique approach to supporting the arts has
enabled them to achieve extraordinary success over the past twelve years. In
the neighbouring Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead, funding is
directed into existing arts projects such as Windsor Arts Centres and Windsor
Festival. He feels that this approach can be very prescriptive, since it ring-
fences money and limits investment in innovation. In Slough, after an audit
funded by Southern Arts established what little arts provision existed there in
1994, Mr Lee and the local council developed a strategy that worked from the
other end, tapping into local initiative, reflecting the cultural diversity of the
area and focusing on sustainable amateur activity.

Slough‟s plan for the arts has four key aims:

            Engage/empower local people through the arts.
            Develop new facilities.
            Improve the local environment with a public arts strategy.
            Revitalising the town centre through the arts.

            Engaging/Empowering Local People – CATS

Mr Lee‟s work over the past twelve has encompassed all these aims. Without
the right start, Slough might not have achieved any of them. With the full
support of the Borough Council, no less than a „leap of faith‟, he launched

    See above, pp.34-6.
    Ruth interview notes (James Evans: 20/7/06)
    David Sparrow (Art Beyond Belief) interview notes (James Evans, 27/7/06)

Community Arts Training in Slough (CATS) in 1995. This free programme
aimed „to demystify the arts funding system‟ giving „artists, cultural
organisations and local groups the confidence they needed to plan, fundraise,
manage and promote their own cultural enterprises‟133. In spite of initial
cynicism about CATS, it has been an enormous success, with interest from
„housing associations, day centres, women‟s groups, youth centres, health
projects and even a chiropodist‟134. The scheme had an immediate positive
effect on the quality and range of the applications for funding and led to a
significant increase in the number of applications from minority ethnic

Although CATS required some initial „leg work‟, in the past few years, the
course has filled itself simply „through word of mouth‟135. In 1997 when the
Lottery distributors, whose initial outlay had targeted large capital projects
launched a funding scheme aimed at communities, residents of Slough
Borough were well-prepared: and 40 applications were submitted to the Arts
for Everyone pilot scheme, more than any other town in the South East, of
which 15 were successful136. Since the full scheme came online from April
2000, a large number of applications have continued to come from Slough. To
date, funding applications from Slough have generated some £3 million in
grants; the capital outlay on the CATS training scheme is approximately £35-
£36,000; this represents a hundredfold return on Borough arts investment.

With the support of Arts Council South East, Slough Borough Council
published a pamphlet in 2004 called „„Slough Inspired‟‟ to celebrate the
success of CATS and draw attention to the local people behind initiatives
which have attracted funding. One particularly impressive success story to
which Mr Lee draws attention to is that of Dele Williams. Mr Williams came
to Slough from Nigeria in 1995 to study Law, but quickly realised that „there
was virtually nothing‟ that represented his culture in the area137. After an initial
discussion with Mr Lee, he was able to set up a platform for an African dance
troupe to perform in Slough. Mr Williams attended the CATS course in 1996
and found it an extremely positive experience that gave him „a great deal of

Dele has become a skilled fundraiser and had raised over £1 million at the time
when „„Slough Inspired‟‟ was published. In 1998, he set up the National
Institute of African Studies in Slough. He has also created numerous other arts
and education projects as well as training schemes for doctors and workers
specialising in HIV to work in Africa and the UK. All his projects have been
created with an eye on long-term sustainability of funding, and Dele is now
    Andy Lee, „Unlocking Creative Communities‟ (ArtsProfessional, 21/4/03)
    Andy Lee, „Unlocking Creative Communities‟ (ArtsProfessional, 21/4/03)
    Andy Lee interview notes (James Evans, 22/8/06)
    Andy Lee, „Unlocking Creative Communities‟ (ArtsProfessional, 21/4/03)
    Slough Inspired (Slough Borough Council, 2004)
    Slough Inspired (Slough Borough Council, 2004)

taking a step back from his fundraising and project management to concentrate
on his legal career, with the intention of pursuing arts as a performer and
director in his spare time.

        Developing New Facilities in Slough

Following on from the success of the CATS scheme, Mr Lee and his team have
been crucial in the creation of a performing arts venue in Slough. The West
Wing only opened in 2005, but this was probably an ideal moment because of
the base of funding and artistic talent now established in Slough. It is located
in the same building as Arbour Vale special needs school and Creative
Partnerships Slough, a site whose potential as the creative hub of Slough could
be expanded through extension and investment following the removal of the
school from the site in September.

Ms Gurreeboo, venue manager at the West Wing explained that the events held
at the West Wing had now taken off. Amateur performance events such as
“Wing It! – Play in a week”, as well as shows in the West Wing‟s theatre, are
now reaching full capacity. Arts participation at the West Wing has been given
a significant boost by Rifco Arts, a successful film and theatre company
established in Slough in 1997, who put on their first show at the new venue in
October 2005. Not only was it a sell-out, but the West Wing were also able to
use its success to cross market for their other events. The viability of a
permanent theatre in Slough has no doubt been made possible by the
development over twelve years of an arts base driven by the local community
and facilitated by the Arts Development Team.

        Improving the Local Environment with a Public Arts Strategy

Mr Lee explained that creating and installing public art that meets public
approval can be challenging. Slough has enabled the community to engage
with public art by involving local people in the design and creation of the
pieces; this is reflected in Slough‟s literature which gives details of each project
under the three headings „Background‟, „Local involvement‟ and „Outcome‟.
He cites the example of The Bird Tree a sculpture installed in Slough town
centre in 1999. The tree was created by the sculptor Giuseppe Lund; the birds
were all designed by local people and some children even had the chance to
make their own birds139. Local engagement in the project is illustrated by the
fact that more people voted for the design than voted for the local councillor140.

        Revitalising the Town Centre through the Arts

Public art can have a direct as well as an indirect economic impact. Next year,
Art at the Centre, Slough‟s ambitious plan to revitalise the High Street, will be
      Arts in Public Spaces - Slough (Slough Borough Council)
      Andy Lee interview notes (James Evans, 22/8/06)

completed with new permanent public art installations, redesigned paving,
piazza space and seating. The plans are explained in detail in an Art at the
Centre booklet141. The project celebrates Slough‟s multicultural heritage with
ideas such as Slough Journeys, inscribed fragments from poems about journeys
by 20 of the world‟s most celebrated poets142. The new High Street lighting,
designed by Simon Watkinson also has a local theme: the astronomer Herschel,
discoverer of Uranus, who lived in Slough from 1786 until his death in 1822143.

The key to realising the High Street redevelopment project has been cross-
departmental partnership at Slough Borough Council. The core contribution to
the £5-£6 million cost of the project comes not from an arts fund but from
across the council budget, and in particular the highways fund. Money was
also received from other sources, including a £50,000 Art Plus Award from
Arts Council England, South East and the South East England Development
Agency144. The project was managed by the Council‟s planning department.
Local support for the controlling group on Slough Council probably reflects
people‟s approval of this kind of work. Significantly, in their Slough local
election victory in 2006, Labour made gains at the expense of the other parties,
bucking the national trend.

Towards the future in Slough: Funding and communication

Mr Lee does not view the funding situation in Slough in black and white. For
him, the idea of a money pot to prime the pump of local arts provision „can
actually work against you‟145. Funding that you have to spend leads to a „cycle
of giving money out‟146; the key is to have flexible financial resources, such as
the Lottery grants to community projects that enable the project leaders to take
the initiative and budget proactively. The Lottery grants enable arts to be
funded through the grassroots up approach which Mr Lee favours. His vision
of effective collaboration and partnership also begins within the community.
Mr Lee stresses that the person whose ideas and collaboration could most
benefit his arts programme in Slough is Christine Wilkinson, a local artist,
rather than a national politician.

Many people in the arts world have been interested in Mr Lee‟s work in
Slough. He enjoys strong support from Arts Council England, and recently
spoke at a national conference in Belfast in 2003 about his work 147. Given the
success of Slough‟s arts programme, run by Mr Lee for the past 12 years, it is
surprising that other local councils in the area, such as Windsor and
Maidenhead, have not taken on elements of Slough‟s approach to the arts. It is

    Art at the Centre: Revitalising Slough High Street (Slough Borough Council)
    Art at the Centre: Revitalising Slough High Street (Slough Borough Council)
    „William Herschel‟, Wikipedia (
    artsinfo newsletter, May-June 2005, (Slough Borough Council, 2005)
    Andy Lee interview notes (James Evans, 22/8/06)
    Andy Lee interview notes (James Evans, 22/8/06)
    Andy Lee, „Unlocking Creative Communities‟ (ArtsProfessional, 21/4/03)

to be regretted that the government‟s £12 million Cultural Leaders programme,
beginning in September 2006, does not provide the structure for similar
training to Slough‟s CATS to be offered around the country.

There is huge potential for the arts development model in Slough to be
disseminated around the country. To follow Slough‟s example, local councils
need to nurture a grassroots community focus and empower local people to
plan their own initiatives and fundraise for them. They also need to keep faith
with a consistent development plan and show joined-up thinking, offering co-
ordinated support for the arts across the different funding portfolios; in Slough,
this approach has freed up the money for a range of important arts-led projects
that transcend the walls of theatres and impact upon society, including the 2007
regeneration of Slough High Street.


The growth in arts participation and investment in Slough show the benefits
that planning, co-operation and training bring to arts initiatives. Over long
periods of time, the development of institutions and consistent public and
private investment in and support for them are also crucial. This is suggested
by the aspirations of Mrs Cook and Mr Sparrow, and illustrated by the
experience and opinions of other local arts organisers in Slough and Windsor.

Windsor Arts Centre

Windsor Arts Centre has been at the centre of arts activity in Windsor for 25
years, and the approximate breakdown of the thousands of people who use the
centre‟s facilities in figure 12 below reflect its position as a hub of artistic
activity in Windsor. In spite of this, it runs on a shoe-string budget; figure 13
shows how the core funding provided to them by the Royal Borough of
Windsor and Maidenhead amounts to only 16% of their running costs.

Figure 12. Usage of Windsor Arts Centre148

Professional performers per year (ave.)                            c. 300
Amateur performers per year including bar (ave.)                   c. 800
Members of the Arts Centre                                         868
Non-member audience/participants                                   c.4,000

Figure 13. Windsor Arts Centre Proportional Funding149

Core funding from the Borough                            16%
Windsor Boys School (Performing Arts Status)             10%
Own Income from Box Office                               28%
Fundraising from Trusts etc.                             25%
Lettings (e.g. parties and tango classes)                8%
Membership                                               2%
Sponsorship                                              1%
NB. The remaining 10% is made up of donations, merchandise, cinema advertising etc.

The majority of the running costs of Windsor Arts Centre are generated directly
by their team, or indirectly through time-consuming fundraising from trusts.
They have to keep costs to a minimum, operating with only nine paid staff and
about 50 volunteers, and everything has to be done for nothing or next to
nothing. They have not received Arts Council funding since the 1980s150.

    Interview with Graham and Kathy, (General Manager and Director, Windsor Arts Centre) (James
Evans, 20/7/06)
    Interview with Graham and Kathy, (James Evans, 20/7/06)
    Interview with Graham and Kathy, (James Evans, 20/7/06)

Having endured a period of financial difficulty a few years ago when they
nearly had to close, the Windsor Arts Centre has altered with the arts
environment around it. The key idea appears to be one of partnership. The
Windsor Arts Centre are at the heart of artistic activity in Windsor, holding
their „open mike‟ events, art classes and workshops, housing their own theatre
and arts cinema, hosting artists in residence and art exhibitions. They work
with the Windsor Festival and the Windsor Fringe Festival and also have links
with local arts centres, theatres youth centres and businesses151.

       The potential benefits of increased funding

Despite the positive artistic endeavours apparent in Windsor, the situation
could be greatly improved with additional funding to the Arts Centre. The
general manager feels that the Arts Centre has „never got the funding that
venues like this deserve‟152. He has a very clear plan for how additional
funding could be invested. Extra public funding would enable the Arts Centre
staff to increase the quality of their programme and to employ a marketing
manager to raise awareness of what the Arts Centre offers to the local
community153. He is confident that they could quadruple the numbers of
people using and benefiting from the Arts Centre154.

Windsor Festival

Windsor Festival is an annual arts event which has been running since 1969. It
includes concerts, literary events, guided tours and an education programme.
The main festival programme for 2006 runs from 19th September for
approximately two weeks. At the heart of the original project are the local
buildings and venues including Windsor Castle, the Guildhall and Eton College
Chapel. Celebrated artists, musicians and authors from the local area and
beyond get involved; Yehudi Menuhin was one of the first artistic directors of
the event155.

Although the festival is supported by the local council and community, it is run
by Martin Denny and his company Martin Denny Management, a private
organisation which manage a number of artistic initiatives. They have
considerable experience running local arts events and working with public
bodies such as Windsor and Maidenhead Borough Council and Arts Council

Windsor Festival gets only a small proportion of its funding from public
sources. This is comprised entirely of a grant from the Royal Borough of

    Interview with Graham and Kathy, (James Evans, 20/7/06)
    Graham and Kathy interview notes (James Evans, 20/7/06)
    Graham and Kathy interview notes (James Evans, 20/7/06)
    Graham and Kathy interview notes (James Evans, 20/7/06)
    Windsor Festival 2006 Programme

Windsor and Maidenhead for 5% of its costs. Until about twenty years ago, the
festival received a grant from Arts Council England. Indeed, it was one of the
first festivals to receive funding from the Arts Council, from Windsor
Festival’s inception in 1969, and used to have a close working relationship
with them: Keith Jeffrey from the Arts Council used to attend Windsor
Festival‟s Board meetings156.

Mr Denny sees the Windsor Festival as a local initiative, and it is one that gives
a huge boost to local arts: the number of people who attend the events has risen
from approximately 4000 in 2001 to 13000 in 2005, more than a threefold
increase in participation. He anticipates that any additional public funding
would be likely to come from the local council. If such money were to be
offered, it would be invested into activities of direct benefit to the local
community. The festival would be able to launch a large programme of free
activities, to bring activities and events into the local libraries and to expand
their programme of performances into schools in the Royal Borough. The
programme would be spread more widely around the Royal Borough of
Windsor and Maidenhead.

Mr Denny is insistent that the quality and nature of people‟s participation in the
arts is extremely important; he drew a comparison between the person who
watches a performance of The Ring Cycle and the person who buys a copy of
The Da Vinci Code, both of whom might be counted in the DCMS‟s „Taking
Part‟ survey to have participated in an artistic event. For participation to be
meaningful in his eyes, the event has to generate informed interest. This means
that the participant is or becomes interested by the art that they are engaging
with, but also get an understanding of the process and potential for
development in that art. Mr Denny‟s particular concern was that television
culture presents an instant formula for success which simply does not exist:
four weeks at a reality television-style training camp could not turn a local
amateur orchestra into an ensemble of the quality of The Halle Orchestra, for
example. In Mr Denny‟s view, a failure to make children aware of what they
could achieve and the years of hard graft required to achieve it could kill off
their musical potential.

To encourage young people to develop their artistic potential, The Windsor
Festival is running competitions in four disciplines – two-dimensional art,
three-dimensional art, creative writing and music composition. They aim to
create a link between artistic potential, artistic enthusiasm and the process of

The competitions are open to senior school students around the Borough and
submissions are made as documents or pictures of art by e-mail, making the
competition relatively inexpensive to run. A panel of judges who are experts in
the requisite artistic field then judge between them, awarding a first, second
      Martin Denny interview notes (James Evans, 11/8/06)

and third place prize in each category. Work is put into a public exhibition and
the young contributors have the chance to view some of the exceptional pieces
in the same artistic area from the Royal Collection at Windsor Castle, with the
winners receiving their prizes and a tour of the Royal Library. The awards
consist of cash prizes both for the successful students and for their Heads of
Department to invest in their department for the school.

The competitions have attracted about 400 submissions in their third year, and
are a project which the Windsor Festival‟s management are keen to extend in
the form of workshops in schools to develop skills and encourage participation.
The links to artistic heritage and the professional artistic community mean that
participants in the Windsor Festival‟s art competitions can simultaneously be
proud and realistic about their art and progression into a creative career. Mr
Denny feels that the competition shows them that their work „has a
creative/artistic value which is beyond the syllabus‟157. The same sort of
thinking led Paul Roberts, in his recent report for the DCMS, „Nurturing
Creativity in Young People‟, to recommend the development of individual
„Creative Portfolios‟ by children, to go alongside their school qualifications158.

Like Mr Lee in Slough, Mr Denny wants to develop the potential of his project
through contact with an important figure in local arts. Bill Kenwright, the
theatre entrepreneur, owns the Theatre Royal in Windsor. The Festival does
not currently have the use of a theatre for drama and being able to do so would
open up a new venue and a new dimension for their events. Successful local
arts professionals can bring value and cultivate partnership opportunities for
local communities.

Artistic partnership in Windsor

The Windsor Arts Centre‟s strong partnership with Windsor Boys School, a
local school which has specialist status as an arts college, is particularly
important. It is a model for the DCMS vision of an educational collaboration
that supports grass roots and professional art and creativity. The school
provides 10% of the Arts Centre‟s funding and along with Creative
Partnerships Slough, played an important role in helping the arts centre when it
ran into financial difficulties a few years ago. The arts centre has facilities,
such as the large theatre, which Windsor Boys‟ School campus does not have.

Windsor Arts Centre now has a full time education officer and staff possess
skills which have already provided effective support to the educational
programme at the school. Last year Windsor Arts Centre ran an arts-based
project for Windsor Boys‟ students at risk of exclusion. The programme was

      Martin Denny interview notes (James Evans, 11/8/06)
      Paul Roberts, Nurturing Creativity in Young People (DCMS, 2006)

completely successful: all the students returned to full-time study at the

The facilities also create opportunities for marginalized and minority groups
within the community to perform and engage with the general public. In July
2006, the theatre area was being used by Windsor Art Centre‟s theatre
company in residence, No Handbags Theatre Unlimited, who work with
performers with learning disabilities160. Windsor Arts Centre has a Disability
Arts programme to improve access and break down barriers within the
community. They have installed a public lift over the summer and „are
constantly working to make Windsor Arts Centre a fully-equipped and
accessible building‟161. They have recently set up „The Art of Communication‟,
a project which challenges people‟s perception of communication being limited
to words162.

With Windsor Festival a largely self-funding enterprise, its organizer Mr
Denny is able to offer interesting insights into partnerships with public arts
bodies from a fairly neutral perspective. His comments on the work of Arts
Council England are extremely interesting. On the one hand, he explains that
they are extremely good and well-organised as a partner for touring opera,
which needs to be subsidised on account of the high costs, in particular of
rehearsal. When he has worked with them on this, the Arts Council has done
extremely valuable and effective work as a liaison, acting as a go-between for
venues and opera groups as well as a providing key funding for the programme.

Mr Denny is also very keen to work with a new Arts Council England
initiative, Decibel, which promotes world music. In spite of the excellent idea
behind the scheme, however, he finds „it‟s almost as though they‟ve only done
one half of the transaction‟163. Arts Council England arrange events and issue
promotional material but do not do the liaison role of evaluating acts or
matching them up with suitable event managers. This means that Mr Denny,
who has not yet been able to attend a Decibel event, has no recommendation or
experience to enable him to book performers for Windsor Festival. This can be
contrasted with Arts and Business, a private enterprise which focuses on
matching up businesses and artistic organisations.

Schemes could be more intelligently targeted for funding partnerships. A good
example of this is the Southbank Sinfonia, which guarantees a certain amount
of performance and revenue to professional musicians in their first year after
graduation, easing the transition into a difficult professional environment. This
scheme could have been funded by the Arts Council, but in the event has had to

    Graham and Kathy interview notes (James Evans, 20/7/06)
    Graham and Kathy interview notes (James Evans, 20/7/06)
    Disability Arts pamphlet (Windsor Arts Centre)
    Disability Arts pamphlet (Windsor Arts Centre)
    Martin Denny interview notes (James Evans, 11/8/06)

draw its finance from private sources. They benefit only and indirectly from
public support to host venues164.

Mr Denny is very positive about partnerships with other local organisations.
He sees them as the most efficient way of sharing expertise and resources; with
co-operation at the heart of broadening awareness of related events amongst the
local community. Windsor Festival does not work closely with Windsor Fringe
Festival, established in the 1970s, since the two occur at the same time and
focus on different types and sizes of project. It does, however, collaborate with
the Windsor Arts Centre. Through close ties and working relationships with
Creative Partnerships Slough, Windsor Boys‟ School performing arts college,
the Windsor Festival and the Windsor Fringe, Windsor Arts Centre is ideally
placed at the centre of the artistic life of Windsor.

      Supplied by Paul Nicholson on request (21/8/06)


Eton College is involved in a number of initiatives to share arts resources and
expertise with State Schools. Their Harrow Partnership scheme is co-ordinated
by Mr Clark.

The group consists of Eton College, Harrow and St. Helen‟s from the
independent sector and Sacred Heart (Language College), Harrow High (Sports
College), Rooks‟ Heath and Canon‟s from the state sector.

The Harrow Partnership is led by Sir John Rowling and receives £20,000 of
public funding from the DfES. This covers the essential costs of the project
including transport and cover lessons. Eton College teachers contribute their
time and expertise, often without charging the partnership, and the facilities of
the College are used by the project. Eton College also caters for visiting
Partnership staff and students at its own expense.

The Partnership covers a range of curriculum areas – Science, English, Maths,
fine arts and music technology. The key aims of the project are:

    To enrich curriculum studies.
    To support Gifted and Talented schemes.
    To raise achievement, especially amongst pupils in the C to D range.

The ISSP project is monitored carefully and funding is dependent on meeting
targets to raise achievement.

In the past academic year, the Partnership has offered two arts courses in which
Eton College has been involved. They held a silk screen printing workshop for
GCSE students over six Saturdays and a one day course in music technology.
Approximately 70 children in total attended the seven sessions, about ten pupils
per session.

It is too early to make any concrete judgements about the outcome of the
project since this was its first full year of operation. There will undoubtedly be
evaluation by the pupils, but it is currently unavailable. The feedback must
have been positive, as the scheme is due to continue next year.

Eton does quite a lot for secondary schools and sports clubs in the area; there is
a music technology project with the Slough and Eton School, which involves
sharing the expertise of Eton‟s head of music technology with staff from
Slough and Eton and sharing Eton‟s own music technology resources on an
occasional basis. Eton‟s commitment to local primary schools, however,

currently consists, in Mr Clark‟s words, of „fiddly little things165‟. This phrase
encapsulates the free access to their swimming pool, for example, and the free
loan of stage lights to the Eton Porny School for their annual play.

Next year Mr Clark intends to work with two local primary schools, The Eton
Porny and Eton Wick School. The government has given the schools £30,000
to enrich and develop their curriculum.

The Porny School has already decided are keen to provide instrumental tuition
for every student, and it is clear that if a partnership were to be agreed, Eton
College Music Schools have the resources to be able to play a key role in the
delivery of this programme. For example:

       They have a pool of regular music teachers who work with them and
        some might be prepared to take lessons at the Porny School or to teach
        Porny students at Eton‟s own facilities.
       Eton owns a pool of musical instruments which it might be prepared to
        lend to Porny students.
       The practice and performance facilities at Eton College could be lent to
        the Porny students for concerts and practices.

There have been a considerable number of government initiatives to make extra
money available for schools. „Beacon Schools‟ and „Leading Edge‟ for
secondary schools are good examples. By these programmes, government has
sought to bypass local authority scrutiny and control and inject money directly
into the projects where it is needed. However, Mr Clark is concerned that there
may be a lack of the „strategic investment‟ and „effective planning‟ which are
essential to creating sustainable and useful innovation166. The pressure on
already full school timetables has meant, for example, that although the
headmistress of the Porny would very much like to make use of Eton‟s art
facilities, the only available time, on Saturday morning, is outside normal
school hours167.

Mr Clark accepts that teaching the National Curriculum and implementing all
the government directives such as the Literacy Strategy and the Numeracy
Strategy did remove a lot of valuable curriculum time in primary schools that
could otherwise be used for arts and sports. However, he believes that the
government‟s aim, consistent with their recently declared strategy to reduce
National Curriculum influence to 50% of the school timetable, was to
encourage schools to loosen up and be more creative, and that under the present
system „you can effectively come off the curriculum treadmill, so long as you
can prove that what you are doing is meeting the overall objectives of a sound

    Mr Clark interview notes (James Evans, 4/7/06)
    Mr Clark interview notes (James Evans, 4/7/06)
    Mr Clark interview notes (James Evans, 4/7/06)

education‟168. This is in effect what Gallions School in Beckton are doing by
taking a flexible approach to the National Curriculum and delivering it through
the arts.

The reason why schools generally do not do this, in Mr Clark‟s opinion, is
SATS. Primary and secondary schools are judged by the performance of their
pupils in these assessed examinations and so naturally the schools are desperate
to ensure good results, if necessary by concentrating on SATS to the detriment
of creativity and non-core subjects within the curriculum. Mr Clark suggests
that SATS were one of the Unions‟ major concerns about the current
educational system169.

      Mr Clark interview notes (James Evans, 4/7/06)
      Mr Clark interview notes (James Evans, 4/7/06)


Local arts in Slough and Windsor make for an interesting and revealing case
study for arts in the UK. Slough Council‟s success shows what can be
achieved through co-operation across the portfolios and investment in training.
It is a model in this regard for central as well as local governments. In
Windsor, arts partnership schemes are developing well, but under-investment
in arts facilities means that a great opportunity to increase general participation
in the arts is being missed. A better and more consistent balance of public
investment needs to be established for the arts to thrive and participation to
increase. In education, independent/state school partnerships are having a
positive effect, but there is a need for more joined-up thinking to maximise the
benefits that private institutions like Eton College can provide.


Broadly speaking, statistics on arts participation in Britain and Europe show
that the UK is not doing badly. Britain is one of the better nations in Europe in
some areas of the arts and close to being the best in drama and cinema.
However we could, and in light of the numerous benefits to society, should be
doing much better, and we need to improve significantly if we wish to become
„the world‟s creative hub‟.

Nationally, the creative and artistic drive is being hampered rather than helped
by devolution. We need to apply joined-up thinking and be careful to ensure
that the impact of effective partnership schemes such as that between the BBC
and Arts Council England is maximised through effective information
networks and sustained by collaboration with established local organisations.

Investment in the arts is inconsistent between the arts councils, and good
initiatives such as Creative Partnerships need to be rolled out UK-wide to
maintain our artistic and creative momentum. Similarly, the arts could provide
a huge boost to community integration, renewal and positive mental health,
helping to break down the barriers of discrimination and prejudice. But
additional funding is required to bring arts and arts therapy into the heart of
deprived communities.

At a local level, building up partnerships and cultivating initiative through
training programmes hold the key to attracting investment in the arts. Slough‟s
CATS programme stands out for the £3 million that practitioners have raised
on the back of some £35-£36,000 of investment. Slough Council‟s cross-
portfolio support for the arts is typified by their progressive and ambitious
plans for the regeneration of the High Street. It shows how arts can be placed
at the centre of economic renewal.

The UK must not neglect the benefits of increasing funding to established arts
venues and projects. It is important that investment is properly accounted for;
at the Windsor Arts Centre and at Art Beyond Belief, however, additional core
funding appears to represent good value for money, with the potential to yield
huge social dividends and, in the context of the government‟s creativity
agenda, economic gains as well. Traditional funding systems need to run
alongside pioneering arts projects like the ones happening in Slough to ensure
the long-term sustainability of our local arts, and it is essential to promote
discourse between councils and sharing of best practice.


Arts Council England (ACE) (

      Clare Fenn, Ann Bridgwood, Karen Dust, Lucy Hutton, Michelle Jobson
      and Megan Skinner, Arts in England 2003: attendance, participation
      and attitudes, (Arts Council England: 2005)

      Arts Council England, International Policy (ACE: June 2005)

      Arts Council England, Introducing the Cultural
      Leadership Programme (ACE: June 2006)

      Matthews Millman, The Impact of Artsmark on schools in England and
      The Impact of Artsmark on Schools in England: Executive Summary,
      (Arts Council England: 2006)

      Arts Council England, Turning Point (ACE: 2006)

      Arts Council England Audience Development E-news Issue 1 and Issue
      2 (Arts Council England: 2006)

      Andy Feist, Rod Fisher, Christopher Gordon, Charles Morgan with Jane
      O‟Brien, International data on public spending on the arts in eleven
      Countries. (Arts Council England: 1998)

      Dr Rosalia Stariacoff, Arts in health: a review of the medical literature
      (ACE: 2004)

      Culture and Health Think Tank at Alder Hey Children‟s Hospital,
      Liverpool      on       Wednesday       10      November        2004.

      Arts Council England, Our Agenda for the Arts 2006-8 (ACE: 2006)

Arts Council of Northern Ireland (ACNI) (

      Arts Council of Northern Ireland, Review of Lottery Schemes: Summary
      Report (ACNI: 31/3/03)

Arts Council of Wales (ACW) (

      Arts Council of Wales, Arts and Young People Action Plan 2005/6
      (ACW: 03/05)

ArtsProfessional magazine (

      Unlocking Creative Communities, Andy Lee, ArtsProfessional 21 April
      2003, p.5

Associated Board of       the      Royal   Schools   of   Music   (ABRSM)

      Music exam entry statistics , 2001-5 (ABRSM: 2001-6)

      Research report on Instrumental/Vocal Tuition in Private and State
      Schools (ABRSM: 2006)
      MBF letter to Lord Adonis (Music Business Forum: 2006)

      Supporting Organisations (ABRSM:2006)

      One Million More Young Musicians Campaign Overview, (ABRSM:


      Exam Statistics, 1990-2005

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) (

      The Big Dance Class

      BBC International Radio playwriting
      competition,                                                   2005

      BBC report, 13/9/06, on Disability Rights Commission report (NHS
      discrimination against the mentally ill and those with learning
      disabilities) (

British Council (

      Allied Centres (British Council History Website)

      British Council Learning: Partnerships with China

Classical                       Music                               magazine

      Glyn Môn Hughes, „Music Cuts hits Welsh Schools‟ in Classical Music,
      29/4/06, p.9

Council of Europe (

      Compendium Cultural Policies and Trends (Council of Europe: 2006
      (7th Edition)) (

Creative and Cultural Skills (

      Spotlight on Cultural Leadership (Creative and Cultural Skills: April

Creative Partnerships (

      „What is Creative Partnerships?‟

      CARA grants scheme

      School of Sabar DVD (Creative Partnerships Slough: 2005)

      Anna James, Creative Careers (Creative Partnerships Slough)

      Finding Voices (Creative Partnerships Slough: 2006)

      Model United Nations General Assembly (Creative Partnerships Slough:

      Making Meaning and Materials (Creative Partnerships Slough: 2005)

      Impact (Creative Partnerships Slough)

The     Daily    Telegraph   and        the     The     Sunday      Telegraph

      Melissa Kite, „How Blair won £3bn on the Lottery‟, Thee Sunday
      Telegraph, 30/7/06, p.6

      Philip Johnston, „Biggest Migrant Influx in Britain‟s History‟, The Daily
      Telegraph 23/8/06, p.4

      Philip Johnston, „Immigrants „swamping‟ council services‟, The Daily
      Telegraph, 28/6/06

      Nigel Reynolds, „Cottle opening circus school to safeguard Big Top
      skills‟, The Daily Telegraph 8/9/06, p.6

      Liz Lightfoot, „Billions Spent but UK schools still fail‟, The Daily
      Telegraph, 13/9/06, p.1

Department for Culture, Media and Sport (

      The National Advisory Committee on Creative and Cultural Education,
      All our Futures (DCMS and DfEE: 1999)

      James Purnell, „Making Britain the World‟s Creative Hub‟, speech to
      IPPR, 16/6/06

      Paul Roberts ed., Nurturing Creativity in Young People. (DCMS, 2006)

      DCMS Annual Report 2005 (DCMS, 2005)

      DCMS Annual Report 2006 (DCMS, 2006)

      Taking Part Survey (2005-6), 9 month provisional results


Disability Rights Commission (

      Disability Rights Commission news release, 14/9/06, on NHS

European Audiovisual Observatory (

      European Cinema Figures

      Susan Newman-Baudais, The Outlook for European Exhibition: Film
      Attendance in Europe (Europa Cinemas Conference: Budapest,
      November 2005)

European Commission (

      Eurobarometer Executive Summary (European Commission: 2001)

Evening Standard (

      Fiona Maddocks, „The Boys are back in Town‟, in The Evening
      Standard, 28/9/06

French Government


      Department of Culture ( :

      Catherine Tasca, Press conference speech on 2002 French culture

      Budget de la Culture et de la Communication 2002

      Mini          Chiffres          Clés           édition               2005

The Goethe Institut (

The Guardian (

      Charlotte Higgins, „£12m Cultural Leaders' scheme launched‟, The
      Guardian, 21/6/06

Professor Susan Hallam, Music – as important as the three Rs (Institute of
Education: 30/1/06)

Health and Safety Executive (

      Results of recent survey on working days in the UK lost through mental

The Herald (

      „Don‟t Let our film industry go down the pan‟, The Herald, 21/6/06

The Incorporated Society of Musicians (

      Bernadette Thompson in „A future for Classical Music in Britain‟,
      Proceedings of the 2005 NCEM/ISM Conference on classical music,
      p.24 (NCEM/ISM: 21/9/05)

KulturKontakt (
L’Association      Francaise    d’Action        Artistique          (AFAA)

      Une        Histoire        de       l’AFAA       (AFAA:         2002)

The National Campaign for the Arts (

      Briefing paper for the House of Lords debate on 11 May 2006:
      “To call attention to the contribution of the arts to the economy and the
      well-being of society; and to move for papers”
      (National Campaign for the Arts: 5/5/2006)

      National Campaign for the Arts Response to Wales Arts Review (NCA,

      NCA Dance Manifesto, (NCA, July 2006)
      Oliver Rickman, ‘Unleash the Dragon’, NCA News (Spring, 2006), p.6

      Graham Hitchen, „Creative Capital‟, in, NCA News (Spring, 2006), p.14

The      Reduced       Indian      Film      Company         (Rifco      Arts)

      Rifco Arts‟ history and involvement with Slough


      Frances Castle and Jennifer Evans, Specialist Schools – What do we
      know? (RISE: February 2006)

Scottish Executive (

      First Minister Jack McConnell, St Andrews Day Speech (30/11/03)

Scottish Arts Council (

      Scottish Arts Council, Arts and Health Briefing 2004-5 (Scottish Arts
      Council: 2005)

Slough Borough Council (

      Art in Public Spaces - Slough (Slough Borough Council)

      Art at the Centre: Revitalising Slough High Street (Slough Borough

      artsinfo newsletter, May-June 2005, p.1 (Slough Borough Council:

      Slough Inspired, p.42. Slough Borough Council (2004)

Specialist Schools and Academies Trust (

      Article and figures on the performance of Specialist Schools website

The Stage (

      Alistair Smith, „Creative industries to launch apprenticeship scheme for
      teenagers‟, The Stage, 18/7/06

      Susan Elkin, „Aiming Higher‟, The Stage, 27/4/06, p.13

      Susan Elkin, „Helping Refugees fly high‟, The Stage, 16/2/06

      Simon Grover, „No work but more plays‟, The Stage, 6/7/06, pp.10-11

Stagecoach (

HM Treasury (

      2004 Spending Review (HM Treasury: 2004)

UK law

      The Disability Discrimination Act (1995)

      The Human Rights Act (1998)

      The National Lottery Act 1993

      The National Lottery Act 1998

      Race Relations (Amendment) Act (2000)


     Correspondence from Elonka Soros at the BBC (28/7/06)

     Interview with David Sparrow of Art Beyond Belief (27/7/06)

     Interview with Andy Lee, Principal Arts Development Officer at Slough
     Borough Council (22/8/06)

     Interview with Martin Denny from Windsor Festival c/o Martin Denny
     Management (11/8/06)

     Interview with Mrs Cook (13/7/06)

     Interview with Ruth (20/7/06)

     Interview with Patty Cohen from Creative Partnerships Slough (6/7/06)

     Interview with Yasmin Gurreeboo, Events Manager at West Wing arts
     centre (27/7/06)

     Interviews with the General Manager and the Director of Windsor Arts
     Centre (20/7/06)

     Interview with Mr Clark from Eton College (4/7/06)

     Notes on visit to Gallions Primary School (26/6/06)

     Telephone interview with David Parker, Head of Research at Creative
     Partnerships (7/9/06)

     Telephone interview with Paul Murray (1/8/06)

     Telephone interview with Meli Hatzihyrsidis at Arts Council England

     Telephone interview with Philip Cave at Arts Council England (9/10/06)


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