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JOINT RESEARCH CENTRE

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					Ecosystem Monitoring in the
        Black Sea

          Nicolas Hoepffner
  Global Environment Monitoring Unit


                                       1
                Monitoring and Assessment of
         Coastal & Marine Environments (ECOMAR)


ECOMAR provides a pan-European scientific and technical
support in the definition, implementation and monitoring of EU
policies and Directives related to the coastal and marine
environment.
EU Policy Context:

 European Marine Strategy
Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES)
 Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC)
 Maritime Policy

Regional Marine Conventions (HELCOM, Black Sea Comm.,
OSPARCOM)
European Environmental Agency (EEA)
                                                             2
       ECOMAR scientific and technical studies


Development, processing and validation
 of Earth Observation data (optical and
 thermal sensors)

 Regional Seas numerical modeling,
 ecosystem assessment

 Data integration and development of
 environmental indicators
                                                 3
              Visible Spectral Radiometry from Satellite
                            (Ocean Colour)


                            MODIS Terra May 10, 2002




MODIS Aqua Sept. 15, 2004
                                Phytoplankton blooms and
                               Coccolithophores in the Black
                                           Sea




                                                           4
                                  Ocean Colour Data Analysis


                                                                                                 Emerging spectral light –
                                                                                                 412-670nm

                                                                                                      412nm           443nm
                            Correction for the
                            Atmosphere effect
                                                                                                      490nm           510nm


                                                                                                      555nm           670nm


                            Apply in-water
                            algorithm
                                    R     R     R 
                             R  max 443 , 490 , 510 
                                    R                
                                     555 R555 R555 

                         Restitution of
                         geophysical products
                         Chl  10 0.343.07 R 1.93 R        0.65 R 3 1.53 R 4     0.041
                                                         2

                                                                                                03/2001
Data Collection and
merging orbital scenes
                                                                                                                        5
         JRC-IES Ocean Colour Data Archive


                   • Coverage: global and European
                   Seas
                   • Period: Oct. 1997 to March 2006
                   • Sensor used: SeaWiFS (Oct.97
                   to Dec. 2004) and MODIS-Aqua
                   (Jun 2002 to present)
                   • Spatial resolution: 2 km

                    Archived products
                    - Water leaving radiances at various
                    wavelengths
                    - light attenuation coefficient
                    (transparency, turbidity)
                    - water particle loads (chlorophyll
                    concentration, Total suspended matter)


http://marine.jrc.cec.eu.int/
                                                     6
                     Black Sea Chlorophyll Distribution


  Daily Scene                          8-days composites
                                       SeaWiFS




                                       MODIS




monthly composites
                                                          7
                 http://marine.jrc.cec.eu.int/
                             Black Sea : Light attenuation coefficient



                            Jan                                Mar




                                                                     Nov
Satellite retrieval
                           Lwn 490
                                          1.754

 K d 490  0.016  0.205           
                           Lwn 555 

Water transparency Index

                      SD  0.55Kd 490  0.04
                                                    1

                                                                         8
                    Ocean Colour Cal/Val activities

                          Measurement campaigns in the North
                          Adriatic (1995-present)

                       Advanced methods for the absolute
                        calibration of marine instruments
                       Autonomous systems for continuous
                        validation of primary remote sensing
                        optical products
                       Assessment of ocean color primary
                        products from most relevant space
                        sensors (official calibration site for NASA
                          and ESA)

SeaWiFS              MODIS                   MERIS




          http://www.esa.int/esaLP/LPcampaigns.html            9
                      Ocean Colour Cal/Val activities

                         Cruise campaigns over Europe

 North Adriatic , July 2000 - JRC -
 Baltic Sea (Baltic proper) , May 2004 - JRC/ IOPAS
 English Channel , June 2004, - JRC/ Univ. Littoral
 Baltic Sea (Baltic proper) , Sept. 2004 - JRC/IOPAS
 Baltic Sea (Baltic proper) , April 2005 - JRC/IOPAS
 Black Sea (western), June 2006 - JRC/IOBAS
 Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland), Aug. 2006 - JRC/FIMR
 Eastern Mediterranean, Sept. 2006 - JRC/CNR-ISAC

                                                        10
                      From Ocean Colour to Marine
                             Productivity


                                                 Spectral irradiance
                                                 model

                                      surface lightl



                                                 Optical model

                                  underwater lightl,z



Water-column
                           PPz, l , t   f Bz , l , z , EPAR l , t 
biomass distribution (z)
                                                                          11
                          International Productivity Algorithms Comparative
                                    Experiment. PPARR 3 (part 3)

17 models , and ~ 900 quality-controlled C14
measurements of primary production, spanning more than
a decade (1983-1996; ClimPP) in the Tropical Pacific.




    JRC model showed the lowest total rms
    error (0.231) on PP log-difference,
    as well as the lowest centered pattern
    rms (0.227) which is an indication of the
    model performance to detect the
    variability in the dataset.
                                                                          12
                            Black Sea Marine Productivity
   Seasonal Variations
                                         Feb                     Apr



                                               Jul
     PP ~ 1   gC.m-2.d-1                                         Nov

          Inter-annual variability

                  Aug. 98                             open sea




Aug. 01                                                coastal



      Aug. 03
                                                 +      -    13
                         Modelling and Indicator development

Combining Satellite data (and/or in situ data) with modelling to derive
  Ecological Indicators applicable to all European Seas (large scale) and
  comparable for dife ferent region

           Conceptual Model for Eutrophication Risk Assessment



                                                      Physical Sensitive
                                                     Area Index (PSA)



                                                      Oxygen Depletion
                                                     Risk Index (Oxyrisk)




                                                                      14
                      Eutrophication Risk Assessment:
                           Black Sea (Sept. 2002)

mixed layer depth     Sea surface temp.      chlorophyll




          PSA Index                       Oxyrisk




                                                           15
                      Eutrophication Risk Assessment:
                           Black Sea (Oct. 2002)

mixed layer depth     Sea surface temp.       chlorophyll




          PSA Index                       Oxyrisk




                                                            16
                              Eutrophication Risk Assessment:
                                  European Coastal Zone




Feb. 2003                                           Aug. 2003


            Oxygen depletion risk index to support the evaluation of the
            impact of high nutrient inputs (e.g. resulting from agriculture
            and urbanization) into coastal waters.

            Index represents high (high value=red) / low (low values = blue)
            risk to hypoxia and anoxia

                                                                               17
                                                Concluding Notes

• through satellite data analysis and modelling, ECOMAR can provide reliable
  and comparable information on the marine ecosystem status from regional to
  European scale
• These information constitute a basis for an environmental tool for policy
  managers, e.g. in the context of the EU Marine Strategy and up-coming
  Maritime Policy
    – Investigate ecosystem response to anthropogenic pressures
    – Identify critical / vulnerable European marine areas
    – Assess climate change impacts
• Activity is optimized through direct collaboration and networking with
    – European Environment Agency (EEA)
    – Regional Marine Conventions and Programmes
    – Referenced research bodies in EU Member and Accession states through e.g. Partnerships in
      EU-funded projects (e.g. SeaDataNet, SPICOSA)
• FP7, toward an operational monitoring of European regional Seas following a
  coherent and harmonized methodology (Policy Theme 2 “Solidarity and the responsible
   management of resources “ ; Agenda 2.2 ‘ Natural Resources’)



                                                                                         18
                            EMIS- European Marine Information
                                         System
 Web based marine GIS
 Physical and Biological Marine variables (SST, Chl-a, PP, tmx, smx, etc.)
 Eutrophication risk indicators (Oxyrisk & PSA)
 Navigate and browse European wide and predefined regions maps (pan, zoom)
 Query maps - extract numerical values and compute statistics - by point or by area
  (mean, max, min, std, time-series, climatologies)
 Save maps and statistics (graphs) in png, pdf and ascii




                                                                            19
            Numerical Model
General Estuarine Transport Model / GETM




                                           20

				
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