Introduction to Forensic Science - Download as PowerPoint

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					 Introduction to
Forensic Science
    Coach Whitaker
   Forensic Science—is the study and application
    of science to matters of law
   Odontology—examination of bite marks and
    dental identification
   Pathology—investigation of sudden,
    unexplained, or violent death
   Entomology—the study of insects
   Palynology—the study of pollen and spores
   Polygraphy—the use of the lie detector
   Anthropologist—study of human remains
   Serologist—deals with blood and other body
   toxicologist—study of drugs and poisons
   Botanist—study of plants and plant residue
   Expert Witness—person who provides
    testimony at a legal proceeding in the form of
    professional opinions
Anticipation Guide
Forensic Science
           Forensic Science or
            criminalistics is the study and
            application of science to
            matters of law
           Forensic scientists use crime
            labs to help them examine
           Most crime labs will include
            the following: physical
            science, biology, ballistics,
            document examination,
            photography, toxicology, and
            finger prints
              Forensic Science
   A forensic scientist’s performs all of the
    following duties:
   Studies and collects different types of evidence
    at crime scenes
   Testifies as an expert witness at trials where he
    or she presents data, weighs evidence, and gives
    opinions to the court
   Performs scientific research and train other
                  Forensic Science
   Forensic Scientists come
    from many backgrounds;
    many have studied biology,
    or microbiology, chemistry,
    physical science, geology, or
    one of the other sciences
   They learn about forensics
    from experience or
    independent study or
    through experience as a
    police officer
                Forensic Science
   In the past when the world was smaller, identifying,
    capturing, and convicting criminals depended on
    eyewitnesses and confessions
   In order for law enforcement to keep pace other
    techniques for IDing criminals had to be develop
   Science provides methods that depend less on
    eyewitnesses to ID criminals or to link the criminals to
    the crime scene
   Can you think of any examples?
Great Examples That Propelled
  Forensic Science Forward
                  Microscope—enabled criminalists
                   to analyze even the smallest bits of
                   evidence and to see details that
                   were unseen
                  Photography—gave criminalists a
                   clear representation of the crime
                   scene without relying on memory
                   or drawings
                  Ballistics—gave criminalists a
                   clearer idea where a bullet came
                  Blood typing and DNA—made
                   matching suspect to crime scene
                   much more exact
Careers in Forensic Science
                 Criminalist
                 Crime Scene Investigator
                 Forensic Investigator
                 Forensic pathologist
                 Forensic pathology
                 Forensic anthropologist
                 Forensic toxicologist
                 Fingerprint examiner
                 Forensic document examiner
                 Detective/Investigator
                 Coroner
               Career Activity
   Your job is to create a one minute info-
    commercial on one of the careers we talked
   You must have job requirements, salary, job
    descriptions, work conditions, qualifications,
    work environment, and some type of job slogan
    used for recruitment. You can use any media,
    music, or any other technology device
Crime Lab
        Crime labs can be found on
         the local, state, and federal
        For example, the GBI crime
         lab in DeKalb County
        The FBI maintains the largest
         crime lab in the world
        A forensics crime lab is
         similar to a medical lab
         except it is geared toward
         testing evidence and linking it
         to a suspect or crime
                    Crime Lab
    State and local crime labs may have the following
1.   Physical science unit—examine drugs, soil, glass,
     paint, blood spatter, and other trace evidence
2.   A firearms unit to examine tool marks, weapons,
     firearms, and ballistics
3.   Document analysis unit to examine handwriting,
     word processing, and computer applications
4.   Biology unit to examine body fluids, DNA, blood,
     hair, fibers, insects, and plant life
Crime Lab
        These professionals assist the crime
         labs and are the most skilled
         forensic scientist
        Pathologist—deals with the nature
         of disease and the affects on the
         human body (assaults, rapes, and
        Anthropologist—studies skeletal
         remains to determine the age, sex,
         and race of the deceased, injuries
         or illnesses the person suffered,
         and establish time of death
        Odontologists—helps identify
         unknown corpses by matching
         dental patterns with X-Rays, Casts,
         and photographs
                        Crime Lab
   Entomologists—study of
    insects. Study life cycles of
    insects that feed on the
    human body
   Psychiatrists—study the
    sanity or competence of
    someone to stand trial or
    profile criminals
   Serologist—deals with blood
    and other body fluids
   Toxicologists—deals with
    drugs and poisons
   Botanists—examines plant
    residue at crime scenes
             Crime Lab Activity
   Crime Lab drawing that includes the units
    discussed and five visuals for each unit along
    with medical technicians visuals
Testifying in Court
             In the United States court
              system, both sides on trial
              attempt to out-argue each
             Each side attempts to present
              evidence that favors their
              argument and discredit the
              opposition’s argument
             Each side attempts to bring
              in an “expert witness” to
              support or refute the
              testimony of the expert
            Testifying in Court
   The EW must establish his or her creditability
    through credentials, background, and experience
   The side that calls on an EW asks supportive
    questions and the opposition side ask tough
   The EW must make their honest opinions clear,
    concise, and believable
               Testifying in Court
   The real goal of court
    proceedings is to provide
    enough evidence so a jury
    can reach an understandable
    version of the truth
   Hard to get to that point
    because some evidence is not
    admissible in court because
    they were obtained
    improperly, contaminated, or
    a chain of custody was
Testifying in Court
             Judges typically allow a great
              deal of leeway to EW on how
              they present their
             EW is allowed to go beyond
              normal questions and
              answers because their
              technical testimony needs an
              explanation to a person who
              does not have knowledge of
              their field
             Rarely is an EW allowed to
              express in his or her
              testimony as an absolute
            Testimony Activity
   Graphic Organizer about the similarities and
    differences of police officers, lawyers, and
    forensic scientists
CSI Effect and Common Myths
                 The CSI effect is a reference to the
                  phenomenon of popular television
                  shows such as the CSI franchise
                  raising real-world expectations of
                  forensic science, especially crime
                  scene investigation and DNA
                 Writers of forensic science
                  television—glamorizes the field,
                  overstating the accuracy of forensic
                  techniques, and exaggerating the
                  abilities of forensic
                 Everyone is an arm chair expert on
                Common Myths
1.   The quick death—almost
     no one dies instantly but
     from bleeding
2.   The pretty death—real
     dead people are ugly
3.   The bleeding corpse—real
     corpses do not bleed
4.   The exact time of death—
     no known exact time of
              Common Myths
   The one-punch knockout
   The disappearing black eye—it takes a couple of
    weeks for a black eye to heal
   The fast-acting poison—Acute poisoning most
    often takes several days
   The instant athlete
   The high tech crime lab—not as glamorous and
    not as much fancy equipment
                 Final Activity
   Timeline of significant dates and events in
    forensic science history
   Must create a time line online or draw one
    describing 15 major events in forensic science