Christi Seward

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					                                                                             Christi Seward

                                                                                  July 2008



            The Effect of Peer Modeling on Language and Play Development

                                         Abstract

       The purpose of this action research was to determine the effect of peer modeling

on play skills and language use. This research was conducted qualitatively using a case

study format by a special needs preschool teacher. The research took place in an

elementary school in a suburb of a large southeastern metropolitan city in the United

States. The participant in this study was one child with Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy

also known as Jeune’s Syndrome. He had identified social and language delays at the

time of the research. This student was separately observed with special education peers

and with general education peers in a standardized play setting. A teacher-made checklist

was created to determine the stage of play the student was exhibiting with each group of

peers. This checklist, along with observations and videos provided the data that was

analyzed and categorized into patterns of behavior. Language samples were gathered and

the mean length of utterance was calculated for each sample. The data showed that the

student’s stage of play and mean length of utterance were higher when interacting with

general education peers. As a result of this research, it was concluded that general

education peer modeling did have a positive effect on this student’s play skills and

language use.
The Effect of Peer Modeling




           The Effect of Peer Modeling on Language and Play Development

                                  Christi L. Seward

                                      July 2008

                              Kennesaw State University
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                2

                                          Abstract

       In order to learn the effectiveness of peer modeling on play skills and language

use in one child with language and social delays, a special needs preschooler was

separately observed with special education peers and general education peers in a

standardized play setting. Qualitative data, in the form of observations, checklists, videos

and language samples were gathered and analyzed. It was concluded that general

education peer modeling did have a positive effect on this student’s play skills and

language use.

                                        Introduction

       Throughout history, the education of children with special needs has been

contentious. Prior to President Kennedy’s involvement and the civil rights movement of

the 1960’s, children with disabilities, no matter the severity, were often excluded and

placed in institutions. Then in 1975, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

(IDEA) was signed by Gerald Ford requiring that every child with a disability between

the ages of 3 and 21 be provided a free, appropriate, public education in the least

restrictive environment. The least restrictive environment entails an education with

“nondisabled peers to the maximum extent appropriate” (Hunt & Marshall, 1994, p. 18).

With the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), passed in 1990, President George H.

W. Bush proclaimed, “Today, America welcomes into the mainstream of life all of our

fellow citizens with disabilities…Let the shameful wall of exclusion finally come

tumbling down” (1990, ¶14, ¶16).

       Education within the least restrictive environment is still evolving today. There is

a continuum of services for children with disabilities ranging from a self-contained
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                 3

environment with no access to typical peers, to a full inclusive or mainstreamed

environment where children with disabilities remain in the general education setting

throughout their entire day. With the reauthorization of the IDEA in 2004, schools began

working towards closing the achievement gap between children with and without

disabilities by increasing the amount of time students with disabilities are educated within

an inclusive or mainstreamed environment. According to the United States Department of

Education, inclusive services for the disabled are on the rise (Dow Jones & Company,

2007).

         This increase in mainstreaming directly affects children in special needs

preschools. Most of the children in special needs preschools are educated within a self-

contained environment, meaning there are only special education peers in the class. Since

public schools do not always offer preschools, there are few opportunities for these

special needs preschoolers to interact with typical peers. Often, these special needs

preschoolers’ social behavior and play skills do not develop as typical children’s do. Is

this because of peer modeling or due to the developmental level of the children in the

class? As most of these children graduate to kindergarten, the expectation is for them to

succeed in a general education setting, their least restrictive environment. However, if

their social behavior and play skills are delayed, they may not be successful in general

education even if they have the cognitive skills to succeed as research has shown social-

emotional skills are important in predicting a student’s success in an inclusive

kindergarten setting (Kemp & Carter, 2005). This dilemma provided the motivation for

determining if peer modeling at the preschool level is effective for developing delayed

social skills in a preschooler with special needs.
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                 4

       The purpose of this action research was to determine the effect of peer modeling

with one student with language and social delays. Two research questions were proposed:

       1. Does peer modeling affect play development?

       2. Does peer modeling affect language use?

                                      Literature Review

Play Skills

       To understand the play of young children, we must first understand play. “Play,

broadly defined, is an activity engaged in for the purpose of enjoyment. The play of

children helps them understand and master their feelings and to practice and master new

intellectual, social and physical skills” (Wolfgang, 2004). Play has also been defined as

the work of children (Paley, 2004).

       Wolfgang (2004) describes the six stages of play development that children

typically progress through: (1) unoccupied behavior; (2) solitary independent; (3)

onlooker; (4) parallel; (5) associative; and (6) cooperative. In these stages, children

develop skills needed to interact with others. These stages can be described as follows:

       (1)         Unoccupied behavior - the child does not play, but rather watches

                   anything of interest. If nothing is happening, he directs his attention to

                   himself, sits alone, or follows the teacher. This stage of play is

                   typically displayed in children birth to one year of age.

       (2)         Solitary independent play - involves a child playing by himself with

                   toys separate from his peers. This child does not pay attention to others

                   in his area. This stage of play usually occurs when a child is between

                   one to two years of age.
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                    5

       (3)         Onlooker play - the child specifically watches other children play. He

                   may ask questions or talk to the children, but he does not engage in

                   play with them. This stage of play is typically exhibited between the

                   ages of three and four.

       (4)         Parallel play - children play independently; however they use similar

                   toys to the other children in their area. This typically is seen between

                   toddlers, around age three.

       (5)         Associative play - children are in a true social stage. They interact with

                   each other using the same materials and converse about the common

                   activity and toys. Although they are playing together, children act as

                   they wish and they do not yet assign roles. This stage of play usually

                   begins near age three and is mastered before age five.

       (6)         Cooperative play - children assign roles and play in organized groups

                   to attain a common goal. This stage is usually mastered by the age of

                   seven.

       Progressing through the six stages of play is important for the development of all

children. Four areas that are addressed through play are necessary to child development:

creativity, intellectual growth, social skills and physical development (Norris-Helms and

Szakaly, 1997). Play allows children to develop emotionally because they are able to

assimilate events that happen to them in real life. After an event, such as getting shots at

the doctor, a child is able to replay the visit and process their emotions related to the

experience. Children use toys and gestures to understand and represent their world.

During play, they learn to relate socially to others through language and actions
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                  6

(Wolfgang, 2004). Research shows that there is a mutual relationship between social and

academic skills (Logue, 2007). Play is considered “a key facilitator for learning and

development across domains, and reflects the social and cultural contexts in which

children live” (Isenberg & Quisenberry, 2002, ¶4).

Language Skills

       Language development typically occurs naturally, following a series of

developmental stages, similar to play development: preverbal, words, sentences, and

advanced language. This process is complete by the age of five in most children (Lerner,

Lowenthal, & Egan, 1998). When children have a language delay, their mean length of

utterance (MLU) is often calculated. This is a calculation of language use in children. A

higher MLU indicates a higher level of language proficiency (Apraxia-KIDS, 2007). The

formula used to calculate MLU is included in Appendix A.

Communication and Play

       Landa (2005, p. 248) aptly states that “language is learned and used within a

social context”. McBride (n. d.) indicates that children with special needs often remain in

the onlooker stage of play, rather than advancing to cooperative play. It is important to

their overall development to assist them with this process. Many times, this lack of

progression is due to difficulty initiating play with peers. Beckman & Leiber (as cited in

Craig-Unkefer & Kaiser, 2002) believe that having a communication delay impacts a

child’s ability to initiate play. Communication skills overlap with social skills as children

must be able to initiate and respond to their peers. Although children with communication

delays are able to participate in play with peers, complex play requires the appropriate

use of language (Craig-Unkefer & Kaiser, 2002). In 2005, McCabe reported that children
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                     7

with language delays are more reserved than their typical peers, especially boys. Between

fifty and seventy percent of children with language impairments also have social and

behavior disorders. Children with language delays are continuously left out of play with

peers because they make fewer contributions to the play schemata. This leads to fewer

opportunities to build language and thus the cycle continues. Rice, as quoted by McCabe

(p. 374), calls this the “negative social spiral”. When these students are rejected, it leads

to further social delays. When children are not understood, they often rely on negative

behavior to communicate. This can include acting out and throwing objects to be

understood. McCabe’s research concludes that children with both speech impairments

and language delays universally score lower in social skills and higher in behavioral

maladjustment than their typical peers. This is also true of children with only speech

impairments though social delays are not as severe.

Teaching Strategies

       To develop play skills in children with communication and social delays, various

teaching strategies are often employed. Scaffolding, guided practice, reflections, and

modeling are all common teaching strategies. In order to scaffold, the teacher begins

giving physical or verbal assistance and eventually weans the child to independent

behavior. Guided practice includes completing tasks repetitively in order to master a skill.

Reflections can occur when commenting on a child’s behavior or paraphrasing what the

child has already said. With modeling, the child observes either an adult or peer model

and then imitates the behavior (Kostelnik, Soderman, & Whiren, 2007).

       All of these strategies are appropriate for teaching students; however, to develop

play skills in children with language delays, peer modeling is often used. One study
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                    8

found that when using specific peer interventions, children with autism increased their

social interaction skills, especially when this intervention occurred consistently for

multiple years. The social skills of these children showed great improvement (Kamps, et

al, 2002). Garfinkle and Schwartz (2002) found that when children with disabilities were

integrated with typical peers, their social behavior and play skills improved through

imitation. However, having contact with typical peers does not guarantee peer

interactions for children (Hadley & Schuele, 1998). In addition to peer modeling, some

research suggests that children with social-emotional delays need specific instruction

since play skills are not innate for these children (Webster-Stratton, & Reid, 2004).

Adult modeling can be beneficial, but as Lavoie points out in his video on learning

disabilities and social skills, as adults, we are so good at social skills, it is “virtually

impossible” to break down these skills and teach them to children (Bieber & Gunther,

1994).

         The question remains, what environment is most appropriate to use these

strategies? When children with developmental delays are educated in a self-contained

special education classroom, appropriate peer models may not be present.

Educational Environments

         Guralnick (as cited in Gallagher & Lambert, 2006) describes inclusion in

education “as both the philosophy and practice of encouraging the full participation of

children with disabilities and their families in everyday activities alongside their typically

developing peers” (p. 31). Inclusive education has been gaining momentum since the

federal mandates of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (Downing &

Peckham-Hardin, 2007). IDEA maintains that children with disabilities should be
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                  9

educated alongside their typical peers to the greatest extent possible (Gallagher &

Lambert, 2006). Research shows that there are positive results for all involved when

children are placed in an inclusive setting (Downing & Peckham-Hardin, 2007).

Specifically, social interaction has increased for children with disabilities participating in

inclusive settings as opposed to those educated in special education environments

(Gallagher & Lambert). Rafferty, Piscitelli, and Boettcher (2003) also had this conclusion

for both language and social skills, yet they found that some children with disabilities had

increased problem behavior in the inclusive environment as opposed to the special

education environment. They assert that children with higher cognitive and language

ability in the beginning had more benefits from the inclusive educational setting.

       In summary, I have reviewed the current literature and found that peer modeling

has been effective with increasing the play skills of children with disabilities. Peer

modeling is the method most often used in an inclusive setting; therefore I wanted to

determine the effect this had on the play skills of one of my students with a disability.

Since language is heavily entwined with successful play acquisition, I also wanted to see

if language use was affected by peer modeling.

                                        Methodology

       The purpose of this action research was to determine the effect of peer modeling

on language use and play development in one child with language and social delays.

Participants

       This research was conducted qualitatively using a case study format. The research

took place in an elementary school in a suburb of a large southeastern metropolitan city

in the United States. At the time of the research, enrollment at this school was
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                10

approximately 800 students, with eleven percent qualifying for special education

services. From my classroom of five self-contained special education preschool students,

one student was chosen for this case study.

       The target subject of this research will be referred to as “John”. (All names have

been changed to protect their identities.) This student was chosen because he was

developmentally ready for advancement of play skills. When John was first made eligible

for special needs preschool services, under the eligibility of Significant Developmental

Delay, he was non-verbal. He was born with Jeune’s Syndrome, also known as

Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy. This is a form of dwarfism where the ribs do not

develop correctly and the limbs are shorter. Often there are respiratory complications

with infants and young children with Jeune’s Syndrome and between sixty and seventy

percent die (Chen, 2007). John spent six months in the hospital following his birth and

then lived with a tracheostomy until he was three. It was at this time that he transitioned

to the special needs preschool class. When he was evaluated for the special needs

preschool class, John had significant developmental delays in all developmental areas;

cognition, communication, social-emotional, adaptive and motor. At the time of this

study, John was five years old and displayed language and social-emotional

developmental delays.

       The self-contained special education peers in John’s class consisted of three males

and one female. One of these students was four years old and the other three were five

years old. These students all qualified for special education services due to global

developmental delays, including speech language delays. The kindergarten peers

consisted of seven boys and eight girls. Of these fifteen children, twelve were age five
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                              11

and three were age six. Although data on these students was not taken, their interactions

with John were recorded and therefore they are an integral part of this study.

Measurements and Procedures

       Research for this project began during the ninth week of school during the

2007/2008 school year. During the first week, the researcher provided the students with

time to become acclimated to the video camera and completed the teacher-made checklist

on another child with special needs in order to verify its acceptability (See Appendix B).

Data collection and journaling began the following week. A minimum of four times each

week, the target student was given an opportunity for play with the general education

kindergarten peers, although specific data collection only occurred once each week. Play

time within the general kindergarten setting with special education students also took

place a minimum of four times each week. A timeline of the research follows in Figure 1.

                                        Figure 1
                                  Timeline of Research
                 Introduced and acclimated students to the camcorder. Completed
     Prior to
                 Stage of Play Checklist (Appendix B) on a different student with
    Research
                 special needs to verify the checklist’s acceptability.
                 Began videotaping and completed the Stage of Play Checklist for
                 student as he played with typical students and again with students with
    Week One
                 identified special needs. Completed teacher journaling and calculated
                 MLU (Appendix A) for each session of play, once this week.
                 Continued social intervention and video recording in the two social
   Week Two situations, completing checklist, journaling, and calculation of MLU
                 once this week with each peer group.
                 Continued social intervention and video recording in the two social
      Week
                 situations, completing checklist, journaling, and calculation of MLU
      Three
                 once this week with each peer group.
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                   12


                  Continued social intervention and video recording in the two social
   Week Four situations, completing checklist, journaling, and calculation of MLU
                  once this week with each peer group.
                  Continued social intervention and video recording in the two social
    Week Five     situations, completing checklist, journaling, and calculation of MLU
                  once this week with each peer group.
                  Completed last social intervention and video recording in the two
    Week Six      social situations, completing checklist, journaling, and calculation of
                  MLU for the final time with each peer group.



       At the time of this research, kindergarten center time was a twenty minute block

of play time. In order to assimilate John into this social setting, the researcher chose to

have him participate the full twenty minutes. This segment of time was duplicated with

special education peers for consistency. The setting for this research was standardized in

that the same general education kindergarten class was used with the same materials each

day. John was given the opportunity to interact with a variety of general education peers,

as these students had free choice of where to play each day. There were typically four

peers around him during each play session. The first twenty minutes of play were with his

peers from the self-contained special education preschool classroom only. Following a

rest time break of 30 minutes, he participated in the second twenty minutes of play with

general education kindergarten peers only. The researcher used videotaped observations

and journaling to record facial expressions and language use once per week during the six

weeks of research. Also a teacher-made checklist was used to determine the stage of play

the student was using during a five minute segment of each play time (see Appendix B).

This five minute segment of time included the highest level of play the child exhibited
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                13

during the overall twenty minutes of play, when this student’s interactions were most

evident.

Instruments Used to Collect Data

       The researcher created a Stage of Play checklist (See Appendix B) for the purpose

of collecting data. The stages of play outlined on the Stage of Play checklist were derived

from a description of the social stages (Wolfgang, 2004). This checklist describes each

stage of play which allowed the researcher to determine the stage of play the student used

during the select five minute segment of play time. In the week prior to beginning

research, the checklist was validated by using it with an uninvolved student with special

needs. Each play session was videotaped by the researcher. These videotapes were later

transcribed into language samples and used to document the emotions and facial

expressions of the target student. The language sample was then used to calculate the

MLU (See Appendix A).

Analysis and Interpretation

       The purpose of this action research was to determine the effect of peer modeling

on language use and play development in one child with language and social delays. The

Stages of Play checklists show whether John demonstrated different stages of play with

different peer models. Analyzing the videos from each environment provided information

about the language, expressions and emotions he used with different peer groups. The

data gathered from these checklists, videos and language samples were used to establish

patterns regarding his reactions to and the effectiveness of each peer group on his play

skills and language use.
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                14

                                         Results

       In order to analyze the data collected through journals and videotapes, a jury of

two members was formed. The researcher and a preschool speech language pathologist

reviewed the videos, journals, and stage of play checklists (See Appendices B: 1a, 1b; 2a,

2b; 3a, 3b;4a, 4b; 5a, 5b; 6a, 6b). Language samples were transcribed from the videotapes

and John’s MLU was able to be calculated (See Appendices C: 1a, 1b; 2a, 2b; 3a, 3b;4a,

4b; 5a, 5b; 6a, 6b) . After compiling the play data, the information was analyzed based on

categories suggested by Wolfgang (2004).

Effect on Language Use

       When transcribing John’s language from each play session into a language

sample, words not understood by the jury were recorded as X. In order to calculate the

mean length of utterance, each morpheme the subject used was counted and divided by

the number of times he spoke. Overall, as seen in Figure 2, John used more morphemes
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                       15


                                                   Figure 2
                                       Total Morphemes Used by student

                                  Play with Special Ed Peers     Play with General Ed Peers

                250




                200




                150
  # Morphemes




                100




                 50




                  0
                      1       2                      3                    4                   5   6
                                                          Play Sessions


when playing with peers with special needs. Interestingly, his morpheme count is fairly

consistent. On days when John used a higher number of morphemes with typical peers,

he also used a higher number of morphemes with special education peers. The only

exception is during the third play session with general education peers, John increased the

morphemes he used when compared to the second play session. During the third play

session with special education peers, he decreased his used of morphemes in comparison

with the second play session. Although John used more morphemes with special

education peers, his overall mean length of utterance was higher with typical peers as

seen in Figure 3. This indicates that his language was of a greater quality when he was
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                                     16


                                                             Figure 3
                                         Mean Length of Utterance within each peer group

                                              Play with Special Ed Peers   Play with General Ed Peers


                                5


                               4.5


                                4


                               3.5
    Mean length of Utterance




                                3


                               2.5


                                2


                               1.5


                                1


                               0.5


                                0
                                     1    2                     3                   4                   5   6
                                                                    Play Sessions
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                               17

interacting with general education peers. Through the language samples, it is evident that

John used more perseverative language within the special education peer setting. He

often repeated himself multiple times. For example, during the sixth play session with

special education peers, John stated, “Raise the roof” ten times in a row (See Appendix

B:6a). This phrase was not stated along with a particular play scheme; however it was

stated in a rote song-like manner. John was not directing this phrase to anyone, but

seemed to be repeating it for his own enjoyment. Several times, when playing with

special education peers, John sang rote memorized songs. Typically when counting

morphemes, phrases that the student repeats are not counted. If the songs John sang

repetitively are removed from the morpheme calculation, the number of morphemes he

used in play sessions two and five increased (see Figure 4). When comparing these
                The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                18

                results to John’s morpheme use in general education, we see that John actually used more

                morphemes with general education peers during play sessions two and five (Figure 5).




                                                        Figure 4
                              Comparison Between Morpheme Use with Special Education Peers
                                              (with and without rote songs)

              250




              200




              150
# morphemes




              100




              50




               0
                        1             2                  3                   4                     5   6
                                                             Play Sessions

                                           Morpheme use with songs    Morpheme use without songs
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                             19


                                                          Figure 5
                                        Morphemes Used by Student (without Rote Songs)

                                                     Special Education    General Education

                200


                180


                160


                140


                120
  # Morphemes




                100


                 80


                 60


                 40


                 20


                 0
                            1             2                3                   4              5     6
                                                               Play Sessions




Effect on Play Development

                      John’s play with general education and special education peers was analyzed

using the six stages of play set forth by Wolfgang (2004). Following each twenty minute

period of play, with special education and general education peers, the stage of play

checklist was completed. Typically, John and his peers chose to play in the housekeeping

center. Data was taken on the five minutes of play where John displayed the highest play

skills for each play session. The overall results show that John exhibited higher stages of

play with general education peers than with special education peers as seen in Figure 6.
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                                                               20


                                                                           Figure 6
                                                    Stages of Play Exhibited Throughout All Play Sessions

                                                          Play with Special Ed Peers   Play with General Ed Peers


                                  80


                                  70


                                  60
     # times behavior exhibited




                                  50


                                  40


                                  30


                                  20


                                  10


                                  0
                                       Unoccupied    Solitary           Onlooker            Parallel          Associative   Cooperative
                                                                               Stage of Play


With special education peers, he tended to remain in solitary play; however with general

education peers, he exhibited mostly associative play, with some cooperative play, the

highest stage (Figure 6a & 6b).
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                       21


                                                    Figure 6a
                              Stages of Play Exhibited with Special Education Peers

 25




 20




 15                                                                                               Unoccupied
                                                                                                  Solitary
                                                                                                  Onlooker
                                                                                                  Parallel
                                                                                                  Associative
 10                                                                                               Cooperative




  5




  0
      1st         2nd                  3rd                     4th             5th          6th
                                               Play Sessions



                                                    Figure 6b
                                  Stages of Play with General Education Peers

 25




 20




 15                                                                                               Unoccupied
                                                                                                  Solitary
                                                                                                  Onlooker
                                                                                                  Parallel
                                                                                                  Associative
 10                                                                                               Cooperative




  5




  0
            1st         2nd              3rd                   4th       5th          6th
                                               Play Sessions
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                 22

Specifically, John displayed 72 instances of solitary play with special education peers and

only two with general education peers (Figure 7). He displayed associative play 55 times

with general education peers, but only six times with special education peers. He did not

display cooperative play with special education peers; however he did display it 21 times

with general education peers.

     Figure 7
                                 Special Education Peers        General Education Peers

          Unoccupied Play                  20                               0

            Solitary Play                  72                               2

           Onlooker Play                    9                              17

            Parallel Play                  12                               10

          Associative Play                  6                               55

          Cooperative Play                  0                               21




          It was evident through the videos, checklists, language samples, and journals that

John enjoyed his play time regardless of his peers. During his first play session with

special education peers in the kindergarten setting, John radiated pride to have his friends

play with him in a new setting. He had been going to the kindergarten class for play

sessions all week and he enjoyed being able to feel like this was his special place to share

with his friends. On the flip side, during the first date of data collection with general

education peers, John also expressed a sense of pride and was excited to engage with

these peers. Although John was verbally reserved during the first play session with

general education peers, he displayed a higher stage of play than when he was with

special education peers (Figure 8; see also Appendix C: 1b, Appendix B: 1a, & Appendix

B: 1b).
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                                                        23



                                                                 Figure 8
                                                             1st Play Session
                                             Play with Special Ed Peers   Play with General Ed Peers

                 10


                 9


                 8


                 7


                 6
# Observations




                 5


                 4


                 3


                 2


                 1


                 0
                       Unoccupied     Solitary              Onlooker               Parallel            Associative   Cooperative
                                                             Stages of Play Development


                      During the second session of data collection, with special education peers, John

remained in solitary play for the majority of play time. He perseverated on chanting and

singing songs, both rote and of his own imagination, using a puppet as a dance partner.

He played alone, only interacting with peers when someone got in his space (see

Appendix C: 2a). With general education peers, John began playing the way he had with

his special education peers. He initially chose a puppet and began walking to a corner

presumably to interact with himself, but he looked around, engaging in onlooker play and

chose to engage with other children instead. He spent much of this play time engaging in

associative play (see Figure 9; see also Appendix B: 2a & Appendix B: 2b). When
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                                                           24


                                                                    Figure 9
                                                                2nd Play Session
                                                Play with Special Ed Peers   Play with General Ed Peers

                   25




                   20




                   15
  # Observations




                   10




                   5




                   0
                          Unoccupied     Solitary              Onlooker               Parallel            Associative   Cooperative
                                                                Stages of Play Development


looking at the language sample from this second play session, it is evident that John was

trying to imitate and connect with the typical peers (see Appendix C: 2b). He became

engaged in their play schemata where the children were pretending to “trick or treat”, as

they might on Halloween.

                        When analyzing the third play sessions, John’s interactions with special education

peers were improved as he used parallel and associative play in addition to solitary play

(Figure 10). He began playing in his typical manner, using a puppet and talking to
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                                                          25


                                                                    Figure 10
                                                                3rd Play Session
                                               Play with Special Ed Peers   Play with General Ed Peers

                   12




                   10




                   8
  # Observations




                   6




                   4




                   2




                   0
                          Unoccupied     Solitary              Onlooker               Parallel           Associative   Cooperative
                                                                Stages of Play Development


himself. He did engage in specific conversation with the puppet, asking the puppet

questions. It seemed that he was actually reenacting parts of an episode of “Clifford”

using the Clifford puppet (See Appendix B: 3a & Appendix C: 3a). With general

education peers, John did display some lower stages of play; however he also went into

cooperative play, the highest stage of play, some of the time (Figure 10). When he

exhibited onlooker play, John appeared to be observing the general education students as

they enacted a play schema. Seeing children engage in this type of associative and

cooperative play was new for John as his special education peers did not engage in this

type of play. John quickly learned the play scheme and joined in the play, pretending to

be afraid of the “animals” (See Appendix B: 3b & Appendix C: 3b).

                        During the fourth play session, John displayed parallel play along with lower

stages of play, with his special education peers; however this was due more to the fact

that they happened to choose the same toys than purposeful engagement (Figure 11; See
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                                                       26


                                                                  Figure 11
                                                              4th Play Session
                                           Play with Special Ed Peers           Play with General Ed Peers
                  14




                  12




                  10
 # Observations




                   8




                   6




                   4




                   2




                   0
                         Unoccupied     Solitary             Onlooker            Parallel             Associative   Cooperative
                                                              Stages of Play Development


also Appendix B: 4a). John verbalized to himself, and at times he imitated language used

by his special education peers (See Appendix C: 4a). With his general education peers,

John did not display cooperative play as he had during the last play session. Instead he

remained an onlooker and participated in associative play the majority of the time.

During the play time, John was happy, though he appeared to be looking for peers to

engage with him. The typical peers were not as encompassing as usual, yet John didn’t

seem upset by this. He continued to initiate play, even when his attempts were not

rewarded (See Appendix B: 4b & Appendix C: 4b).

                       John’s play during the fifth play session with special education play was

predominately in the unoccupied and solitary stages (Figure 12). He was highly
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                                                           27


                                                                    Figure 12
                                                                5th Play Session
                                                Play with Special Ed Peers   Play with General Ed Peers

                   14



                   12



                   10
  # Observations




                   8



                   6



                   4



                   2



                   0
                          Unoccupied     Solitary              Onlooker               Parallel            Associative   Cooperative
                                                                Stages of Play Development


inattentive to the play of his peers, preferring to play with his body in space and singing

to himself. John used the rote phrase, “In the road” 38 times, with slight variations (See

Appendix B: 5a & Appendix C: 5a). This phrase did not seem to have any meaning in his

play; instead it appeared to be more of a comforting chant. With the general education

peers, John displayed primarily associative and cooperative play. He engaged in

conversations regarding dressing dolls, changing the baby and the pet cat (See Appendix

B: 5b & Appendix C: 5b).

                        John consistently used the highest stage of play during his sixth and last play

session with general education peers (Figure 13). Ironically, he had the lowest mean
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                                                           28


                                                                   Figure 13
                                                               6th Play Session

                                                Play with Special Ed Peers   Play with General Ed Peers

                   12




                   10




                   8
  # Observations




                   6




                   4




                   2




                   0
                        Unoccupied   Solitary                 Onlooker               Parallel             Associative   Cooperative
                                                               Stages of Play Development


length of utterance during this play session in comparison to other play sessions with

general education peers. When viewing the videos, it was evident that during this play

session, John was pretending to be a dog and therefore did not speak often, perhaps

explaining the lower levels of talking (Figure 3; See also Appendix B: 6b & Appendix C:

6b). John also engaged in onlooker play. During this time, he was viewing the typical

peers as the “mother” enacted giving birth to three babies. He continued with his role as a

pet, even as he intently observed their behavior. Within the special education peer group,

John continued to rely on solitary play during the sixth play session. He used highly

perseverative language and seemed somewhat bored in this play setting (See Appendix B:

6a & Appendix C: 6a).

                                                               Conclusions

Assertions with Justification
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                29

       The purpose of this action research was to determine the effect of peer modeling

on language use and play development in one child with language and social delays.

After reviewing the data collected, I concluded that general education peer modeling was

beneficial in improving John’s play skills and language use.

       Overall, John exhibited higher stages of play with general education peers than

with special education peers. Of 119 observed play behaviors with special education

peers, 20 were unoccupied play and 72 were solitary play (See Figure 14). These values

reflect that 77.3% of John’s observed play behaviors with special education peers were

the two lowest stages of play (See Figure 15). Of 105 observed play behaviors with

general education peers, 55 were associative play and 21 were cooperative play. These

values reflect that 72.4% of John’s observed behaviors with general education peers were

the two highest stages of play.

                                         Figure 14
                              Overall Play Behaviors Observed
                                  Special Education Peers       General Education Peers

       Unoccupied Play                      20                            0

         Solitary Play                      72                            2

        Onlooker Play                       9                             17

         Parallel Play                      12                            10

       Associative Play                     6                             55

       Cooperative Play                     0                             21

     Total Play Behaviors                  119                           105




                                         Figure 15
                            Overall Percentages of Observed Play
                                  % with Special Education      % with General Education
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                  30

                                              Peers                        Peers
          Unoccupied Play                               16.81%                      0.00%

            Solitary Play                               60.50%                      1.90%

           Onlooker Play                                7.56%                      16.19%

            Parallel Play                               10.08%                      9.52%

          Associative Play                              5.04%                      52.38%

          Cooperative Play                              0.00%                      20.00%




          John’s average MLU was 4.23 words with general education peers, which is

higher than his average MLU, 2.88 words with special education peers (See Figure 16).

This indicates his language was of greater quality with general education peers. When

John was with special education peers, his language was perseverative, rather than

productive in nature.

                                            Figure 16
                                       MLU Each Session
  Session         Play with Special Education Peers      Play with General Education Peers

      1                                         3.21                                     3.4

      2                                          3.2                                    4.53

      3                                         3.33                                    4.33

      4                                         2.33                                    4.91

      5                                         2.78                                    4.87

      6                                          2.4                                    3.33

   Overall
   Average
    MLU                                         2.88                                    4.23
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                 31

         The conclusion of my action research is that my student with language and social

delays was positively impacted by general education peer modeling. Peer modeling

increased both John’s play skills and MLU.

Limitations

         In the course of this action research project, there were several limitations. I was

confined to the structure of my school district and local school. We do not have a general

education preschool class; therefore I was unable to have general education preschool

peer models. I had to follow the routine of not only my special needs preschool class, but

also the general education kindergarten class. I was limited in the amount of time daily I

could allow my student to interact with general education peer models. This in turn

impacted the level of bonding my student attained with these students. Another limitation

was the duration of this project. Due to time restraints, I was only able to allow six weeks

for the data collection. A final limiting factor was that I did not have control over the

general education peer models and their acceptance of John. There were times when they

did not include him in their play although he tried to interact with them. To some extent,

John was treated as an outsider by the general education students. I feel that this was

because he was not with the general education students all day as everyone else in their

class.

Discussions

         As a special needs preschool teacher, I had been working with John since his third

birthday, two years prior to the beginning of this research. During this time, I consistently

worked on improving his play skills with a variety of teaching strategies to no avail. In

my experience, John was not motivated to participate in play schemata with myself or his
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                 32

special education peers. John did not have regular access to general education peers. For

his last preschool year, I strongly recommended that he be placed in a community

preschool in order to have general education peer models; however his parents chose to

keep him in the self-contained special education preschool environment. Through this

action research, I was able to see him not only make great strides in play skills, but

actively participate and communicate during cooperative symbolic play for extended

periods of time. I was thrilled to see the impact this research had on him. I feel that

because of this experience, he will be far better equipped to handle a full-day inclusive

environment during his own kindergarten year.

Implications

   Future Research

       Although my case study did reveal a positive effect, further research should be

done to determine if this same effect occurs with students with different disabilities. John

has a form of dwarfism and he only exhibited language and social delays at the time of

the research. Would these same results occur if he had autism or Down syndrome? Also,

I would like to compare the effectiveness of the amount of inclusion. Is it more beneficial

to include a child for a larger amount of their day so that more bonding occurs? Although

research has shown that children improve in an inclusive educational setting, “the field

has abandoned the effort to define the quality of inclusion” (Gallagher & Lambert, 2006,

p. 33). What supports are necessary for this inclusive success? Lastly, I would like to

research a combination approach to inclusion where teaching strategies are incorporated

into the peer modeling. Would this be an even more effective method for improving play

skills and language use?
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                  33


   Classroom Practice

       Following this project, I intend to continue general education peer modeling with

my rising kindergartners. Also, to the greatest extent possible with our schedules, I will

increase the amount of time my students can spend with the general education peers to

allow for more bonding. I have already requested from my school administrators that they

plan the kindergarteners’ lunch, social interaction, and specials (PE, Art, Music) at a

specific time of day to accommodate more inclusion. I would like to be more proactive

working towards a more inclusive environment throughout my school and school district.




For more information, please contact: christi.seward@gmail.com.
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                              34

                                       References

Apraxia-KIDS (2007). The childhood apraxia speech association of North America

       glossary. Retrieved November 16, 2007, from http://www.apraxia-

       kids.org/site/c.chKMI0PIIsE/b.695215/k.D979/Glossary.htm

Bieber, J. (Producer), & Gunther, N. (Executive Producer). (2004). Learning disabilities

       and social skills with Richard Lavoie: A teacher’s guide [Motion picture].

       (Available from Public Broadcasting System Video, 1320 Braddock Place,

       Alexandria, VA 22314)

Bush, G. H. (1990, July 26). Remarks on the signing of the Americans with disabilities

       act (Audio Recording). Retrieved November 29, 2007 from University of

       Virginia, Miller Center of Public Affairs Web site:

       http://millercenter.virginia.edu/scripps/digitalarchive/speeches/spe_1990_0726_b

       ush

Chen, H. (2007, July 23). Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (Jeune syndrome). Retrieved

       February 16, 2008, from http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic1224.htm.

Craig-Unkefer, L. A., & Kaiser, A. P. (2002). Improving the social communication skills

       of at-risk preschool children in a play context. Topics in Early Childhood Special

       Education, 22(1), 3-13.

Dow Jones & Company, Inc. (2007). Moves in mainstreaming. The Wall Street Journal

       Online. Retrieved November 29, 2007, from

       http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/info-ERICchrtbk0704-

       24.html?printVersion=true
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                  35

Downing, J. E., & Peckham-Hardin, K. D. (2007). Inclusive education: What makes it a

       good education for students with moderate to severe disabilities? Research &

       Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 32(1), 16-30.

Gallagher, P. A., & Lambert, R. G. (2006). Classroom quality, concentration of children

       with special needs, and child outcomes in head start. Exceptional Children, 73(1),

       31-52.

Garfinkle, A. N., & Schwartz, I. S. (2002). Peer imitation: Increasing social interactions

       in children with autism and other developmental disabilities in inclusive preschool

       classrooms. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 22(1), 26-38.

Hadley, P. A. & Schuele, C. M. (1998). Facilitating peer interaction: Socially relevant

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Hunt, N., & Marshall, K. (1994). Exceptional children and youth: An introduction to

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Isenberg, J. P. & Quisenberry, N. (2002). Play: Essential for all children. Retrieved

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       Web site: http://www.acei.org/playpaper.htm

Kamps, D., Royer, J., Dugan, E., Kravits, T., Gonzalez-Lopez, A., & Garcia, J., et al.

       (2002). Peer training to facilitate social interaction for elementary students with

       autism and their peers. Exceptional Children, 68(2), 173-187.

Kemp, C., Carter, M. (2005). Identifying skills for promoting successful inclusion in

       kindergarten. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 30(1), 31-44.
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                               36

Kostelnik, M. J., Soderman, A. K., & Whiren, A. P. (2007). Developmentally appropriate

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Landa, R. J. (2005). Assessment of social communication skills in preschoolers. Mental

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Lerner, J. W., Lowenthal, B., & Egan, R. (1998). Preschool children with special needs:

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Logue, M. E. (2007). Early childhood learning standards: Tools for promoting social and

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McBride, A. (n. d.) Why play? A history and background of play. Retrieved July 14,

       2007, from Texas Women’s University, Project INSPIRE Web site:

       http://www.twu.edu/inspire/Play/Why_Play.htm

McCabe, P. C. (2005). Social and behavioral correlates of preschoolers with specific

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Norris-Helms, D. (Producer/Editor). (1997). Dramatic play: More than playing house

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       Exceptional Children, 69(4), 467-479.
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                           37

Webster-Stratton, C., & Reid, J. (2004). Strengthening social and emotional competence

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       behaviors. Boston: Pearson Educational Inc.
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                    38

                                          Appendix A

                                Analyzing Language Samples
                                Cobb County School District
                                 Preschool Speech Language
                                     February 23, 2006

Two different counting procedures are used to calculate MLU and Intelligibility

•     To calculate MLU in morphemes:
         1. Count only intelligible words.
                 Example: In an utterance of 4 words, 2 are intelligible. For calculating
                 MLU, count as 2 morphemes; for calculating intelligibility, count as 4
                 words. Do not count imitated responses to compute MLU.
         2. Stuttering is marked as repeated efforts at a single word; the word is counted
             once in the most complete form produced.
         3. Fillers such as mm or oh are not counted, but no, yeah, and hi are.
         4. All compound words, proper names, and ritualized reduplications count as
             single words (choo-choo, quack-quack, night-night).
         5. All irregular parts of the verbs (got, did, went, saw) count as one morpheme.
         6. All diminutives (doggie, mommy) count as one morpheme.
         7. All auxiliaries (is, have, will, can, must, would) count as one morpheme.
             A contraction counts as 2 morphemes (it’s, don’t, can’t).
         8. All catenatives (gonna, wanna, hafta, gotta) count as one morpheme.
         9. Possessive (s), plural (s), third person singular (s), regular past (ed) and
             present progressive (ing) count as separate morphemes.
             (Counting rules based on Brown, 1973)
    •   To calculate intelligibility, count all words (not morphemes). When transcribing,
        use an X to represent each unintelligible word. Divide the number of unintelligible
        words (X’s) by the total number of words to get a percentage of unintelligible
        speech. Subtract this number from 100 to get the Intelligibility.

                   Example: 50 total words, 15 unintelligible (X’s)
                            15÷50=.30
                            100-30=70%
     •   Length: Optimum is 50 utterances. You may not be able to get that many
         utterances on every child.
     •   SLP prompts/comments: Indicate on the language sample, any SLP
         prompts/comments as needed to support language difficulties, such as, off topic,
         difficulties responding appropriately to questions, irrelevant topics, disorganized
         syntax, etc.
     •   Contexts in which the language sample occurs should be noted on the sample.

                                         References
Brown, R. (1973). In Miller, J.F., Assessing language production in children-
experimental procedures, 24. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
    The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                               39
                                                      Appendix B

                                                 Stage of Play Checklist
                                                 Setting ____________

 Stage of                                                         1st       2nd         3rd       4th      5th
                              Description
   Play                                                         minute     minute      minute    minute   minute
Unoccupied
              Not playing
              Moving & watching anything
              Play with body or body in space
              Follows teacher
              Stands around
              Sits in one spot looking around the room
 Solitary
              Plays alone
              Plays independently with toy
              Makes no effort to get close to other children
              Pursues own activity
 Onlooker
              Definitely observing group of children
              playing
              Talks to other children; ask questions, gives
              suggestions
              Stands or sits alone near group as he
              observes
  Parallel
              Plays independently with similar toys as
              peers
              Does not try to influence the activity of peers
              Plays beside, not with children
              No attempt to control coming and going of
              peers
Associative
              Plays with other children
              Conversation about common activity
              Borrowing/loaning of toys
              All engaged in similar activities; no division
              of labor
Cooperative
              Plays with children with common goal
              Dramatizing house with specific roles



                                                                                    (Adapted from Wolfgang, 2004)
      The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                             40

                                                       Appendix B: 1a

                                                   Stage of Play Checklist
                                                    Special Education 1

 Stage of                                                           1st         2nd      3rd      4th      5th
                                Description
   Play                                                           minute       minute   minute   minute   minute
Unoccupied
              Not playing                                         +
              Moving & watching anything
              Play with body or body in space                     +        +            +
              Follows teacher
              Stands around                                                +            +
              Sits in one spot looking around the room            +
 Solitary
              Plays alone                                                                        +        +
              Plays independently with toy                                                       +        +
              Makes no effort to get close to other children                                     +        +
              Pursues own activity                                                               +        +
 Onlooker
              Definitely observing group of children playing
              Talks to other children; ask questions, gives                             +
              suggestions
              Stands or sits alone near group as he observes
  Parallel
              Plays independently with similar toys as peers
              Does not try to influence the activity of peers
              Plays beside, not with children
              No attempt to control coming and going of
              peers
Associative
              Plays with other children
              Conversation about common activity
              Borrowing/loaning of toys
              All engaged in similar activities; no division of
              labor
Cooperative
              Plays with children with common goal
              Dramatizing house with specific roles



                                                                                    (Adapted from Wolfgang, 2004)
     The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                           41
                                                    Appendix B: 1b

                                                 Stage of Play Checklist
                                                  General Education 1

 Stage of                                                        1st     2nd       3rd       4th       5th
                              Description
   Play                                                        minute   minute    minute    minute    minute
Unoccupied
              Not playing
              Moving & watching anything
              Play with body or body in space
              Follows teacher
              Stands around
              Sits in one spot looking around the room
 Solitary
              Plays alone
              Plays independently with toy
              Makes no effort to get close to other children
              Pursues own activity
 Onlooker
              Definitely observing group of children                                                 +
              playing
              Talks to other children; ask questions, gives                                          +
              suggestions
              Stands or sits alone near group as he
              observes
  Parallel
              Plays independently with similar toys as        +         +                  +
              peers
              Does not try to influence the activity of peers
              Plays beside, not with children                                                        +
              No attempt to control coming and going of
              peers
Associative
              Plays with other children                        +        +
              Conversation about common activity               +
              Borrowing/loaning of toys                                 +                  +
              All engaged in similar activities; no division   +        +         +        +
              of labor
Cooperative
              Plays with children with common goal
              Dramatizing house with specific roles



                                                                                 (Adapted from Wolfgang, 2004)
    The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                               42
                                                    Appendix B: 2a

                                                 Stage of Play Checklist
                                                  Special Education 2

 Stage of                                                         1st       2nd        3rd       4th      5th
                              Description
   Play                                                         minute     minute     minute    minute   minute
Unoccupied
              Not playing
              Moving & watching anything
              Play with body or body in space
              Follows teacher
              Stands around
              Sits in one spot looking around the room
 Solitary
              Plays alone                                       +        +           +         +         +
              Plays independently with toy                      +        +           +         +         +
              Makes no effort to get close to other children    +        +           +         +         +
              Pursues own activity                              +        +           +         +         +
 Onlooker
              Definitely observing group of children
              playing
              Talks to other children; ask questions, gives     +                                        +
              suggestions
              Stands or sits alone near group as he
              observes
  Parallel
              Plays independently with similar toys as
              peers
              Does not try to influence the activity of peers
              Plays beside, not with children
              No attempt to control coming and going of
              peers
Associative
              Plays with other children
              Conversation about common activity
              Borrowing/loaning of toys
              All engaged in similar activities; no division
              of labor
Cooperative
              Plays with children with common goal
              Dramatizing house with specific roles



                                                                                    (Adapted from Wolfgang, 2004)
      The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                           43
                                                      Appendix B: 2b

                                                   Stage of Play Checklist
                                                    General Education 2

 Stage of                                                         1st     2nd          3rd      4th      5th
                              Description
   Play                                                         minute   minute       minute   minute   minute
Unoccupied
              Not playing
              Moving & watching anything
              Play with body or body in space
              Follows teacher
              Stands around
              Sits in one spot looking around the room
 Solitary
              Plays alone
              Plays independently with toy
              Makes no effort to get close to other children
              Pursues own activity
 Onlooker
              Definitely observing group of children                                                    +
              playing
              Talks to other children; ask questions, gives
              suggestions
              Stands or sits alone near group as he
              observes
  Parallel
              Plays independently with similar toys as
              peers
              Does not try to influence the activity of peers
              Plays beside, not with children
              No attempt to control coming and going of
              peers
Associative
              Plays with other children                         +        +        +            +        +
              Conversation about common activity                +        +        +            +        +
              Borrowing/loaning of toys                         +        +        +            +        +
              All engaged in similar activities; no division    +        +        +            +        +
              of labor
Cooperative
              Plays with children with common goal
              Dramatizing house with specific roles



                                                                                  (Adapted from Wolfgang, 2004)
      The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                            44
                                                      Appendix B: 3a

                                                   Stage of Play Checklist
                                                    Special Education 3

 Stage of                                                         1st     2nd       3rd          4th      5th
                              Description
   Play                                                         minute   minute    minute       minute   minute
Unoccupied
              Not playing
              Moving & watching anything
              Play with body or body in space
              Follows teacher
              Stands around
              Sits in one spot looking around the room
 Solitary
              Plays alone                                       +        +        +
              Plays independently with toy                      +        +        +
              Makes no effort to get close to other children
              Pursues own activity                              +        +        +         +            +
 Onlooker
              Definitely observing group of children
              playing
              Talks to other children; ask questions, gives                       +         +
              suggestions
              Stands or sits alone near group as he
              observes
  Parallel
              Plays independently with similar toys as                            +         +            +
              peers
              Does not try to influence the activity of peers                               +            +
              Plays beside, not with children
              No attempt to control coming and going of                                     +            +
              peers
Associative
              Plays with other children
              Conversation about common activity                                            +
              Borrowing/loaning of toys                                           +         +
              All engaged in similar activities; no division
              of labor
Cooperative
              Plays with children with common goal
              Dramatizing house with specific roles



                                                                                  (Adapted from Wolfgang, 2004)
        The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                                  45
                                                        Appendix B: 3b

                                                      Stage of Play Checklist
                                                       General Education 3

 Stage of                                                             1st         2nd           3rd      4th       5th
                              Description
   Play                                                             minute       minute        minute   minute    minute
Unoccupied
              Not playing
              Moving & watching anything
              Play with body or body in space
              Follows teacher
              Stands around
              Sits in one spot looking around the room
 Solitary
              Plays alone
              Plays independently with toy                      +
              Makes no effort to get close to other children
              Pursues own activity                              +
 Onlooker
              Definitely observing group of children            +
              playing
              Talks to other children; ask questions, gives     +
              suggestions
              Stands or sits alone near group as he
              observes
  Parallel
              Plays independently with similar toys as                       +
              peers
              Does not try to influence the activity of peers
              Plays beside, not with children
              No attempt to control coming and going of
              peers
Associative
              Plays with other children                                      +             +            +        +
              Conversation about common activity                             +             +            +
              Borrowing/loaning of toys                                      +
              All engaged in similar activities; no division
              of labor
Cooperative
              Plays with children with common goal                                         +            +
              Dramatizing house with specific roles                                        +            +        +


                                                                                          (Adapted from Wolfgang, 2004)
        The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                                46
                                                       Appendix B: 4a

                                                    Stage of Play Checklist
                                                     Special Education 4

 Stage of                                                         1st         2nd         3rd          4th      5th
                               Description
   Play                                                         minute       minute      minute       minute   minute
Unoccupied
              Not playing
              Moving & watching anything
              Play with body or body in space                   +
              Follows teacher
              Stands around                                                             +
              Sits in one spot looking around the room
 Solitary
              Plays alone                                       +        +              +                      +
              Plays independently with toy                      +        +              +                      +
              Makes no effort to get close to other children    +                                              +
              Pursues own activity                              +                       +                      +
 Onlooker
              Definitely observing group of children
              playing
              Talks to other children; ask questions, gives              +                        +
              suggestions
              Stands or sits alone near group as he observes
  Parallel
              Plays independently with similar toys as peers
              Does not try to influence the activity of peers
              Plays beside, not with children                   +        +              +         +            +
              No attempt to control coming and going of
              peers
Associative
              Plays with other children
              Conversation about common activity
              Borrowing/loaning of toys
              All engaged in similar activities; no division
              of labor
Cooperative
              Plays with children with common goal
              Dramatizing house with specific roles




                                                                                      (Adapted from Wolfgang, 2004)
        The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                          47
                                                       Appendix B: 4b

                                                     Stage of Play Checklist
                                                      General Education 4

 Stage of                                                        1st     2nd      3rd      4th       5th
                              Description
   Play                                                        minute   minute   minute   minute    minute
Unoccupied
              Not playing
              Moving & watching anything
              Play with body or body in space
              Follows teacher
              Stands around
              Sits in one spot looking around the room
 Solitary
              Plays alone
              Plays independently with toy
              Makes no effort to get close to other children
              Pursues own activity
 Onlooker
              Definitely observing group of children           +        +        +                 +
              playing
              Talks to other children; ask questions, gives             +        +        +
              suggestions
              Stands or sits alone near group as he
              observes
  Parallel
              Plays independently with similar toys as
              peers
              Does not try to influence the activity of peers
              Plays beside, not with children                 +         +                          +
              No attempt to control coming and going of
              peers
Associative
              Plays with other children                                 +                 +        +
              Conversation about common activity                                 +
              Borrowing/loaning of toys                                 +        +        +
              All engaged in similar activities; no division
              of labor
Cooperative
              Plays with children with common goal
              Dramatizing house with specific roles



                                                                                 (Adapted from Wolfgang, 2004)
        The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                           48
                                                        Appendix B: 5a

                                                     Stage of Play Checklist
                                                      Special Education 5

 Stage of                                                         1st     2nd       3rd      4th      5th
                              Description
   Play                                                         minute   minute    minute   minute   minute
Unoccupied
              Not playing
              Moving & watching anything                        +        +        +         +
              Play with body or body in space                   +        +        +         +
              Follows teacher
              Stands around
              Sits in one spot looking around the room
 Solitary
              Plays alone
              Plays independently with toy                                        +                  +
              Makes no effort to get close to other children    +        +        +         +        +
              Pursues own activity                              +        +        +         +        +
 Onlooker
              Definitely observing group of children
              playing
              Talks to other children; ask questions, gives                                          +
              suggestions
              Stands or sits alone near group as he
              observes
  Parallel
              Plays independently with similar toys as
              peers
              Does not try to influence the activity of peers
              Plays beside, not with children
              No attempt to control coming and going of
              peers
Associative
              Plays with other children
              Conversation about common activity
              Borrowing/loaning of toys
              All engaged in similar activities; no division
              of labor
Cooperative
              Plays with children with common goal
              Dramatizing house with specific roles



                                                                                  (Adapted from Wolfgang, 2004)
        The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                          49
                                                       Appendix B: 5b

                                                     Stage of Play Checklist
                                                      General Education 5

 Stage of                                                        1st     2nd       3rd      4th      5th
                              Description
   Play                                                        minute   minute    minute   minute   minute
Unoccupied
              Not playing
              Moving & watching anything
              Play with body or body in space
              Follows teacher
              Stands around
              Sits in one spot looking around the room
 Solitary
              Plays alone
              Plays independently with toy
              Makes no effort to get close to other children
              Pursues own activity
 Onlooker
              Definitely observing group of children
              playing
              Talks to other children; ask questions, gives
              suggestions
              Stands or sits alone near group as he
              observes
  Parallel
              Plays independently with similar toys as        +
              peers
              Does not try to influence the activity of peers
              Plays beside, not with children                 +
              No attempt to control coming and going of
              peers
Associative
              Plays with other children
              Conversation about common activity                        +        +         +        +
              Borrowing/loaning of toys                        +        +        +         +        +
              All engaged in similar activities; no division   +        +
              of labor
Cooperative
              Plays with children with common goal                               +         +        +
              Dramatizing house with specific roles                              +         +        +


                                                                                 (Adapted from Wolfgang, 2004)
        The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                           50
                                                        Appendix B: 6a

                                                     Stage of Play Checklist
                                                      Special Education 6

 Stage of                                                         1st     2nd      3rd      4th       5th
                              Description
   Play                                                         minute   minute   minute   minute    minute
Unoccupied
              Not playing
              Moving & watching anything
              Play with body or body in space                   +        +        +
              Follows teacher
              Stands around
              Sits in one spot looking around the room
 Solitary
              Plays alone
              Plays independently with toy                      +        +        +
              Makes no effort to get close to other children    +        +
              Pursues own activity                              +        +        +
 Onlooker
              Definitely observing group of children                                       +
              playing
              Talks to other children; ask questions, gives
              suggestions
              Stands or sits alone near group as he
              observes
  Parallel
              Plays independently with similar toys as
              peers
              Does not try to influence the activity of peers
              Plays beside, not with children
              No attempt to control coming and going of
              peers
Associative
              Plays with other children                                                    +        +
              Conversation about common activity                                                    +
              Borrowing/loaning of toys
              All engaged in similar activities; no division
              of labor
Cooperative
              Plays with children with common goal
              Dramatizing house with specific roles



                                                                                  (Adapted from Wolfgang, 2004)
        The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                           51
                                                        Appendix B: 6b

                                                     Stage of Play Checklist
                                                      General Education 6

 Stage of                                                         1st     2nd      3rd      4th       5th
                              Description
   Play                                                         minute   minute   minute   minute    minute
Unoccupied
              Not playing
              Moving & watching anything
              Play with body or body in space
              Follows teacher
              Stands around
              Sits in one spot looking around the room
 Solitary
              Plays alone
              Plays independently with toy
              Makes no effort to get close to other children
              Pursues own activity
 Onlooker
              Definitely observing group of children            +        +        +        +        +
              playing
              Talks to other children; ask questions, gives
              suggestions
              Stands or sits alone near group as he
              observes
  Parallel
              Plays independently with similar toys as
              peers
              Does not try to influence the activity of peers
              Plays beside, not with children
              No attempt to control coming and going of
              peers
Associative
              Plays with other children
              Conversation about common activity
              Borrowing/loaning of toys
              All engaged in similar activities; no division
              of labor
Cooperative
              Plays with children with common goal              +        +        +        +        +
              Dramatizing house with specific roles             +        +        +        +        +


                                                                                  (Adapted from Wolfgang, 2004)
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                   52
                               Appendix C

                              Language Sample

Name:                                                 Date:

Play Context:

         Student
                                                                   # morphs




                                                Total Morphemes:

Observations:
    The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                            53
                                            Appendix C: 1a

                                         Special Education Peers

                                           Language Sample 1

    Name: “John”                                                   Date: 10-19-07

    Play Context: Special Education

         Student                                                                    # morphs

1        Oh                                                                         0

2        ChCh (dancing around)                                                      0

3        Whoa (dancing around)                                                      0

4        Trucks                                                                     2

5        Trucks                                                                     2

6        Trucks                                                                     2

7        Can I play with sand?                                                      5

8        There’s Halloween in the sand                                              6

9        There’s a skeleton                                                         4

10       There’s the bat                                                            4

11       A bat ring                                                                 3

12       Where’s your ring                                                          5

13       X Put a ring on                                                            4

14       There’s only two people playing in sand                                    9

15       Tuesday (Singing)                                                          1

16       There’s the skeletons                                                      5

17       Can I do it myself?                                                        6

18       I love…(singing)                                                           2

19       Growing…                                                                   2
 The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                            54
20    It’s growing                                                                          4

21     Look                                                                                 1

22     I’m stuck… (singing)                                                                 3

23     mother be so good X (singing)                                                        4

24     I’m stuck… (singing)                                                                 3

                                                    Total Morphemes:       77/24= 3.21 MLU



 Observations:

 Subject seems excited to have his special education friends in this new environment. Subject has been

 in this play environment by himself throughout this week and he seems to have a sense of pride about

 being here today. He plays by himself alongside peers, mostly ignoring their statements and play.
    The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                            55
                                                  Appendix C: 1b

                                               General Education Peers

                                                 Language Sample 1

    Name: “John”                                                               Date: 10-19-07

    Play Context: General Education

      Student                                                                                   # morphs

1     Now what you like?                                                                        4

2     We gonna get a… (Distracted, looked away from other child)                                4

3     There’s only…                                                                             3

4     Can I play with this? (to other child)                                                    5

5     Yeah                                                                                      1



                                                                   Total Morphemes: 17/5= 3.4 MLU



    Observations:

    He is immediately engaged with other children. He is smiling a lot, demonstrating a sense of pride here.

    He plays with typical children exchanging the same toys back and forth.
     The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                             56
                                                Appendix C: 2a

                                            Special Education Peers

                                               Language Sample 2

     Name: “John”                                                                Date: 10-26-07

     Play Context: Special Education

         Student                                                                                  # morphs

1        She lives with her friends. (in response to child’s statement about doll)                7

2        BJ                                                                                       1

3        BJ                                                                                       1

4        BJ                                                                                       1

5        BJ                                                                                       1

6        BJ                                                                                       1

7        Yeah                                                                                     2

8        Yeah                                                                                     2

9        Anybody don’t catch me (singing and dancing)                                             6

10       Yeah! (singing and dancing)                                                              1

11       Anybody don’t catch me (singing and dancing)                                             6

12       Anybody don’t catch me (singing and dancing)                                             6

13       Any dance                                                                                2

14       Any dance (singing and dancing)                                                          2

15       Tick, tick, X (singing and dancing)                                                      2

16       Lickalickalick                                                                           0

17       Are you kissing that baby? (Chidera tries to take toy)                                   6

18       No                                                                                       1

19       I am not having Barney                                                                   6
     The Effect of Peer Modeling                                    57
20       I am not….                                           3

21       That’s baby                                          3

22       Only Barney’s get babies                             6

23       I’m a bug bzz bzz bzz bzz (singing)                  4

24       I’m a bug bzz bzz bzz (singing)                      4

25       I’m a bug bzz bzz bzz bzz bzz bzz (singing)          4

26       Hey who’s getting a bug, oh ah oh ah (singing)       7

27       A la la (singing)                                    0

28       You better not shout, you better not cry (singing)   (8)

29       You are waking the babies                            7

30       Santa Claus is coming to town (singing)              (6)

31       You better not shout                                 (4)

32       You better not cry (singing)                         (4)

33       You better not cry                                   (4)

34       To telling you (Singing)                             (4)

35       Santa Claus is coming                                (4)

36       Santa Claus is coming                                (4)

37       Santa Claus is coming to town (singing)              (6)

38       La La La (Singing)                                   0

39       Ahhhh (Singing)                                      0

40       Hey who doing that…                                  4

41       BJ…                                                  1

42       BJ….                                                 1

43       What…                                                1

44       Let me see…                                          3
     The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                            58
45       BzzzzBzzzBzzzzBzzzzBzzzz (attack of bugs?)                                              0

46       No (Other child tried to interact)                                                      1



                                                                Total Morphemes: 147/46= 3.20 MLU

                                                                (Without Santa songs: 103/37= 2.78 MLU)

     Observations:

     Begins looking through toy box and pulls out BJ doll. Goes to corner of housekeeping and plays alone

     the entire time. Only interacts with special education peers when someone gets in his space. Subject

     stops mid-play to ask teacher a question. This has been omitted from the language sample.
     The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                                59
                                                   Appendix C: 2b

                                                General Education Peers

                                                   Language Sample 2

     Name: “John”                                                                 Date: 10-26-07

     Play Context: General Education

     Student                                                                                             # morphs

     XXX                                                                                             0

1    It’s the cup…drink                                                                              5

2    Da Da Da Da                                                                                     0

3    Drdrdrdrdr                                                                                      0

     XX                                                                                              0

4    What did you say                                                                                4

5    Oh no                                                                                           2

6    There                                                                                           1

7    Don’t want to stay (singing)                                                                    5

8    La La La La (goes into activity of previous playtime with SNP peers)                            0

9    Julie ?                                                                                         1

10   What’s X there to go?                                                                           5

11   Ahhhh (Begin’s interacting with peers – laughs) Ahhhhh                                          0

12   Get the flower                                                                                  3

13   I am shaking                                                                                    4

14   I don’t want to go trick or treating (Stutters several times and repeats himself to be heard)   10

15   I don’t want to go trick or treating                                                            10

16   I don’t want to go to trick or treating too                                                     12

17   I am not want to go to trick or treating                                                        11
     The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                               60
18   I’m too big for my baby                                                                      7

19   I don’t want to go to trick or treating                                                      11

20   I’m too big                                                                                  4

21   I’m tired…I’m hungry, I trick or treat                                                       10

22   Trick or Treat                                                                               3

23   Thank you                                                                                    2

24   Trick or treat                                                                               3

25   Thank you                                                                                    2

26   I got candy                                                                                  3

27   I don’t want to sleep                                                                        6

     XXX                                                                                          0

     X                                                                                            0

28   And you want to play                                                                         5

29   Anybody X (singing)                                                                          2

30   Hey…He’s asleep                                                                              5

     XXX (Singing to self)                                                                        0




                                                                 Total Morphemes: 136/30= 4.53 MLU

     Observations:

     Begins by getting a puppet (different from before) and going to one corner, then looks around and

     immediately begins picking up other toys to play with, like the typical children. Eventually he becomes

     engaged with play scheme of other children acting like them and discussing trick or treating with their

     “mom”. He becomes very engaged with typical children and this continues throughout play time.
     The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                               61
                                            Appendix C: 3a

                                          Special Education Peers

                                            Language Sample 3

     Name: “John”                                                   Date: 11-2-07

     Play Context: Special Education

      Student                                                                       # morphs

1     Are you going to play or not                                                  8

2     I am hungry                                                                   3

3     Give me some                                                                  3

4     I want to eat                                                                 4

5     Hmmm                                                                          0

6     Why don’t we put just chairs out                                              9

7     What did I think                                                              4

8     Think for my ear                                                              4

9     Hey                                                                           1

10    Take the bounce                                                               3

11    That’s great                                                                  3

12    Hey                                                                           1

13    Ruff Ruff Ruff                                                                0

14    Emily Elizabeth is coming to meet                                             6

15    It is on our beets                                                            6

16    Hotdog                                                                        2

17    Hotdog my favorite                                                            4

18    Hotdog                                                                        2

19    Who wants some ice cream                                                      6
     The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                         62
20    Chocolate                                                                      1

21    Chocolate                                                                      1

22    Apple                                                                          1

23    Apple                                                                          1

24    Fruit…                                                                         1

25    Where’s the fruit                                                              4

26    Apple                                                                          1

27    Ah…                                                                            0

28    ah…                                                                            0

29    the lunch                                                                      2

30    Lunch                                                                          1

31    Oh you to get me                                                               5

32    Get my apple                                                                   3

33    Get my apple (trying to get peers to interact?)                                3

34    It is almost Christmas                                                         5

35    Tickatickaticka                                                                0

36    donut                                                                          1

37    He wants to get X                                                              5

38    Got                                                                            1

39    Who’s to be taking it?                                                         7

      (Mumbling where I can’t understand what he is saying in a sing-song pattern)

40    Don’t put tea (Singing repetitively)                                           4

41    Hey                                                                            1

42    It’s lunch time                                                                4

43    A donut                                                                        2
     The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                             63
44    A donut                                                                                      2

45    We want to get the foods we are                                                              9

46    Oh We don’t put the ice cream cup                                                            9

47    Yeah                                                                                         1

48    We got donuts for Mr. D                                                                      7

49    I will hold this cup friend                                                                  6

50    Careful of the Matthew it will get hurt (* Name changed)                                     9

51    That one turns                                                                               4

                                                                   Total Morphemes: 170/51= 3.33 MLU



     Observations:

     Subject begins talking with special education student then migrates to mirror and has discussion with

     self in mirror using puppet. Eventually some back and forth repeating occurs between subject and

     special education peers. It is not really conversation, just a repeating of statements heard in

     environment.
     The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                 64
                                              Appendix C: 3b

                                           General Education Peers

                                             Language Sample 3

     Name: “John”                                                          Date: 11-2-07

     Play Context: General Education

     Student                                                                                # morphs

1    I need one                                                                             3

2    That is so special                                                                     4

3    Here is one                                                                            3

4    XXX Ear                                                                                1

5    No X X X                                                                               1

6    Not yet XX                                                                             2

7    Oh X me                                                                                2

8    Where shake my tail                                                                    4

9    Who’s this?                                                                            3

10   Let me see…Look what I have for you                                                    9

     XXXX                                                                                   0

     XXXX                                                                                   0

11   Cheese (Goes back to table and plays with food)                                        1

12   I need to get it the cheese                                                            7

13   Oh a cheeseburger…..It’s a cheeseburger X (Goes to join the group and converses XXX)   9

14   And me (in response to “will you video me” said by another student)                    2

15   Lunch time (talking to pet)                                                            2

16   We can get the toast                                                                   5

17   Emily (*name changed)                                                                  1
     The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                            65
18   Find it, find it here                                                                            5

19   It’s going to bite me                                                                            7

20   It’s going to bite me                                                                            7

20   Are you going, huh….ahhh ahhhh                                                                   4

21   He’s going to anybody                                                                            7

22   What happened?                                                                                   3

23   Ahhhh, Oh look (pretending to be attacked by other student)                                      2

24   Ahhhh I’m going to….try to get me…This Ahhhh                                                     10



                                                                 Total Morphemes: 104/24= 4.33 MLU



     Observations:

     Begins rummaging for toys, takes place at sink and talks to self and puppets; Room was particularly

     loud. I had a lot of difficulty understanding what subject said. Typical children began playing cats and

     dogs. Subject did not speak, but smiled and laughed as he ran away from the cat. He did eventually

     begin interacting with “animals” and pet owner and seeking their attention.
      The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                     66
                                                Appendix C: 4a

                                             Special Education Peers

                                               Language Sample 4

      Name: “John”                                                              Date: 11-9-07

      Play Context: Special Education

     Student                                                                                    # morphs

1    Oh fridge                                                                                  1

2    the fridge                                                                                 2

3    Take a bath                                                                                3

4    Apple                                                                                      1

5    I got a apple                                                                              4

6    I got a apple                                                                              4

7    Ouch                                                                                       1

8    Ouch that hurt                                                                             3

9    I got a apple                                                                              4

10   I got a apple                                                                              4

11   Getagetagetagetagetaget (Drops apple and tries to pick it up with puppet mouth)            0

12   Owww                                                                                       0

13   Eh its mine (A peer picks up apple from where “John” drops it)                             3

14   You take my apple                                                                          4

15   You get a baby Clifford (trying to communicate that other child cannot have his puppet)    5

16   That’s good…                                                                               3

17   That’s close                                                                               3

18   Look I got the apple                                                                       5

19   Uh-oh…owww (apple falls onto his face)                                                     0
      The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                           67
20   Barney isn’t…                                                                                  3

21   Okay…                                                                                          1

22   I got the apple                                                                                4

23   Turkey leg                                                                                     2

24   Yeah                                                                                           1

25   Good                                                                                           1

26   Ahhh Clifford                                                                                  1

27   Clifford                                                                                       1

28   Ruffer ruff                                                                                    0

29   Your                                                                                           2

30   BJ…                                                                                            1

31   Your…                                                                                          2

32   I want to…                                                                                     3

33   Eh, Eh, Eh                                                                                     0

34   Eh, Eh, Eh                                                                                     0

35   See                                                                                            1

36   See work hard (looking in mirror with hat on Clifford puppet)                                  3

37   Try baby got X                                                                                 3

38   Love your X                                                                                    2

39   Don’t have a dress up                                                                          6

40   We don’t have a dress                                                                          6



                                                                  Total Morphemes: 93/40= 2.33 MLU

      Observations:

      Immediately subject gets puppet and takes it to the sink where he usually plays when he is with special

      education peers. He plays with food and cup in sink, then he goes to the mirror and watches puppet (in
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                         68
mirror) while talking. Most of his verbalizations are to himself. Sometimes he “feeds” off what the

special education peers say, but he does not talk directly to him.
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                               69
                                             Appendix C: 4b

                                        General Education Peers

                                             Language Sample 4

Name: “John”                                                                 Date: 11-9-07

Play Context: General Education

           Student                                                                            # morphs

   1       That’s good I want to get this one                                                 9

   2       Loves, he loves                                                                    5

           XXXX                                                                               0

   3       I’m sorry                                                                          3

   4       Here is, here is your ice cream                                                    7

   5       Your ice cream                                                                     4

   6       This ahhhh (hahaha)                                                                1

   7       I got Look, me me                                                                  5

   8       There’s five people in housekeeping                                                8

   9       Hey I got a dog ice cream                                                          7

   10      Ahhhhhh                                                                            0

           XXXX                                                                               0

   11      I got an ice cream                                                                 5



                                                      Total Morphemes: 54/11= 4.91 MLU

Observations:

Subject starts playing in the mirror using the Clifford puppet. This is what he was doing last during the

special education playtime. He smiles a lot. He appears to be looking around for someone to play with.

He watches the other children and tries to initiate play with a particular student. He imitates the typical

students playing, using same toys, following their play scheme. He laughs a lot.
      The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                        70


                                           Appendix C: 5a

                                        Special Education Peers

                                          Language Sample 5

      Name: “John”                                                Date: 11-16-07

      Play Context: Special Education

     Student                                                                       # morphs

1    Animal                                                                        1

2    Hokey poke                                                                    2

3    Puppy                                                                         1

4    Puppy                                                                         1

5    Eh Eh, Ruff, (panting)                                                        0

     XXX                                                                           0

6    Let me see                                                                    3

7    Animals                                                                       2

8    Yeah                                                                          1

9    XX In the road                                                                3

10   A car                                                                         2

11   In the road                                                                   3

12   XXX today (singing)                                                           2

     XXX                                                                           0

13   Here’s Barney and BJ (noises)                                                 5

14   Lalalala                                                                      0

15   The dogs                                                                      3

16   In the road XXXXX                                                             3
      The Effect of Peer Modeling       71
17   In the road XX                 3

18   Lalala XXX                     0

19   X in the road                  3

20   Lalalala                       0

21   Want to get dirt X             4

22   You want to road               4

23   You want to road               4

24   In the road                    3

25   In the road                    3

26   In the road                    3

27   In the road                    3

28   In the road                    3

     In the road                    3

29   Here (noises)                  1

30   In the road                    3

31   In the road                    3

32   In the road                    3

33   What is sad                    3

34   Is the meal                    3

     XXX                            0

35   In the road                    3

36   In the road                    3

37   He the have work               4

38   In the road                    3

39   It get that thing              4
       The Effect of Peer Modeling                              72
40   I am Barney is a dinosaur XX in the road (singing)   (9)

41   In the roads                                         4

42   I do have a puppy                                    5

43   Is a dog                                             3

44   Her name is Kipper XXX (singing)                     (4)

45   In the road                                          3

46   In the car                                           3

47   In the road                                          3

48   Clecleclec in the road                               3

     XXX                                                  0

     XXX                                                  0

49   In the road                                          3

50   In the road                                          3

51   In the road                                          3

52   In the road                                          3

53   In the road                                          3

54   The road                                             2

55   The road                                             2

56   In the road                                          3

57   In the road                                          3

58   In the road                                          3

59   In the road (whistles)                               3

60   XXX in the road                                      3

61   XXX in the road                                      3

62   Who’s X in the road                                  5
      The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                            73
63   Cheese                                                                                        1

64   Ehhhh                                                                                         0

65   A sandwich                                                                                    2

66   Oh hahahaha                                                                                   0

67   I got that sandwich                                                                           4

68   Eat it                                                                                        2

69   Donut                                                                                         1

70   Donut                                                                                         1

     XX                                                                                            0

71   I want the donut (speaking to child)                                                          4

72   Yeah I want a donut                                                                           5



                                                          Total Morphemes: 200/72= 2.78 MLU

                                                          Without Kipper/Barney: 187/70= 2.67 MLU



      Observations:

      He chose the Clifford puppet and walks around throwing it in the air. He stands around and sings “in

      the road”. He occasionally searches for another item to hold.
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                            74
                                             Appendix C: 5b

                                         General Education Peers

                                             Language Sample 5

Name: “John”                                                               Date: 11-16-07

Play Context: General Education

               Student                                                                      # morphs

     1         Ohhh…ahhhh                                                                   0

     2         I got the piglet doll                                                        6

     3         Look at me I got the piglet                                                  8

     4         He’s got the                                                                 4

               XXXX                                                                         0

     5         He’s got a scratch (to other child)                                          5

     6         When look                                                                    2

     7         How do I take the pajamas off? (to child)                                    8

     8         He looks like a piglet (to child)                                            6

     9         You want to take the clothes off (to child)                                  8

     10        I can’t take PJ’s off (to child)                                             7

     11        Look, look                                                                   2

     12        He is look, look, look                                                       5

               XX (goes over to the cradle)                                                 0

     13        XXXX Ohhhh, look I got the XXX (spoken to other student)                     4

     14        Ahhh (subject is pretending to be a dog tearing up a stuffed animal)         0

     15        XX Look, look the baby, the baby look                                        7

     16        I will change him                                                            4

     17        I will change him                                                            4
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                              75
     18        Anybody, anybody the catch                                            6

     19         Ow                                                                   0

     20         Ahhhh You guys the punch me                                          6

     21         No way (in response to “feed the cat”)                               2

     22         It’s…you Barney                                                      4

     23         Let’s play with this                                                 5

     24         I don’t know                                                         4

     25         I want to want to                                                    5

     26         Mommy, mommy that cat was screaming                                  7

     27         He was screaming                                                     4

     28         Noooo, stop, stop, stop, stop                                        5

     29         No doggy, no                                                         3

     30         Everybody can’t catch                                                5

     31         You don’t want to catch it                                           7

     32         You don’t want to catch this                                         7

     33         You can’t catch… XX                                                  4

     34         Mommy, mommy, mommy the cat was really close                         9

     35         No cat                                                               2

     36         Where are you taking it                                              6

     37         Hey Mom hey the cat just scratched me                                9

     38         That cat just scratched me                                           6

     39         What is it now?                                                      4



                                                     Total Morphemes: 190/39= 4.87 MLU

Observations:
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                             76
Subject has piglet doll and tries to dress and undress it. He looks around at other children. Laughs at

things other children do. He has a discussion with girl about doll. Then he approaches typical children to

join the imaginative play scheme. He participates in great role playing scheme with mom, child, and

pets.
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                          77
                                        Appendix C: 6a

                                     Special Education Peers

                                        Language Sample 6

Name: “John”                                                   Date: 11-30-07

Play Context: Special Needs Preschool

           Student                                                        # morphs

 1         Hi zero                                                        2

 2         He’s a X zero                                                  4

 3         Hello                                                          1

 4         I am zero the hero (begins watching peers)                     5

 5         Zero                                                           1

 6         Zero                                                           1

 7         XX Zero                                                        1

 8         I am making some eggs for everybody                            10

 9         Zero….                                                         1

 10        where’s zero                                                   3

 11        He X outside                                                   3

 12        Tckatcka (singing)                                             0

 13        Hello                                                          1

 14        Its me                                                         3

 15        Anybody XXX                                                    2

 16        Yeah                                                           1

 17        Press X                                                        1

 18        Press the                                                      2

 19        Press the                                                      2
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                    78
 20         Press down (Walking around singing to self)                    2

 21        Yeah                                                            1

 22        Oh                                                              0

 23        Oh                                                              0

 25        Oh                                                              0

 26        Oh                                                              0

 27        Dudududu                                                        0

 28        Hey who take that broken things                                 7

 29        Anybody press the room                                          5

 30        To                                                              1

           XXX (singing to self)                                           0

 31        Raise the roof                                                  3

 32        Raise the roof                                                  3

 33        Raise the roof                                                  3

 34        Raise the roof                                                  3

 35        Raise the roof                                                  3

 36        Raise the roof                                                  3

 37        Raise the roof                                                  3

 38        Raise the roof                                                  3

 39        Raise the roof                                                  3

 40        Raise the roof                                                  3

 41        Yeah (looking at toys on the floor with child)                  1

 42        I don’t have any X                                              5

 43        I want that (Child asks “ you a dog” and JB does not respond)   3

 44        It is stick                                                     3
The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                             79
 45         XX                                                                          0

 46         Is a stick                                                                  3

 47         X cakes up there (playing with child)                                       4

 48         No                                                                          1

 49         I’m too stuck                                                               4

 50         I can’t                                                                     3

 51         Two guys are stuck too (crawling under table)                               6

 52         Do know (helped up by child, walking around room)                           2



                                                    Total Morphemes: 125/52= 2.40 MLU



Observations:

He is playing with the zero raccoon puppet at the sink. He stops to ask teacher questions, which I’ve

omitted from language sample. Then he goes on playing. He plays by himself, mostly just moving his

body around. Then he engages with girl in some play where he crawls under the table and gets back up.
    The Effect of Peer Modeling                                                                              80
                                               Appendix C: 6b

                                            General Education Peers

                                               Language Sample 6

    Name: “John”                                                                Date: 11-30-07

    Play Context: General Education

       Student                                                                                       # morphs

1      No (in response to child asking for food)                                                     1

2      Ohh, ohh, ohh (laughing) HeHeHe (pants like a dog)                                            0

3      Hey what are you doing? (finds other child on floor)                                          6

4      She’s having another baby.                                                                    7

5      Oh no…Uh-oh, let me                                                                           5

6      Okay (in response to “I’m the dad; I’m the big brother okay”)                                 1

7      Ahhhh….You okay? Push me…… (subject lets himself be petted)                                   4

8      I want to go to XX                                                                            5

9      Meow…                                                                                         1



                                                         Total Morphemes: 30/9= 3.33 MLU

    Observations:

    Typical children are arguing over who gets to be the mom. Subject gets onto floor to presume play of

    the last time he was in general education setting. Children continue to argue over who is allowed in

    center. Subject watches, smiles, and continues to crawl on the floor. Eventually he crawls over to

    investigate the toy bucket (whistling). Then play with peers commences and student is the pet. Children

    begin to play that the mom is having a baby. Subject is in on the action, but he is the silent pet. He

    grins and watches. He crawls on the mom. Other child feeds him cat snacks. Student is very happy and

    engaged in the play, but there is limited interaction between him and other students.

				
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