Caritas in Veritae_ Benedict XVI ENCYCLICAL LETTER CARITAS IN by ghkgkyyt

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									Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                               1


          ENCYCLICAL LETTER                             every commitment spelt out by that doc-        element of fundamental importance in
         CARITAS IN VERITATE                            trine is derived from charity which, ac-       human relations, including those of a
       OF THE SUPREME PONTIFF                           cording to the teaching of Jesus, is the       public nature. Only in truth does char-
            BENEDICT XVI                                synthesis of the entire Law (cf. Mt            ity shine forth, only in truth can char-
            TO THE BISHOPS                              22:36- 40). It gives real substance to the     ity be authentically lived. Truth is the
         PRIESTS AND DEACONS                            personal relationship with God and with        light that gives meaning and value to
     MEN AND WOMEN RELIGIOUS
                                                        neighbour; it is the principle not only of     charity. That light is both the light of
           THE LAY FAITHFUL
    AND ALL PEOPLE OF GOOD WILL                         micro-relationships (with friends, with        reason and the light of faith, through
  ON INTEGRAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT                         family members or within small groups)         which the intellect attains to the natu-
        IN CHARITY AND TRUTH                            but also of macro-relationships (social,       ral and supernatural truth of charity: it
                                                        economic and political ones). For the          grasps its meaning as gift, acceptance,
Note from from the typesetter: This is a personal       Church, instructed by the Gospel, char-        and communion. Without truth, charity
reading copy I prepared quickly to make this encycli-   ity is everything because, as Saint John       degenerates into sentimentality. Love
cal more pleasant to read and print. There may be
typos. Please check the definitive online source on
                                                        teaches (cf. 1 Jn 4:8, 16) and as I re-        becomes an empty shell, to be filled in
the Vatican web site (see the link on the last page),   called in my first Encyclical Letter, “God      an arbitrary way. In a culture with-
especially before passing on any quotes. Thanks.        is love” (Deus Caritas Est): everything        out truth, this is the fatal risk facing
                                                        has its origin in God’s love, everything       love. It falls prey to contingent subjec-
INTRODUCTION                                            is shaped by it, everything is directed to-    tive emotions and opinions, the word
                                                        wards it. Love is God’s greatest gift          “love” is abused and distorted, to the
1. Charity in truth, to which Jesus Christ              to humanity, it is his promise and our         point where it comes to mean the op-
bore witness by his earthly life and es-                hope.                                          posite. Truth frees charity from the
pecially by his death and resurrection,                                                                constraints of an emotionalism that de-
is the principal driving force behind the               I am aware of the ways in which charity        prives it of relational and social con-
authentic development of every person                   has been and continues to be miscon-           tent, and of a fideism that deprives it of
and of all humanity. Love — caritas — is                strued and emptied of meaning, with            human and universal breathing-space.
an extraordinary force which leads peo-                 the consequent risk of being misinter-         In the truth, charity reflects the per-
ple to opt for courageous and generous                  preted, detached from ethical living           sonal yet public dimension of faith in
engagement in the field of justice and                   and, in any event, undervalued. In the         the God of the Bible, who is both Ag´pe
                                                                                                                                            a
peace. It is a force that has its origin in             social, juridical, cultural, political and     and L´gos: Charity and Truth, Love and
                                                                                                             o
God, Eternal Love and Absolute Truth.                   economic fields — the contexts, in other        Word.
Each person finds his good by adherence                  words, that are most exposed to this
to God’s plan for him, in order to realize              danger — it is easily dismissed as ir-         4. Because it is filled with truth, char-
it fully: in this plan, he finds his truth,              relevant for interpreting and giving di-       ity can be understood in the abundance
and through adherence to this truth he                  rection to moral responsibility. Hence         of its values, it can be shared and com-
becomes free (cf. Jn 8:22). To defend                   the need to link charity with truth not        municated. Truth, in fact, is l´gos which
                                                                                                                                      o
the truth, to articulate it with humility               only in the sequence, pointed out by           creates di´-logos, and hence communi-
                                                                                                                   a
and conviction, and to bear witness to                  Saint Paul, of veritas in caritate (Eph        cation and communion. Truth, by en-
it in life are therefore exacting and in-               4:15), but also in the inverse and com-        abling men and women to let go of their
dispensable forms of charity. Charity,                  plementary sequence of caritas in veri-        subjective opinions and impressions, al-
in fact, “rejoices in the truth” (1 Cor                 tate. Truth needs to be sought, found          lows them to move beyond cultural and
13:6). All people feel the interior im-                 and expressed within the “economy” of          historical limitations and to come to-
pulse to love authentically: love and                   charity, but charity in its turn needs to      gether in the assessment of the value
truth never abandon them completely,                    be understood, confirmed and practised          and substance of things. Truth opens
because these are the vocation planted                  in the light of truth. In this way, not        and unites our minds in the l´gos of
                                                                                                                                         o
by God in the heart and mind of ev-                     only do we do a service to charity en-         love: this is the Christian proclamation
ery human person. The search for love                   lightened by truth, but we also help give      and testimony of charity. In the present
and truth is purified and liberated by Je-               credibility to truth, demonstrating its        social and cultural context, where there
sus Christ from the impoverishment that                 persuasive and authenticating power in         is a widespread tendency to relativize
our humanity brings to it, and he reveals               the practical setting of social living. This   truth, practising charity in truth helps
to us in all its fullness the initiative of             is a matter of no small account today, in      people to understand that adhering to
love and the plan for true life that God                a social and cultural context which rela-      the values of Christianity is not merely
has prepared for us. In Christ, charity in              tivizes truth, often paying little heed to     useful but essential for building a good
truth becomes the Face of his Person, a                 it and showing increasing reluctance to        society and for true integral human de-
vocation for us to love our brothers and                acknowledge its existence.                     velopment. A Christianity of charity
sisters in the truth of his plan. Indeed,                                                              without truth would be more or less in-
he himself is the Truth (cf. Jn 14:6).                  3. Through this close link with truth,         terchangeable with a pool of good sen-
                                                        charity can be recognized as an authen-        timents, helpful for social cohesion, but
2. Charity is at the heart of the Church’s              tic expression of humanity and as an           of little relevance. In other words, there
social doctrine. Every responsibility and
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                          2


would no longer be any real place for          evance to the commitment to develop-           it is a requirement of justice and charity.
God in the world. Without truth, charity       ment in an increasingly globalized soci-       To take a stand for the common good
is confined to a narrow field devoid of          ety: justice and the common good.              is on the one hand to be solicitous for,
relations. It is excluded from the plans                                                      and on the other hand to avail oneself
and processes of promoting human de-           First of all, justice. Ubi societas, ibi       of, that complex of institutions that give
velopment of universal range, in dia-          ius: every society draws up its own sys-       structure to the life of society, juridically,
logue between knowledge and praxis.            tem of justice. Charity goes beyond jus-       civilly, politically and culturally, making
                                               tice, because to love is to give, to offer     it the p´lis , or “city”. The more we strive
                                                                                                       o
5. Charity is love received and given. It      what is “mine” to the other; but it never      to secure a common good correspond-
is “grace” (ch´ris). Its source is the well-
              a                                lacks justice, which prompts us to give        ing to the real needs of our neighbours,
spring of the Father’s love for the Son,       the other what is “his”, what is due to        the more effectively we love them. Ev-
in the Holy Spirit. Love comes down            him by reason of his being or his act-         ery Christian is called to practise this
to us from the Son. It is creative love,       ing. I cannot “give” what is mine to           charity, in a manner corresponding to
through which we have our being; it            the other, without first giving him what        his vocation and according to the degree
is redemptive love, through which we           pertains to him in justice. If we love         of influence he wields in the p´lis . This
                                                                                                                                 o
are recreated. Love is revealed and            others with charity, then first of all we       is the institutional path — we might also
made present by Christ (cf. Jn 13:1)           are just towards them. Not only is jus-        call it the political path — of charity, no
and “poured into our hearts through the        tice not extraneous to charity, not only       less excellent and effective than the kind
Holy Spirit” (Rom 5:5). As the objects         is it not an alternative or parallel path to   of charity which encounters the neigh-
of God’s love, men and women become            charity: justice is inseparable from char-     bour directly, outside the institutional
subjects of charity, they are called to        ity[1], and intrinsic to it. Justice is the    mediation of the p´lis. When animated
                                                                                                                     o
make themselves instruments of grace,          primary way of charity or, in Paul VI’s        by charity, commitment to the common
so as to pour forth God’s charity and to       words, “the minimum measure” of it[2],         good has greater worth than a merely
weave networks of charity.                     an integral part of the love “in deed and      secular and political stand would have.
                                               in truth” (1 Jn 3:18), to which Saint          Like all commitment to justice, it has
This dynamic of charity received and           John exhorts us. On the one hand, char-        a place within the testimony of divine
given is what gives rise to the Church’s       ity demands justice: recognition and re-       charity that paves the way for eternity
social teaching, which is caritas in ver-      spect for the legitimate rights of indi-       through temporal action. Man’s earthly
itate in re sociali: the proclamation of       viduals and peoples. It strives to build       activity, when inspired and sustained by
the truth of Christ’s love in society. This    the earthly city according to law and jus-     charity, contributes to the building of
doctrine is a service to charity, but its      tice. On the other hand, charity tran-         the universal city of God, which is the
locus is truth. Truth preserves and ex-        scends justice and completes it in the         goal of the history of the human fam-
presses charity’s power to liberate in the     logic of giving and forgiving[3]. The          ily. In an increasingly globalized society,
ever-changing events of history. It is at      earthly city is promoted not merely by         the common good and the effort to ob-
the same time the truth of faith and of        relationships of rights and duties, but        tain it cannot fail to assume the dimen-
reason, both in the distinction and also       to an even greater and more fundamen-          sions of the whole human family, that
in the convergence of those two cogni-         tal extent by relationships of gratuitous-     is to say, the community of peoples and
tive fields. Development, social well-          ness, mercy and communion. Charity             nations[5], in such a way as to shape
being, the search for a satisfactory solu-     always manifests God’s love in human           the earthly city in unity and peace, ren-
tion to the grave socio-economic prob-         relationships as well, it gives theologi-      dering it to some degree an anticipation
lems besetting humanity, all need this         cal and salvific value to all commitment        and a prefiguration of the undivided city
truth. What they need even more is that        for justice in the world.                      of God .
this truth should be loved and demon-
strated. Without truth, without trust          7. Another important consideration is          8. In 1967, when he issued the En-
and love for what is true, there is no         the common good. To love someone is            cyclical Populorum Progressio, my ven-
social conscience and responsibility, and      to desire that person’s good and to take       erable predecessor Pope Paul VI illumi-
social action ends up serving private in-      effective steps to secure it. Besides the      nated the great theme of the develop-
terests and the logic of power, resulting      good of the individual, there is a good        ment of peoples with the splendour of
in social fragmentation, especially in a       that is linked to living in society: the       truth and the gentle light of Christ’s
globalized society at difficult times like      common good. It is the good of “all            charity. He taught that life in Christ is
the present.                                   of us”, made up of individuals, families       the first and principal factor of develop-
                                               and intermediate groups who together           ment[6] and he entrusted us with the
6. “Caritas in veritate ” is the princi-       constitute society[4]. It is a good that is    task of travelling the path of develop-
ple around which the Church’s social           sought not for its own sake, but for the       ment with all our heart and all our intel-
doctrine turns, a principle that takes on      people who belong to the social commu-         ligence[7], that is to say with the ardour
practical form in the criteria that govern     nity and who can only really and effec-        of charity and the wisdom of truth. It is
moral action. I would like to consider         tively pursue their good within it. To de-     the primordial truth of God’s love, grace
two of these in particular, of special rel-    sire the common good and strive towards        bestowed upon us, that opens our lives
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                     3


to gift and makes it possible to hope        ery time and circumstance, for a soci-         ing paragraphs it clearly indicates its
for a “development of the whole man          ety that is attuned to man, to his dig-        close connection with the Council[14].
and of all men”[8], to hope for progress     nity, to his vocation. Without truth, it       Twenty years later, in Sollicitudo Rei So-
“from less human conditions to those         is easy to fall into an empiricist and         cialis, John Paul II, in his turn, em-
which are more human”[9], obtained by        sceptical view of life, incapable of ris-      phasized the earlier Encyclical’s fruitful
overcoming the difficulties that are in-      ing to the level of praxis because of          relationship with the Council, and es-
evitably encountered along the way.          a lack of interest in grasping the val-        pecially with the Pastoral Constitution
                                             ues — sometimes even the meanings              Gaudium et Spes [15]. I too wish to
At a distance of over forty years from       — with which to judge and direct it.           recall here the importance of the Sec-
the Encyclical’s publication, I intend to    Fidelity to man requires fidelity to the        ond Vatican Council for Paul VI’s En-
pay tribute and to honour the mem-           truth, which alone is the guarantee of         cyclical and for the whole of the subse-
ory of the great Pope Paul VI, revisiting    freedom (cf. Jn 8:32) and of the pos-          quent social Magisterium of the Popes.
his teachings on integral human devel-       sibility of integral human development.        The Council probed more deeply what
opment and taking my place within the        For this reason the Church searches for        had always belonged to the truth of the
path that they marked out, so as to ap-      truth, proclaims it tirelessly and recog-      faith, namely that the Church, being at
ply them to the present moment. This         nizes it wherever it is manifested. This       God’s service, is at the service of the
continual application to contemporary        mission of truth is something that the         world in terms of love and truth. Paul
circumstances began with the Encycli-        Church can never renounce. Her social          VI set out from this vision in order to
cal Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, with which     doctrine is a particular dimension of this     convey two important truths. The first
the Servant of God Pope John Paul II         proclamation: it is a service to the truth     is that the whole Church, in all her being
chose to mark the twentieth anniversary      which sets us free. Open to the truth,         and acting — when she proclaims, when
of the publication of Populorum Progres-     from whichever branch of knowledge it          she celebrates, when she performs works
sio. Until that time, only Rerum No-         comes, the Church’s social doctrine re-        of charity — is engaged in promoting in-
varum had been commemorated in this          ceives it, assembles into a unity the frag-    tegral human development. She has a
way. Now that a further twenty years         ments in which it is often found, and          public role over and above her chari-
have passed, I express my conviction         mediates it within the constantly chang-       table and educational activities: all the
that Populorum Progressio deserves to be     ing life-patterns of the society of peoples    energy she brings to the advancement
considered “the Rerum Novarum of the         and nations[12].                               of humanity and of universal fraternity
present age”, shedding light upon hu-                                                       is manifested when she is able to oper-
manity’s journey towards unity.              CHAPTER ONE                                    ate in a climate of freedom. In not a few
                                                                                            cases, that freedom is impeded by prohi-
9. Love in truth — caritas in veritate       THE MESSAGE                                    bitions and persecutions, or it is limited
— is a great challenge for the Church        OF POPULORUM PROGRESSIO                        when the Church’s public presence is re-
in a world that is becoming progres-                                                        duced to her charitable activities alone.
sively and pervasively globalized. The       10. A fresh reading of Populorum Pro-          The second truth is that authentic hu-
risk for our time is that the de facto in-   gressio, more than forty years after its       man development concerns the whole of
terdependence of people and nations is       publication, invites us to remain faith-       the person in every single dimension [16].
not matched by ethical interaction of        ful to its message of charity and truth,       Without the perspective of eternal life,
consciences and minds that would give        viewed within the overall context of           human progress in this world is denied
rise to truly human development. Only        Paul VI’s specific magisterium and, more        breathing-space. Enclosed within his-
in charity, illumined by the light of rea-   generally, within the tradition of the         tory, it runs the risk of being reduced to
son and faith, is it possible to pursue      Church’s social doctrine. Moreover, an         the mere accumulation of wealth; hu-
development goals that possess a more        evaluation is needed of the different          manity thus loses the courage to be at
humane and humanizing value. The             terms in which the problem of develop-         the service of higher goods, at the ser-
sharing of goods and resources, from         ment is presented today, as compared           vice of the great and disinterested ini-
which authentic development proceeds,        with forty years ago. The correct view-        tiatives called forth by universal char-
is not guaranteed by merely technical        point, then, is that of the Tradition of the   ity. Man does not develop through his
progress and relationships of utility, but   apostolic faith [13], a patrimony both         own powers, nor can development sim-
by the potential of love that overcomes      ancient and new, outside of which Popu-        ply be handed to him. In the course
evil with good (cf. Rom 12:21), opening      lorum Progressio would be a document           of history, it was often maintained that
up the path towards reciprocity of con-      without roots — and issues concern-            the creation of institutions was suffi-
sciences and liberties.                      ing development would be reduced to            cient to guarantee the fulfilment of hu-
                                             merely sociological data.                      manity’s right to development. Unfortu-
The Church does not have technical so-                                                      nately, too much confidence was placed
lutions to offer[10] and does not claim      11. The publication of Populorum Pro-          in those institutions, as if they were able
“to interfere in any way in the politics     gressio occurred immediately after the         to deliver the desired objective automat-
of States.”[11] She does, however, have      conclusion of the Second Vatican Ec-           ically. In reality, institutions by them-
a mission of truth to accomplish, in ev-     umenical Council, and in its open-             selves are not enough, because integral
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                    4


human development is primarily a vo-         tian doctors. This doctrine points defini-      trusting the entire process of develop-
cation, and therefore it involves a free     tively to the New Man, to the “last Adam       ment to technology alone, because in
assumption of responsibility in solidar-     [who] became a life-giving spirit” (1 Cor      that way it would lack direction. Tech-
ity on the part of everyone. Moreover,       15:45), the principle of the charity that      nology, viewed in itself, is ambivalent.
such development requires a transcen-        “never ends” (1 Cor 13:8). It is at-           If on the one hand, some today would
dent vision of the person, it needs God:     tested by the saints and by those who          be inclined to entrust the entire pro-
without him, development is either de-       gave their lives for Christ our Saviour        cess of development to technology, on
nied, or entrusted exclusively to man,       in the field of justice and peace. It is        the other hand we are witnessing an
who falls into the trap of thinking he       an expression of the prophetic task of         upsurge of ideologies that deny in toto
can bring about his own salvation, and       the Supreme Pontiffs to give apostolic         the very value of development, viewing
ends up promoting a dehumanized form         guidance to the Church of Christ and to        it as radically anti-human and merely a
of development. Only through an en-          discern the new demands of evangeliza-         source of degradation. This leads to a
counter with God are we able to see in       tion. For these reasons, Populorum Pro-        rejection, not only of the distorted and
the other something more than just an-       gressio, situated within the great current     unjust way in which progress is some-
other creature[17], to recognize the di-     of Tradition, can still speak to us today.     times directed, but also of scientific dis-
vine image in the other, thus truly com-                                                    coveries themselves, which, if well used,
ing to discover him or her and to ma-        13. In addition to its important link          could serve as an opportunity of growth
ture in a love that “becomes concern         with the entirety of the Church’s so-          for all. The idea of a world without de-
and care for the other.”[18]                 cial doctrine, Populorum Progressio is         velopment indicates a lack of trust in
                                             closely connected to the overall magis-        man and in God. It is therefore a se-
12. The link between Populorum Pro-          terium of Paul VI, especially his social       rious mistake to undervalue human ca-
gressio and the Second Vatican Coun-         magisterium. His was certainly a social        pacity to exercise control over the de-
cil does not mean that Paul VI’s social      teaching of great importance: he under-        viations of development or to overlook
magisterium marked a break with that         lined the indispensable importance of          the fact that man is constitutionally ori-
of previous Popes, because the Coun-         the Gospel for building a society accord-      ented towards “being more”. Idealiz-
cil constitutes a deeper exploration of      ing to freedom and justice, in the ideal       ing technical progress, or contemplat-
this magisterium within the continuity       and historical perspective of a civiliza-      ing the utopia of a return to humanity’s
of the Church’s life[19]. In this sense,     tion animated by love. Paul VI clearly         original natural state, are two contrast-
clarity is not served by certain abstract    understood that the social question had        ing ways of detaching progress from its
subdivisions of the Church’s social doc-     become worldwide [25] and he grasped           moral evaluation and hence from our re-
trine, which apply categories to Papal       the interconnection between the impe-          sponsibility.
social teaching that are extraneous to       tus towards the unification of humanity
it. It is not a case of two typologies       and the Christian ideal of a single fam-       15. Two further documents by Paul VI
of social doctrine, one pre-conciliar and    ily of peoples in solidarity and fraternity.   without any direct link to social doc-
one post-conciliar, differing from one       In the notion of development, understood       trine — the Encyclical Humanae Vitae
another: on the contrary, there is a sin-    in human and Christian terms, he identi-       (25 July 1968) and the Apostolic Exhor-
gle teaching, consistent and at the same     fied the heart of the Christian social mes-     tation Evangelii Nuntiandi (8 December
time ever new [20]. It is one thing to       sage, and he proposed Christian charity        1975) — are highly important for delin-
draw attention to the particular char-       as the principal force at the service of       eating the fully human meaning of the
acteristics of one Encyclical or another,    development. Motivated by the wish to          development that the Church proposes.
of the teaching of one Pope or another,      make Christ’s love fully visible to con-       It is therefore helpful to consider these
but quite another to lose sight of the       temporary men and women, Paul VI ad-           texts too in relation to Populorum Pro-
coherence of the overall doctrinal cor-      dressed important ethical questions ro-        gressio.
pus [21]. Coherence does not mean a          bustly, without yielding to the cultural
closed system: on the contrary, it means     weaknesses of his time.                        The Encyclical Humanae Vitae empha-
dynamic faithfulness to a light received.                                                   sizes both the unitive and the procre-
The Church’s social doctrine illuminates     14. In his Apostolic Letter Octogesima         ative meaning of sexuality, thereby lo-
with an unchanging light the new prob-       Adveniens of 1971, Paul VI reflected on         cating at the foundation of society the
lems that are constantly emerging[22].       the meaning of politics, and the dan-          married couple, man and woman, who
This safeguards the permanent and his-       ger constituted by utopian and ideologi-       accept one another mutually, in distinc-
torical character of the doctrinal “patri-   cal visions that place its ethical and hu-     tion and in complementarity: a cou-
mony”[23] which, with its specific char-      man dimensions in jeopardy. These are          ple, therefore, that is open to life[27].
acteristics, is part and parcel of the       matters closely connected with develop-        This is not a question of purely indi-
Church’s ever-living Tradition[24]. So-      ment. Unfortunately the negative ide-          vidual morality: Humanae Vitae indi-
cial doctrine is built on the foundation     ologies continue to flourish. Paul VI           cates the strong links between life ethics
handed on by the Apostles to the Fa-         had already warned against the techno-         and social ethics, ushering in a new area
thers of the Church, and then received       cratic ideology so prevalent today[26],        of magisterial teaching that has gradu-
and further explored by the great Chris-     fully aware of the great danger of en-         ally been articulated in a series of doc-
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                   5


uments, most recently John Paul II’s         would not be entitled to speak on it.         dance”[40]. This too is a vocation, a
Encyclical Evangelium Vitae [28]. The        Paul VI, like Leo XIII before him in Re-      call addressed by free subjects to other
Church forcefully maintains this link be-    rum Novarum [35], knew that he was            free subjects in favour of an assumption
tween life ethics and social ethics, fully   carrying out a duty proper to his office       of shared responsibility. Paul VI had a
aware that “a society lacks solid foun-      by shedding the light of the Gospel on        keen sense of the importance of eco-
dations when, on the one hand, it as-        the social questions of his time[36].         nomic structures and institutions, but he
serts values such as the dignity of the                                                    had an equally clear sense of their na-
person, justice and peace, but then, on      To regard development as a vocation is        ture as instruments of human freedom.
the other hand, radically acts to the con-   to recognize, on the one hand, that it        Only when it is free can development be
trary by allowing or tolerating a variety    derives from a transcendent call, and on      integrally human; only in a climate of
of ways in which human life is devalued      the other hand that it is incapable, on       responsible freedom can it grow in a sat-
and violated, especially where it is weak    its own, of supplying its ultimate mean-      isfactory manner.
or marginalized.”[29]                        ing. Not without reason the word “voca-
                                             tion” is also found in another passage of     18. Besides requiring freedom, inte-
The Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii          the Encyclical, where we read: “There         gral human development as a vocation
Nuntiandi, for its part, is very closely     is no true humanism but that which is         also demands respect for its truth. The
linked with development, given that, in      open to the Absolute, and is conscious        vocation to progress drives us to “do
Paul VI’s words, “evangelization would       of a vocation which gives human life its      more, know more and have more in or-
not be complete if it did not take ac-       true meaning.”[37] This vision of devel-      der to be more”[41]. But herein lies
count of the unceasing interplay of          opment is at the heart of Populorum Pro-      the problem: what does it mean “to
the Gospel and of man’s concrete life,       gressio, and it lies behind all Paul VI’s     be more”? Paul VI answers the ques-
both personal and social.”[30] “Be-          reflections on freedom, on truth and on        tion by indicating the essential quality
tween evangelization and human ad-           charity in development. It is also the        of “authentic” development: it must be
vancement — development and liber-           principal reason why that Encyclical is       “integral, that is, it has to promote the
ation — there are in fact profound           still timely in our day.                      good of every man and of the whole
links”[31]: on the basis of this insight,                                                  man”[42]. Amid the various compet-
Paul VI clearly presented the relation-      17. A vocation is a call that requires        ing anthropological visions put forward
ship between the proclamation of Christ      a free and responsible answer. Integral       in today’s society, even more so than in
and the advancement of the individual        human development presupposes the re-         Paul VI’s time, the Christian vision has
in society. Testimony to Christ’s charity,   sponsible freedom of the individual and       the particular characteristic of asserting
through works of justice, peace and de-      of peoples: no structure can guarantee        and justifying the unconditional value
velopment, is part and parcel of evange-     this development over and above hu-           of the human person and the mean-
lization, because Jesus Christ, who loves    man responsibility. The “types of mes-        ing of his growth. The Christian voca-
us, is concerned with the whole person.      sianism which give promises but create        tion to development helps to promote
These important teachings form the ba-       illusions”[38] always build their case on     the advancement of all men and of the
sis for the missionary aspect[32] of the     a denial of the transcendent dimension        whole man. As Paul VI wrote: “What
Church’s social doctrine, which is an es-    of development, in the conviction that it     we hold important is man, each man
sential element of evangelization[33].       lies entirely at their disposal. This false   and each group of men, and we even in-
The Church’s social doctrine proclaims       security becomes a weakness, because it       clude the whole of humanity”[43]. In
and bears witness to faith. It is an in-     involves reducing man to subservience,        promoting development, the Christian
strument and an indispensable setting        to a mere means for development, while        faith does not rely on privilege or po-
for formation in faith.                      the humility of those who accept a voca-      sitions of power, nor even on the mer-
                                             tion is transformed into true autonomy,       its of Christians (even though these ex-
16. In Populorum Progressio, Paul VI         because it sets them free. Paul VI was        isted and continue to exist alongside
taught that progress, in its origin and      in no doubt that obstacles and forms of       their natural limitations)[44], but only
essence, is first and foremost a voca-        conditioning hold up development, but         on Christ, to whom every authentic vo-
tion: “in the design of God, every           he was also certain that “each one re-        cation to integral human development
man is called upon to develop and            mains, whatever be these influences af-        must be directed. The Gospel is fun-
fulfil himself, for every life is a vo-       fecting him, the principal agent of his       damental for development, because in
cation.”[34] This is what gives legiti-      own success or failure.”[39] This free-       the Gospel, Christ, “in the very revela-
macy to the Church’s involvement in the      dom concerns the type of development          tion of the mystery of the Father and
whole question of development. If de-        we are considering, but it also affects       of his love, fully reveals humanity to
velopment were concerned with merely         situations of underdevelopment which          itself”[45]. Taught by her Lord, the
technical aspects of human life, and not     are not due to chance or historical ne-       Church examines the signs of the times
with the meaning of man’s pilgrimage         cessity, but are attributable to human re-    and interprets them, offering the world
through history in company with his fel-     sponsibility. This is why “the peoples        “what she possesses as her characteris-
low human beings, nor with identifying       in hunger are making a dramatic ap-           tic attribute: a global vision of man and
the goal of that journey, then the Church    peal to the peoples blessed with abun-        of the human race”[46]. Precisely be-
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                     6


cause God gives a resounding “yes” to        the various levels in the process of hu-      flict the world today, we ask to what
man[47], man cannot fail to open him-        man development, placed at the sum-           extent Paul VI’s expectations have been
self to the divine vocation to pursue his    mit, after mentioning faith, “unity in the    fulfilled by the model of development
own development. The truth of devel-         charity of Christ who calls us all to share   adopted in recent decades. We rec-
opment consists in its completeness: if      as sons in the life of the living God, the    ognize, therefore, that the Church had
it does not involve the whole man and        Father of all”[53].                           good reason to be concerned about the
every man, it is not true development.                                                     capacity of a purely technological soci-
This is the central message of Populo-       20. These perspectives, which Populo-         ety to set realistic goals and to make
rum Progressio, valid for today and for      rum Progressio opens up, remain funda-        good use of the instruments at its dis-
all time. Integral human development         mental for giving breathing-space and         posal. Profit is useful if it serves as a
on the natural plane, as a response to       direction to our commitment for the de-       means towards an end that provides a
a vocation from God the Creator[48],         velopment of peoples. Moreover, Pop-          sense both of how to produce it and how
demands self-fulfilment in a “transcen-       ulorum Progressio repeatedly underlines       to make good use of it. Once profit be-
dent humanism which gives [to man]           the urgent need for reform [54], and in       comes the exclusive goal, if it is pro-
his greatest possible perfection: this is    the face of great problems of injustice in    duced by improper means and without
the highest goal of personal develop-        the development of peoples, it calls for      the common good as its ultimate end,
ment”[49]. The Christian vocation to         courageous action to be taken without         it risks destroying wealth and creating
this development therefore applies to        delay. This urgency is also a consequence     poverty. The economic development
both the natural plane and the super-        of charity in truth. It is Christ’s charity   that Paul VI hoped to see was meant to
natural plane; which is why, “when God       that drives us on: “caritas Christi urget     produce real growth, of benefit to ev-
is eclipsed, our ability to recognize the    nos ” (2 Cor 5:14). The urgency is in-        eryone and genuinely sustainable. It is
natural order, purpose and the ‘good’        scribed not only in things, it is not de-     true that growth has taken place, and it
begins to wane”[50].                         rived solely from the rapid succession of     continues to be a positive factor that has
                                             events and problems, but also from the        lifted billions of people out of misery —
19. Finally, the vision of development       very matter that is at stake: the estab-      recently it has given many countries the
as a vocation brings with it the central     lishment of authentic fraternity.             possibility of becoming effective players
place of charity within that development.                                                  in international politics. Yet it must be
Paul VI, in his Encyclical Letter Popu-      The importance of this goal is such as        acknowledged that this same economic
lorum Progressio, pointed out that the       to demand our openness to understand          growth has been and continues to be
causes of underdevelopment are not pri-      it in depth and to mobilize ourselves         weighed down by malfunctions and dra-
marily of the material order. He invited     at the level of the “heart”, so as to en-     matic problems, highlighted even further
us to search for them in other dimen-        sure that current economic and social         by the current crisis. This presents us
sions of the human person: first of all,      processes evolve towards fully human          with choices that cannot be postponed
in the will, which often neglects the du-    outcomes.                                     concerning nothing less than the destiny
ties of solidarity; secondly in thinking,                                                  of man, who, moreover, cannot prescind
which does not always give proper di-                                                      from his nature. The technical forces in
rection to the will. Hence, in the pursuit   CHAPTER TWO                                   play, the global interrelations, the dam-
of development, there is a need for “the                                                   aging effects on the real economy of
deep thought and reflection of wise men       HUMAN DEVELOPMENT                             badly managed and largely speculative
in search of a new humanism which            IN OUR TIME                                   financial dealing, large-scale migration
will enable modern man to find himself                                                      of peoples, often provoked by some par-
anew”[51]. But that is not all. Under-       21. Paul VI had an articulated vision of
                                                                                           ticular circumstance and then given in-
development has an even more impor-          development . He understood the term
                                                                                           sufficient attention, the unregulated ex-
tant cause than lack of deep thought: it     to indicate the goal of rescuing peo-
                                                                                           ploitation of the earth’s resources: all
is “the lack of brotherhood among indi-      ples, first and foremost, from hunger,
                                                                                           this leads us today to reflect on the mea-
viduals and peoples”[52]. Will it ever       deprivation, endemic diseases and illit-
                                                                                           sures that would be necessary to pro-
be possible to obtain this brotherhood       eracy. From the economic point of view,
                                                                                           vide a solution to problems that are not
by human effort alone? As society be-        this meant their active participation, on
                                                                                           only new in comparison to those ad-
comes ever more globalized, it makes         equal terms, in the international eco-
                                                                                           dressed by Pope Paul VI, but also, and
us neighbours but does not make us           nomic process; from the social point of
                                                                                           above all, of decisive impact upon the
brothers. Reason, by itself, is capable of   view, it meant their evolution into ed-
                                                                                           present and future good of humanity.
grasping the equality between men and        ucated societies marked by solidarity;
                                                                                           The different aspects of the crisis, its so-
of giving stability to their civic coexis-   from the political point of view, it meant
                                                                                           lutions, and any new development that
tence, but it cannot establish fraternity.   the consolidation of democratic regimes
                                                                                           the future may bring, are increasingly
This originates in a transcendent voca-      capable of ensuring freedom and peace.
                                                                                           interconnected, they imply one another,
tion from God the Father, who loved us       After so many years, as we observe with
                                                                                           they require new efforts of holistic un-
first, teaching us through the Son what       concern the developments and perspec-
                                                                                           derstanding and a new humanistic syn-
fraternal charity is. Paul VI, presenting    tives of the succession of crises that af-
                                                                                           thesis. The complexity and gravity of the
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                      7


present economic situation rightly cause       ciaries. Similarly, in the context of im-      to be discharged, perhaps by means of
us concern, but we must adopt a real-          material or cultural causes of develop-        the choices that are necessary to over-
istic attitude as we take up with confi-        ment and underdevelopment, we find              come current economic problems.
dence and hope the new responsibilities        these same patterns of responsibility re-
to which we are called by the prospect         produced. On the part of rich coun-            24. The world that Paul VI had before
of a world in need of profound cultural        tries there is excessive zeal for pro-         him — even though society had already
renewal, a world that needs to redis-          tecting knowledge through an unduly            evolved to such an extent that he could
cover fundamental values on which to           rigid assertion of the right to intellec-      speak of social issues in global terms —
build a better future. The current crisis      tual property, especially in the field of       was still far less integrated than today’s
obliges us to re-plan our journey, to set      health care. At the same time, in some         world. Economic activity and the politi-
ourselves new rules and to discover new        poor countries, cultural models and so-        cal process were both largely conducted
forms of commitment, to build on posi-         cial norms of behaviour persist which          within the same geographical area, and
tive experiences and to reject negative        hinder the process of development.             could therefore feed off one another.
ones. The crisis thus becomes an oppor-                                                       Production took place predominantly
tunity for discernment, in which to shape      23. Many areas of the globe today have         within national boundaries, and finan-
a new vision for the future. In this spirit,   evolved considerably, albeit in problem-       cial investments had somewhat limited
with confidence rather than resignation,        atical and disparate ways, thereby tak-        circulation outside the country, so that
it is appropriate to address the difficul-      ing their place among the great powers         the politics of many States could still
ties of the present time.                      destined to play important roles in the        determine the priorities of the economy
                                               future. Yet it should be stressed that         and to some degree govern its perfor-
22. Today the picture of development           progress of a merely economic and tech-        mance using the instruments at their
has many overlapping layers. The ac-           nological kind is insufficient. Develop-        disposal. Hence Populorum Progressio
tors and the causes in both underde-           ment needs above all to be true and in-        assigned a central, albeit not exclusive,
velopment and development are mani-            tegral. The mere fact of emerging from         role to “public authorities”[59].
fold, the faults and the merits are dif-       economic backwardness, though posi-
ferentiated. This fact should prompt           tive in itself, does not resolve the com-      In our own day, the State finds itself
us to liberate ourselves from ideologies,      plex issues of human advancement, nei-         having to address the limitations to its
which often oversimplify reality in arti-      ther for the countries that are spear-         sovereignty imposed by the new con-
ficial ways, and it should lead us to ex-       heading such progress, nor for those           text of international trade and finance,
amine objectively the full human dimen-        that are already economically devel-           which is characterized by increasing
sion of the problems. As John Paul II has      oped, nor even for those that are still        mobility both of financial capital and
already observed, the demarcation line         poor, which can suffer not just through        means of production, material and im-
between rich and poor countries is no          old forms of exploitation, but also from       material. This new context has altered
longer as clear as it was at the time of       the negative consequences of a growth          the political power of States.
Populorum Progressio [55]. The world’s         that is marked by irregularities and im-
wealth is growing in absolute terms, but       balances.                                      Today, as we take to heart the lessons
inequalities are on the increase. In rich                                                     of the current economic crisis, which
countries, new sectors of society are suc-     After the collapse of the economic             sees the State’s public authorities di-
cumbing to poverty and new forms of            and political systems of the Commu-            rectly involved in correcting errors and
poverty are emerging. In poorer areas          nist countries of Eastern Europe and           malfunctions, it seems more realistic to
some groups enjoy a sort of “superdevel-       the end of the so-called opposing blocs,       re-evaluate their role and their powers,
opment” of a wasteful and consumerist          a complete re-examination of develop-          which need to be prudently reviewed
kind which forms an unacceptable con-          ment was needed. Pope John Paul II             and remodelled so as to enable them,
trast with the ongoing situations of de-       called for it, when in 1987 he pointed         perhaps through new forms of engage-
humanizing deprivation. “The scandal           to the existence of these blocs as one         ment, to address the challenges of to-
of glaring inequalities”[56] continues.        of the principal causes of underdevel-         day’s world. Once the role of public au-
Corruption and illegality are unfortu-         opment[57], inasmuch as politics with-         thorities has been more clearly defined,
nately evident in the conduct of the eco-      drew resources from the economy and            one could foresee an increase in the new
nomic and political class in rich coun-        from the culture, and ideology inhibited       forms of political participation, nation-
tries, both old and new, as well as in         freedom. Moreover, in 1991, after the          ally and internationally, that have come
poor ones. Among those who some-               events of 1989, he asked that, in view         about through the activity of organiza-
times fail to respect the human rights         of the ending of the blocs, there should       tions operating in civil society; in this
of workers are large multinational com-        be a comprehensive new plan for devel-         way it is to be hoped that the citizens’
panies as well as local producers. In-         opment, not only in those countries, but       interest and participation in the res pub-
ternational aid has often been diverted        also in the West and in those parts of the     lica will become more deeply rooted.
from its proper ends, through irrespon-        world that were in the process of evolv-
sible actions both within the chain of         ing[58]. This has been achieved only in        25. From the social point of view, sys-
donors and within that of the benefi-           part, and it is still a real duty that needs   tems of protection and welfare, already
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                        8


present in many countries in Paul VI’s        prompt and far-sighted response to the           side one another and viewed as substan-
day, are finding it hard and could find         urgent need for new forms of coopera-            tially equivalent and interchangeable.
it even harder in the future to pur-          tion at the international level, as well as      This easily yields to a relativism that
sue their goals of true social justice        the local level.                                 does not serve true intercultural dia-
in today’s profoundly changed environ-                                                         logue; on the social plane, cultural rela-
ment. The global market has stimu-            The mobility of labour, associated with          tivism has the effect that cultural groups
lated first and foremost, on the part          a climate of deregulation, is an impor-          coexist side by side, but remain sep-
of rich countries, a search for areas in      tant phenomenon with certain positive            arate, with no authentic dialogue and
which to outsource production at low          aspects, because it can stimulate wealth         therefore with no true integration. Sec-
cost with a view to reducing the prices       production and cultural exchange. Nev-           ondly, the opposite danger exists, that
of many goods, increasing purchasing          ertheless, uncertainty over working con-         of cultural levelling and indiscriminate
power and thus accelerating the rate of       ditions caused by mobility and deregu-           acceptance of types of conduct and life-
development in terms of greater avail-        lation, when it becomes endemic, tends           styles. In this way one loses sight of the
ability of consumer goods for the do-         to create new forms of psychological in-         profound significance of the culture of
mestic market. Consequently, the mar-         stability, giving rise to difficulty in forg-     different nations, of the traditions of the
ket has prompted new forms of compe-          ing coherent life-plans, including that          various peoples, by which the individual
tition between States as they seek to at-     of marriage. This leads to situations of         defines himself in relation to life’s fun-
tract foreign businesses to set up pro-       human decline, to say nothing of the             damental questions[62]. What eclecti-
duction centres, by means of a vari-          waste of social resources. In comparison         cism and cultural levelling have in com-
ety of instruments, including favourable      with the casualties of industrial society        mon is the separation of culture from
fiscal regimes and deregulation of the         in the past, unemployment today pro-             human nature. Thus, cultures can no
labour market. These processes have           vokes new forms of economic marginal-            longer define themselves within a na-
led to a downsizing of social security sys-   ization, and the current crisis can only         ture that transcends them[63], and man
tems as the price to be paid for seek-        make this situation worse. Being out             ends up being reduced to a mere cul-
ing greater competitive advantage in the      of work or dependent on public or pri-           tural statistic. When this happens, hu-
global market, with consequent grave          vate assistance for a prolonged period           manity runs new risks of enslavement
danger for the rights of workers, for fun-    undermines the freedom and creativity            and manipulation.
damental human rights and for the sol-        of the person and his family and social
idarity associated with the traditional       relationships, causing great psychologi-         27. Life in many poor countries is still
forms of the social State. Systems of         cal and spiritual suffering. I would like        extremely insecure as a consequence of
social security can lose the capacity to      to remind everyone, especially govern-           food shortages, and the situation could
carry out their task, both in emerging        ments engaged in boosting the world’s            become worse: hunger still reaps enor-
countries and in those that were among        economic and social assets, that the pri-        mous numbers of victims among those
the earliest to develop, as well as in        mary capital to be safeguarded and val-          who, like Lazarus, are not permitted to
poor countries. Here budgetary poli-          ued is man, the human person in his or           take their place at the rich man’s table,
cies, with cuts in social spending often      her integrity: “Man is the source, the fo-       contrary to the hopes expressed by Paul
made under pressure from international        cus and the aim of all economic and so-          VI[64]. Feed the hungry (cf. Mt 25: 35,
financial institutions, can leave citizens     cial life”[61].                                  37, 42) is an ethical imperative for the
powerless in the face of old and new                                                           universal Church, as she responds to the
risks; such powerlessness is increased by     26. On the cultural plane, compared              teachings of her Founder, the Lord Je-
the lack of effective protection on the       with Paul VI’s day, the difference is            sus, concerning solidarity and the shar-
part of workers’ associations. Through        even more marked. At that time cul-              ing of goods. Moreover, the elimina-
the combination of social and economic        tures were relatively well defined and            tion of world hunger has also, in the
change, trade union organizations ex-         had greater opportunity to defend them-          global era, become a requirement for
perience greater difficulty in carrying        selves against attempts to merge them            safeguarding the peace and stability of
out their task of representing the inter-     into one. Today the possibilities of inter-      the planet. Hunger is not so much
ests of workers, partly because Govern-       action between cultures have increased           dependent on lack of material things
ments, for reasons of economic utility,       significantly, giving rise to new openings        as on shortage of social resources, the
often limit the freedom or the negoti-        for intercultural dialogue: a dialogue           most important of which are institu-
ating capacity of labour unions. Hence        that, if it is to be effective, has to set out   tional. What is missing, in other words,
traditional networks of solidarity have       from a deep-seated knowledge of the              is a network of economic institutions
more and more obstacles to overcome.          specific identity of the various dialogue         capable of guaranteeing regular access
The repeated calls issued within the          partners. Let it not be forgotten that the       to sufficient food and water for nutri-
Church’s social doctrine, beginning with      increased commercialization of cultural          tional needs, and also capable of ad-
Rerum Novarum [60], for the promotion         exchange today leads to a twofold dan-           dressing the primary needs and neces-
of workers’ associations that can defend      ger. First, one may observe a cultural           sities ensuing from genuine food crises,
their rights must therefore be honoured       eclecticism that is often assumed uncrit-        whether due to natural causes or politi-
today even more than in the past, as a        ically: cultures are simply placed along-        cal irresponsibility, nationally and inter-
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                   9


nationally. The problem of food inse-        28. One of the most striking aspects          By cultivating openness to life, wealthy
curity needs to be addressed within a        of development in the present day is          peoples can better understand the needs
long-term perspective, eliminating the       the important question of respect for life,   of poor ones, they can avoid employ-
structural causes that give rise to it and   which cannot in any way be detached           ing huge economic and intellectual re-
promoting the agricultural development       from questions concerning the develop-        sources to satisfy the selfish desires of
of poorer countries. This can be done        ment of peoples. It is an aspect which        their own citizens, and instead, they can
by investing in rural infrastructures, ir-   has acquired increasing prominence in         promote virtuous action within the per-
rigation systems, transport, organiza-       recent times, obliging us to broaden our      spective of production that is morally
tion of markets, and in the development      concept of poverty[66] and underdevel-        sound and marked by solidarity, respect-
and dissemination of agricultural tech-      opment to include questions connected         ing the fundamental right to life of every
nology that can make the best use of the     with the acceptance of life, especially in    people and every individual.
human, natural and socio-economic re-        cases where it is impeded in a variety of
sources that are more readily available      ways.                                         29. There is another aspect of mod-
at the local level, while guaranteeing                                                     ern life that is very closely connected
their sustainability over the long term as   Not only does the situation of poverty        to development: the denial of the right
well. All this needs to be accomplished      still provoke high rates of infant mor-       to religious freedom. I am not refer-
with the involvement of local communi-       tality in many regions, but some parts        ring simply to the struggles and con-
ties in choices and decisions that affect    of the world still experience practices of    flicts that continue to be fought in the
the use of agricultural land. In this per-   demographic control, on the part of gov-      world for religious motives, even if at
spective, it could be useful to consider     ernments that often promote contracep-        times the religious motive is merely a
the new possibilities that are opening       tion and even go so far as to impose          cover for other reasons, such as the de-
up through proper use of traditional as      abortion. In economically developed           sire for domination and wealth. To-
well as innovative farming techniques,       countries, legislation contrary to life is    day, in fact, people frequently kill in
always assuming that these have been         very widespread, and it has already           the holy name of God, as both my
judged, after sufficient testing, to be ap-   shaped moral attitudes and praxis, con-       predecessor John Paul II and I myself
propriate, respectful of the environment     tributing to the spread of an anti-birth      have often publicly acknowledged and
and attentive to the needs of the most       mentality; frequent attempts are made         lamented[68]. Violence puts the brakes
deprived peoples. At the same time,          to export this mentality to other States      on authentic development and impedes
the question of equitable agrarian re-       as if it were a form of cultural progress.    the evolution of peoples towards greater
form in developing countries should not                                                    socio-economic and spiritual well-being.
be ignored. The right to food, like the      Some non-governmental Organizations           This applies especially to terrorism mo-
right to water, has an important place       work actively to spread abortion, at          tivated by fundamentalism[69], which
within the pursuit of other rights, be-      times promoting the practice of steril-       generates grief, destruction and death,
ginning with the fundamental right to        ization in poor countries, in some cases      obstructs dialogue between nations and
life. It is therefore necessary to cul-      not even informing the women con-             diverts extensive resources from their
tivate a public conscience that consid-      cerned. Moreover, there is reason to          peaceful and civil uses.
ers food and access to water as univer-      suspect that development aid is some-
sal rights of all human beings, without      times linked to specific health-care poli-     Yet it should be added that, as well as
distinction or discrimination [65]. It is    cies which de facto involve the imposi-       religious fanaticism that in some con-
important, moreover, to emphasize that       tion of strong birth control measures.        texts impedes the exercise of the right
solidarity with poor countries in the pro-   Further grounds for concern are laws          to religious freedom, so too the deliber-
cess of development can point towards        permitting euthanasia as well as pres-        ate promotion of religious indifference
a solution of the current global crisis,     sure from lobby groups, nationally and        or practical atheism on the part of many
as politicians and directors of interna-     internationally, in favour of its juridical   countries obstructs the requirements for
tional institutions have begun to sense      recognition.                                  the development of peoples, depriving
in recent times. Through support for                                                       them of spiritual and human resources.
economically poor countries by means         Openness to life is at the centre of true     God is the guarantor of man’s true de-
of financial plans inspired by solidarity     development. When a society moves to-         velopment, inasmuch as, having created
— so that these countries can take steps     wards the denial or suppression of life,      him in his image, he also establishes the
to satisfy their own citizens’ demand for    it ends up no longer finding the neces-        transcendent dignity of men and women
consumer goods and for development           sary motivation and energy to strive for      and feeds their innate yearning to “be
— not only can true economic growth          man’s true good. If personal and so-          more”. Man is not a lost atom in a
be generated, but a contribution can be      cial sensitivity towards the acceptance       random universe[70]: he is God’s crea-
made towards sustaining the productive       of a new life is lost, then other forms       ture, whom God chose to endow with
capacities of rich countries that risk be-   of acceptance that are valuable for so-       an immortal soul and whom he has al-
ing compromised by the crisis.               ciety also wither away[67]. The accep-        ways loved. If man were merely the fruit
                                             tance of life strengthens moral fibre and      of either chance or necessity, or if he
                                             makes people capable of mutual help.          had to lower his aspirations to the lim-
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                      10


ited horizon of the world in which he        fully to discover the causes of misery,          of reason and its application”[82] is in-
lives, if all reality were merely history    to find the means to combat it, to over-          dispensable if we are to succeed in ad-
and culture, and man did not possess a       come it resolutely”[75]. Faced with the          equately weighing all the elements in-
nature destined to transcend itself in a     phenomena that lie before us, charity in         volved in the question of development
supernatural life, then one could speak      truth requires first of all that we know          and in the solution of socio-economic
of growth, or evolution, but not de-         and understand, acknowledging and re-            problems.
velopment. When the State promotes,          specting the specific competence of ev-
teaches, or actually imposes forms of        ery level of knowledge. Charity is not an        32. The significant new elements in the
practical atheism, it deprives its citi-     added extra, like an appendix to work            picture of the development of peoples
zens of the moral and spiritual strength     already concluded in each of the vari-           today in many cases demand new solu-
that is indispensable for attaining in-      ous disciplines: it engages them in dia-         tions. These need to be found together,
tegral human development and it im-          logue from the very beginning. The de-           respecting the laws proper to each el-
pedes them from moving forward with          mands of love do not contradict those            ement and in the light of an integral
renewed dynamism as they strive to of-       of reason. Human knowledge is insuf-             vision of man, reflecting the different
fer a more generous human response to        ficient and the conclusions of science            aspects of the human person, contem-
divine love[71]. In the context of cul-      cannot indicate by themselves the path           plated through a lens purified by char-
tural, commercial or political relations,    towards integral human development.              ity. Remarkable convergences and pos-
it also sometimes happens that econom-       There is always a need to push further           sible solutions will then come to light,
ically developed or emerging countries       ahead: this is what is required by char-         without any fundamental component of
export this reductive vision of the per-     ity in truth[76]. Going beyond, how-             human life being obscured.
son and his destiny to poor countries.       ever, never means prescinding from the
This is the damage that “superdevelop-       conclusions of reason, nor contradicting         The dignity of the individual and the
ment”[72] causes to authentic develop-       its results. Intelligence and love are not       demands of justice require, particularly
ment when it is accompanied by “moral        in separate compartments: love is rich in        today, that economic choices do not
underdevelopment”[73].                       intelligence and intelligence is full of love.   cause disparities in wealth to increase
                                                                                              in an excessive and morally unaccept-
30. In this context, the theme of integral   31. This means that moral evaluation             able manner[83], and that we continue
human development takes on an even           and scientific research must go hand in           to prioritize the goal of access to steady
broader range of meanings: the correla-      hand, and that charity must animate              employment for everyone. All things
tion between its multiple elements re-       them in a harmonious interdisciplinary           considered, this is also required by “eco-
quires a commitment to foster the in-        whole, marked by unity and distinction.          nomic logic”. Through the systemic in-
teraction of the different levels of human   The Church’s social doctrine, which has          crease of social inequality, both within a
knowledge in order to promote the au-        “an important interdisciplinary dimen-           single country and between the popula-
thentic development of peoples. Often        sion ”[77], can exercise, in this perspec-       tions of different countries (i.e. the mas-
it is thought that development, or the       tive, a function of extraordinary effec-         sive increase in relative poverty), not
socio-economic measures that go with         tiveness. It allows faith, theology, meta-       only does social cohesion suffer, thereby
it, merely require to be implemented         physics and science to come together in          placing democracy at risk, but so too
through joint action. This joint ac-         a collaborative effort in the service of         does the economy, through the progres-
tion, however, needs to be given di-         humanity. It is here above all that the          sive erosion of “social capital”: the net-
rection, because “all social action in-      Church’s social doctrine displays its di-        work of relationships of trust, depend-
volves a doctrine”[74]. In view of the       mension of wisdom. Paul VI had seen              ability, and respect for rules, all of which
complexity of the issues, it is obvious      clearly that among the causes of under-          are indispensable for any form of civil
that the various disciplines have to work    development there is a lack of wisdom            coexistence.
together through an orderly interdisci-      and reflection, a lack of thinking ca-
plinary exchange. Charity does not ex-       pable of formulating a guiding synthe-           Economic science tells us that structural
clude knowledge, but rather requires,        sis[78], for which “a clear vision of all        insecurity generates anti-productive at-
promotes, and animates it from within.       economic, social, cultural and spiritual         titudes wasteful of human resources,
Knowledge is never purely the work of        aspects”[79] is required. The excessive          inasmuch as workers tend to adapt pas-
the intellect. It can certainly be re-       segmentation of knowledge[80], the re-           sively to automatic mechanisms, rather
duced to calculation and experiment,         jection of metaphysics by the human sci-         than to release creativity. On this point
but if it aspires to be wisdom capa-         ences[81], the difficulties encountered           too, there is a convergence between
ble of directing man in the light of his     by dialogue between science and theol-           economic science and moral evaluation.
first beginnings and his final ends, it        ogy are damaging not only to the devel-          Human costs always include economic
must be “seasoned” with the “salt” of        opment of knowledge, but also to the             costs, and economic dysfunctions always
charity. Deeds without knowledge are         development of peoples, because these            involve human costs.
blind, and knowledge without love is         things make it harder to see the inte-
sterile. Indeed, “the individual who is      gral good of man in its various dimen-           It should be remembered that the re-
animated by true charity labours skil-       sions. The “broadening [of] our concept          duction of cultures to the technologi-
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                  11


cal dimension, even if it favours short-      edge how difficult this journey has been,     nal sin in social conditions and in the
term profits, in the long term impedes         both because of new forms of colonial-       structure of society: “Ignorance of the
reciprocal enrichment and the dynam-          ism and continued dependence on old          fact that man has a wounded nature in-
ics of cooperation. It is important to        and new foreign powers, and because          clined to evil gives rise to serious er-
distinguish between short- and long-          of grave irresponsibility within the very    rors in the areas of education, politics,
term economic or sociological consider-       countries that have achieved indepen-        social action and morals”[85]. In the
ations. Lowering the level of protec-         dence.                                       list of areas where the pernicious ef-
tion accorded to the rights of workers,                                                    fects of sin are evident, the economy has
or abandoning mechanisms of wealth            The principal new feature has been the       been included for some time now. We
redistribution in order to increase the       explosion of worldwide interdependence,      have a clear proof of this at the present
country’s international competitiveness,      commonly known as globalization. Paul        time. The conviction that man is self-
hinder the achievement of lasting devel-      VI had partially foreseen it, but the fe-    sufficient and can successfully eliminate
opment. Moreover, the human conse-            rocious pace at which it has evolved         the evil present in history by his own ac-
quences of current tendencies towards a       could not have been anticipated. Orig-       tion alone has led him to confuse happi-
short-term economy — sometimes very           inating within economically developed        ness and salvation with immanent forms
short-term — need to be carefully eval-       countries, this process by its nature has    of material prosperity and social action.
uated. This requires further and deeper       spread to include all economies. It has      Then, the conviction that the economy
reflection on the meaning of the economy       been the principal driving force behind      must be autonomous, that it must be
and its goals [84], as well as a profound     the emergence from underdevelopment          shielded from “influences” of a moral
and far-sighted revision of the current       of whole regions, and in itself it rep-      character, has led man to abuse the eco-
model of development, so as to correct        resents a great opportunity. Neverthe-       nomic process in a thoroughly destruc-
its dysfunctions and deviations. This is      less, without the guidance of charity in     tive way. In the long term, these convic-
demanded, in any case, by the earth’s         truth, this global force could cause un-     tions have led to economic, social and
state of ecological health; above all it is   precedented damage and create new di-        political systems that trample upon per-
required by the cultural and moral cri-       visions within the human family. Hence       sonal and social freedom, and are there-
sis of man, the symptoms of which have        charity and truth confront us with an        fore unable to deliver the justice that
been evident for some time all over the       altogether new and creative challenge,       they promise. As I said in my Encycli-
world.                                        one that is certainly vast and complex.      cal Letter Spe Salvi, history is thereby
                                              It is about broadening the scope of rea-     deprived of Christian hope [86], de-
33. More than forty years after Populo-       son and making it capable of knowing         prived of a powerful social resource at
rum Progressio, its basic theme, namely       and directing these powerful new forces ,    the service of integral human develop-
progress, remains an open question,           animating them within the perspective        ment, sought in freedom and in justice.
made all the more acute and urgent by         of that “civilization of love” whose seed    Hope encourages reason and gives it the
the current economic and financial cri-        God has planted in every people, in ev-      strength to direct the will[87]. It is al-
sis. If some areas of the globe, with a       ery culture.                                 ready present in faith, indeed it is called
history of poverty, have experienced re-                                                   forth by faith. Charity in truth feeds on
markable changes in terms of their eco-       CHAPTER THREE                                hope and, at the same time, manifests
nomic growth and their share in world                                                      it. As the absolutely gratuitous gift of
production, other zones are still living in   FRATERNITY, ECONOMIC                         God, hope bursts into our lives as some-
a situation of deprivation comparable to      DEVELOPMENT AND CIVIL SOCIETY                thing not due to us, something that tran-
that which existed at the time of Paul VI,                                                 scends every law of justice. Gift by its
and in some cases one can even speak          34. Charity in truth places man be-          nature goes beyond merit, its rule is that
of a deterioration. It is significant that     fore the astonishing experience of gift.     of superabundance. It takes first place
some of the causes of this situation were     Gratuitousness is present in our lives in    in our souls as a sign of God’s presence
identified in Populorum Progressio, such       many different forms, which often go         in us, a sign of what he expects from
as the high tariffs imposed by econom-        unrecognized because of a purely con-        us. Truth — which is itself gift, in the
ically developed countries, which still       sumerist and utilitarian view of life. The   same way as charity — is greater than
make it difficult for the products of poor     human being is made for gift, which          we are, as Saint Augustine teaches[88].
countries to gain a foothold in the mar-      expresses and makes present his tran-        Likewise the truth of ourselves, of our
kets of rich countries. Other causes,         scendent dimension. Sometimes mod-           personal conscience, is first of all given
however, mentioned only in passing in         ern man is wrongly convinced that he         to us. In every cognitive process, truth
the Encyclical, have since emerged with       is the sole author of himself, his life      is not something that we produce, it is
greater clarity. A case in point would        and society. This is a presumption that      always found, or better, received. Truth,
be the evaluation of the process of de-       follows from being selfishly closed in        like love, “is neither planned nor willed,
colonization, then at its height. Paul VI     upon himself, and it is a consequence —      but somehow imposes itself upon hu-
hoped to see the journey towards auton-       to express it in faith terms — of orig-      man beings”[89].
omy unfold freely and in peace. More          inal sin. The Church’s wisdom has al-
than forty years later, we must acknowl-      ways pointed to the presence of origi-
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                   12


Because it is a gift received by every-        of justice, inasmuch as the first to gain     son that produces these consequences,
one, charity in truth is a force that builds   from the development of poor countries       not the instrument per se. Therefore it is
community, it brings all people together       would be rich ones[90]. According to         not the instrument that must be called
without imposing barriers or limits. The       the Pope, it was not just a matter of cor-   to account, but individuals, their moral
human community that we build by               recting dysfunctions through assistance.     conscience and their personal and social
ourselves can never, purely by its own         The poor are not to be considered a          responsibility.
strength, be a fully fraternal commu-          “burden”[91], but a resource, even from
nity, nor can it overcome every division       the purely economic point of view. It is     The Church’s social doctrine holds that
and become a truly universal commu-            nevertheless erroneous to hold that the      authentically human social relation-
nity. The unity of the human race, a           market economy has an inbuilt need for       ships of friendship, solidarity and reci-
fraternal communion transcending ev-           a quota of poverty and underdevelop-         procity can also be conducted within
ery barrier, is called into being by the       ment in order to function at its best. It    economic activity, and not only outside
word of God-who-is-Love. In address-           is in the interests of the market to pro-    it or “after” it. The economic sphere is
ing this key question, we must make it         mote emancipation, but in order to do        neither ethically neutral, nor inherently
clear, on the one hand, that the logic of      so effectively, it cannot rely only on it-   inhuman and opposed to society. It is
gift does not exclude justice, nor does it     self, because it is not able to produce      part and parcel of human activity and
merely sit alongside it as a second ele-       by itself something that lies outside its    precisely because it is human, it must
ment added from without; on the other          competence. It must draw its moral en-       be structured and governed in an ethi-
hand, economic, social and political de-       ergies from other subjects that are capa-    cal manner.
velopment, if it is to be authentically hu-    ble of generating them.
man, needs to make room for the princi-                                                     The great challenge before us, accentu-
ple of gratuitousness as an expression of      36. Economic activity cannot solve all       ated by the problems of development in
fraternity.                                    social problems through the simple ap-       this global era and made even more ur-
                                               plication of commercial logic. This needs    gent by the economic and financial cri-
35.     In a climate of mutual trust,          to be directed towards the pursuit of the    sis, is to demonstrate, in thinking and
the market is the economic institution         common good, for which the political         behaviour, not only that traditional prin-
that permits encounter between per-            community in particular must also take       ciples of social ethics like transparency,
sons, inasmuch as they are economic            responsibility. Therefore, it must be        honesty and responsibility cannot be ig-
subjects who make use of contracts to          borne in mind that grave imbalances are      nored or attenuated, but also that in
regulate their relations as they exchange      produced when economic action, con-          commercial relationships the principle of
goods and services of equivalent value         ceived merely as an engine for wealth        gratuitousness and the logic of gift as an
between them, in order to satisfy their        creation, is detached from political ac-     expression of fraternity can and must
needs and desires. The market is sub-          tion, conceived as a means for pursuing      find their place within normal economic
ject to the principles of so-called com-       justice through redistribution.              activity. This is a human demand at the
mutative justice, which regulates the re-                                                   present time, but it is also demanded by
lations of giving and receiving between        The Church has always held that eco-         economic logic. It is a demand both of
parties to a transaction. But the so-          nomic action is not to be regarded as        charity and of truth.
cial doctrine of the Church has un-            something opposed to society. In and of
ceasingly highlighted the importance of        itself, the market is not, and must not      37. The Church’s social doctrine has al-
distributive justice and social justice for    become, the place where the strong sub-      ways maintained that justice must be ap-
the market economy, not only because           due the weak. Society does not have          plied to every phase of economic activity,
it belongs within a broader social and         to protect itself from the market, as if     because this is always concerned with
political context, but also because of         the development of the latter were ipso      man and his needs. Locating resources,
the wider network of relations within          facto to entail the death of authentically   financing, production, consumption and
which it operates. In fact, if the mar-        human relations. Admittedly, the mar-        all the other phases in the economic cy-
ket is governed solely by the principle of     ket can be a negative force, not because     cle inevitably have moral implications.
the equivalence in value of exchanged          it is so by nature, but because a cer-       Thus every economic decision has a moral
goods, it cannot produce the social co-        tain ideology can make it so. It must        consequence. The social sciences and
hesion that it requires in order to func-      be remembered that the market does           the direction taken by the contemporary
tion well. Without internal forms of soli-     not exist in the pure state. It is shaped    economy point to the same conclusion.
darity and mutual trust, the market can-       by the cultural configurations which de-      Perhaps at one time it was conceivable
not completely fulfil its proper economic       fine it and give it direction. Econ-          that first the creation of wealth could
function. And today it is this trust which     omy and finance, as instruments, can          be entrusted to the economy, and then
has ceased to exist, and the loss of trust     be used badly when those at the helm         the task of distributing it could be as-
is a grave loss. It was timely when            are motivated by purely selfish ends. In-     signed to politics. Today that would be
Paul VI in Populorum Progressio insisted       struments that are good in themselves        more difficult, given that economic ac-
that the economic system itself would          can thereby be transformed into harm-        tivity is no longer circumscribed within
benefit from the wide-ranging practice          ful ones. But it is man’s darkened rea-      territorial limits, while the authority of
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                   13


governments continues to be principally       and profound form of economic democ-          sion of man and society, is corroborated
local. Hence the canons of justice must       racy. Solidarity is first and foremost a       today by the dynamics of globalization.
be respected from the outset, as the          sense of responsibility on the part of
economic process unfolds, and not just        everyone with regard to everyone[93],         When both the logic of the market and
afterwards or incidentally. Space also        and it cannot therefore be merely del-        the logic of the State come to an agree-
needs to be created within the market         egated to the State. While in the past        ment that each will continue to exer-
for economic activity carried out by sub-     it was possible to argue that justice had     cise a monopoly over its respective area
jects who freely choose to act according      to come first and gratuitousness could         of influence, in the long term much
to principles other than those of pure        follow afterwards, as a complement, to-       is lost: solidarity in relations between
profit, without sacrificing the produc-         day it is clear that without gratuitous-      citizens, participation and adherence,
tion of economic value in the process.        ness, there can be no justice in the first     actions of gratuitousness, all of which
The many economic entities that draw          place. What is needed, therefore, is a        stand in contrast with giving in order
their origin from religious and lay initia-   market that permits the free operation,       to acquire (the logic of exchange) and
tives demonstrate that this is concretely     in conditions of equal opportunity, of        giving through duty (the logic of public
possible.                                     enterprises in pursuit of different insti-    obligation, imposed by State law). In
                                              tutional ends. Alongside profit-oriented       order to defeat underdevelopment, ac-
In the global era, the economy is in-         private enterprise and the various types      tion is required not only on improving
fluenced by competitive models tied to         of public enterprise, there must be room      exchange-based transactions and im-
cultures that differ greatly among them-      for commercial entities based on mutu-        planting public welfare structures, but
selves. The different forms of eco-           alist principles and pursuing social ends     above all on gradually increasing open-
nomic enterprise to which they give rise      to take root and express themselves. It       ness, in a world context, to forms of eco-
find their main point of encounter in          is from their reciprocal encounter in the     nomic activity marked by quotas of gra-
commutative justice. Economic life un-        marketplace that one may expect hy-           tuitousness and communion. The ex-
doubtedly requires contracts, in order        brid forms of commercial behaviour to         clusively binary model of market-plus-
to regulate relations of exchange be-         emerge, and hence an attentiveness to         State is corrosive of society, while eco-
tween goods of equivalent value. But          ways of civilizing the economy. Charity       nomic forms based on solidarity, which
it also needs just laws and forms of re-      in truth, in this case, requires that shape   find their natural home in civil society
distribution governed by politics, and        and structure be given to those types of      without being restricted to it, build up
what is more, it needs works redolent         economic initiative which, without re-        society. The market of gratuitousness
of the spirit of gift. The economy in         jecting profit, aim at a higher goal than      does not exist, and attitudes of gratu-
the global era seems to privilege the for-    the mere logic of the exchange of equiv-      itousness cannot be established by law.
mer logic, that of contractual exchange,      alents, of profit as an end in itself.         Yet both the market and politics need
but directly or indirectly it also demon-                                                   individuals who are open to reciprocal
strates its need for the other two: polit-    39.     Paul VI in Populorum Progres-         gift.
ical logic, and the logic of the uncondi-     sio called for the creation of a model
tional gift.                                  of market economy capable of includ-          40.      Today’s international economic
                                              ing within its range all peoples and not      scene, marked by grave deviations and
38. My predecessor John Paul II drew          just the better off. He called for ef-        failures, requires a profoundly new way
attention to this question in Centesimus      forts to build a more human world for         of understanding business enterprise. Old
Annus, when he spoke of the need for a        all, a world in which “all will be able       models are disappearing, but promising
system with three subjects: the market,       to give and receive, without one group        new ones are taking shape on the hori-
the State and civil society [92]. He saw      making progress at the expense of the         zon. Without doubt, one of the great-
civil society as the most natural setting     other”[94]. In this way he was ap-            est risks for businesses is that they are
for an economy of gratuitousness and fra-     plying on a global scale the insights         almost exclusively answerable to their
ternity, but did not mean to deny it a        and aspirations contained in Rerum No-        investors, thereby limiting their social
place in the other two settings. To-          varum, written when, as a result of           value. Owing to their growth in scale
day we can say that economic life must        the Industrial Revolution, the idea was       and the need for more and more capi-
be understood as a multi-layered phe-         first proposed — somewhat ahead of             tal, it is becoming increasingly rare for
nomenon: in every one of these layers,        its time — that the civil order, for its      business enterprises to be in the hands
to varying degrees and in ways specif-        self-regulation, also needed interven-        of a stable director who feels responsi-
ically suited to each, the aspect of fra-     tion from the State for purposes of redis-    ble in the long term, not just the short
ternal reciprocity must be present. In        tribution. Not only is this vision threat-    term, for the life and the results of his
the global era, economic activity can-        ened today by the way in which mar-           company, and it is becoming increas-
not prescind from gratuitousness, which       kets and societies are opening up, but        ingly rare for businesses to depend on a
fosters and disseminates solidarity and       it is evidently insufficient to satisfy the    single territory. Moreover, the so-called
responsibility for justice and the com-       demands of a fully humane economy.            outsourcing of production can weaken
mon good among the different eco-             What the Church’s social doctrine has         the company’s sense of responsibility to-
nomic players. It is clearly a specific        always sustained, on the basis of its vi-     wards the stakeholders — namely the
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                    14


workers, the suppliers, the consumers,        only short-term profit, without regard          the “non-profit” world to the “profit”
the natural environment and broader           for the long-term sustainability of the        world and vice versa, from the public
society — in favour of the sharehold-         enterprise, its benefit to the real econ-       world to that of civil society, from ad-
ers, who are not tied to a specific geo-       omy and attention to the advancement,          vanced economies to developing coun-
graphical area and who therefore enjoy        in suitable and appropriate ways, of fur-      tries.
extraordinary mobility. Today’s interna-      ther economic initiatives in countries in
tional capital market offers great free-      need of development. It is true that           “Political authority ” also involves a wide
dom of action. Yet there is also increas-     the export of investments and skills can       range of values, which must not be
ing awareness of the need for greater         benefit the populations of the receiving        overlooked in the process of construct-
social responsibility on the part of busi-    country. Labour and technical knowl-           ing a new order of economic produc-
ness. Even if the ethical considerations      edge are a universal good. Yet it is not       tivity, socially responsible and human
that currently inform debate on the so-       right to export these things merely for        in scale. As well as cultivating differ-
cial responsibility of the corporate world    the sake of obtaining advantageous con-        entiated forms of business activity on
are not all acceptable from the per-          ditions, or worse, for purposes of ex-         the global plane, we must also promote
spective of the Church’s social doctrine,     ploitation, without making a real con-         a dispersed political authority, effective
there is nevertheless a growing convic-       tribution to local society by helping to       on different levels. The integrated econ-
tion that business management cannot          bring about a robust productive and so-        omy of the present day does not make
concern itself only with the interests of     cial system, an essential factor for stable    the role of States redundant, but rather
the proprietors, but must also assume re-     development.                                   it commits governments to greater col-
sponsibility for all the other stakeholders                                                  laboration with one another. Both wis-
who contribute to the life of the business:   41. In the context of this discussion, it      dom and prudence suggest not being
the workers, the clients, the suppliers       is helpful to observe that business enter-     too precipitous in declaring the demise
of various elements of production, the        prise involves a wide range of values, be-     of the State. In terms of the resolu-
community of reference. In recent years       coming wider all the time. The contin-         tion of the current crisis, the State’s
a new cosmopolitan class of managers          uing hegemony of the binary model of           role seems destined to grow, as it re-
has emerged, who are often answer-            market-plus-State has accustomed us to         gains many of its competences. In
able only to the shareholders generally       think only in terms of the private busi-       some nations, moreover, the construc-
consisting of anonymous funds which           ness leader of a capitalistic bent on the      tion or reconstruction of the State re-
de facto determine their remuneration.        one hand, and the State director on the        mains a key factor in their development.
By contrast, though, many far-sighted         other. In reality, business has to be un-      The focus of international aid, within a
managers today are becoming increas-          derstood in an articulated way. There          solidarity-based plan to resolve today’s
ingly aware of the profound links be-         are a number of reasons, of a meta-            economic problems, should rather be
tween their enterprise and the territory      economic kind, for saying this. Busi-          on consolidating constitutional, juridi-
or territories in which it operates. Paul     ness activity has a human significance,         cal and administrative systems in coun-
VI invited people to give serious atten-      prior to its professional one[98]. It is       tries that do not yet fully enjoy these
tion to the damage that can be caused         present in all work, understood as a per-      goods. Alongside economic aid, there
to one’s home country by the transfer         sonal action, an “actus personae ”[99],        needs to be aid directed towards re-
abroad of capital purely for personal ad-     which is why every worker should have          inforcing the guarantees proper to the
vantage[95]. John Paul II taught that         the chance to make his contribution            State of law: a system of public or-
investment always has moral, as well as       knowing that in some way “he is work-          der and effective imprisonment that re-
economic significance [96]. All this — it      ing ‘for himself”’[100]. With good rea-        spects human rights, truly democratic
should be stressed — is still valid today,    son, Paul VI taught that “everyone who         institutions. The State does not need
despite the fact that the capital market      works is a creator”[101]. It is in re-         to have identical characteristics every-
has been significantly liberalized, and        sponse to the needs and the dignity            where: the support aimed at strength-
modern technological thinking can sug-        of the worker, as well as the needs of         ening weak constitutional systems can
gest that investment is merely a techni-      society, that there exist various types        easily be accompanied by the develop-
cal act, not a human and ethical one.         of business enterprise, over and above         ment of other political players, of a cul-
There is no reason to deny that a cer-        the simple distinction between “private”       tural, social, territorial or religious na-
tain amount of capital can do good, if        and “public”. Each of them requires            ture, alongside the State. The articu-
invested abroad rather than at home.          and expresses a specific business ca-           lation of political authority at the local,
Yet the requirements of justice must be       pacity. In order to construct an econ-         national and international levels is one
safeguarded, with due consideration for       omy that will soon be in a position to         of the best ways of giving direction to
the way in which the capital was gen-         serve the national and global common           the process of economic globalization.
erated and the harm to individuals that       good, it is appropriate to take account        It is also the way to ensure that it does
will result if it is not used where it was    of this broader significance of business        not actually undermine the foundations
produced[97]. What should be avoided          activity. It favours cross-fertilization be-   of democracy.
is a speculative use of financial resources    tween different types of business activ-
that yields to the temptation of seeking      ity, with shifting of competences from
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                     15


42. Sometimes globalization is viewed          serious, that cause new divisions be-          claim that they owe nothing to anyone,
in fatalistic terms, as if the dynamics in-    tween peoples and within peoples, and          except to themselves. They are con-
volved were the product of anonymous           also to ensure that the redistribution of      cerned only with their rights, and they
impersonal forces or structures indepen-       wealth does not come about through             often have great difficulty in taking re-
dent of the human will[102]. In this re-       the redistribution or increase of poverty:     sponsibility for their own and other peo-
gard it is useful to remember that while       a real danger if the present situation         ple’s integral development. Hence it
globalization should certainly be under-       were to be badly managed. For a                is important to call for a renewed re-
stood as a socio-economic process, this        long time it was thought that poor peo-        flection on how rights presuppose duties,
is not its only dimension. Underneath          ples should remain at a fixed stage of          if they are not to become mere licence
the more visible process, humanity it-         development, and should be content             [106]. Nowadays we are witnessing a
self is becoming increasingly intercon-        to receive assistance from the philan-         grave inconsistency. On the one hand,
nected; it is made up of individuals and       thropy of developed peoples. Paul VI           appeals are made to alleged rights, ar-
peoples to whom this process should of-        strongly opposed this mentality in Popu-       bitrary and non-essential in nature, ac-
fer benefits and development[103], as           lorum Progressio. Today the material re-       companied by the demand that they
they assume their respective responsi-         sources available for rescuing these peo-      be recognized and promoted by public
bilities, singly and collectively. The         ples from poverty are potentially greater      structures, while, on the other hand, el-
breaking-down of borders is not simply         than before, but they have ended up            ementary and basic rights remain unac-
a material fact: it is also a cultural event   largely in the hands of people from de-        knowledged and are violated in much
both in its causes and its effects. If glob-   veloped countries, who have benefited           of the world[107]. A link has often
alization is viewed from a determinis-         more from the liberalization that has          been noted between claims to a “right to
tic standpoint, the criteria with which to     occurred in the mobility of capital and        excess”, and even to transgression and
evaluate and direct it are lost. As a hu-      labour. The world-wide diffusion of            vice, within affluent societies, and the
man reality, it is the product of diverse      forms of prosperity should not there-          lack of food, drinkable water, basic in-
cultural tendencies, which need to be          fore be held up by projects that are self-     struction and elementary health care in
subjected to a process of discernment.         centred, protectionist or at the service       areas of the underdeveloped world and
The truth of globalization as a process        of private interests. Indeed the involve-      on the outskirts of large metropolitan
and its fundamental ethical criterion are      ment of emerging or developing coun-           centres. The link consists in this: in-
given by the unity of the human fam-           tries allows us to manage the crisis bet-      dividual rights, when detached from a
ily and its development towards what is        ter today. The transition inherent in the      framework of duties which grants them
good. Hence a sustained commitment is          process of globalization presents great        their full meaning, can run wild, lead-
needed so as to promote a person-based         difficulties and dangers that can only be       ing to an escalation of demands which
and community-oriented cultural process        overcome if we are able to appropriate         is effectively unlimited and indiscrimi-
of world-wide integration that is open to      the underlying anthropological and eth-        nate. An overemphasis on rights leads
transcendence.                                 ical spirit that drives globalization to-      to a disregard for duties. Duties set
                                               wards the humanizing goal of solidarity.       a limit on rights because they point to
Despite some of its structural elements,       Unfortunately this spirit is often over-       the anthropological and ethical frame-
which should neither be denied nor ex-         whelmed or suppressed by ethical and           work of which rights are a part, in this
aggerated, “globalization, a priori, is        cultural considerations of an individual-      way ensuring that they do not become
neither good nor bad. It will be what          istic and utilitarian nature. Globaliza-       licence. Duties thereby reinforce rights
people make of it”[104]. We should             tion is a multifaceted and complex phe-        and call for their defence and promotion
not be its victims, but rather its pro-        nomenon which must be grasped in the           as a task to be undertaken in the service
tagonists, acting in the light of rea-         diversity and unity of all its different di-   of the common good. Otherwise, if the
son, guided by charity and truth. Blind        mensions, including the theological di-        only basis of human rights is to be found
opposition would be a mistaken and             mension. In this way it will be possible       in the deliberations of an assembly of
prejudiced attitude, incapable of recog-       to experience and to steer the globaliza-      citizens, those rights can be changed at
nizing the positive aspects of the pro-        tion of humanity in relational terms, in       any time, and so the duty to respect
cess, with the consequent risk of miss-        terms of communion and the sharing of          and pursue them fades from the com-
ing the chance to take advantage of            goods.                                         mon consciousness. Governments and
its many opportunities for development.                                                       international bodies can then lose sight
The processes of globalization, suitably       CHAPTER FOUR                                   of the objectivity and “inviolability” of
understood and directed, open up the                                                          rights. When this happens, the authen-
unprecedented possibility of large-scale       THE DEVELOPMENT OF PEOPLE                      tic development of peoples is endan-
redistribution of wealth on a world-           RIGHTS AND DUTIES                              gered[108]. Such a way of thinking and
wide scale; if badly directed, however,        THE ENVIRONMENT                                acting compromises the authority of in-
they can lead to an increase in poverty                                                       ternational bodies, especially in the eyes
and inequality, and could even trigger         43. “The reality of human solidarity,          of those countries most in need of devel-
a global crisis. It is necessary to cor-       which is a benefit for us, also imposes a       opment. Indeed, the latter demand that
rect the malfunctions , some of them           duty”[105]. Many people today would            the international community take up the
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                    16


duty of helping them to be “artisans of      Morally responsible openness to life rep-      investment funds. “Ethical financing”
their own destiny”[109], that is, to take    resents a rich social and economic re-         is being developed, especially through
up duties of their own. The sharing of       source. Populous nations have been able        micro-credit and, more generally, micro-
reciprocal duties is a more powerful in-     to emerge from poverty thanks not least        finance. These processes are praisewor-
centive to action than the mere assertion    to the size of their population and the        thy and deserve much support. Their
of rights.                                   talents of their people. On the other          positive effects are also being felt in the
                                             hand, formerly prosperous nations are          less developed areas of the world. It
44. The notion of rights and duties in       presently passing through a phase of un-       would be advisable, however, to develop
development must also take account of        certainty and in some cases decline, pre-      a sound criterion of discernment, since
the problems associated with population      cisely because of their falling birth rates;   the adjective “ethical” can be abused.
growth. This is a very important as-         this has become a crucial problem for          When the word is used generically, it
pect of authentic development, since it      highly affluent societies. The decline          can lend itself to any number of inter-
concerns the inalienable values of life      in births, falling at times beneath the        pretations, even to the point where it in-
and the family[110]. To consider pop-        so-called “replacement level”, also puts       cludes decisions and choices contrary to
ulation increase as the primary cause        a strain on social welfare systems, in-        justice and authentic human welfare.
of underdevelopment is mistaken, even        creases their cost, eats into savings and
from an economic point of view. Suf-         hence the financial resources needed            Much in fact depends on the underly-
fice it to consider, on the one hand, the     for investment, reduces the availabil-         ing system of morality. On this subject
significant reduction in infant mortality     ity of qualified labourers, and narrows         the Church’s social doctrine can make
and the rise in average life expectancy      the “brain pool” upon which nations            a specific contribution, since it is based
found in economically developed coun-        can draw for their needs. Furthermore,         on man’s creation “in the image of God”
tries, and on the other hand, the signs      smaller and at times miniscule families        (Gen 1:27), a datum which gives rise
of crisis observable in societies that are   run the risk of impoverishing social re-       to the inviolable dignity of the human
registering an alarming decline in their     lations, and failing to ensure effective       person and the transcendent value of
birth rate. Due attention must obvi-         forms of solidarity. These situations are      natural moral norms. When business
ously be given to responsible procre-        symptomatic of scant confidence in the          ethics prescinds from these two pillars,
ation, which among other things has a        future and moral weariness. It is thus         it inevitably risks losing its distinctive
positive contribution to make to integral    becoming a social and even economic            nature and it falls prey to forms of
human development. The Church, in            necessity once more to hold up to future       exploitation; more specifically, it risks
her concern for man’s authentic devel-       generations the beauty of marriage and         becoming subservient to existing eco-
opment, urges him to have full respect       the family, and the fact that these insti-     nomic and financial systems rather than
for human values in the exercise of his      tutions correspond to the deepest needs        correcting their dysfunctional aspects.
sexuality. It cannot be reduced merely       and dignity of the person. In view of          Among other things, it risks being used
to pleasure or entertainment, nor can        this, States are called to enact policies      to justify the financing of projects that
sex education be reduced to techni-          promoting the centrality and the integrity     are in reality unethical. The word “eth-
cal instruction aimed solely at protect-     of the family founded on marriage be-          ical”, then, should not be used to make
ing the interested parties from possi-       tween a man and a woman, the primary           ideological distinctions, as if to suggest
ble disease or the “risk” of procreation.    vital cell of society[112], and to assume      that initiatives not formally so desig-
This would be to impoverish and disre-       responsibility for its economic and fiscal      nated would not be ethical. Efforts are
gard the deeper meaning of sexuality,        needs, while respecting its essentially        needed — and it is essential to say this
a meaning which needs to be acknowl-         relational character.                          — not only to create “ethical” sectors or
edged and responsibly appropriated not                                                      segments of the economy or the world
only by individuals but also by the com-     45. Striving to meet the deepest moral         of finance, but to ensure that the whole
munity. It is irresponsible to view sexu-    needs of the person also has important         economy — the whole of finance — is
ality merely as a source of pleasure, and    and beneficial repercussions at the level       ethical, not merely by virtue of an exter-
likewise to regulate it through strategies   of economics. The economy needs ethics         nal label, but by its respect for require-
of mandatory birth control. In either        in order to function correctly — not any       ments intrinsic to its very nature. The
case materialistic ideas and policies are    ethics whatsoever, but an ethics which         Church’s social teaching is quite clear on
at work, and individuals are ultimately      is people-centred. Today we hear much          the subject, recalling that the economy,
subjected to various forms of violence.      talk of ethics in the world of economy,        in all its branches, constitutes a sector of
Against such policies, there is a need to    finance and business. Research centres          human activity[113].
defend the primary competence of the         and seminars in business ethics are on
family in the area of sexuality[111], as     the rise; the system of ethical certifica-      46. When we consider the issues in-
opposed to the State and its restrictive     tion is spreading throughout the devel-        volved in the relationship between busi-
policies, and to ensure that parents are     oped world as part of the movement of          ness and ethics, as well as the evolu-
suitably prepared to undertake their re-     ideas associated with the responsibili-        tion currently taking place in methods
sponsibilities.                              ties of business towards society. Banks        of production, it would appear that the
                                             are proposing “ethical” accounts and           traditionally valid distinction between
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                   17


profit-based companies and non-profit          man person, as the subject primarily re-      and the public of the percentage of their
organizations can no longer do full jus-     sponsible for development, must be pre-       income allocated to programmes of co-
tice to reality, or offer practical direc-   served. The principal concern must be         operation, the actual content of those
tion for the future. In recent decades       to improve the actual living conditions       programmes and, finally, the detailed
a broad intermediate area has emerged        of the people in a given region, thus en-     expenditure of the institution itself.
between the two types of enterprise.         abling them to carry out those duties
It is made up of traditional companies       which their poverty does not presently        48. Today the subject of development
which nonetheless subscribe to social        allow them to fulfil. Social concern must      is also closely related to the duties aris-
aid agreements in support of under-          never be an abstract attitude. Devel-         ing from our relationship to the natural
developed countries, charitable founda-      opment programmes, if they are to be          environment. The environment is God’s
tions associated with individual compa-      adapted to individual situations, need to     gift to everyone, and in our use of it we
nies, groups of companies oriented to-       be flexible; and the people who benefit         have a responsibility towards the poor,
wards social welfare, and the diversified     from them ought to be directly involved       towards future generations and towards
world of the so-called “civil economy”       in their planning and implementation.         humanity as a whole. When nature, in-
and the “economy of communion”. This         The criteria to be applied should as-         cluding the human being, is viewed as
is not merely a matter of a “third sec-      pire towards incremental development          the result of mere chance or evolution-
tor”, but of a broad new composite re-       in a context of solidarity — with care-       ary determinism, our sense of respon-
ality embracing the private and public       ful monitoring of results — inasmuch as       sibility wanes. In nature, the believer
spheres, one which does not exclude          there are no universally valid solutions.     recognizes the wonderful result of God’s
profit, but instead considers it a means      Much depends on the way programmes            creative activity, which we may use re-
for achieving human and social ends.         are managed in practice. “The peoples         sponsibly to satisfy our legitimate needs,
Whether such companies distribute div-       themselves have the prime responsibil-        material or otherwise, while respecting
idends or not, whether their juridical       ity to work for their own development.        the intrinsic balance of creation. If this
structure corresponds to one or other        But they will not bring this about in iso-    vision is lost, we end up either consider-
of the established forms, becomes sec-       lation”[114]. These words of Paul VI          ing nature an untouchable taboo or, on
ondary in relation to their willingness to   are all the more timely nowadays, as our      the contrary, abusing it. Neither attitude
view profit as a means of achieving the       world becomes progressively more inte-        is consonant with the Christian vision of
goal of a more humane market and so-         grated. The dynamics of inclusion are         nature as the fruit of God’s creation.
ciety. It is to be hoped that these new      hardly automatic. Solutions need to be
kinds of enterprise will succeed in find-     carefully designed to correspond to peo-      Nature expresses a design of love and
ing a suitable juridical and fiscal struc-    ple’s concrete lives, based on a pruden-      truth. It is prior to us, and it has been
ture in every country. Without prejudice     tial evaluation of each situation. Along-     given to us by God as the setting for our
to the importance and the economic and       side macro-projects, there is a place for     life. Nature speaks to us of the Creator
social benefits of the more traditional       micro-projects, and above all there is        (cf. Rom 1:20) and his love for human-
forms of business, they steer the sys-       need for the active mobilization of all       ity. It is destined to be “recapitulated” in
tem towards a clearer and more com-          the subjects of civil society, both juridi-   Christ at the end of time (cf. Eph 1:9-
plete assumption of duties on the part       cal and physical persons.                     10; Col 1:19-20). Thus it too is a “vo-
of economic subjects. And not only that.                                                   cation”[115]. Nature is at our disposal
The very plurality of institutional forms    International cooperation requires peo-       not as “a heap of scattered refuse”[116],
of business gives rise to a market which     ple who can be part of the process            but as a gift of the Creator who has
is not only more civilized but also more     of economic and human development             given it an inbuilt order, enabling man
competitive.                                 through the solidarity of their presence,     to draw from it the principles needed in
                                             supervision, training and respect. From       order “to till it and keep it” (Gen 2:15).
47. The strengthening of different types     this standpoint, international organiza-      But it should also be stressed that it
of businesses, especially those capable      tions might question the actual effec-        is contrary to authentic development to
of viewing profit as a means for achiev-      tiveness of their bureaucratic and ad-        view nature as something more impor-
ing the goal of a more humane mar-           ministrative machinery, which is often        tant than the human person. This posi-
ket and society, must also be pursued        excessively costly. At times it hap-          tion leads to attitudes of neo-paganism
in those countries that are excluded or      pens that those who receive aid be-           or a new pantheism — human salva-
marginalized from the influential circles     come subordinate to the aid-givers, and       tion cannot come from nature alone, un-
of the global economy. In these coun-        the poor serve to perpetuate expensive        derstood in a purely naturalistic sense.
tries it is very important to move ahead     bureaucracies which consume an ex-            This having been said, it is also nec-
with projects based on subsidiarity, suit-   cessively high percentage of funds in-        essary to reject the opposite position,
ably planned and managed, aimed at af-       tended for development. Hence it is           which aims at total technical dominion
firming rights yet also providing for the     to be hoped that all international agen-      over nature, because the natural envi-
assumption of corresponding responsi-        cies and non-governmental organiza-           ronment is more than raw material to be
bilities. In development programmes,         tions will commit themselves to com-          manipulated at our pleasure; it is a won-
the principle of the centrality of the hu-   plete transparency, informing donors          drous work of the Creator containing a
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                  18


“grammar” which sets forth ends and           and must lower their domestic energy         harmful ways of treating the environ-
criteria for its wise use, not its reckless   consumption, either through an evo-          ment. It is likewise incumbent upon the
exploitation. Today much harm is done         lution in manufacturing methods or           competent authorities to make every ef-
to development precisely as a result of       through greater ecological sensitivity       fort to ensure that the economic and so-
these distorted notions. Reducing na-         among their citizens. It should be added     cial costs of using up shared environ-
ture merely to a collection of contingent     that at present it is possible to achieve    mental resources are recognized with
data ends up doing violence to the envi-      improved energy efficiency while at the       transparency and fully borne by those
ronment and even encouraging activity         same time encouraging research into al-      who incur them, not by other peoples
that fails to respect human nature itself.    ternative forms of energy. What is also      or future generations: the protection of
Our nature, constituted not only by mat-      needed, though, is a worldwide redis-        the environment, of resources and of the
ter but also by spirit, and as such, en-      tribution of energy resources, so that       climate obliges all international leaders
dowed with transcendent meaning and           countries lacking those resources can        to act jointly and to show a readiness to
aspirations, is also normative for cul-       have access to them. The fate of those       work in good faith, respecting the law
ture. Human beings interpret and shape        countries cannot be left in the hands        and promoting solidarity with the weak-
the natural environment through cul-          of whoever is first to claim the spoils,      est regions of the planet[121]. One of
ture, which in turn is given direction by     or whoever is able to prevail over the       the greatest challenges facing the econ-
the responsible use of freedom, in accor-     rest. Here we are dealing with major is-     omy is to achieve the most efficient use
dance with the dictates of the moral law.     sues; if they are to be faced adequately,    — not abuse — of natural resources,
Consequently, projects for integral hu-       then everyone must responsibly recog-        based on a realization that the notion of
man development cannot ignore com-            nize the impact they will have on future     “efficiency” is not value-free.
ing generations, but need to be marked        generations, particularly on the many
by solidarity and inter-generational jus-     young people in the poorer nations, who      51. The way humanity treats the envi-
tice, while taking into account a variety     “ask to assume their active part in the      ronment influences the way it treats it-
of contexts: ecological, juridical, eco-      construction of a better world”[119].        self, and vice versa. This invites con-
nomic, political and cultural[117].                                                        temporary society to a serious review
                                              50. This responsibility is a global one,     of its life-style, which, in many parts
49. Questions linked to the care and          for it is concerned not just with energy     of the world, is prone to hedonism
preservation of the environment today         but with the whole of creation, which        and consumerism, regardless of their
need to give due consideration to the         must not be bequeathed to future gen-        harmful consequences[122]. What is
energy problem. The fact that some            erations depleted of its resources. Hu-      needed is an effective shift in mental-
States, power groups and companies            man beings legitimately exercise a re-       ity which can lead to the adoption of
hoard non-renewable energy resources          sponsible stewardship over nature, in or-    new life-styles “in which the quest for
represents a grave obstacle to develop-       der to protect it, to enjoy its fruits and   truth, beauty, goodness and communion
ment in poor countries. Those coun-           to cultivate it in new ways, with the        with others for the sake of common
tries lack the economic means either to       assistance of advanced technologies, so      growth are the factors which determine
gain access to existing sources of non-       that it can worthily accommodate and         consumer choices, savings and invest-
renewable energy or to finance research        feed the world’s population. On this         ments”[123]. Every violation of solidar-
into new alternatives. The stockpiling of     earth there is room for everyone: here       ity and civic friendship harms the envi-
natural resources, which in many cases        the entire human family must find the         ronment, just as environmental deteri-
are found in the poor countries them-         resources to live with dignity, through      oration in turn upsets relations in soci-
selves, gives rise to exploitation and fre-   the help of nature itself — God’s gift       ety. Nature, especially in our time, is so
quent conflicts between and within na-         to his children — and through hard           integrated into the dynamics of society
tions. These conflicts are often fought        work and creativity. At the same time        and culture that by now it hardly con-
on the soil of those same countries, with     we must recognize our grave duty to          stitutes an independent variable. Deser-
a heavy toll of death, destruction and        hand the earth on to future generations      tification and the decline in productiv-
further decay. The international com-         in such a condition that they too can        ity in some agricultural areas are also
munity has an urgent duty to find in-          worthily inhabit it and continue to cul-     the result of impoverishment and under-
stitutional means of regulating the ex-       tivate it. This means being committed        development among their inhabitants.
ploitation of non-renewable resources,        to making joint decisions “after ponder-     When incentives are offered for their
involving poor countries in the process,      ing responsibly the road to be taken,        economic and cultural development, na-
in order to plan together for the future.     decisions aimed at strengthening that        ture itself is protected. Moreover, how
                                              covenant between human beings and the        many natural resources are squandered
On this front too, there is a press-          environment, which should mirror the         by wars! Peace in and among peoples
ing moral need for renewed solidar-           creative love of God, from whom we           would also provide greater protection
ity, especially in relationships between      come and towards whom we are jour-           for nature. The hoarding of resources,
developing countries and those that           neying”[120]. Let us hope that the in-       especially water, can generate serious
are highly industrialized[118].      The      ternational community and individual         conflicts among the peoples involved.
technologically advanced societies can        governments will succeed in countering       Peaceful agreement about the use of re-
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                    19


sources can protect nature and, at the         52. Truth, and the love which it reveals,    new trajectory of thinking is needed in
same time, the well-being of the soci-         cannot be produced: they can only be         order to arrive at a better understand-
eties concerned.                               received as a gift. Their ultimate source    ing of the implications of our being one
                                               is not, and cannot be, mankind, but only     family; interaction among the peoples
The Church has a responsibility towards        God, who is himself Truth and Love.          of the world calls us to embark upon
creation and she must assert this respon-      This principle is extremely important for    this new trajectory, so that integration
sibility in the public sphere. In so doing,    society and for development, since nei-      can signify solidarity[129] rather than
she must defend not only earth, water          ther can be a purely human product;          marginalization. Thinking of this kind
and air as gifts of creation that belong       the vocation to development on the part      requires a deeper critical evaluation of
to everyone. She must above all protect        of individuals and peoples is not based      the category of relation. This is a task
mankind from self-destruction. There           simply on human choice, but is an in-        that cannot be undertaken by the social
is need for what might be called a hu-         trinsic part of a plan that is prior to us   sciences alone, insofar as the contribu-
man ecology, correctly understood. The         and constitutes for all of us a duty to be   tion of disciplines such as metaphysics
deterioration of nature is in fact closely     freely accepted. That which is prior to      and theology is needed if man’s tran-
connected to the culture that shapes hu-       us and constitutes us — subsistent Love      scendent dignity is to be properly under-
man coexistence: when “human ecology”          and Truth — shows us what goodness is,       stood.
[124] is respected within society, environ-    and in what our true happiness consists.
mental ecology also benefits. Just as hu-       It shows us the road to true development.    As a spiritual being, the human crea-
man virtues are interrelated, such that                                                     ture is defined through interpersonal re-
the weakening of one places others at          CHAPTER FIVE                                 lations. The more authentically he or
risk, so the ecological system is based                                                     she lives these relations, the more his or
on respect for a plan that affects both        THE COOPERATION                              her own personal identity matures. It is
the health of society and its good rela-       OF THE HUMAN FAMILY                          not by isolation that man establishes his
tionship with nature.                                                                       worth, but by placing himself in relation
                                               53. One of the deepest forms of poverty      with others and with God. Hence these
In order to protect nature, it is not          a person can experience is isolation. If     relations take on fundamental impor-
enough to intervene with economic in-          we look closely at other kinds of poverty,   tance. The same holds true for peoples
centives or deterrents; not even an ap-        including material forms, we see that        as well. A metaphysical understand-
posite education is sufficient. These are       they are born from isolation, from not       ing of the relations between persons is
important steps, but the decisive issue is     being loved or from difficulties in being     therefore of great benefit for their devel-
the overall moral tenor of society. If there   able to love. Poverty is often produced      opment. In this regard, reason finds in-
is a lack of respect for the right to life     by a rejection of God’s love, by man’s       spiration and direction in Christian rev-
and to a natural death, if human con-          basic and tragic tendency to close in        elation, according to which the human
ception, gestation and birth are made          on himself, thinking himself to be self-     community does not absorb the individ-
artificial, if human embryos are sacri-         sufficient or merely an insignificant and      ual, annihilating his autonomy, as hap-
ficed to research, the conscience of soci-      ephemeral fact, a “stranger” in a ran-       pens in the various forms of totalitarian-
ety ends up losing the concept of human        dom universe. Man is alienated when          ism, but rather values him all the more
ecology and, along with it, that of en-        he is alone, when he is detached from        because the relation between individual
vironmental ecology. It is contradictory       reality, when he stops thinking and be-      and community is a relation between
to insist that future generations respect      lieving in a foundation[125]. All of hu-     one totality and another[130]. Just as
the natural environment when our ed-           manity is alienated when too much trust      a family does not submerge the identi-
ucational systems and laws do not help         is placed in merely human projects, ide-     ties of its individual members, just as
them to respect themselves. The book           ologies and false utopias[126]. Today        the Church rejoices in each “new cre-
of nature is one and indivisible: it takes     humanity appears much more interac-          ation” (Gal 6:15; 2 Cor 5:17) incorpo-
in not only the environment but also           tive than in the past: this shared sense     rated by Baptism into her living Body, so
life, sexuality, marriage, the family, so-     of being close to one another must be        too the unity of the human family does
cial relations: in a word, integral hu-        transformed into true communion. The         not submerge the identities of individ-
man development. Our duties towards            development of peoples depends, above        uals, peoples and cultures, but makes
the environment are linked to our du-          all, on a recognition that the human race    them more transparent to each other
ties towards the human person, consid-         is a single family working together in       and links them more closely in their le-
ered in himself and in relation to oth-        true communion, not simply a group           gitimate diversity.
ers. It would be wrong to uphold one set       of subjects who happen to live side by
of duties while trampling on the other.        side[127].                                   54. The theme of development can be
Herein lies a grave contradiction in our                                                    identified with the inclusion-in-relation
mentality and practice today: one which        Pope Paul VI noted that “the world is        of all individuals and peoples within the
demeans the person, disrupts the envi-         in trouble because of the lack of think-     one community of the human family,
ronment and damages society.                   ing”[128]. He was making an obser-           built in solidarity on the basis of the fun-
                                               vation, but also expressing a wish: a        damental values of justice and peace.
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                    20


This perspective is illuminated in a strik-   of the process of globalization is the        encounter between persons and their
ing way by the relationship between the       tendency to favour this kind of syn-          collaboration for the progress of human-
Persons of the Trinity within the one         cretism[132] by encouraging forms of          ity. Public life is sapped of its motiva-
divine Substance. The Trinity is abso-        “religion” that, instead of bringing peo-     tion and politics takes on a domineering
lute unity insofar as the three divine        ple together, alienate them from one an-      and aggressive character. Human rights
Persons are pure relationality. The re-       other and distance them from reality. At      risk being ignored either because they
ciprocal transparency among the divine        the same time, some religious and cul-        are robbed of their transcendent foun-
Persons is total and the bond between         tural traditions persist which ossify soci-   dation or because personal freedom is
each of them complete, since they con-        ety in rigid social groupings, in magical     not acknowledged. Secularism and fun-
stitute a unique and absolute unity. God      beliefs that fail to respect the dignity of   damentalism exclude the possibility of
desires to incorporate us into this real-     the person, and in attitudes of subjuga-      fruitful dialogue and effective coopera-
ity of communion as well: “that they          tion to occult powers. In these contexts,     tion between reason and religious faith.
may be one even as we are one” (Jn            love and truth have difficulty asserting       Reason always stands in need of being pu-
17:22). The Church is a sign and in-          themselves, and authentic development         rified by faith: this also holds true for po-
strument of this unity[131]. Relation-        is impeded.                                   litical reason, which must not consider
ships between human beings through-                                                         itself omnipotent. For its part, religion
out history cannot but be enriched by         For this reason, while it may be true         always needs to be purified by reason in
reference to this divine model. In par-       that development needs the religions          order to show its authentically human
ticular, in the light of the revealed mys-    and cultures of different peoples, it         face. Any breach in this dialogue comes
tery of the Trinity, we understand that       is equally true that adequate discern-        only at an enormous price to human de-
true openness does not mean loss of in-       ment is needed. Religious freedom             velopment.
dividual identity but profound interpen-      does not mean religious indifferentism,
etration. This also emerges from the          nor does it imply that all religions are      57. Fruitful dialogue between faith
common human experiences of love and          equal[133]. Discernment is needed re-         and reason cannot but render the work
truth. Just as the sacramental love of        garding the contribution of cultures and      of charity more effective within soci-
spouses unites them spiritually in “one       religions, especially on the part of those    ety, and it constitutes the most appropri-
flesh” (Gen 2:24; Mt 19:5; Eph 5:31)           who wield political power, if the social      ate framework for promoting fraternal
and makes out of the two a real and re-       community is to be built up in a spirit       collaboration between believers and non-
lational unity, so in an analogous way        of respect for the common good. Such          believers in their shared commitment to
truth unites spirits and causes them to       discernment has to be based on the cri-       working for justice and the peace of
think in unison, attracting them as a         terion of charity and truth. Since the        the human family. In the Pastoral Con-
unity to itself.                              development of persons and peoples is         stitution Gaudium et Spes, the Coun-
                                              at stake, this discernment will have to       cil fathers asserted that “believers and
55. The Christian revelation of the           take account of the need for emancipa-        unbelievers agree almost unanimously
unity of the human race presupposes a         tion and inclusivity, in the context of a     that all things on earth should be or-
metaphysical interpretation of the “hu-       truly universal human community. “The         dered towards man as to their centre
manum” in which relationality is an es-       whole man and all men” is also the cri-       and summit”[136]. For believers, the
sential element. Other cultures and reli-     terion for evaluating cultures and reli-      world derives neither from blind chance
gions teach brotherhood and peace and         gions. Christianity, the religion of the      nor from strict necessity, but from God’s
are therefore of enormous importance          “God who has a human face”[134], con-         plan. This is what gives rise to the duty
to integral human development. Some           tains this very criterion within itself.      of believers to unite their efforts with
religious and cultural attitudes, how-                                                      those of all men and women of good
ever, do not fully embrace the principle      56. The Christian religion and other          will, with the followers of other reli-
of love and truth and therefore end up        religions can offer their contribution to     gions and with non-believers, so that
retarding or even obstructing authentic       development only if God has a place in        this world of ours may effectively cor-
human development. There are certain          the public realm, specifically in regard to    respond to the divine plan: living as
religious cultures in the world today         its cultural, social, economic, and par-      a family under the Creator’s watchful
that do not oblige men and women to           ticularly its political dimensions. The       eye. A particular manifestation of char-
live in communion but rather cut them         Church’s social doctrine came into be-        ity and a guiding criterion for fraternal
off from one other in a search for indi-      ing in order to claim “citizenship status”    cooperation between believers and non-
vidual well-being, limited to the grati-      for the Christian religion[135]. Denying      believers is undoubtedly the principle of
fication of psychological desires. Fur-        the right to profess one’s religion in pub-   subsidiarity [137], an expression of in-
thermore, a certain proliferation of dif-     lic and the right to bring the truths of      alienable human freedom. Subsidiar-
ferent religious “paths”, attracting small    faith to bear upon public life has nega-      ity is first and foremost a form of assis-
groups or even single individuals, to-        tive consequences for true development.       tance to the human person via the au-
gether with religious syncretism, can         The exclusion of religion from the pub-       tonomy of intermediate bodies. Such as-
give rise to separation and disengage-        lic square — and, at the other extreme,       sistance is offered when individuals or
ment.      One possible negative effect       religious fundamentalism — hinders an         groups are unable to accomplish some-
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                   21


thing on their own, and it is always de-      ing local Churches. Aid programmes           tries. If the latter, in their turn, are un-
signed to achieve their emancipation,         must increasingly acquire the charac-        critically and indiscriminately open to
because it fosters freedom and partic-        teristics of participation and comple-       every cultural proposal, they will not
ipation through assumption of respon-         tion from the grass roots. Indeed, the       be in a position to assume responsi-
sibility. Subsidiarity respects personal      most valuable resources in countries re-     bility for their own authentic develop-
dignity by recognizing in the person a        ceiving development aid are human re-        ment[139]. Technologically advanced
subject who is always capable of giv-         sources: herein lies the real capital that   societies must not confuse their own
ing something to others. By consid-           needs to accumulate in order to guar-        technological development with a pre-
ering reciprocity as the heart of what        antee a truly autonomous future for the      sumed cultural superiority, but must
it is to be a human being, subsidiar-         poorest countries. It should also be re-     rather rediscover within themselves the
ity is the most effective antidote against    membered that, in the economic sphere,       oft-forgotten virtues which made it pos-
any form of all-encompassing welfare          the principal form of assistance needed      sible for them to flourish throughout
state. It is able to take account both        by developing countries is that of allow-    their history. Evolving societies must re-
of the manifold articulation of plans —       ing and encouraging the gradual pen-         main faithful to all that is truly human
and therefore of the plurality of subjects    etration of their products into interna-     in their traditions, avoiding the tempta-
— as well as the coordination of those        tional markets, thus making it possible      tion to overlay them automatically with
plans. Hence the principle of subsidiar-      for these countries to participate fully     the mechanisms of a globalized tech-
ity is particularly well-suited to man-       in international economic life. Too of-      nological civilization. In all cultures
aging globalization and directing it to-      ten in the past, aid has served to create    there are examples of ethical conver-
wards authentic human development.            only fringe markets for the products of      gence, some isolated, some interrelated,
In order not to produce a dangerous           these donor countries. This was often        as an expression of the one human na-
universal power of a tyrannical nature,       due to a lack of genuine demand for the      ture, willed by the Creator; the tradition
the governance of globalization must be       products in question: it is therefore nec-   of ethical wisdom knows this as the nat-
marked by subsidiarity, articulated into      essary to help such countries improve        ural law[140]. This universal moral law
several layers and involving different        their products and adapt them more ef-       provides a sound basis for all cultural,
levels that can work together. Global-        fectively to existing demand. Further-       religious and political dialogue, and it
ization certainly requires authority, in-     more, there are those who fear the ef-       ensures that the multi-faceted pluralism
sofar as it poses the problem of a global     fects of competition through the im-         of cultural diversity does not detach it-
common good that needs to be pur-             portation of products — normally agri-       self from the common quest for truth,
sued. This authority, however, must be        cultural products — from economically        goodness and God. Thus adherence to
organized in a subsidiary and stratified       poor countries. Nevertheless, it should      the law etched on human hearts is the
way[138], if it is not to infringe upon       be remembered that for such countries,       precondition for all constructive social
freedom and if it is to yield effective re-   the possibility of marketing their prod-     cooperation. Every culture has burdens
sults in practice.                            ucts is very often what guarantees their     from which it must be freed and shad-
                                              survival in both the short and long term.    ows from which it must emerge. The
58. The principle of subsidiarity must        Just and equitable international trade       Christian faith, by becoming incarnate
remain closely linked to the principle of     in agricultural goods can be beneficial       in cultures and at the same time tran-
solidarity and vice versa, since the for-     to everyone, both to suppliers and to        scending them, can help them grow in
mer without the latter gives way to so-       customers. For this reason, not only is      universal brotherhood and solidarity, for
cial privatism, while the latter with-        commercial orientation needed for pro-       the advancement of global and commu-
out the former gives way to paternal-         duction of this kind, but also the estab-    nity development.
ist social assistance that is demeaning       lishment of international trade regula-
to those in need. This general rule           tions to support it and stronger financ-      60. In the search for solutions to the
must also be taken broadly into con-          ing for development in order to increase     current economic crisis, development aid
sideration when addressing issues con-        the productivity of these economies.         for poor countries must be considered a
cerning international development aid.                                                     valid means of creating wealth for all
Such aid, whatever the donors’ inten-         59. Cooperation for development must         . What aid programme is there that
tions, can sometimes lock people into a       not be concerned exclusively with the        can hold out such significant growth
state of dependence and even foster sit-      economic dimension: it offers a won-         prospects — even from the point of view
uations of localized oppression and ex-       derful opportunity for encounter between     of the world economy — as the support
ploitation in the receiving country. Eco-     cultures and peoples. If the parties to      of populations that are still in the initial
nomic aid, in order to be true to its         cooperation on the side of economi-          or early phases of economic develop-
purpose, must not pursue secondary ob-        cally developed countries — as occa-         ment? From this perspective, more eco-
jectives. It must be distributed with         sionally happens — fail to take account      nomically developed nations should do
the involvement not only of the govern-       of their own or others’ cultural iden-       all they can to allocate larger portions
ments of receiving countries, but also        tity, or the human values that shape it,     of their gross domestic product to devel-
local economic agents and the bearers         they cannot enter into meaningful di-        opment aid, thus respecting the obliga-
of culture within civil society, includ-      alogue with the citizens of poor coun-       tions that the international community
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                   22


has undertaken in this regard. One way         methods and resources to assist people       can say that we are facing a social phe-
of doing so is by reviewing their inter-       in realizing their full human potential.     nomenon of epoch-making proportions
nal social assistance and welfare poli-                                                     that requires bold, forward-looking poli-
cies, applying the principle of subsidiar-     An illustration of the significance of this   cies of international cooperation if it is
ity and creating better integrated wel-        problem is offered by the phenomenon         to be handled effectively. Such poli-
fare systems, with the active participa-       of international tourism [141], which        cies should set out from close collabo-
tion of private individuals and civil soci-    can be a major factor in economic de-        ration between the migrants’ countries
ety. In this way, it is actually possible to   velopment and cultural growth, but can       of origin and their countries of desti-
improve social services and welfare pro-       also become an occasion for exploita-        nation; it should be accompanied by
grammes, and at the same time to save          tion and moral degradation. The cur-         adequate international norms able to
resources — by eliminating waste and           rent situation offers unique opportuni-      coordinate different legislative systems
rejecting fraudulent claims — which            ties for the economic aspects of devel-      with a view to safeguarding the needs
could then be allocated to international       opment — that is to say the flow of           and rights of individual migrants and
solidarity. A more devolved and organic        money and the emergence of a signif-         their families, and at the same time,
system of social solidarity, less bureau-      icant amount of local enterprise — to        those of the host countries. No coun-
cratic but no less coordinated, would          be combined with the cultural aspects,       try can be expected to address today’s
make it possible to harness much dor-          chief among which is education. In           problems of migration by itself. We
mant energy, for the benefit of solidarity      many cases this is what happens, but         are all witnesses of the burden of suf-
between peoples.                               in other cases international tourism has     fering, the dislocation and the aspira-
                                               a negative educational impact both for       tions that accompany the flow of mi-
One possible approach to development           the tourist and the local populace. The      grants. The phenomenon, as everyone
aid would be to apply effectively what         latter are often exposed to immoral or       knows, is difficult to manage; but there
is known as fiscal subsidiarity, allowing       even perverted forms of conduct, as in       is no doubt that foreign workers, de-
citizens to decide how to allocate a por-      the case of so-called sex tourism, to        spite any difficulties concerning integra-
tion of the taxes they pay to the State.       which many human beings are sacri-           tion, make a significant contribution to
Provided it does not degenerate into the       ficed even at a tender age. It is sad         the economic development of the host
promotion of special interests, this can       to note that this activity often takes       country through their labour, besides
help to stimulate forms of welfare soli-       place with the support of local govern-      that which they make to their country
darity from below, with obvious benefits        ments, with silence from those in the        of origin through the money they send
in the area of solidarity for development      tourists’ countries of origin, and with      home. Obviously, these labourers can-
as well.                                       the complicity of many of the tour op-       not be considered as a commodity or a
                                               erators. Even in less extreme cases, in-     mere workforce. They must not, there-
61. Greater solidarity at the interna-         ternational tourism often follows a con-     fore, be treated like any other factor of
tional level is seen especially in the on-     sumerist and hedonistic pattern, as a        production. Every migrant is a human
going promotion — even in the midst of         form of escapism planned in a man-           person who, as such, possesses funda-
economic crisis — of greater access to ed-     ner typical of the countries of origin,      mental, inalienable rights that must be
ucation, which is at the same time an es-      and therefore not conducive to authen-       respected by everyone and in every cir-
sential precondition for effective inter-      tic encounter between persons and cul-       cumstance[142].
national cooperation. The term “educa-         tures. We need, therefore, to develop
tion” refers not only to classroom teach-      a different type of tourism that has the     63. No consideration of the problems
ing and vocational training — both of          ability to promote genuine mutual un-        associated with development could fail
which are important factors in develop-        derstanding, without taking away from        to highlight the direct link between
ment — but to the complete formation           the element of rest and healthy recre-       poverty and unemployment. In many
of the person. In this regard, there is        ation. Tourism of this type needs to in-     cases, poverty results from a violation
a problem that should be highlighted:          crease, partly through closer coordina-      of the dignity of human work, either
in order to educate, it is necessary to        tion with the experience gained from in-     because work opportunities are limited
know the nature of the human person,           ternational cooperation and enterprise       (through unemployment or underem-
to know who he or she is. The increas-         for development.                             ployment), or “because a low value is
ing prominence of a relativistic under-                                                     put on work and the rights that flow
standing of that nature presents seri-         62. Another aspect of integral human         from it, especially the right to a just
ous problems for education, especially         development that is worthy of attention      wage and to the personal security of the
moral education, jeopardizing its uni-         is the phenomenon of migration. This         worker and his or her family”[143]. For
versal extension. Yielding to this kind of     is a striking phenomenon because of          this reason, on 1 May 2000 on the oc-
relativism makes everyone poorer and           the sheer numbers of people involved,        casion of the Jubilee of Workers, my
has a negative impact on the effective-        the social, economic, political, cultural    venerable predecessor Pope John Paul
ness of aid to the most needy popula-          and religious problems it raises, and the    II issued an appeal for “a global coali-
tions, who lack not only economic and          dramatic challenges it poses to nations      tion in favour of ‘decent work”’[144],
technical means, but also educational          and the international community. We          supporting the strategy of the Interna-
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                23


tional Labour Organization. In this way,    ate initiatives aimed at their countries     and experimentation with new forms of
he gave a strong moral impetus to this      of origin, will enable trade unions to       finance, designed to support develop-
objective, seeing it as an aspiration of    demonstrate the authentic ethical and        ment projects, are positive experiences
families in every country of the world.     cultural motivations that made it possi-     that should be further explored and en-
What is meant by the word “decency”         ble for them, in a different social and      couraged, highlighting the responsibility
in regard to work? It means work that       labour context, to play a decisive role in   of the investor. Furthermore, the experi-
expresses the essential dignity of every    development. The Church’s traditional        ence of micro-finance, which has its roots
man and woman in the context of their       teaching makes a valid distinction be-       in the thinking and activity of the civil
particular society: work that is freely     tween the respective roles and functions     humanists — I am thinking especially of
chosen, effectively associating workers,    of trade unions and politics. This dis-      the birth of pawnbroking — should be
both men and women, with the devel-         tinction allows unions to identify civil     strengthened and fine-tuned. This is all
opment of their community; work that        society as the proper setting for their      the more necessary in these days when
enables the worker to be respected and      necessary activity of defending and pro-     financial difficulties can become severe
free from any form of discrimination;       moting labour, especially on behalf of       for many of the more vulnerable sectors
work that makes it possible for fam-        exploited and unrepresented workers,         of the population, who should be pro-
ilies to meet their needs and provide       whose woeful condition is often ignored      tected from the risk of usury and from
schooling for their children, without the   by the distracted eye of society.            despair. The weakest members of soci-
children themselves being forced into                                                    ety should be helped to defend them-
labour; work that permits the work-         65. Finance, therefore — through the         selves against usury, just as poor peo-
ers to organize themselves freely, and      renewed structures and operating meth-       ples should be helped to derive real ben-
to make their voices heard; work that       ods that have to be designed after its       efit from micro-credit, in order to dis-
leaves enough room for rediscovering        misuse, which wreaked such havoc on          courage the exploitation that is possi-
one’s roots at a personal, familial and     the real economy — now needs to go           ble in these two areas. Since rich coun-
spiritual level; work that guarantees       back to being an instrument directed to-     tries are also experiencing new forms of
those who have retired a decent stan-       wards improved wealth creation and de-       poverty, micro-finance can give practi-
dard of living.                             velopment. Insofar as they are instru-       cal assistance by launching new initia-
                                            ments, the entire economy and finance,        tives and opening up new sectors for the
64. While reflecting on the theme of         not just certain sectors, must be used       benefit of the weaker elements in soci-
work, it is appropriate to recall how im-   in an ethical way so as to create suit-      ety, even at a time of general economic
portant it is that labour unions — which    able conditions for human development        downturn.
have always been encouraged and sup-        and for the development of peoples. It
ported by the Church — should be open       is certainly useful, and in some circum-     66. Global interconnectedness has led
to the new perspectives that are emerg-     stances imperative, to launch financial       to the emergence of a new political
ing in the world of work. Looking to        initiatives in which the humanitarian di-    power, that of consumers and their as-
wider concerns than the specific cat-        mension predominates. However, this          sociations. This is a phenomenon that
egory of labour for which they were         must not obscure the fact that the en-       needs to be further explored, as it con-
formed, union organizations are called      tire financial system has to be aimed         tains positive elements to be encour-
to address some of the new questions        at sustaining true development. Above        aged as well as excesses to be avoided.
arising in our society: I am thinking,      all, the intention to do good must not       It is good for people to realize that pur-
for example, of the complex of issues       be considered incompatible with the ef-      chasing is always a moral — and not
that social scientists describe in terms    fective capacity to produce goods. Fi-       simply economic — act. Hence the con-
of a conflict between worker and con-        nanciers must rediscover the genuinely       sumer has a specific social responsibil-
sumer. Without necessarily endorsing        ethical foundation of their activity, so     ity, which goes hand-in- hand with the
the thesis that the central focus on the    as not to abuse the sophisticated instru-    social responsibility of the enterprise.
worker has given way to a central fo-       ments which can serve to betray the in-      Consumers should be continually edu-
cus on the consumer, this would still       terests of savers. Right intention, trans-   cated[145] regarding their daily role,
appear to constitute new ground for         parency, and the search for positive re-     which can be exercised with respect for
unions to explore creatively. The global    sults are mutually compatible and must       moral principles without diminishing
context in which work takes place also      never be detached from one another. If       the intrinsic economic rationality of the
demands that national labour unions,        love is wise, it can find ways of working     act of purchasing. In the retail indus-
which tend to limit themselves to de-       in accordance with provident and just        try, particularly at times like the present
fending the interests of their registered   expediency, as is illustrated in a signif-   when purchasing power has diminished
members, should turn their attention        icant way by much of the experience of       and people must live more frugally, it
to those outside their membership, and      credit unions.                               is necessary to explore other paths: for
in particular to workers in developing                                                   example, forms of cooperative purchas-
countries where social rights are often     Both the regulation of the financial sec-     ing like the consumer cooperatives that
violated. The protection of these work-     tor, so as to safeguard weaker parties       have been in operation since the nine-
ers, partly achieved through appropri-      and discourage scandalous speculation,       teenth century, partly through the ini-
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                     24


tiative of Catholics. In addition, it can      the effective power to ensure security         nance in order to sustain unnatural and
be helpful to promote new ways of mar-         for all, regard for justice, and respect for   consumerist growth. In the face of such
keting products from deprived areas of         rights[148]. Obviously it would have           Promethean presumption, we must for-
the world, so as to guarantee their pro-       to have the authority to ensure com-           tify our love for a freedom that is not
ducers a decent return. However, cer-          pliance with its decisions from all par-       merely arbitrary, but is rendered truly
tain conditions need to be met: the mar-       ties, and also with the coordinated mea-       human by acknowledgment of the good
ket should be genuinely transparent; the       sures adopted in various international         that underlies it. To this end, man needs
producers, as well as increasing their         forums. Without this, despite the great        to look inside himself in order to recog-
profit margins, should also receive im-         progress accomplished in various sec-          nize the fundamental norms of the nat-
proved formation in professional skills        tors, international law would risk be-         ural moral law which God has written
and technology; and finally, trade of this      ing conditioned by the balance of power        on our hearts.
kind must not become hostage to par-           among the strongest nations. The in-
tisan ideologies. A more incisive role         tegral development of peoples and in-          69. The challenge of development to-
for consumers, as long as they them-           ternational cooperation require the es-        day is closely linked to technological
selves are not manipulated by associa-         tablishment of a greater degree of inter-      progress, with its astounding applica-
tions that do not truly represent them,        national ordering, marked by subsidiar-        tions in the field of biology. Tech-
is a desirable element for building eco-       ity, for the management of globaliza-          nology — it is worth emphasizing —
nomic democracy.                               tion[149]. They also require the con-          is a profoundly human reality, linked
                                               struction of a social order that at last       to the autonomy and freedom of man.
67. In the face of the unrelenting             conforms to the moral order, to the in-        In technology we express and confirm
growth of global interdependence, there        terconnection between moral and social         the hegemony of the spirit over matter.
is a strongly felt need, even in the midst     spheres, and to the link between politics      “The human spirit, ‘increasingly free of
of a global recession, for a reform of the     and the economic and civil spheres, as         its bondage to creatures, can be more
United Nations Organization, and like-         envisaged by the Charter of the United         easily drawn to the worship and con-
wise of economic institutions and inter-       Nations.                                       templation of the Creator”’[150]. Tech-
national finance, so that the concept of                                                       nology enables us to exercise domin-
the family of nations can acquire real         CHAPTER SIX                                    ion over matter, to reduce risks, to save
teeth. One also senses the urgent need                                                        labour, to improve our conditions of life.
to find innovative ways of implement-           THE DEVELOPMENT OF PEOPLES                     It touches the heart of the vocation of
ing the principle of the responsibility to     AND TECHNOLOGY                                 human labour: in technology, seen as
protect [146] and of giving poorer na-                                                        the product of his genius, man recog-
tions an effective voice in shared decision-   68. The development of peoples is inti-        nizes himself and forges his own hu-
making. This seems necessary in order          mately linked to the development of in-        manity. Technology is the objective side
to arrive at a political, juridical and eco-   dividuals. The human person by nature          of human action[151] whose origin and
nomic order which can increase and give        is actively involved in his own develop-       raison d’etre is found in the subjective
direction to international cooperation for     ment. The development in question is           element: the worker himself. For this
the development of all peoples in solidar-     not simply the result of natural mech-         reason, technology is never merely tech-
ity. To manage the global economy; to re-      anisms, since as everybody knows, we           nology. It reveals man and his aspira-
vive economies hit by the crisis; to avoid     are all capable of making free and re-         tions towards development, it expresses
any deterioration of the present crisis and    sponsible choices. Nor is it merely at the     the inner tension that impels him grad-
the greater imbalances that would result;      mercy of our caprice, since we all know        ually to overcome material limitations.
to bring about integral and timely dis-        that we are a gift, not something self-        Technology, in this sense, is a response to
armament, food security and peace; to          generated. Our freedom is profoundly           God’s command to till and to keep the
guarantee the protection of the environ-       shaped by our being, and by its limits.        land (cf. Gen 2:15) that he has en-
ment and to regulate migration: for all        No one shapes his own conscience arbi-         trusted to humanity, and it must serve to
this, there is urgent need of a true world     trarily, but we all build our own “I” on       reinforce the covenant between human
political authority, as my predecessor         the basis of a “self” which is given to us.    beings and the environment, a covenant
Blessed John XXIII indicated some years        Not only are other persons outside our         that should mirror God’s creative love.
ago. Such an authority would need to           control, but each one of us is outside his
be regulated by law, to observe consis-        or her own control. A person’s develop-        70. Technological development can give
tently the principles of subsidiarity and      ment is compromised, if he claims to be        rise to the idea that technology is self-
solidarity, to seek to establish the com-      solely responsible for producing what he       sufficient when too much attention is
mon good[147], and to make a commit-           becomes. By analogy, the development           given to the “how” questions, and not
ment to securing authentic integral hu-        of peoples goes awry if humanity thinks        enough to the many “why” questions un-
man development inspired by the values         it can re-create itself through the “won-      derlying human activity. For this rea-
of charity in truth. Furthermore, such         ders” of technology, just as economic de-      son technology can appear ambivalent.
an authority would need to be univer-          velopment is exposed as a destructive          Produced through human creativity as
sally recognized and to be vested with         sham if it relies on the “wonders” of fi-       a tool of personal freedom, technology
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                    25


can be understood as a manifestation          tariffs, investment in production, and         to facilitating development on the ba-
of absolute freedom, the freedom that         institutional reforms — in other words,        sis of love and mutual understanding.
seeks to prescind from the limits inher-      a purely technical matter. All these fac-      Among them are members of the Chris-
ent in things. The process of globaliza-      tors are of great importance, but we           tian faithful, involved in the great task
tion could replace ideologies with tech-      have to ask why technical choices made         of upholding the fully human dimension
nology[152], allowing the latter to be-       thus far have yielded rather mixed re-         of development and peace.
come an ideological power that threat-        sults. We need to think hard about
ens to confine us within an a priori that      the cause. Development will never              73. Linked to technological develop-
holds us back from encountering being         be fully guaranteed through automatic          ment is the increasingly pervasive pres-
and truth. Were that to happen, we            or impersonal forces, whether they de-         ence of the means of social communi-
would all know, evaluate and make de-         rive from the market or from interna-          cations. It is almost impossible today
cisions about our life situations from        tional politics. Development is impossible     to imagine the life of the human fam-
within a technocratic cultural perspec-       without upright men and women, with-           ily without them. For better or for
tive to which we would belong struc-          out financiers and politicians whose con-       worse, they are so integral a part of
turally, without ever being able to dis-      sciences are finely attuned to the require-     life today that it seems quite absurd to
cover a meaning that is not of our own        ments of the common good. Both pro-            maintain that they are neutral — and
making. The “technical” worldview that        fessional competence and moral consis-         hence unaffected by any moral consid-
follows from this vision is now so dom-       tency are necessary. When technology is        erations concerning people. Often such
inant that truth has come to be seen          allowed to take over, the result is con-       views, stressing the strictly technical na-
as coinciding with the possible. But          fusion between ends and means, such            ture of the media, effectively support
when the sole criterion of truth is ef-       that the sole criterion for action in busi-    their subordination to economic inter-
ficiency and utility, development is au-       ness is thought to be the maximization         ests intent on dominating the market
tomatically denied. True development          of profit, in politics the consolidation of     and, not least, to attempts to impose
does not consist primarily in “doing”.        power, and in science the findings of re-       cultural models that serve ideological
The key to development is a mind ca-          search. Often, underneath the intrica-         and political agendas. Given the me-
pable of thinking in technological terms      cies of economic, financial and political       dia’s fundamental importance in engi-
and grasping the fully human mean-            interconnections, there remain misun-          neering changes in attitude towards re-
ing of human activities, within the con-      derstandings, hardships and injustice.         ality and the human person, we must
text of the holistic meaning of the in-       The flow of technological know-how in-          reflect carefully on their influence, es-
dividual’s being. Even when we work           creases, but it is those in possession of it   pecially in regard to the ethical-cultural
through satellites or through remote          who benefit, while the situation on the         dimension of globalization and the de-
electronic impulses, our actions always       ground for the peoples who live in its         velopment of peoples in solidarity. Mir-
remain human, an expression of our re-        shadow remains unchanged: for them             roring what is required for an ethical
sponsible freedom. Technology is highly       there is little chance of emancipation.        approach to globalization and develop-
attractive because it draws us out of                                                        ment, so too the meaning and purpose
our physical limitations and broadens         72. Even peace can run the risk of being       of the media must be sought within an
our horizon. But human freedom is             considered a technical product, merely         anthropological perspective. This means
authentic only when it responds to the        the outcome of agreements between              that they can have a civilizing effect not
fascination of technology with decisions      governments or of initiatives aimed at         only when, thanks to technological de-
that are the fruit of moral responsibility.   ensuring effective economic aid. It            velopment, they increase the possibili-
Hence the pressing need for formation         is true that peace-building requires the       ties of communicating information, but
in an ethically responsible use of tech-      constant interplay of diplomatic con-          above all when they are geared towards
nology. Moving beyond the fascination         tacts, economic, technological and cul-        a vision of the person and the com-
that technology exerts, we must reap-         tural exchanges, agreements on com-            mon good that reflects truly universal
propriate the true meaning of freedom,        mon projects, as well as joint strategies      values. Just because social communi-
which is not an intoxication with total       to curb the threat of military conflict         cations increase the possibilities of in-
autonomy, but a response to the call of       and to root out the underlying causes of       terconnection and the dissemination of
being, beginning with our own personal        terrorism. Nevertheless, if such efforts       ideas, it does not follow that they pro-
being.                                        are to have lasting effects, they must be      mote freedom or internationalize de-
                                              based on values rooted in the truth of         velopment and democracy for all. To
71. This deviation from solid human-          human life. That is, the voice of the peo-     achieve goals of this kind, they need
istic principles that a technical mind-       ples affected must be heard and their          to focus on promoting the dignity of
set can produce is seen today in certain      situation must be taken into considera-        persons and peoples, they need to be
technological applications in the fields       tion, if their expectations are to be cor-     clearly inspired by charity and placed at
of development and peace. Often the           rectly interpreted. One must align one-        the service of truth, of the good, and
development of peoples is considered          self, so to speak, with the unsung ef-         of natural and supernatural fraternity.
a matter of financial engineering, the         forts of so many individuals deeply com-       In fact, human freedom is intrinsically
freeing up of markets, the removal of         mitted to bringing peoples together and        linked with these higher values. The
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                  26


media can make an important contribu-         has mastered every mystery, because the      meaning and gradually our awareness
tion towards the growth in communion          origin of life is now within our grasp.      of the human soul’s ontological depths,
of the human family and the ethos of          Here we see the clearest expression of       as probed by the saints, is lost. The
society when they are used to promote         technology’s supremacy. In this type of      question of development is closely bound
universal participation in the common         culture, the conscience is simply invited    up with our understanding of the hu-
search for what is just.                      to take note of technological possibili-     man soul, insofar as we often reduce
                                              ties. Yet we must not underestimate the      the self to the psyche and confuse the
74. A particularly crucial battleground       disturbing scenarios that threaten our       soul’s health with emotional well-being.
in today’s cultural struggle between          future, or the powerful new instruments      These over-simplifications stem from a
the supremacy of technology and hu-           that the “culture of death” has at its       profound failure to understand the spir-
man moral responsibility is the field of       disposal. To the tragic and widespread       itual life, and they obscure the fact that
bioethics , where the very possibility of     scourge of abortion we may well have         the development of individuals and peo-
integral human development is radically       to add in the future — indeed it is al-      ples depends partly on the resolution
called into question. In this most del-       ready surreptiously present — the sys-       of problems of a spiritual nature. De-
icate and critical area, the fundamen-        tematic eugenic programming of births.       velopment must include not just material
tal question asserts itself force-fully: is   At the other end of the spectrum, a pro-     growth but also spiritual growth, since
man the product of his own labours or         euthanasia mindset is making inroads as      the human person is a “unity of body
does he depend on God? Scientific dis-         an equally damaging assertion of con-        and soul”[156], born of God’s creative
coveries in this field and the possibilities   trol over life that under certain circum-    love and destined for eternal life. The
of technological intervention seem so         stances is deemed no longer worth liv-       human being develops when he grows
advanced as to force a choice between         ing. Underlying these scenarios are cul-     in the spirit, when his soul comes to
two types of reasoning: reason open to        tural viewpoints that deny human dig-        know itself and the truths that God has
transcendence or reason closed within         nity. These practices in turn foster a ma-   implanted deep within, when he enters
immanence. We are presented with a            terialistic and mechanistic understand-      into dialogue with himself and his Cre-
clear either/ or. Yet the rationality of a    ing of human life. Who could measure         ator. When he is far away from God,
self-centred use of technology proves to      the negative effects of this kind of men-    man is unsettled and ill at ease. Social
be irrational because it implies a deci-      tality for development? How can we be        and psychological alienation and the
sive rejection of meaning and value. It       surprised by the indifference shown to-      many neuroses that afflict affluent soci-
is no coincidence that closing the door       wards situations of human degradation,       eties are attributable in part to spiritual
to transcendence brings one up short          when such indifference extends even to       factors. A prosperous society, highly de-
against a difficulty: how could being          our attitude towards what is and is not      veloped in material terms but weighing
emerge from nothing, how could intelli-       human? What is astonishing is the ar-        heavily on the soul, is not of itself con-
gence be born from chance?[153] Faced         bitrary and selective determination of       ducive to authentic development. The
with these dramatic questions, reason         what to put forward today as worthy of       new forms of slavery to drugs and the
and faith can come to each other’s as-        respect. Insignificant matters are con-       lack of hope into which so many people
sistance. Only together will they save        sidered shocking, yet unprecedented in-      fall can be explained not only in socio-
man. Entranced by an exclusive reliance       justices seem to be widely tolerated.        logical and psychological terms but also
on technology, reason without faith is        While the poor of the world continue         in essentially spiritual terms. The empti-
doomed to flounder in an illusion of its       knocking on the doors of the rich, the       ness in which the soul feels abandoned,
own omnipotence. Faith without rea-           world of affluence runs the risk of no        despite the availability of countless ther-
son risks being cut off from everyday life    longer hearing those knocks, on account      apies for body and psyche, leads to suf-
[154].                                        of a conscience that can no longer dis-      fering. There cannot be holistic devel-
                                              tinguish what is human. God reveals          opment and universal common good un-
75. Paul VI had already recognized and        man to himself; reason and faith work        less people’s spiritual and moral welfare
drawn attention to the global dimen-          hand in hand to demonstrate to us what       is taken into account, considered in their
sion of the social question[155]. Fol-        is good, provided we want to see it; the     totality as body and soul.
lowing his lead, we need to affirm to-         natural law, in which creative Reason
day that the social question has become       shines forth, reveals our greatness, but     77. The supremacy of technology tends
a radically anthropological question, in      also our wretchedness insofar as we fail     to prevent people from recognizing any-
the sense that it concerns not just how       to recognize the call to moral truth.        thing that cannot be explained in terms
life is conceived but also how it is ma-                                                   of matter alone. Yet everyone experi-
nipulated, as bio-technology places it in-    76. One aspect of the contemporary           ences the many immaterial and spiri-
creasingly under man’s control. In vitro      technological mindset is the tendency to     tual dimensions of life. Knowing is not
fertilization, embryo research, the pos-      consider the problems and emotions of        simply a material act, since the object
sibility of manufacturing clones and hu-      the interior life from a purely psycho-      that is known always conceals some-
man hybrids: all this is now emerging         logical point of view, even to the point     thing beyond the empirical datum. All
and being promoted in today’s highly          of neurological reductionism. In this        our knowledge, even the most simple,
disillusioned culture, which believes it      way man’s interiority is emptied of its      is always a minor miracle, since it can
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                                               27


never be fully explained by the material      ness to God makes us open towards our         his own existence; and at the same time
instruments that we apply to it. In every     brothers and sisters and towards an un-       it is of God, because God is at the be-
truth there is something more than we         derstanding of life as a joyful task to       ginning and end of all that is good, all
would have expected, in the love that         be accomplished in a spirit of solidar-       that leads to salvation: “the world or
we receive there is always an element         ity. On the other hand, ideological rejec-    life or death or the present or the future,
that surprises us. We should never cease      tion of God and an atheism of indiffer-       all are yours; and you are Christ’s; and
to marvel at these things. In all knowl-      ence, oblivious to the Creator and at risk    Christ is God’s” (1 Cor 3:22-23). Chris-
edge and in every act of love the human       of becoming equally oblivious to human        tians long for the entire human family
soul experiences something “over and          values, constitute some of the chief ob-      to call upon God as “Our Father!” In
above”, which seems very much like a          stacles to development today. A human-        union with the only-begotten Son, may
gift that we receive, or a height to which    ism which excludes God is an inhuman          all people learn to pray to the Father and
we are raised. The development of indi-       humanism. Only a humanism open to             to ask him, in the words that Jesus him-
viduals and peoples is likewise located       the Absolute can guide us in the promo-       self taught us, for the grace to glorify
on a height, if we consider the spiritual     tion and building of forms of social and      him by living according to his will, to
dimension that must be present if such        civic life — structures, institutions, cul-   receive the daily bread that we need, to
development is to be authentic. It re-        ture and ethos — without exposing us          be understanding and generous towards
quires new eyes and a new heart, capa-        to the risk of becoming ensnared by the       our debtors, not to be tempted beyond
ble of rising above a materialistic vision    fashions of the moment. Awareness of          our limits, and to be delivered from evil
of human events, capable of glimpsing         God’s undying love sustains us in our la-     (cf. Mt 6:9-13).
in development the “beyond” that tech-        borious and stimulating work for justice
nology cannot give. By following this         and the development of peoples, amid          At the conclusion of the Pauline Year,
path, it is possible to pursue the integral   successes and failures, in the ceaseless      I gladly express this hope in the Apos-
human development that takes its direc-       pursuit of a just ordering of human af-       tle’s own words, taken from the Letter
tion from the driving force of charity in     fairs. God’s love calls us to move beyond     to the Romans: “Let love be genuine;
truth.                                        the limited and the ephemeral, it gives       hate what is evil, hold fast to what is
                                              us the courage to continue seeking and        good; love one another with brotherly
CONCLUSION                                    working for the benefit of all, even if this   affection; outdo one another in show-
                                              cannot be achieved immediately and if         ing honour” (Rom 12:9-10). May the
78. Without God man neither knows             what we are able to achieve, alongside        Virgin Mary — proclaimed Mater Eccle-
which way to go, nor even understands         political authorities and those working       siae by Paul VI and honoured by Chris-
who he is. In the face of the enormous        in the field of economics, is always less      tians as Speculum Iustitiae and Regina
problems surrounding the development          than we might wish[158]. God gives us         Pacis — protect us and obtain for us,
of peoples, which almost make us yield        the strength to fight and to suffer for        through her heavenly intercession, the
to discouragement, we find solace in the       love of the common good, because he           strength, hope and joy necessary to con-
sayings of our Lord Jesus Christ, who         is our All, our greatest hope.                tinue to dedicate ourselves with gen-
teaches us: “Apart from me you can do                                                       erosity to the task of bringing about the
nothing” (Jn 15:5) and then encourages        79. Development needs Christians with         “development of the whole man and of all
us: “I am with you always, to the close       their arms raised towards God in prayer,      men ”[159].
of the age” (Mt 28:20). As we con-            Christians moved by the knowledge that
template the vast amount of work to           truth-filled love, caritas in veritate, from   Given in Rome, at Saint Peter’s, on 29
be done, we are sustained by our faith        which authentic development proceeds,         June, the Solemnity of the Holy Apostles
that God is present alongside those who       is not produced by us, but given to us.       Peter and Paul, in the year 2009, the fifth
come together in his name to work for         For this reason, even in the most dif-        of my Pontificate.
justice. Paul VI recalled in Populorum        ficult and complex times, besides rec-
Progressio that man cannot bring about        ognizing what is happening, we must           BENEDICTUS PP. XVI
his own progress unaided, because by          above all else turn to God’s love. Devel-     [1] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio (26 March 1967),
                                                                                            22: AAS 59 (1967), 268; Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral
himself he cannot establish an authen-        opment requires attention to the spiri-       Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et Spes, 69.
tic humanism. Only if we are aware            tual life, a serious consideration of the     [2] Address for the Day of Development (23 August 1968): AAS 60
                                                                                            (1968), 626-627.
of our calling, as individuals and as a       experiences of trust in God, spiritual fel-   [3] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 2002 World Day of Peace: AAS 94
                                                                                            (2002), 132-140.
community, to be part of God’s family as      lowship in Christ, reliance upon God’s        [4] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution on the
                                                                                            Church in the Modern World Gaudium et Spes, 26.
his sons and daughters, will we be able       providence and mercy, love and forgive-       [5] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris (11 April 1963):
                                                                                            AAS 55 (1963), 268-270.
to generate a new vision and muster           ness, self-denial, acceptance of others,      [6] Cf. no. 16: loc. cit., 265.
                                                                                            [7] Cf. ibid., 82: loc. cit., 297.
new energy in the service of a truly          justice and peace. All this is essential if   [8] Ibid., 42: loc. cit., 278.
integral humanism. The greatest ser-          “hearts of stone” are to be transformed       [9] Ibid., 20: loc. cit., 267.
                                                                                            [10] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution on
vice to development, then, is a Christian     into “hearts of flesh” (Ezek 36:26), ren-      the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et Spes, 36; Paul VI, Apostolic
                                                                                            Letter Octogesima Adveniens (14 May 1971), 4: AAS 63 (1971), 403-
humanism[157] that enkindles charity          dering life on earth “divine” and thus        404; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus (1 May 1991), 43:
                                                                                            AAS 83 (1991), 847.
and takes its lead from truth, accepting      more worthy of humanity. All this is          [11] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 13: loc. cit., 263-
                                                                                            264.
both as a lasting gift from God. Open-        of man, because man is the subject of         [12] Cf. Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Compendium of the
                                                                                            Social Doctrine of the Church, 76.
Caritas in Veritae, Benedict XVI                                                                                                                                                                                                          28


[13] Cf. Benedict XVI, Address at the Inauguration of the Fifth General            Day of Peace, 4: AAS 97 (2005), 177-178; Benedict XVI, Message for the          [118] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 1990 World Day of Peace, 10: loc.
Conference of the Bishops of Latin America and the Caribbean (Aparecida,           2006 World Day of Peace, 9-10: AAS 98 (2006), 60-61; Id., Message for           cit., 152-153.
13 May 2007).                                                                      the 2007 World Day of Peace, 5, 14: loc. cit., 778, 782-783.                    [119] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 65: loc. cit., 289.
[14] Cf. nos. 3-5: loc. cit., 258-260.                                             [69] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 2002 World Day of Peace, 6: loc.         [120] Benedict XVI, Message for the 2008 World Day of Peace, 7: AAS
[15] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis (30 De-          cit., 135; Benedict XVI, Message for the 2006 World Day of Peace, 9-10:         100 (2008), 41.
cember 1987), 6-7: AAS 80 (1988), 517-519.                                         loc. cit., 60-61.                                                               [121] Cf. Benedict XVI, Address to the General Assembly of the United
[16] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 14: loc. cit.,           [70] Cf. Benedict XVI, Homily at Mass, Islinger Feld, Regensburg, 12            Nations Organization, New York, 18 April 2008.
264.                                                                               September 2006.                                                                 [122] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 1990 World Day of Peace, 13: loc.
[17] Cf. Benedict XVI, Encyclical Letter Deus Caritas Est (25 December             [71] Cf. Benedict XVI, Encyclical Letter Deus Caritas Est, 1: loc. cit.,        cit., 154-155.
2005), 18: AAS 98 (2006), 232.                                                     217-218.                                                                        [123] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 36: loc. cit.,
[18] Ibid., 6: loc cit., 222.                                                      [72] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 28: loc. cit.,   838-840.
[19] Cf. Benedict XVI, Christmas Address to the Roman Curia, 22 Decem-             548-550.                                                                        [124] Ibid., 38: loc. cit., 840-841; Benedict XVI, Message for the 2007
ber 2005.                                                                          [73] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio , 19: loc. cit., 266-      World Day of Peace, 8: loc. cit., 779.
[20] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 3: loc. cit.,   267.                                                                            [125] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 41: loc. cit.,
515.                                                                               [74] Ibid., 39: loc. cit., 276-277.                                             843-845.
[21] Cf. ibid., 1: loc. cit., 513-514.                                             [75] Ibid., 75: loc. cit., 293-294.                                             [126] Cf. ibid.
[22] Cf. ibid., 3: loc. cit., 515.                                                 [76] Cf. Benedict XVI, Encyclical Letter Deus Caritas Est, 28: loc. cit.,       [127] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 20: loc. cit.,
[23] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens (14 September            238-240.                                                                        422-424.
1981), 3: AAS 73 (1981), 583-584.                                                  [77] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 59: loc. cit., 864.      [128] Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 85: loc. cit., 298-299.
[24] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 3: loc. cit.,           [78] Cf. Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 40, 85: loc. cit., 277,        [129] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 1998 World Day of Peace, 3:
794-796.                                                                           298-299.                                                                        AAS 90 (1998), 150; Address to the Members of the Vatican Foundation
[25] Cf. Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 3: loc. cit., 258.                [79] Ibid., 13: loc. cit., 263-264.                                             “Centesimus Annus — Pro Pontifice”, 9 May 1998, 2; Address to the Civil
[26] Cf. ibid., 34: loc. cit., 274.                                                [80] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Fides et Ratio (14 September           Authorities and Diplomatic Corps of Austria, 20 June 1998, 8; Message to
[27] Cf. nos. 8-9: AAS 60 (1968), 485-487; Benedict XVI, Address                   1998), 85: AAS 91 (1999), 72-73.                                                the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, 5 May 2000, 6.
to the participants at the International Congress promoted by the Pontif-          [81] Cf. ibid., 83: loc. cit., 70-71.                                           [130] According to Saint Thomas “ratio partis contrariatur rationi per-
ical Lateran University on the fortieth anniversary of Paul VI’s Encyclical        [82] Benedict XVI, Address at the University of Regensburg, 12 September        sonae”, In III Sent., d. 5, q. 3, a. 2; also “Homo non ordinatur ad com-
“Humanae Vitae”, 10 May 2008.                                                      2006.                                                                           munitatem politicam secundum se totum et secundum omnia sua”, Summa
[28] Cf. Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae (25 March 1995), 93: AAS               [83] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 33: loc. cit.,        Theologiae I-II, q. 21, a. 4, ad 3.
87 (1995), 507-508.                                                                273-274.                                                                        [131] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution
[29] Ibid., 101: loc. cit., 516-518.                                               [84] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 2000 World Day of Peace, 15: AAS         on the Church Lumen Gentium, 1.
[30] No. 29: AAS 68 (1976), 25.                                                    92 (2000), 366.                                                                 [132] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Sixth Public Session of the Pontifical
[31] Ibid., 31: loc. cit., 26.                                                     [85] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 407; cf. John Paul II, Encyclical        Academies of Theology and of Saint Thomas Aquinas, 8 November 2001,
[32] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 41: loc.        Letter Centesimus Annus, 25: loc. cit., 822-824.                                3.
cit., 570-572.                                                                     [86] Cf. no. 17: AAS 99 (2007), 1000.                                           [133] Cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Declaration on the
[33] Cf. ibid.; Id., Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 5, 54: loc. cit.,         [87] Cf. ibid., 23: loc. cit., 1004-1005.                                       Unicity and Salvific Universality of Jesus Christ and the Church Dominus
799, 859-860.                                                                      [88] Saint Augustine expounds this teaching in detail in his dialogue           Iesus (6 August 2000), 22: AAS 92 (2000), 763-764; Id., Doctrinal Note
[34] No. 15: loc. cit., 265.                                                       on free will (De libero arbitrio, II, 3, 8ff.). He indicates the existence      on some questions regarding the participation of Catholics in political life
[35] Cf. ibid., 2: loc. cit., 258; Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum No-           within the human soul of an “internal sense”. This sense consists in an         (24 November 2002), 8: AAS 96 (2004), 369-370.
varum (15 May 1891): Leonis XIII P.M. Acta, XI, Romae 1892, 97-144;                act that is fulfilled outside the normal functions of reason, an act that        [134] Benedict XVI, Encyclical Letter Spe Salvi, 31: loc. cit., 1010; Ad-
John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis , 8: loc. cit., 519-      is not the result of reflection, but is almost instinctive, through which        dress to the Participants in the Fourth National Congress of the Church in
520; Id., Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 5: loc. cit., 799.                   reason, realizing its transient and fallible nature, admits the existence       Italy, Verona, 19 October 2006.
[36] Cf. Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 2, 13: loc. cit., 258,            of something eternal, higher than itself, something absolutely true and         [135] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 5: loc. cit., 798-
263-264.                                                                           certain. The name that Saint Augustine gives to this interior truth is at       800; Benedict XVI, Address to the Participants in the Fourth National
[37] Ibid., 42: loc. cit., 278.                                                    times the name of God (Confessions X, 24, 35; XII, 25, 35; De libero ar-        Congress of the Church in Italy, Verona, 19 October 2006.
[38] Ibid., 11: loc. cit., 262; cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus     bitrio II, 3, 8), more often that of Christ (De magistro 11:38; Confessions     [136] No. 12.
Annus, 25: loc. cit., 822-824.                                                     VII, 18, 24; XI, 2, 4).                                                         [137] Cf. Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno (15 May 1931):
[39] Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 15: loc. cit., 265.                   [89] Benedict XVI, Encyclical Letter Deus Caritas Est, 3: loc. cit., 219.       AAS 23 (1931), 203; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus,
[40] Ibid., 3: loc. cit., 258.                                                     [90] Cf. no. 49: loc. cit., 281.                                                48: loc. cit., 852-854; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1883.
[41] Ibid., 6: loc. cit., 260.                                                     [91] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 28: loc. cit., 827-      [138] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris, loc. cit., 274.
[42] Ibid., 14: loc. cit., 264.                                                    828.                                                                            [139] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 10, 41: loc.
[43] Ibid.; cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 53-62:           [92] Cf. no. 35: loc. cit., 836-838.                                            cit., 262, 277-278.
loc. cit., 859-867; Id., Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis (4 March              [93] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 38: loc.     [140] Cf. Benedict XVI, Address to Members of the International Theo-
1979), 13-14: AAS 71 (1979), 282-286.                                              cit., 565-566.                                                                  logical Commission, 5 October 2007; Address to the Participants in the
[44] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 12: loc. cit.,           [94] No. 44: loc. cit., 279.                                                    International Congress on Natural Moral Law, 12 February 2007.
262-263.                                                                           [95] Cf. ibid., 24: loc. cit., 269.                                             [141] Cf. Benedict XVI, Address to the Bishops of Thailand on their “Ad
[45] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution on the               [96] Cf. Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 36: loc. cit., 838-840.            Limina” Visit, 16 May 2008.
Church in the Modern World Gaudium et Spes, 22.                                    [97] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 24: loc. cit.,        [142] Cf. Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itin-
[46] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio , 13: loc. cit., 263-         269.                                                                            erant People, Instruction Erga Migrantes Caritas Christi (3 May 2004):
264.                                                                               [98] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 32: loc. cit.,       AAS 96 (2004), 762-822.
[47] Cf. Benedict XVI, Address to the Participants in the Fourth National          832-833; Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 25: loc. cit.,        [143] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 8: loc. cit., 594-
Congress of the Church in Italy, Verona, 19 October 2006.                          269-270.                                                                        598.
[48] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 16: loc. cit.,           [99] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 24: loc. cit., 637-      [144] Jubilee of Workers, Greeting after Mass, 1 May 2000.
265.                                                                               638.                                                                            [145] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 36: loc. cit.,
[49] Ibid.                                                                         [100] Ibid., 15: loc. cit., 616-618.                                            838-840.
[50] Benedict XVI, Address to young people at Barangaroo, Sydney, 17               [101] Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 27: loc. cit., 271.               [146] Cf. Benedict XVI, Address to the Members of the General Assembly
July 2008.                                                                         [102] Cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction               of the United Nations Organization, New York, 18 April 2008.
[51] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 20: loc. cit., 267.          on Christian Freedom and Liberation Libertatis Conscientia (22 March            [147] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris, loc. cit., 293; Pon-
[52] Ibid., 66: loc. cit., 289-290.                                                1987), 74: AAS 79 (1987), 587.                                                  tifical Council for Justice and Peace, Compendium of the Social Doctrine
[53] Ibid., 21: loc. cit., 267-268.                                                [103] Cf. John Paul II, Interview published in the Catholic daily news-         of the Church, 441.
[54] Cf. nos. 3, 29, 32: loc. cit., 258, 272, 273.                                 paper La Croix, 20 August 1997.                                                 [148] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution on
[55] Cf. Encyclical Letter, Sollicitudo Rei Socialis , 28: loc. cit., 548-550.     [104] John Paul II, Address to the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences,        the Church in the Modern World, Gaudium et Spes, 82.
[56] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 9: loc. cit., 261-           27 April 2001.                                                                  [149] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 43: loc.
262.                                                                               [105] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 17: loc. cit., 265-      cit., 574-575.
[57] Cf. Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis , 20: loc. cit., 536-537.      266.                                                                            [150] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 41: loc. cit., 277-
[58] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 22-29: loc.             [106] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 2003 World Day of Peace, 5: AAS         278; cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution on
cit., 819-830.                                                                     95 (2003), 343.                                                                 the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et Spes, 57.
[59] Cf. nos. 23, 33: loc. cit., 268-269, 273-274.                                 [107] Cf. ibid.                                                                 [151] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 5: loc. cit.,
[60] Cf. loc. cit., 135.                                                           [108] Cf. Benedict XVI, Message for the 2007 World Day of Peace, 13: loc.       586-589.
[61] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution on the               cit., 781-782.                                                                  [152] Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 29: loc. cit.,
Church in the Modern World Gaudium et Spes, 63.                                    [109] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 65: loc. cit., 289.      420.
[62] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 24: loc. cit.,          [110] Cf. ibid., 36-37: loc. cit., 275-276.                                     [153] Cf. Benedict XVI, Address to the Participants in the Fourth National
821-822.                                                                           [111] Cf. ibid., 37: loc. cit., 275-276.                                        Congress of the Church in Italy, Verona, 19 October 2006; Id., Homily at
[63] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Veritatis Splendor (6 August              [112] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Decree on the Apostolate           Mass, Islinger Feld, Regensburg, 12 September 2006.
1993), 33, 46, 51: AAS 85 (1993), 1160, 1169-1171, 1174-1175; Id.,                 of Lay People Apostolicam Actuositatem, 11.                                     [154] Cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction on cer-
Address to the Assembly of the United Nations, 5 October 1995, 3.                  [113] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 14: loc. cit.,       tain bioethical questions Dignitas Personae (8 September 2008): AAS
[64] Cf. Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 47: loc. cit., 280-281;           264; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 32: loc. cit., 832-      100 (2008), 858-887.
John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 42: loc. cit., 572-      833.                                                                            [155] Cf. Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 3: loc. cit., 258.
574.                                                                               [114] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 77: loc. cit., 295.      [156] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution on the
[65] Cf. Benedict XVI, Message for the 2007 World Food Day: AAS 99                 [115] John Paul II, Message for the 1990 World Day of Peace, 6: AAS 82          Church in the Modern World Gaudium et Spes, 14.
(2007), 933-935.                                                                   (1990), 150.                                                                    [157] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 42: loc. cit.,
[66] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 18, 59, 63-64:          [116] Heraclitus of Ephesus (Ephesus, c. 535 B.C. - c. 475 B.C.), Frag-         278.
loc. cit., 419-421, 467-468, 472-475.                                              ment 22B124, in H. Diels and W. Kranz, Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker,         [158] Cf. Benedict XVI, Encyclical Letter Spe Salvi, 35: loc. cit., 1013-
[67] Cf. Benedict XVI, Message for the 2007 World Day of Peace, 5.                 Weidmann, Berlin, 1952, 6(th) ed.                                               1014.
[68] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 2002 World Day of Peace, 4-7, 12-           [117] Pontifical Council for Justice And Peace, Compendium of the Social         [159] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 42: loc. cit., 278.
15: AAS 94 (2002), 134-136, 138-140; Id., Message for the 2004 World               Doctrine of the Church, 451-487.
Day of Peace, 8: AAS 96 (2004), 119; Id., Message for the 2005 World



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