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					  EUROPEAN UNION




Project financed under Phare                                 MERI/ NCDTVET-PIU




Activity 08

Training in Quality Assurance


                         8.2: Strategic Paper for Credit
                         Transfer




      Training and Advice for Further Development of the TVET Sector, Romania,
                  PHARE TVET RO 2006/018-147.04.01.02.01.03.01

                                          2009
The content of this material does not necessarily represent the official position
                             of the European Union




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                                                            CONTENTS:


Credit Transfer Policy for VET qualifications in Romania: Supporting Learning Pathways .... 4
  Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 4
  Background and context ......................................................................................................... 4
  Credit Transfer: definitions .................................................................................................... 7
  Key Objectives, Principles, and Outcomes of the Credit Transfer System ............................ 7
  Policy Strategies ..................................................................................................................... 9
  Quality Assurance arrangements for credit recognition and transfer ..................................... 9
  Using the training standards in VET for credit transfer ....................................................... 10
     Policy on Units of Competence and Credits .................................................................... 10
     Aligning Units of Competence and Credits with the NQF and training curricula ........... 11
  Establishing pathways for transition between Secondary education, TVET and HE .......... 12
     Cross-sector qualification linkages .................................................................................. 12
     Developing linkages between qualifications .................................................................... 13
     Processes for development of linkages ............................................................................ 13
     Basis for determining qualification linkage ..................................................................... 14
     Responsibilities ................................................................................................................ 15
     Credit outcomes of qualification linkages ........................................................................ 15
  Policy implementation: next steps........................................................................................ 16
     Enhancing the Role of Regional Consortia ...................................................................... 16
Literature: ................................................................................................................................. 17
  ANNEX A: Learning Pathways in Romanian Education System ........................................ 18
  ANNEX B: An example of ladderized interface between TVET and HE in Malaysia ....... 19
  ANNEX C: A Model for Credits’ Definition and Distribution in Correlation with Defined
  Competences and Curricula, Leading to the Award of Qualifications ................................ 22




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Credit Transfer Policy for VET qualifications in Romania:
Supporting Learning Pathways
Introduction

       The purpose of this Concept Paper is to enhance the initial process of
consolidation of inter-institutional Working groups for Credit transfer and
development of learning pathways. The focus is in particular on formulating and
proposing for further discussion credit transfer policy objectives, intended outcomes
and principles that would underpin a common credit currency for VET qualifications
and support learners along appropriate learning pathways.
       It is expected that the concepts and proposals included in this paper would
prompt the formation of a broader working party for detailed development and
implementation of a credit recognition and transfer policy and implementation plan, in
consultation with the VET sector in Romania. The national VET Qualifications
authority may consider relevant to initiate and appoint such a working party that
would comprise of nominees from across the education sector, including higher
education institutions, local and regional education authorities, educational colleges
and private training establishments, as well as representatives from industry,
business enterprises, students‟ associations, quality assurance and accreditation
agencies for VET and Higher education (ARACIP, ARACIS), Ministry of Education,
Research and Innovations, and other stakeholders that are deemed necessary. The
remit of the working party should include also policies to support learning pathways
and cross-sector linkages that provide for credit transfer decisions which would make
possible the mobile learner of the 21st century. Such a policy document is directly
related to the national policy and strategy for the development of VET.


Background and context

The Romanian VET system currently has a number of features that would – in
principle – facilitate participation in an open system of credit transfer, including:
             training standards associated with learning outcomes and
                 qualifications;
                    notional credit points attributed to units of learning outcomes and
                     qualifications;
                    explicit learning outcomes together with assessment guidance for
                     each unit;
                    quality assurance arrangements for correspondence between study
                     programmes and units of qualifications in outcome terms.
        A number of EU funded projects have contributed to these achievements.
Under PHARE TVET 2001 Project a methodology for development of VET
qualifications was designed and implemented and the process of units writing and
allocation of credit points was initiated. Under PHARE TVET 2005 Project the issue
of facilitating learning pathways was addressed.


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        To solve the problems with the actual provision of learning pathways between
VET and HE it was proposed that a general Credit transfer system should operate at
the national level and that it should closely follow ECVET model1.
        At the same time, a number of problems have been detected with the ECVET
model‟s power to provide for open credit transfer and recognition systems, supporting
learning pathways of VET students across national frontiers. The expectation that
this would be an open system for recognizing vocational credit in one country and
setting it against requirements for vocational qualifications in another, in the same
way that ECTS allows for the transfer of credits within higher education across the
EU, has not been met. Under ECVET approach, VET qualification is described with
specific requirements (specific items of knowledge, skills or competence), rather than
with more general requirements for level and duration of study, which tend to
characterize higher education qualifications.         Without correspondence of the
definitions of qualifications between and within national VET systems it is hard to see
how a common credit currency for qualifications can be provided. Similarly, it would
be difficult to imagine a consistent credit transfer policy that would underpin a
common credit transfer system. Similar concern was expressed at an earlier stage in
the statement of ESIB, currently ESU (European Union of Students) regarding the
ECVET model.2 In its position regarding the proposal of the European Commission
for ECVET, the European Association of Craft, Small and Medium sized Enterprises
(UEAPME) indicates that a functioning ECVET should have certain benefits for
companies, namely:
     To attract more people to the learning context
     To enhance the mobility of apprentices and young people in initial VET
     The shift to learning outcome approach should contribute to providing skills,
        adapted to the needs of the labour market.
        UEAPME also makes it clear that ECVET “requires further development in an
ongoing and deepening process. Only in the long run and on the basis of several
national and sectoral cross-boarder experiences, will it contribute to the
establishment of a true credit transfer system”.3
        To the abovementioned issues one should also add the lack of linkages
between the learning outcomes of VET qualifications and those used in Higher
education, as well as between Romanian VET qualifications and those used in other
countries. The latter issue is partly addressed by recent involvement of relevant
national bodies and a number of pilot schools in national and sector cross-border
experience for implementing ECVET model and aligning national credit transfer
system with those of other European countries.4
       In PHARE TVET 2005 two practical issues of credit accumulation and transfer
were addressed in particular:
a)     the maximization of what is learned during work experience in order to
contribute real „credit‟ towards the requirements of the TVET qualifications;

1
  Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the establishment of an
European Credit Transfer System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET), Brussels,
09.04.2008. COM (2008) 180 final.
2
  Statement on a European Credit Transfer System for Vocational Education and Training. Adopted in
Paris, Dec., 2006/
3
  UEAPME position on the proposal for a Recommendation on the establishment of the European
Credit System for Vocational Education and Training" ECVET. Brussels, 29 May 2008.
4
  For more information on particular projects, go to: http://www.ecvet-projects.eu

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b)     practical guidance for students who study or gain work experience abroad,
informing them, and schools, how to gain the maximum credit for their experience
abroad.
    As a result, new tools had been developed to help in close monitoring of the
national qualifications framework implementation and in identifying qualification
linkages between one qualification and another. These involve in particular:
     A Model Memorandum or protocol for School- Business partnership and a template
       for
 „Learning Agreement‟ between the TVET school and its business partners;
     A Methodology regarding transfer and recognition of learning outcomes
       acquired by learners in TVET and in practical training stages, which has been
       formally approved through a Ministerial Order.5

    Under the present, PHARE TVET 6 Project, additional problems have been
    identified and discussed:
     As currently the system for assigning credit points is applicable only for initial
       VET, an issue is raised regarding its applicability to qualifications and units in
       continuous VET and adult training programmes;
     Existing arrangements for recognition of credits and assessment and
       recognition of prior learning apply only for holders of initial VET qualifications;
       It is of critical importance that not just a few, but majority of higher education
       institutions provide for such arrangements; In addition, it is legitimate to
       explore opportunities for similar arrangements for assessment of prior
       learning, recognition and transfer of credits from other VET qualification levels,
       especially those associated with level 3+ and adult training programmes.
     The recognition (lack of) of credits and prior learning within pre-university and
       higher education VET prompts questions of validity and reliability of credit
       points allocation and the need for fine-tuning of existing methodology and
       criteria for defining the units of learning outcomes in terms of (a) determining
       the particular importance and „weight‟ of each unit of learning outcomes for
       particular qualification and at particular level; (b) determining the relative value
       of units of learning outcomes that meet qualifications requirements for two or
       more labour market occupations; (c) determining the workload for achieving
       the learning outcomes specified, and (d) ensuring compatibility of learning
       outcomes with associated qualifications.

       These issues are further discussed in the following sections and addressed
with proposals for specific policies and measures to be applied by respective
competent bodies (the National Authority for Qualifications, the National Centre for
VET development- CNDIPT, National Council for Adult Vocational Training- CNFPA,
the Higher Education Qualifications Agency- ACPART).
       In the case of Romania the differences and associated problems described in
the previous section are lessened to some extend by the common legal framework
for quality assurance, under which the pre-university and HE VET operate after
20066. This common framework provides a basis for an agreed quality assurance

5
  Methodology regarding Transfer and Recognition of Learning Outcomes acquired by Learners in
TVET and Practical Training Stages. Appendix 1 to MERY Order No. 4931/29.07.2008.
6
  Law no. 87/2006 for the endorsement of the Government‟s Emergency Ordinance no.
75/2005 concerning quality assurance in education.

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policy that would underpin accountability and transparency of education providers
and thereby strengthen confidence in Romanian qualifications. Quality assurance
provisions also form the basis for the next step: agreement on a policy that will
underpin consistent credit transfer systems within Romanian education providers, to
facilitate cross-sector qualifications‟ linkages and learning pathways.


Credit Transfer: definitions
Currently „Credit transfer‟ and „recognition‟ of credits are defined in association with
learning outcomes and the certification of their achievement by the learner:

„1.8 Transfer of learning outcomes and associated credits is the process by which learning outcomes and credits
associated thereof are transferred and integrated in the vocational training programme that the learner attends.
1.9 Recognition of learning outcomes and associated credits is the process of officially attesting achieved
learning outcomes and credits, assessed and validated, to confer the vocational training certificate.
1.10 Certification of learning outcomes is the process by which the learning outcomes acquired by a learner
following an evaluation process are officially attested.”7

In a nutshell, credit transfer is a process whereby credit already achieved in one
qualification is recognized towards a new qualification in the same or different
provider organisation. Currently this occurs in Romanian VET system on a case-by-
case basis between the recognition authority (be it training provider, or national
qualification authority) and individuals. As the existing approach appears to be slow
and sluggish, it would be relevant to consider providing arrangements for credit
transfer and recognition through structured agreements between two or more
providers or organizations.
        The quality assurance requirements under the Law No. 87/2006 and the
associated self-assessment, external evaluation and monitoring provisions
introduced by ARACIP and CNDIPT, lay down the foundation for credit recognition
and transfer. The envisaged Register of national qualifications is another mechanism
for credit recognition and transfer as it can provide a common credit8 currency, a
system of levels, learning outcomes and subject classification system for all quality
assured qualifications in Romania. The quality assurance mechanisms would have to
underpin the Register, as they are supposed to provide confidence in the quality of
teaching delivery and assessment of students, leading to the award of credit.


Key Objectives, Principles, and Outcomes of the Credit Transfer
System

An effective and productive credit transfer system is primarily aimed at ensuring that
the interests of learners are vital and of principal concern. The following objectives
underpin a learner-oriented credit transfer system:

7
  Methodology regarding Transfer and Recognition of Learning Outcomes acquired by Learners in
TVET and Practical Training Stages. Appendix 1 to MERY Order No. 4931/29.07.2008.
8
  According to MERY‟ Methodology: “1.4 Credits represent the volume of the learning outcomes
acquired by a learner during a vocational training programme, used to indicate the progress made and
completion of a training programme leading to acquirement of a qualification. Credits are used to allow
transfer from a qualification to another qualification, from a qualification level to another qualification
level and from a learning system to another learning system”.

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Decisions:
   Credit transfer decisions are fair and recognize learning in appropriate ways;
   Credit transfer decisions are justifiable, consistent and open to scrutiny;
   Credit transfer decisions are made always on time, so that ability of learners to
      access new study programmes are not unnecessarily prohibited;
   Learners must have opportunity to appeal credit transfer decisions.

Processes:
    Credit transfer processes facilitate access and promote new learning
     opportunities without compromising the quality and standards of
     qualifications;
    Learners have opportunity to provide feedback on the effectiveness and
     appropriateness of the credit transfer processes;
    At the national and institution levels measures are taken to provide for
     learners‟, providers‟ and assessors‟ clear understanding of what might be
     expected in response to the application for credit transfer;
    Clear and coherent information is made available on all types of pathways that
     a learner may expect to progress following the awarding of certain types of
     qualifications (e.g., through the Register of National Qualifications, formal
     credit transfer arrangements articulated in „Methodology‟, etc.).

For the achievement of these objectives, some- if not all- of the following guiding
principles should apply across sectors and teaching and assessment cultures, in
order to complement the Government reform programme 2008-2010 and strategy for
continuous vocational training9:
    Qualification and programme design and development should facilitate credit
       recognition and transfer;
    Credit transfer should support effective learning pathways;
    Credit awarded as a result of either recognition of prior learning or recognition
       of current competency/professional experience is of equal standing to credit
       awarded through other forms of assessment and should be able to be carried
       with the learner once awarded;
    Credit transfer and recognition should be able to operate across different
       education sectors and disciplinary cultures, as well as across national borders,
       and robust quality assurance procedures need to be put in place to support
       this.

The following outcomes should result from the applying of the above principles and
objectives:
    Credit will be granted for the recorded achievement, and the record
       maintained by accredited organization, clearly related to the result of the
       assessment that has occurred;
    Credit will be granted at the level consistent with the learner‟s demonstrated
       level of achievement/competence;
    Where credit is not granted, providers will give clear reasons for the decisions;



9
  The Short and medium-term strategy for continuous vocational training 2005-2010
(approved by Government Decision no 875/2005).

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        Credit transfer arrangements will recognize the characteristic
         features/descriptors of qualifications;
        Information about credit transfer arrangements will be available to all learners.


Policy Strategies
Current difficulties experienced by Romanian education system in designing and
implementing credit transfer as a tool for improved mobility of manpower raise the
need for developing, in consultation with all stakeholders, certain policy strategies
that might help to overcome the obstacles and achieve the objectives. To support this
process, we propose for consideration three specific lines of approach: First, to
relate the existing or set up specific quality assurance arrangements for credit
transfer, in order to raise the trust and achieve the credit recognition and transfer
policy outcomes, outlined in the previous section; Second, to set up a framework for
training in specific industry, broadly based on existing experience and arrangements
for designing units of learning outcomes and training standards in consultation with
employers, in order to improve credibility and „transportability‟ of credits and their
recognition; Third, to set arrangements for credit transfer between TVET and
secondary and HE, as a feasible practice, on which to build on next interventions for
establishing learning pathways for vertical and horizontal transitions across different
qualification levels and sectors.
The proposed three key policy strategies are discussed in greater detail in the
following sections.

Quality Assurance arrangements for credit recognition and transfer
         Quality assurance is a key tool for achieving the credit recognition and
transfer, as the mechanisms and processes for regular internal and external
assessments and monitoring against set requirements for quality help to ensure that
good quality of training is provided to all students and at all times.
         Building on existing quality assurance mechanism new, specific arrangements
are needed for credit recognition and transfer processes. This entails that new
requirements should be set to ensure that providers of VET qualifications have credit
recognition and transfer processes in place that meet the objectives, principles and
outcomes outlined in this policy. Quality assurance arrangements should also provide
comprehensive information on what specific credit transfer arrangements allow to
recognize credit from components of qualifications.
         Credit recognition and transfer process is based on mutual trust between
institutions and education providers across the sectors. As the Training Standard is
at the core of this process, ensuring transparency and quality of the processes of its
initiation, development and approval becomes a key issue for credit transfer policy
implementation. Currently the quality assurance framework for VET in Romania is
preoccupied with requirements for schools‟ delivery of programmes, but in order to
facilitate credit transfer and recognition of VET qualifications in higher education, its
scope should be expanded and include similar processes and procedures for design,
approval and periodic review of programmes and training standards.
         In order to achieve this, the draft Training Standard should be submitted by
inter-institutional Working groups for approval by the national qualification authority
with information about the importance of the particular qualification, associated with
the standard, to industry, and evidence that the units of learning outcomes and the
named qualification/s included into the standard are driven by industry needs and

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reflect contemporary organization of the work and job profiles. It would be also
relevant to point to recognize connectivity of skills proposed within and across
sectors and thus to promote national and international portability. Describing how the
units of skills and competencies included into the Training Standard reflect licensing
and regulatory requirements can further support this goal. Setting up a Quality
Assurance Panel to review the Training Standards and the overall process of their
development on a case-by-case basis should also be considered as an independent
way to provide evidence that the units of learning outcomes and skill sets included
into the Standard meet the individual and economic agents‟ needs and support
sound assessment practices. Such a measure would contribute to a greater respect
and trust in VET qualifications and support the learner transition between education
sectors. A copy of the Quality report by the Panel should be attached to the Training
Standard documentation, sent for approval to the national qualification authority.


Using the training standards in VET for credit transfer

       It follows from the previous section that the way the training standard is
developed and submit for approval, its structure and content are all having a role to
play in an would be framework for credit transfer. This section provides discussion on
possible developments in the existing approach to training standard development
that could help to improve the linkages between VET and other education sectors
and facilitate credit transfer.

Policy on Units of Competence and Credits

      Currently the training standard includes units of competences, grouped under
„key competences‟, „general technical competences‟ and „specific technical
competences‟, and credits. The units of competence are defined in terms of learning
outcomes and each is provided with information regarding:

                  Qualification level;
                  Credit;
                  Performance criteria;
                  Application of the unit;
                  Assessment guide.

This information, included into the training standard package, provides a set of
elements that allow for assessment and recognition of the trainee skills and
competences and enables qualifications to be awarded against predetermined
competency units. Thus the training standard is expected to inform the learners,
education providers and economic agents about the value that nationally recognized
qualifications bring in terms of skills and competences and the standard units against
which the holders of such qualifications are to be assessed in order to certify their
competency for practicing the qualification. It also assists in benchmarking the design
of training and assessment processes and practices. In this way, the training
standard supports recognizing the training performance.

       The present structure of the training standard clearly encourages flexibility as
it describes the skills and knowledge needed to perform effectively in the workplace.

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Training standards do not prescribe how people should be trained. It is
acknowledged that people can achieve vocational competency in many ways and the
training standards emphasise what learners can do, not how or where they learned to
do it. For example, some experienced workers might be able to demonstrate
competency against the units of learning outcomes and competency, and eventually
gain a qualification without completing a formal training programme.

       However, what is still missing from the training standard package (TSP), and
is to be considered important information for enabling credit transfer, is the rules for
determining the units of competency that make up the qualifications and for
alignment with the national qualifications framework. Currently, there is also no
information describing the level (i.e., level descriptors), although the indication of
level is included into the TSP. In the future, to support the credit transfer policy,
developers of TSP‟s should consider providing details of those competency
standards that must be achieved to award qualifications in the National Qualifications
Framework of Romania, or statements of attainment for a part of qualification. The
rules around which standard units of competence can be combined to make up a
valid qualification in the Training Standard are to be provided as well, as these rules
must be followed to ensure the integrity of validation process and recognition and
transfer of credits from qualifications issued.

Aligning Units of Competence and Credits with the NQF and training
curricula

       Alignment to the National Qualifications Framework (NQF) takes place when a
group of units of competency are packaged into a viable NQF qualification.
Developers of Training Standards should have the responsibility to justify for each
case why the proposed group of units and associated credits with them for the
respective qualification. They have to explain how the learning outcomes identified
and included into the Training Standard meet the training needs of specific industry
or industry sectors and how the particular set or group of units of learning outcomes
support the achievement of specified qualification/s.

       This could be done through a number of ways: by including a number of
components into each unit of competency; by endorsing some of the proposed
components into the unit, thus standardizing the unit of competency structure; by
defining rules for grouping units of competency into a qualification.

         Components of a Unit of Competency already include such important
characteristics as: Unit title, application of the unit, performance criteria, level. Before
their official endorsement/standardization, it would be relevant to include also level
descriptors associated with the particular unit and codify units for their improved
flexibility and transportability across sectors in the future. Without such information it
will be difficult to achieve credit transfer of VET qualifications to higher education
sector.

        Training Standard developers must ensure that all units of competency
contained in a Training Standard „box‟ are put together within one or more
qualifications. They have to provide evidence that including the units in this way is
necessary, including a clear explanation of the reasons why, and evidence of

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validation by industry. Evidence should be provided also that regional and local
training authorities have been consulted about the units. In submitting the Training
Standard to the national qualification authority for approval, developers should
include information about the circumstances in which the units would be in demand,
and industry expectations of their inclusion, for example if they

                            meet a regulatory or licensing requirement
                            provide a combination to be offered as a training program or set
                             of modules
                            provide pre-requisite skills.

Where developers consider that not all of the competency units should be put
together to form a qualification, they would have to indicate, which units are elective.

        Additional issue for policy consideration is prompted by the fact, that currently
there are no specific arrangements for mapping the learning outcomes and
competences of the standardized Unit into the training curricula and defining their
relative weight in it as a ground for distribution of credits across the curricula.

        A solution to this issue is illustrated in Annex C, where a correlation is made
between competences and curriculum modules and each module is weighted against
its contribution to the qualification. The training standard developers would have the
responsibility to determine the distribution of weighted units of competency across
the programme curricula, but it is in the powers of national qualifications authority to
define the number of credits, required for the award of qualifications at VET levels. It
is recommended in the proposed model in Annex C that the calculation of credits‟
distribution is based on weighted units of competency and the total „weight‟ of
competencies needed to satisfy the requirements of particular qualification is 100%.
The benefits of this approach are that it allows for the process of weighting of units
and mapping the programmes leading to particular qualifications in parallel to the
process of setting the qualifications requirements for the levels, which enables the
various groups and authorities to work simultaneously.

Establishing pathways for transition between Secondary education,
TVET and HE
        An important aspect of Romanian national qualifications framework is the
development of close connections between secondary education, Vocational
Education and Training (VET) and higher education. The development of structural
arrangements to link qualifications across the sectors represents a key development
in building closer inter-sector relationships.
        Qualification linkages enable individual students to move from one
qualification to another in more efficient and effective pathways. Qualification
linkages are also working tools for the operation of a meaningful qualification
framework in Romania.

Cross-sector qualification linkages
      The notion of „cross-sector qualification linkage‟ deals with any formal
connection between qualifications issued within secondary, VET, and higher
education. These connections are based on a variety of models, and credit transfer


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arrangements represent one such model for cross-sector qualification links. In order
to further building the links from individual partnerships between institutions to state-
wide national agreements between secondary, VET and HE providers, and between
them and various industrial sectors, a national policy is needed. This policy would
have to provide framework for formal linkages between qualifications across sectors
for the organizations involved in determining structured cross-sector qualification
links. Such a framework would facilitate these arrangements, but also would provide
students and other interested organizations with information about the processes that
are specifically designed to assist in clarifying pathways and outcomes.
        Cross-sector qualification linkages are critical for the achievement of a more
integrated, open and relevant education system for Romania that can meet the
changing needs and priorities for knowledge and skills‟ development including
lifelong learning. Qualification linkages may be focused on various learning pathways
such as VET to higher education, higher education to VET, secondary education to
VET, VET to secondary education, secondary education to higher education, or any
combination of these.
        Qualification linkages should incorporate admission requirements in a
transparent      way as part of the agreed cross-sector or inter-institutional
arrangements. Where appropriate and relevant, linkages between qualifications
should identify credit relationships between one qualification and another. Not all
qualification linkages, therefore, will have to involve granting credit for previous
qualifications. Where credit arrangements are established, the credit should be
awarded to individuals who have evidence of achievement without the need for
further assessment of the respective knowledge, skills and competences. The formal
agreement of a qualification linkage should be determined by the organization issuing
the end-point award. The national qualification authorities for secondary education,
continuous education and for HE (MERY, CNFPA and ACPART) should consider
whether the decision to develop qualification linkages is going to be a matter of their
acts, or it should be left for individual accredited institutions to determine in
collaboration with each other. In addition, information about qualification linkages
should be widely disseminated to students as part of enrolment information.

Developing linkages between qualifications
        The bodies authorized with the development of qualifications should consider
development of cross-sector qualification linkages as part of their responsibilities.
Linkages should define transparent and coherent relationships between different
levels of qualification and will be generally developed between qualifications involving
the same, similar, or complementary specializations/fields of study. Arrangements
reflecting linkages between general and specialized qualifications may also be
developed where appropriate. Linkages should reflect and recognize different
education and training pathways for achievement.

Processes for development of linkages
      Structured qualification linkages can be established through a number of
processes:
          Articulation of existing awards through level and subject descriptors and
             learning outcomes;
          Credit transfer between components (units of learning outcomes) of
             existing awards;
          Integrated dual sector sequential awards;

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                  Integrated dual sector concurrent programmes.

Each of these processes serves different purposes. Integrated dual sector awards
provide for linkages to be considered as part of the qualification development
process. Articulation through descriptors and learning outcomes provides a
sequential pathway between qualifications, while credit transfer provides a means of
linking individual components of existing awards. Where credit transfer is applied,
consideration needs to be given as to whether full or partial credit transfer is granted.
This will depend on the currency of the learning and contribution of the learning
outcomes achieved in one qualification to another qualification.

Basis for determining qualification linkage
Linkages are usually based on a content or outcome relationship in which parts of
one qualification are recognized as having equivalence with another, or are
integrated into another qualification. Linkages that are determined through a content
or outcome relationship are established primarily through identification (and
assessment) of same or similar knowledge and skill requirements across the linked
qualifications. The basis to establish the content and outcome linkage between VET
and higher education will be the relevant components of the training standard and
ACPART Grids, which are related to and assessed against the learning outcomes
and subject and level desriptors of the relevant higher education qualifications.
In the VET training standard derived units of competences and learning outcomes
should be used as instruments to identify content and outcome equivalences with
secondary education and/or higher education qualifications. Where competences are
to be used directly as linkage instrument, the whole content of the competency needs
to be considered to ensure all knowledge and skills relevant to the linkage have been
identified. Where VET qualifications are based on accredited courses, a content
linkage should be determined by comparing modules or units of the VET course
against the subject content or outcomes of the secondary education/ higher
education courses.
Linkages that incorporate an agreed connection and credit value between awards are
suitable for for dual qualification arrangements that establish sequential or a
concurrent pathway between, e.g., Diploma TVET 3+ level qualifications and
Bachelor degrees, and between Secondary education with initial VET certificate and
Level II VET Certificate. These linkages areusually based on an agreed or accepted
equivalence in content or in learning outcomes across a similar field or discipline
between the linked awards.
        Thus, we may conclude that the establishment of qualification linkage includes
a number of steps, each associated with decisions about:
             Relationships between contents and outcomes of qualifications and
                relevance between their components;
             Relationships between accredited units, modules or entire
                programmes;
             Articulation of linkages that incorporate agreed credit value between
                awards to establish sequential or concurrent pathways for dual
                qualification arrangements in the same fields;
             Development of specific arrangements for definition of credit levels of
                the linked awards (for example, 20% credit for a Diploma when linked
                to a 4-year Bachelor degree, or 50% credit for a TVET advanced


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                    professional Certificate at Level III, when linked to a 4-year Bachelor
                    degree).

      It should be worth mentioning, that linkages can apply only between the
agreed parties.

Responsibilities
       Responsibility for developing qualification linkages between VET and higher
education and vice versa should be a responsibility of autonomous universities and
other accredited higher education providers in partnership with accredited VET
organizations/schools, training standards developers and state qualifications and
accreditation authorities.
       Responsibility for developing qualification linkages between secondary
education and VET involves a partnership between senior secondary statutory
authorities at MERY and one or more of the following:
            Individual Licensed/registered Training providers;
            Training Standard developers
            National VET accreditation authorities.

Responsibility for developing linkages between secondary education and higher
education is the responsibility of MERY in partnership with universities.
      Responsibility for approval/endorsement of a linkage should rest with the
      institution or authority responsible for issuing the final qualification, while
      protection and continuation of the linkage must be the responsibility of
      partnership organizations. An assessment or accreditation in VET or a
      restructuring of higher education qualification would be a catalyst for review of
      linkage arrangements.


Credit outcomes of qualification linkages
         It was mentioned above that qualification linkage may not necessarily lead to
the stage at which credit transfer shall occur. Where credit is an outcome of the
formal linkage, it should become part of the linkage process and be standardized
(i.e., the quantum of credit is predetermined in the formal agreement for recognition).
The quantum of standardized credit in qualification linkages will vary in each case as
it will depend on the level of agreed overlap and equivalence and agreed
relationships between awards.
         Credit can be granted in different forms, depending on circumstances and
national context, the fields and areas to which qualifications apply, the competencies
and learning outcomes. Given the present differences and disparities in the way that
VET and higher education qualifications are structured, it would be relevant for credit
transfer to occur if the credit is specified on the basis of particular content linkages
(e.g., unit „X‟ in VET is equivalent to unit „Y‟ in higher education). Specified credits are
widely used in „ladder-ized‟ qualifications, as most appropriate form for articulating
arrangements for incomplete qualifications.
         Organisations involved in establishing structured qualification linkages with or
without credit, should provide and actively disseminate information on their
arrangements via Student Guides and, as soon as they become part of internal
quality assurance procedures, also in Quality Guidebooks.


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Policy implementation: next steps

Enhancing the Role of Regional Consortia

The role of Regional Consortia should be enhanced so that they become the main
players in identifying and responding to the skilling needs of their industries. To
achieve this, they must be well connected to their stakeholders, get involved in the
development of training standards that accurately reflect industry needs and provide
leadership in workforce development that is based on the latest industry intelligence.
The 8 regional consortia cover the skills needs of most Romanian industry and
economic fields. In general terms these formations should be formally
institutionalized by the Romanian government and should work to involve industry
with the development of nationally applicable vocational education and training.

There are a number of key roles for the Regional Consortia to be maintained in this
respect:
 assisting industries, enterprises and their workforce to integrate skill development
   with economic and business goals and supporting accurate industry intelligence
   on future directions – including provision of advice on industry skills and training
   needs to industry stakeholders, training providers and government.
 actively supporting the development, implementation and continuous
   improvement of high quality, nationally recognised training products and services
   – including enhancing innovation, rationalising materials where there are cross-
   industry synergies, and improving efficiency.
 Providing competent and well trained staff for inter-institutional groups for the
   development of Training Standards.

        The formal insitutionalisation of the Regional Consortia must be regarded as
part of a solid longer-term strategy to ensure future oriented, pro-active advisory
bodies to inform the vocational education and training system.




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                                                   Literature:
Helsinki Communiqué on Enhanced European Cooperation in VET :
http://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/2010/doc/helsinkicom_en.pdf

Reflector study on ECVET http://ec.europa.eu/education/doc/reports/doc/ecvetref_en.pdf

European Union (EU), 2004, ECTS Users’ Guide – European Credit Transfer and
    Accumulation System for Lifelong Learning, European Commission. Published summer
    2004.
Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE ), 2003, About us: Glossary
    http://www.hefce.ac.uk/glossary/glossary.htm Updated 3 January 2003.
Indiana College Network (ICN), 2003, ‘Glossary’ http://www.icn.org/about/glossary.html,
    last modified 14 October, 2003
Northeast Texas Network Consortium (NTNC), 2002, Distance Learning College Glossary.
    http://www.netnet.org/students/student%20glossary.htm
Qualifications and Curriculum Authority and Learning + Skills Council (QCA /LSC) 2004,
    Principles for a credit framework for England: Terms and definitions, pp. 11–13. March
    (London: QCA /LSC). Uses definitions from the Credit Common Accord for Wales
    published in July 2003.

Adam, S., 2004, Using Learning Outcomes: A consideration of the nature, role, application
    and implications for European education of employing ‘learning outcomes’ at the local,
    national and international levels. United Kingdom Bologna Seminar 1–2 July 2004,
    Heriot-Watt University (Edinburgh Conference Centre) Edinburgh. Scotland.
Association europeenne des conservatoires [Academies de musique et musikhochschulen]
    (AEC), 2004, Glossary of terms used in relation to the Bologna Declaration
    http://www.aecinfo.org/glossary%20and%20faq%20english.pdf, undated, accessed
    September 2004.
European Union (EU), 2004, ECTS Users’ Guide – European Credit Transfer and
    Accumulation System for Lifelong Learning, European Commission. Published summer
    2004.
Europa, 2004, Education and Training: ECTS — European Credit Transfer System
    http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/socrates/ects_en.html, Last update: 23
    August, 2004.
(source: http://www.wes.org/ewenr/03Sept/BolognaGlossary.htm)
Vlãsceanu, L., Grünberg, L., and Pârlea, D., 2004, Quality Assurance and Accreditation: A
    Glossary of Basic Terms and Definitions (Bucharest, UNESCO-CEPES) Papers on Higher
    Education, ISBN 92-9069-178-6. http://www.cepes.ro/publications/Default.htm
Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA), 2001, An Introduction to the Scottish Credit and
    Qualifications Framework, http://www.sqa.org.uk




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ANNEX A: Learning Pathways in Romanian Education System

Diagram: Learning Pathways in Romanian Education System

□ = existing learning pathways
□ = expected learning pathways after the adoption of the policy on credit transfer
  Doctorate Diploma


  Master Degree Diploma



  Post-graduate Professional
                                                       VET Continuous Qualification Certificate
  Certificate




  Licencia (Bachelor) Degree
                                                       Post-High School Certificate TVET 3+
  Diploma


                                                         TVET Certificate 3


      Secondary Education                                TVET Certificate 2
     Bacalaureat Diploma +
     Qualification Certificate
            (optional)                                   TVET Certificate 1




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ANNEX B: An example of ladderized interface between TVET and
HE in Malaysia

The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) and the Commission on
Higher Education (CHED) jointly rolled out the “ladderized” interface between technical-
vocational education and training and higher education as provided in Executive Order No.
358 effective school year 2006-2007 for pilot programs.

Starting school year 2007 – 2008, the Ladderized Education Program (LEP) shall be offered
in all State Colleges and Universities (SUCs) and in selected Private Higher Education
Institutions (PHEIs) and Local Colleges and Universities (LUCs).

Executive Order No. 358 issued by the President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo on September 15,
2004 mandated TESDA and CHED to develop and implement a unified national
qualifications framework that establishes equivalency pathways and access ramps for a
ladderized system allowing for easier transition and progression between technical-
vocational training and higher education.

TESDA and CHED have initially agreed on two implementation modes of ladderized
education through (1) Credit transfer and (2) Embedded TVET qualification in ladderized
degree programs. Credit transfer is recognition and carrying forward of overlapping learning
from TVET to higher education. Embedded TVET qualification is the process by which a
student in a ladderized degree program can earn full TVET qualifications should he chose to
exit from a college program and proceed to a technical-vocational career.

In an initial set of eight disciplines :agriculture, education, engineering, information
technology, health, maritime, tourism, and criminology, TESDA and CHED worked together
to map out competencies in these programs and developed the credit matrix as well as the
authorized curricula in the identified TVET and degree programs.

An illustrative example of an embedded ladderized curriculum in the 4–Year Bachelor of
Science in Information Technology (BSIT) program would be:

A Certificate of Completion in PC Operator Course awarded by the College after completing
         the First Year, allowing the student to take the TESDA Assessment – PC Operator
         NC II (an entry level qualification for data encoder/computer operator)




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A Certificate of Completion in Computer Hardware Servicing awarded by the College after
         completing the Second Year Level, allowing the student to take the another TESDA
         Assessment – Computer Hardware Service Technician NC II

A Certificate of Completion in Computer Programming awarded by the College after
         completing the Third Year Level, allowing the student to take the another TESDA
         Assessment – Computer Programming NC IV

A Diploma in BS Information Technology awarded by the College after completing the whole
         four-year BSIT program.

The purpose of ladderaliization is to open pathways and platforms of opportunities for career
progression to students and workers. Specifically, it intends to create a seamless and
borderless education and training system that allows free mobility in terms of flexible entries
and exits in the system.

A student may choose to work after earning a TVET qualification without necessarily finishing
the required four-year degree. After sometime, the student or a worker may choose to
proceed with the ladderized degree that the learner had started on full–time or part-time
basis. This scheme empowers the learner, especially those who are not capable of pursuing
a straight traditional degree program. Another advantage with this program is that the
graduates are highly employable considering that they have been trained in specific
workplace qualifications.

For questions regarding the Ladderized Educaton Program in Caraga Region, you may call :
CHED Caraga - Engr. Ramil A. Sanchez @ 09154491553 or TESDA Caraga – Ms. Novielita
A. Dispo @ 09217278920 or visit the nearest CHED or TESDA Office.

Source: CHED and TESDA Publications




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Figure 1: Proposed Educational Pathways in Malaysia




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ANNEX C: A Model for Credits’ Definition and Distribution in Correlation with Defined Competences and
Curricula, Leading to the Award of Qualifications10

                                                 Correlation between Competencies and curriculum modules
Competences                   Basic                     General                         Specific
Observes health and safety at work. Protects environment.
1. Observes the rules for     1. Health and safety at   1. Building construction        1. Safety conditions in exercising the profession
health and safety at work in  work                                                      2. Technology of construction
carrying out construction                                                               3. Technology of speciality
works                                                                                   4. Technology of finishing works
                                                                                        5. Rehabilitation and repair of buildings and facilities
                                                                                        6. Training practice in building construction
                                                                                        7. Training practice in technology of construction
                                                                                        8. Training practice in technology of speciality
                                                                                        9. Production practice
2. Protects environment and    1. Health and safety at    1. Building construction 2.   1. Construction materials
observes environmental         work                       Foreign language of the       2. Technology of construction
requirements                   2. Economy                 profession                    3. Technology of speciality
                                                                                        4. Technology of finishing works
                                                                                        5. Rehabilitation and repair of buildings and facilities
Conducts preparatory works at a construction site
3. Prepares its work place  1. Health and safety at       1. Building construction      1. Technical drawing in construction
                            work                                                        2. Construction materials
                                                                                        3. Technology of construction
                                                                                        4. Technology of speciality
                                                                                        5. Technology of finishing works
                                                                                        6. Rehabilitation and repair of buildings and facilities
                                                                                        7. Safety conditions in exercising the profession
                                                                                        8. Introduction in organization of construction
                                                                                        9. Training practice in building construction
                                                                                        10. Training practice in technology of construction
                                                                                        11. Training practice in technology of speciality
                                                                                        12. Production practice
4. Prepares construction       1. Health and safety at    1. Building construction      1. Technical drawing in construction
materials for work             work                       2. Foreign language of the    2. Construction materials
                               2. Economy                 profession                    3. Technology of construction
                                                                                        4. Technology of speciality
                                                                                        5. Technology of finishing works
                                                                                        6. Rehabilitation and repair of buildings and facilities
                                                                                        7. Safety conditions in exercising the profession
                                                                                        8. Introduction in organization of construction


10
     The model is developed by KE2, Dr. Yochka Tcakova.

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                                                                                        9. Training practice in building construction
                                                                                        10. Training practice in technology of construction
                                                                                        11. Training practice in technology of speciality
                                                                                        12. Production practice
5. Prepares manually and         1. Health and safety at   1. Building construction     1. Construction materials
mechanized construction          work                      2. Foreign language of the   2. Technology of construction
mixes and solutions                                        profession                   3. Technology of speciality
                                                                                        4. Rehabilitation and repair of buildings and facilities
                                                                                        5. Safety conditions in exercising the profession
                                                                                        6. Introduction in organization of construction
                                                                                        7. Training practice in building construction
                                                                                        8. Training practice in technology of construction
                                                                                        9. Training practice in technology of speciality
                                                                                        10. Production practice
6. Prepares the required         1. Health and safety at   1. Building construction     1. Construction materials
tools, machines and facilities   work.                     2. Foreign language of the   2. Technology of construction
for the concrete construction                              profession                   3. Technology of speciality
works                                                                                   4. Technology of finishing works
                                                                                        5. Rehabilitation and repair of buildings and facilities
                                                                                        6. Safety conditions in exercising the profession
                                                                                        7. Introduction in organization of construction
                                                                                        8. Training practice in building construction
                                                                                        9. Training practice in technology of construction
                                                                                        10. Training practice in technology of speciality
                                                                                        11. Production practice
Performs construction activities
7. Erects the structural      1. Health and safety at      1. Building construction     1. Technical drawing in construction
elements of the buildings     work                                                      2. Construction materials
and                                                                                     3. Fundamentals of construction mechanics
the engineering facilities                                                              4. Installations in buildings
(bridges, towers, tunnels,                                                              5. Technology of construction
etc.)                                                                                   6. Technology of speciality
                                                                                        7. Safety conditions in exercising the profession
                                                                                        6. Foundations of reinforced concrete
                                                                                        9. Introduction in organization of construction
                                                                                        10. Training practice in building construction
                                                                                        11. Training practice in technology of construction
                                                                                        12. Training practice in technology of speciality
                                                                                        13. Production practice
8. Performs finishing            1. Health and safety at   1. Building construction     1. Technical drawing in construction
construction works               work                                                   2. Construction materials
                                                                                        3. Installations in buildings
                                                                                        4. Technology of construction
                                                                                        5. Technology of finishing works
                                                                                        6. Technology of speciality
                                                                                        7. Rehabilitation and repair of buildings and facilities
                                                                                        8. Safety conditions in exercising the profession
                                                                                        9. Introduction in organization of construction



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                                                                                    10. Training practice in building construction
                                                                                    11. Training practice in technology of construction
                                                                                    12. Training practice in technology of speciality
                                                                                    13. Production practice
9. Renovates, repairs and      1. Health and safety at   1. Building construction   1. Technical drawing in construction
maintains buildings            work                                                 2. Construction materials
                                                                                    3. Installations in buildings
                                                                                    4. Technology of construction
                                                                                    5. Technology of finishing works
                                                                                    6. Technology of speciality
                                                                                    7. Rehabilitation and repair of buildings and facilities
                                                                                    8. Safety conditions in exercising the profession
                                                                                    9. Introduction in organization of construction
                                                                                    10. Training practice in building construction
                                                                                    11. Training practice in technology of construction
                                                                                    12. Training practice in technology of speciality
                                                                                    13. Production practice




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                                   List of Training Modules
(relative share of the vocational training module to the overall curriculum credit destribution)
          №          Subjects (modules)                                      % weight
                      Obligatory Vocational Training (OVT)
          General professional training
          1.         Health and safety at work                                  2
          2.         Economy                                                    1
          Sectoral professional training
          1.         Construction of buildings                                  8
          2.         Foreign language of the profession                         2
          Specific professional training
          1.         Technical drawing in construction                          4
          2.         Construction materials                                     4
          3.         Fundamentals of construction mechanics                     3
          4.         Installations in buildings                                 2
          5.         Technology of construction                                 6
          6.         Technology of speciality                                   8
          7.         Technology of finishing works                              5
          8.         Rehabilitation and repair of buildings and facilities      3
          9.         Safety conditions in exercising the profession             2
          10.        Foundations of reinforced concrete                         3
          11.        Introduction in organization of construction               3
          12.        Training practice in building construction                10
          13.        Training practice in technology of construction           12
          14.        Training practice in technology of speciality             14
          15.        Production practice                                        8
                     Total:                                                   100%



Recomendation: 100% is equal to the number of credits allocated for the duration of
training period – total years, based on the system/country legislation.




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Summary of Training Modules
1. Health and Safety at Work
Refers to the general vocational training. The training content provides the opportunity
to master knowledge and skills for evaluation of the risks of the work environment, for
undertaking preventive measures for their avoidance and removal, for guaranteeing
the protection of life, health and work capability of the workers.
2. Economy
Refers to the general vocational training.. Main place in the programme of the subject
is allocated to issues related with the market economy and entrepreneurship in
construction.
3. Building Construction
Refers to the general vocational training. Subject of the construction of buildings is the
architectural and structural systems and diagrams of contemporary buildings, their
elements, the details and ways of construction in connection with the construction and
technical, the functional and the artistic requirements to the contemporary
construction.
4. Foreign Language of Profession
Refers to the general vocational training. The training contents include mastering of a
foreign language of the profession, which aims at mastering of a system of knowledge
for reading, receiving and transferring of information in a foreign language related to
the main activities of the studied profession.
5. Technical Drawing in Construction
Refers to the specific vocational training. The training contents gives the possibility to
acquire knowledge and skills for reading technical documentation, architectural and
design drawings of the technical and detailed designs of buildings and facilities, for
forming skills for working out sketches and drawings, related to the speciality of the
trainee.
6. Construction Materials
Refers to the specific vocational training. The training subject (module) discusses the
main kinds of materials, used in contemporary construction, the technologies of their
production, the physical and mechanical properties and technical requirements,
variants, areas of applications, and will also review the issues for economic use of
materials and use of waste.
7. Fundamentals of Construction Mechanics
Refers to the specific vocational training. Through the training content knowledge
about studying the ability of construction structures to bear loads, specifying the
external and internal forces in the facilities and structures is acquired. The
fundamentals of the static of a perfect solid, strength of materials, etc. are learnt.
8. Installations in Buildings
Refers to the specific vocational training. The formed professional competences in the
education on the subject represent a basis of acquaintance with the kinds of
installations in buildings, their technical features and their function. The training
content of the subject provides the possibility to acquire knowledge about the kinds of
building installations: water supply and sewerage, electrical, heating, ventilation and
air-conditioning installations, which create favourable conditions for the use of the
building. The Installation works are carried out simultaneously with the construction
and installation works and are part of the construction process, because of that, the
training content includes the device, the structural specifics, the maintenance and use
of the building installations.


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9. Technology of Construction
Refers to the specific vocational training. The technology of construction studies the
ways and tools (manual and mechanized) for carrying out the construction processes,
which result in the construction of new or in the reconstruction of existing buildings
and facilities. Through the training content knowledge about the area of application
and effectiveness of the construction machines, the technological rules and the
organization of the work place, the requirements about the quality of construction
works is acquired.

10. Technology of Speciality
It refers to the specific professional preparation and is different for the concrete
specialities. The goal of this training subject (module) is the study of the sequence of
the technological operations related to exercising of the concrete speciality, formation
of the required knowledge and skills, as follows:
11. Technology of Finishing Works
Refers to the specific vocational training. The training subject (module) studies the
work processes, through which protective, insulation and decorative covers on
structures are created in order to protect buildings from atmospheric or other noxious
effects and specified aesthetic and artistic tasks regarding the internal and external
appearance of buildings are solved. Through the training contents knowledge is
acquired for all finishing works in construction: plasters, underpaints, linings, floorings,
painting and decorative works, which complete the appearance of the buildings.
12. Rehabilitation and Repair of Buildings and Facilities
Refers to the specific vocational training. Through the training content knowledge
about the technological requirements and sequence of activities in maintenance and
repair of the building fund; the ways of specifying the status of the buildings and
engineering facilities; carrying out repair of damaged lots and construction elements;
technologies for rehabilitation (hydro insulation, heat insulation, sound insulation,
etc.), the technical requirements for the quality of the repair works. The goal of the
training subject (module) was acquainting students with the newest energy-saving
technologies.
13. Safety Conditions in Exercising Profession
Refers to the specific vocational training. The training content provides the opportunity
to master knowledge and skills for safe exercising of profession, for hygiene of labour,
for evaluation of the risks of the work environment, for undertaking prventive
measures for their avoidance and removal, for protection of life, health and work
capability of the workers during the performance of the specific for the speciality
activities.
14.. Foundations of Reinforced Concrete
Refers to the specific vocational training. The training subject (module) studies the
main issues related to the calculation and construction of reinforced concrete
elements and the construction of buildings. The attention is focused mainly on
designing of slabs, beams, columns and foundations and the ways of their statistic
calculation and sizing of the construction elements.
15. Introduction in Organization of Costruction
Refers to the specific vocational training. The goal of this of this training subject
(module) is learning about the events, related to determining and planning of use of
the required labour and material and technical resources for carrying out construction
by observing the design value, the high quality and the required duration, as well as
the organization of the work place and of the individual work processes.
16. Training Practice in Building Construction

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Refers to the specific vocational training. Through the training practice work habits are
acquired and formed for the practical make of the main structural elements of the building
(foundations, walls, columns, inter-storey floor structures, staircases, roofs), execution of the
main construction activities: outlining a building on the plot and making flying scaffold, earth
work, masonry, shuttering, reinforcing and finishing works, as well as skills for effective and
feasible use of technical documentation, selection of construction materials.
17. Training Practice in Technology of Construction
Refers to the specific vocational training. Through the training contents knowledge and
skills are acquired as well as professional competence regarding the technology of
construction, for the rules and ways of carrying out the main construction and
installation works, for regular selection and work with different kinds of instruments,
machines and mechanisms, rules for execution of the main technological operations in
the erection of buildings and facilities.
18. Training Practice in Technology of Speciality
Refers to the specific vocational training. Through the training contents work habits
are acquired and formed for the practical make of construction works of the respective
speciality, as well as skills for efficient and feasible use of technical documentation in
the direct labour activity , quality selection of construction materials and products on
the basis of comparative analysis.
19. Production Practice
Refers to the specific vocational training. The training aims at the development,
systematization and improving the theoretical knowledge and labour skills and habits,
acquired during the training practice in the speciality in carrying out various
technological activities and operations at the construction sites. It should aim at
building of an attitude for mastering of good practical experience, skills and knowledge
and their applying in the practical activity.




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