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					                                                  Science K-12
                                      Smart – Notebook Lesson Correlations

Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks - Science Grade K
AR.1. Nature of Science: Characteristics and Processes of Science: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of the
       characteristics and processes of science using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       NS.1.K.1.      Inquiry and Process Skills: Record observations pictorially, orally, and in writing
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.K.2.      Inquiry and Process Skills: Ask questions based on observations
       NS.1.K.3.      Inquiry and Process Skills: Conduct scientific investigations as a class and in teams: lab
                      activities; field studies.
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.K.4.      Inquiry and Process Skills: Estimate and measure length, mass, and capacity/volume of familiar
                      objects using non-standard units
       NS.1.K.5.      Inquiry and Process Skills: Estimate relative temperature of matter (e.g., objects, living things,
                      and earth materials)
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.K.6.      Inquiry and Process Skills: Collect empirical evidence as a class
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.K.7.      Scientific Equipment and Technology: Use age-appropriate equipment and tools in scientific
                      investigations (e.g., balances and hand lenses)
       NS.1.K.8.      Scientific Equipment and Technology: Apply appropriate rules of safety related to daily
                      activities
       NS.1.K.9.      Scientific Equipment and Technology: Apply lab safety rules as they relate to specific science
                      lab activities (see Arkansas Lab Safety Guide)
AR.2. Life Science: Living Systems: Characteristics, Structure, and Function: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of living
       systems using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       LS.2.K.1.      Characteristics: Classify living and non-living things
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.K.2.      Characteristics: Differentiate between plants and animals
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.K.3.      Characteristics: Match parents and offspring
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.K.4.      Characteristics: Identify basic needs of plants and animals: food; water; light; air; space.
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.K.5.      Structure and Function: Name and describe the five senses
       LS.2.K.6.      Structure and Function: Discuss the functions of the five senses
       LS.2.K.7.      Structure and Function: Identify the basic materials for oral hygiene
       LS.2.K.8.      Structure and Function: Demonstrate the proper technique for cleaning teeth
AR.3. Life Science: Life Cycles, Reproduction, and Heredity: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of life cycles, reproduction,
       and heredity using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       LS.3.K.1.      Life Cycles: Describe plant development and growth
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.3.K.2.      Life Cycles: Illustrate complete metamorphosis (e.g., butterfly, frog)
AR.4. Life Science: Populations and Ecosystems: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of populations and ecosystems using
       appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       LS.4.K.1.      Recognize what it means for a species to be extinct
AR.5. Physical Science: Matter: Properties and Changes: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of matter, including properties
       and changes, using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       PS.5.K.1.      Physical Properties: List and classify objects according to the single properties of size, color,
                      shape
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.6. Physical Science: Motion and Forces: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of motion and forces using appropriate
       safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.6.K.1.      Motion and Forces: Demonstrate spatial relationships, including but not limited to over, under,
                      left, right
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.6.K.2.      Motion and Forces: Demonstrate various ways that objects can move, including but not limited
                      to straight, zig-zag, back and forth, round and round, fast and slow
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.6.K.3.      Motion and Forces: Demonstrate the effects of the force of gravity on objects
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.7. Physical Science: Energy and Transfer of Energy: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of energy and transfer of energy
       using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.7.K.1.      Heat: Classify objects in terms of their relative temperature (e.g., hotter and colder)
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.K.2.      Electricity: Identify uses of electricity
       PS.7.K.3.      Electricity: Identify ways to conserve electricity in the classroom and at home
       PS.7.K.4.      Magnetism: Demonstrate effects of magnets on each other and other objects
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.K.5.      Magnetism: List some uses of magnets in everyday objects
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.K.6.      Magnetism: Investigate magnets of various shapes
AR.8. Earth and Space Science: Earth Systems: Structure and Properties: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of Earth's
       structure and properties using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       ESS.8.K.1.     Properties of the Earth: Identify various characteristics of Earth's surface
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.K.2.     Natural Resources: Identify the uses of land and water
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.K.3.     Natural Resources: Classify resources as natural or man-made
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.K.4.     Natural Resources: Identify ways natural and man-made materials can be reused or recycled
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.K.5.     Weather: Chart weather conditions every day
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.K.6.     Weather: Describe the four seasons
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.K.7.     Weather: Demonstrate safety procedures related to severe weather
AR.9. Earth and Space Science: Earth's History: Changes in Earth and Sky: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of Earth's
       history using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
                      No student expectation for Kindergarten - See Grade 3
AR.10. Earth and Space Science: Objects in the Universe: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of objects in the universe using
       appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       ESS.10.K.1. Solar System: Distinguish between celestial bodies and other objects in the sky: sun, moon,
                   other stars, clouds, birds, planes
                   (Find correlated lesson activity)


Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks - Science Grade 1
AR.1. Nature of Science: Characteristics and Processes of Science: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of the
       characteristics and processes of science using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       NS.1.1.1.      Inquiry and Process Skills: Communicate observations orally, in writing, and in graphic
                      organizers: T-charts; pictographs.
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.1.2.      Inquiry and Process Skills: Ask questions based on observations
       NS.1.1.3.      Inquiry and Process Skills: Conduct scientific investigations as a class and in teams: lab
                      activities; field studies.
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.1.4.      Inquiry and Process Skills: Estimate and measure length and temperature using International
                      System of Units (SI) as a class
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.1.5.      Inquiry and Process Skills: Collect measurable empirical evidence as a class and in teams
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.1.6.      Inquiry and Process Skills: Make predictions as a class and in teams based upon empirical
                      evidence (e.g., predict which object is heavier)
       NS.1.1.7.      Scientific Equipment and Technology: Use age appropriate equipment and tools in scientific
                      investigations (e.g., balances, hand lenses, rulers, and thermometers)
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.1.8.      Scientific Equipment and Technology: Apply appropriate rules of safety related to daily activities
       NS.1.1.9.      Scientific Equipment and Technology: Apply lab safety rules as they relate to specific science
                      lab activities (see Arkansas Lab Safety Guide)
AR.2. Life Science: Living Systems: Characteristics, Structure, and Function: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of living
       systems using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       LS.2.1.1.      Characteristics: Classify animals according to common characteristics (e.g., movement, body
                      coverings, diet)
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.1.2.      Characteristics: Differentiate between herbivores and carnivores
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.1.3.      Structure and Function: Locate the following human body parts: heart; lungs; brain; stomach;
                      muscles; bones
       LS.2.1.4.      Structure and Function: Locate plant parts: leaves; stems; flowers; roots
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.3. Life Science: Life Cycles, Reproduction, and Heredity: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of life cycles, reproduction,
       and heredity using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       LS.3.1.1.      Life Cycles: Illustrate incomplete metamorphosis (e.g., grasshopper)
       LS.3.1.2.      Life Cycles: Compare and contrast complete metamorphosis and incomplete metamorphosis
AR.4. Life Science: Populations and Ecosystems: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of populations and ecosystems using
       appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       LS.4.1.1.      Identify some endangered species in Arkansas
AR.5. Physical Science: Matter: Properties and Changes: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of matter, including properties
       and changes, using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       PS.5.1.1.      Physical Properties: Compare and contrast objects according to the single properties of size,
                      color, shape, texture, magnetism
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.1.2.      States of Matter: Identify characteristics of solids and liquids
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.6. Physical Science: Motion and Forces: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of motion and forces using appropriate
       safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.6.1.1.      Motion and Forces: List orally the various ways that objects can move, including but not limited
                      to straight, zig-zag, back and forth, round and round, fast and slow
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.6.1.2.      Motion and Forces: Investigate the relationship between mass and weight (e.g., identical filled
                      and empty containers)
AR.7. Physical Science: Energy and Transfer of Energy: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of energy and transfer of energy
       using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.7.1.1.      Light: Compare natural sources of light (e.g., sun, fireflies, deep sea creatures, fire, lightning) to
                      artificial sources of light (e.g., light bulbs, matches, candles)
       PS.7.1.2.      Light: Investigate the properties of transparent and opaque objects (e.g., plastic wrap and
                      aluminum foil)
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.1.3.      Heat: Compare natural sources of heat (e.g., sun, fire, lightning) to artificial sources of heat (e.g.,
                      stove, toaster)
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.1.4.      Heat: Chart temperature over time using the Celsius scale
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.1.5.      Electricity: Demonstrate methods of producing static electricity (e.g., balloons, shuffling across
                      carpet)
       PS.7.1.6.      Magnetism: Classify materials as magnetic or nonmagnetic
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.1.7.      Magnetism: Investigate the properties of magnets: attraction, repulsion
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.8. Earth and Space Science: Earth Systems: Structure and Properties: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of Earth's
       structure and properties using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       ESS.8.1.1.     Properties of the Earth: Identify the features of major landforms
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.1.2.     Natural Resources: Identify common uses of Earth's resources
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.1.3.     Weather: Chart weather conditions every day
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.1.4.     Weather: Identify the sequence of seasons
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.1.5.     Weather: Demonstrate safety procedures related to severe weather
       ESS.8.1.6.     Weather: Read a Celsius thermometer as a class
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.9. Earth and Space Science: Earth's History: Changes in Earth and Sky: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of Earth's
       history using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
                      No student expectation for Grade 1 - See Grade 3
AR.10. Earth and Space Science: Objects in the Universe: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of objects in the universe using
       appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       ESS.10.1.1. Solar System: Illustrate the sequence of planets in the solar system
                   (Find correlated lesson activity)
Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks - Science Grade 2
AR.1. Nature of Science: Characteristics and Processes of Science: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of the
       characteristics and processes of science using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.

       NS.1.2.1.      Inquiry and Process Skills: Communicate observations orally, in writing, and in graphic
                      organizers: T-charts; pictographs; Venn diagrams; bar graphs.
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.2.2.      Inquiry and Process Skills: Develop questions that guide scientific inquiry
       NS.1.2.3.      Inquiry and Process Skills: Conduct scientific investigations individually and in teams: lab
                      activities; field studies.
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.2.4.      Inquiry and Process Skills: Estimate and measure length and temperature using International
                      System of Units (SI)
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.2.5.      Inquiry and Process Skills: Collect measurable empirical evidence in teams and as individuals
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.2.6.      Inquiry and Process Skills: Make predictions in teams and as individuals based upon empirical
                      evidence
       NS.1.2.7.      Scientific Equipment and Technology: Use age appropriate equipment and tools in scientific
                      investigations (e.g., balances, hand lenses, rulers, and thermometers)
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.2.8.      Scientific Equipment and Technology: Apply lab safety rules as they relate to specific science
                      lab activities (see Arkansas Lab Safety Guide)
AR.2. Life Science: Living Systems: Characteristics, Structure, and Function: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of living
       systems using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       LS.2.2.1.      Characteristics: Classify animals into major groups according to their structure: mammals;
                      birds; fish
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.2.2.      Characteristics: Differentiate among herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.2.3.      Characteristics: Identify basic needs of most plants: nutrients; water; light; air; temperature;
                      space
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.2.4.      Characteristics: Compare different types of flowering plants and conifers
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.2.5.      Structure and Function: Identify the major parts and functions of the skeletal system
       LS.2.2.6.      Structure and Function: Describe the function of the following plant parts: leaves; stems;
                      flowers; roots
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.3. Life Science: Life Cycles, Reproduction, and Heredity: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of life cycles, reproduction,
       and heredity using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       LS.3.2.1.      Life Cycles: Illustrate embryonic development (e.g., chicken)
       LS.3.2.2.      Life Cycles: Compare and contrast embryonic development and incomplete metamorphosis
AR.4. Life Science: Populations and Ecosystems: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of populations and ecosystems using
       appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       LS.4.2.1.      Compare and contrast living and extinct species
       LS.4.2.2.      Describe characteristics of various habitats
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.5. Physical Science: Matter: Properties and Changes: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of matter, including properties
       and changes, using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       PS.5.2.1.      Physical Properties: Classify objects based on two or more properties
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.2.2.      Physical Properties: Investigate the effect of physical phenomena on various materials (e.g.,
                      heat absorption by different colored materials)
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.6. Physical Science: Motion and Forces: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of motion and forces using appropriate
       safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.6.2.1.      Motion and Forces: Investigate the relationship between force and motion
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.7. Physical Science: Energy and Transfer of Energy: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of energy and transfer of energy
       using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.7.2.1.      Light: Classify materials as transparent, translucent, or opaque (e.g., plastic wrap, wax paper,
                      and aluminum foil)
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.2.2.      Heat: Compare temperatures using the Celsius scale
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.2.3.      Electricity: Demonstrate methods of using electricity to produce light, heat, and sound
AR.8. Earth and Space Science: Earth Systems: Structure and Properties: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of Earth's
       structure and properties using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       ESS.8.2.1.     Properties of the Earth: Conduct investigations to distinguish among the following components
                      of soil: clay, sand, silt, humus
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.2.2.     Properties of the Earth: Recognize and discuss the different properties of soil: color, texture,
                      ability to retain water, ability to support plant growth
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.2.3.     Properties of the Earth: Conduct investigations to determine which soil best supports bean plant
                      growth
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.2.4.     Natural Resources: Identify products derived from natural resources
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.2.5.     Weather: Chart weather conditions every day
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.2.6.     Weather: Demonstrate safety procedures related to severe weather
       ESS.8.2.7.     Weather: Describe characteristics of cumulus, stratus, and cirrus clouds
       ESS.8.2.8.     Weather: Predict weather based on cloud type
       ESS.8.2.9.     Weather: Read a Celsius thermometer
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.9. Earth and Space Science: Earth's History: Changes in Earth and Sky: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of Earth's
       history using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
                      No student expectation for Grade 2 - See Grade 3
AR.10. Earth and Space Science: Objects in the Universe: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of objects in the universe using
       appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       ESS.10.2.1. Solar System: Illustrate four moon phases: full, half, crescent, new
       ESS.10.2.2. Solar System: Model the movement of Earth and its moon
       ESS.10.2.3. Solar System: Contrast the visibility of the sun and moon
                   (Find correlated lesson activity)


Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks - Science Grade 3
AR.1. Nature of Science: Characteristics and Processes of Science: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of the
       characteristics and processes of science using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       NS.1.3.1.     Inquiry and Process Skills: Communicate observations orally, in writing, and in graphic
                     organizers: T-charts; pictographs; Venn diagrams; bar graphs; frequency tables.
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.3.2.     Inquiry and Process Skills: Develop questions that guide scientific inquiry
       NS.1.3.3.     Inquiry and Process Skills: Conduct scientific investigations individually and in teams: lab
                     activities; field studies.
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.3.4.     Inquiry and Process Skills: Communicate the results of scientific investigations (e.g., age-
                     appropriate graphs, charts, and writings)
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.3.5.     Inquiry and Process Skills: Estimate and measure length, mass, temperature, and elapsed time
                     using International System of Units (SI)
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.3.6.     Inquiry and Process Skills: Collect and analyze measurable empirical evidence as a team and/or
                     as individuals
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.3.7.     Inquiry and Process Skills: Make and explain predictions based on prior knowledge
       NS.1.3.8.     Scientific Equipment and Technology: Use simple equipment, age appropriate tools, technology,
                     and mathematics in scientific investigations (e.g., balances, hand lenses, microscopes, rulers,
                     thermometers, calculators, computers)
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.3.9.     Scientific Equipment and Technology: Apply lab safety rules as they relate to specific science
                     lab activities (see Arkansas Lab Safety Guide)
AR.2. Life Science: Living Systems: Characteristics, Structure, and Function: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of living
       systems using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       LS.2.3.1.     Characteristics: Classify animals as vertebrates and invertebrates according to their structure
       LS.2.3.2.     Structure and Function: Identify major parts and functions of the following systems: respiratory;
                     muscular
AR.3. Life Science: Life Cycles, Reproduction, and Heredity: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of life cycles, reproduction,
       and heredity using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       LS.3.3.3.     Life Cycles: Differentiate among complete metamorphosis, incomplete metamorphosis, and
                     embryonic development
AR.4. Life Science: Populations and Ecosystems: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of populations and ecosystems using
       appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
                     No student expectation for Grade 3 - See Grade 4
AR.5. Physical Science: Matter: Properties and Changes: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of matter, including properties
       and changes, using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       PS.5.3.1.     Physical Properties: Compare and contrast objects based on two or more properties
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.3.2.     Physical Properties: Demonstrate physical changes in matter
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.3.3.     Physical Properties: Determine the mass of solids
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.3.4.     States of Matter: Compare and contrast solids and liquids
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.6. Physical Science: Motion and Forces: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of motion and forces using appropriate
       safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.6.3.1.     Motion and Forces: Identify characteristics of wave motion: amplitude, frequency
       PS.6.3.2.     Motion and Forces: Investigate the relationship between sound and wave motion
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.6.3.3.     Motion and Forces: Determine the impact of the following variables on pitch: length, mass,
                     tension, state of matter
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.7. Physical Science: Energy and Transfer of Energy: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of energy and transfer of energy
       using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.7.3.1.     Light: Classify materials as those which can reflect, refract, or absorb light
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.3.2.     Heat: Calculate a change in temperature using the Celsius scale
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.3.3.     Electricity: Identify methods of producing electricity relative to Arkansas: hydroelectric, coal, oil,
                     natural gas, nuclear, solar, wind
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.3.4.     Magnetism: Differentiate between magnets and non-magnets
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.3.5.     Magnetism: Describe the effect of distance on attraction and repulsion
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.3.6.     Magnetism: Construct a magnet by the 'Touch/Stroke' method
AR.8. Earth and Space Science: Earth Systems: Structure and Properties: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of Earth's
       structure and properties using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       ESS.8.3.1. Properties of the Earth: Distinguish among Earth's materials: rocks, minerals, fossils, soils
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.3.2. Properties of the Earth: Classify rocks by their properties, including but not limited to size,
                  shape, color, texture, patterns
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.3.3. Properties of the Earth: Identify the three categories of rocks: metamorphic, igneous,
                  sedimentary
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.3.4. Properties of the Earth: Identify the physical properties of minerals: hardness, color, luster,
                  streak
       ESS.8.3.5. Properties of the Earth: Identify areas in Arkansas that are the main sources of the following
                  minerals: bauxite, novaculite, quartz crystal, diamond, bromine
       ESS.8.3.6. Properties of the Earth: Describe the layers of Earth: crust, mantle, inner core, outer core
       ESS.8.3.7. Natural Resources: Identify common uses of rocks and minerals
       ESS.8.3.8. Weather: Chart precipitation levels over time
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.3.9. Weather: Demonstrate safety procedures related to severe weather
       ESS.8.3.10. Weather: Construct and read a rain gauge
AR.9. Earth and Space Science: Earth's History: Changes in Earth and Sky: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of Earth's
       history using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       ESS.9.3.1. Weather: Analyze the effect of wind and water on Earth's surface
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.10. Earth and Space Science: Objects in the Universe: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of objects in the universe using
       appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       ESS.10.3.1. Solar System: Demonstrate how the planets orbit the sun
                   (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.10.3.2. Solar System: Demonstrate the orbit of Earth and its moon around the sun
       ESS.10.3.3. Solar System: Relate Earth's rotation to the day/night cycle


Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks - Science Grade 4
AR.1. Nature of Science: Characteristics and Processes of Science: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of the
       characteristics and processes of science using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       NS.1.4.1.     Inquiry and Process Skills: Communicate observations orally, in writing, and in graphic
                     organizers: T-charts; pictographs; Venn diagrams; bar graphs; frequency tables; line graphs.
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.4.2.     Inquiry and Process Skills: Refine questions that guide scientific inquiry
       NS.1.4.3.     Inquiry and Process Skills: Conduct scientific investigations individually and in teams: lab
                     activities; field studies.
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.4.5.     Inquiry and Process Skills: Communicate the designs, procedures, and results of scientific
                     investigations (e.g., age-appropriate graphs, charts, and writings)
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.4.6.     Inquiry and Process Skills: Estimate and measure length, mass, temperature, capacity/volume,
                     and elapsed time using International System of Units (SI)
       NS.1.4.7.     Inquiry and Process Skills: Collect and interpret measurable empirical evidence in teams and as
                     individuals
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.4.8.     Inquiry and Process Skills: Develop a hypothesis based on prior knowledge and observations
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.4.9.  Inquiry and Process Skills: Identify variables that affect investigations
       NS.1.4.10. Inquiry and Process Skills: Identify patterns and trends in data
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.4.11. Inquiry and Process Skills: Generate conclusions based on evidence
       NS.1.4.12. Inquiry and Process Skills: Evaluate the quality and feasibility of an idea or project
       NS.1.4.13. Scientific Equipment and Technology: Use simple equipment, age appropriate tools, technology,
                  and mathematics in scientific investigations (e.g., balances, hand lenses, microscopes, rulers,
                  thermometers, calculators, computers)
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.4.14. Scientific Equipment and Technology: Apply lab safety rules as they relate to specific science
                  lab activities (see Arkansas Lab Safety Guide)
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.2. Life Science: Living Systems: Characteristics, Structure, and Function: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of living
       systems using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       LS.2.4.1.     Characteristics: Classify vertebrates into major subgroups: mammals; birds; fish; amphibians;
                     reptiles
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.4.2.     Characteristics: Classify some invertebrates according to their structure: mollusks; segmented
                     worms; arthropods
       LS.2.4.3.     Structure and Function: Identify major parts and functions of the following systems: digestive;
                     circulatory; nervous
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.3. Life Science: Life Cycles, Reproduction, and Heredity: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of life cycles, reproduction,
       and heredity using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
                     No student expectation for Grade 4 - See Grade 6
AR.4. Life Science: Populations and Ecosystems: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of populations and ecosystems using
       appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       LS.4.4.1.     Recognize environmental adaptations of plants and animals
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.4.4.2.     Illustrate the interdependence of organisms in an ecosystem
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.5. Physical Science: Matter: Properties and Changes: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of matter, including properties
       and changes, using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       PS.5.4.1.     Physical Properties: Demonstrate multiple ways to classify objects
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.4.2.     Physical Properties: Demonstrate chemical changes in matter
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.4.3.     States of Matter: Compare and contrast gases to solids and liquids
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.6. Physical Science: Motion and Forces: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of motion and forces using appropriate
       safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.6.4.1.     Motion and Forces: Investigate the relationship between force and direction
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.6.4.2.     Motion and Forces: Investigate the relationship between force and mass
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.7. Physical Science: Energy and Transfer of Energy: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of energy and transfer of energy
       using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.7.4.1.     Heat: Interpret trends in temperature over time using the Celsius scale
       PS.7.4.2.     Electricity: Classify electrical conductors and electrical insulators
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.4.3.     Electricity: Construct simple circuits from circuit diagrams
AR.8. Earth and Space Science: Earth Systems: Structure and Properties: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of Earth's
       structure and properties using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       ESS.8.4.1. Properties of the Earth: Locate natural divisions of Arkansas: Ozark Plateau, Ouachita
                  Mountains, Crowley's Ridge, Mississippi Alluvial Plain (Delta), Coastal Plain, Arkansas River
                  Valley
       ESS.8.4.2. Natural Resources: Analyze the impact of using natural resources
       ESS.8.4.3. Natural Resources: Differentiate between renewable and non-renewable resources
       ESS.8.4.4. Natural Resources: Evaluate the impact of water pollution
       ESS.8.4.5. Natural Resources: Evaluate the impact of Arkansas' natural resources on the economy,
                  including but not limited to farming, timber, tourism, hunting, fishing
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.4.6. Natural Resources: Evaluate human use of Arkansas' natural resources on the environment,
                  including but not limited to mining, clear cutting, dredging
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.4.7. Weather: Describe the processes of the water cycle: precipitation, evaporation, condensation
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.4.8. Weather: Organize weather data into tables or charts to identify trends and patterns
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.4.9. Weather: Demonstrate safety procedures related to severe weather
       ESS.8.4.10. Weather: Describe weather-related natural disasters
                   (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.4.11. Weather: Construct and read instruments to collect weather data: barometer, weather vane,
                   anemometer
AR.9. Earth and Space Science: Earth's History: Changes in Earth and Sky: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of Earth's
       history using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       ESS.9.4.1. Weather: Analyze changes to Earth's surface: erosion, glaciations, weathering, earthquakes,
                  volcanic activity
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.10. Earth and Space Science: Objects in the Universe: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of objects in the universe using
       appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
                     No student expectation for Grade 4 - See Grade 5



Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks - Science Grade 5
AR.1. Nature of Science: Characteristics and Processes of Science: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of the
       characteristics and processes of science using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       NS.1.5.1.     Processes of Science: Make accurate observations
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.5.2.     Processes of Science: Identify and define components of experimental design used to produce
                     empirical evidence: hypothesis, replication, sample size, appropriate use of control, use of
                     standardized variables
       NS.1.5.3.     Processes of Science: Calculate mean, median, mode, and range from scientific data using SI
                     units
       NS.1.5.4.     Processes of Science: Interpret scientific data using data tables/charts, bar graphs, circle
                     graphs, line graphs, stem and leaf plots, Venn diagrams
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.5.5.     Processes of Science: Communicate results and conclusions from scientific inquiry
       NS.1.5.6.     Processes of Science: Develop and implement strategies for long-term, accurate data collection
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.5.7.     Characteristics of Science: Summarize the characteristics of science
       NS.1.5.8.     Characteristics of Science: Explain the role of observation in the development of a theory
       NS.1.5.9.     Characteristics of Science: Define and give examples of hypotheses
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.2. Life Science: Living Systems: Characteristics, Structure, and Function: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of living
       systems using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       LS.2.5.1.     Structure and Function: Compare the cell theory to the characteristics of a scientific theory
       LS.2.5.2.     Structure and Function: Examine cells on a microscopic level
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.5.3.     Structure and Function: Describe the similarities of basic cell functions in all organisms
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.5.4.     Structure and Function: Model and identify the parts of animal cells and plant cells: cell wall, cell
                     membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplast
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.5.5.     Structure and Function: Compare and contrast plant and animal cells
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.5.6.     Structure and Function: Conduct investigations to separate plant pigments from the cell
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.5.7.     Structure and Function: Identify the role of chlorophyll in the process of photosynthesis
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.5.8.     Structure and Function: Explain and illustrate photosynthesis
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.5.9.     Structure and Function: Explain cellular respiration
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.5.10.    Structure and Function: Conduct investigations demonstrating the process of cellular respiration
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.5.11.    Structure and Function: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related to
                     cells
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.3. Life Science: Life Cycles, Reproduction, and Heredity: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of life cycles, reproduction,
       and heredity using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
                     No student expectation for Grade 5 - See Grade 6
AR.4. Life Science: Populations and Ecosystems: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of populations and ecosystems using
       appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       LS.4.5.1.     Populations and Ecosystems: Distinguish among and model organisms, populations,
                     communities, ecosystems, biosphere
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.4.5.2.     Populations and Ecosystems: Identify the transfer of energy using energy pyramids: terrestrial,
                     aquatic
       LS.4.5.3.     Populations and Ecosystems: Design food webs in specific habitats to show the flow of energy
                     within communities: terrestrial, aquatic
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.4.5.4.     Populations and Ecosystems: Evaluate food webs under conditions of stress: overgrazing,
                     overpopulation, natural disaster, introduction of non-native species, human impact/urban
                     development
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.4.5.5.     Populations and Ecosystems: Examine the role of limiting factors on the carrying capacity of an
                     ecosystem: food, space, water, shelter
       LS.4.5.6.     Populations and Ecosystems: Describe and diagram the nitrogen cycle in ecosystems
       LS.4.5.7.     Populations and Ecosystems: Describe and diagram the carbon cycle in ecosystems
       LS.4.5.8.     Populations and Ecosystems: Describe and diagram the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle in
                     ecosystems
       LS.4.5.9.     Populations and Ecosystems: Conduct investigations demonstrating the role of the carbon
                     dioxide-oxygen cycle in ecosystems
       LS.4.5.10.    Populations and Ecosystems: Analyze the concept of conservation of mass as related to the
                     amount of matter in an ecosystem
       LS.4.5.11.    Populations and Ecosystems: Create ecosystems in which plants can exist without animals
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.4.5.12.    Populations and Ecosystems: Conduct investigations in which plants are encouraged to thrive
       LS.4.5.13.    Populations and Ecosystems: Construct, compare, and contrast environments in open and
                     closed aquaria
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.4.5.14.    Populations and Ecosystems: Categorize organisms by the function they serve in ecosystems
                     and food webs: predator/prey, parasitism, producer/consumer/decomposer, scavenger,
                     herbivore/carnivore/ omnivore
       LS.4.5.15.    Populations and Ecosystems: Conduct field studies identifying and categorizing organisms in a
                     given area of an ecosystem
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.4.5.16.    Populations and Ecosystems: Evaluate positive and negative human effects on ecosystems
       LS.4.5.17.    Populations and Ecosystems: Describe and illustrate various symbiotic relationships:
                     parasitism, mutualism, commensalism
       LS.4.5.18.    Populations and Ecosystems: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs
                     related to populations and ecosystems
AR.5. Physical Science: Matter: Properties and Changes: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of matter, including properties
       and changes, using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.5.5.1.     Properties of Matter: Identify the relationship of atoms to all matter
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.5.2.     Properties of Matter: Conduct scientific investigations on physical properties of objects
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.5.3.     Properties of Matter: Identify common examples of physical properties: length, mass, area,
                     perimeter, texture, taste, odor, color, elasticity
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.5.4.     Properties of Matter: State characteristics of physical changes
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.5.5.     Properties of Matter: Identify characteristics and common examples of physical changes
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.5.6.     Properties of Matter: Explain how heat influences the states of matter of a substance: solid,
                     liquid, gas, plasma
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.5.7.     Properties of Matter: Demonstrate the effect of changes in the physical properties of matter
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.5.8.     Properties of Matter: Model the motion and position of molecules in solids, liquids, and gases in
                     terms of kinetic energy
       PS.5.5.9.     Properties of Matter: Conduct investigations demonstrating expansion and contraction
       PS.5.5.10.    Properties of Matter: Investigate scientists, careers, and historical breakthroughs related to
                     physical properties, physical changes, and states of matter
AR.6. Physical Science: Motion and Forces: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of motion and forces using appropriate
       safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.6.5.1.     Motion and Forces: Classify simple machines
       PS.6.5.2.     Motion and Forces: Conduct investigations using levers (e.g., toothbrush), pulleys, inclined
                     planes-ramps, wedges, and screws, wheels and axles
       PS.6.5.3.     Motion and Forces: Relate simple machines to inventions and discoveries
       PS.6.5.4.     Motion and Forces: Compare and contrast potential energy and kinetic energy as applied to
                     motion
       PS.6.5.5.     Motion and Forces: Classify real world examples as potential energy or kinetic energy as applied
                     to motion
       PS.6.5.6.     Motion and Forces: Conduct investigations using potential energy and kinetic energy
       PS.6.5.7.     Motion and Forces: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related to
                     simple machines and potential and kinetic energy
AR.7. Physical Science: Energy and Transfer of Energy: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of energy and transfer of energy
       using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.7.5.1.     Energy: Summarize how light can interact with matter through absorption, refraction, and
                     reflection
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.5.2.     Energy: Investigate how light travels and interacts with an object or material
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.5.3.     Energy: Conduct investigations demonstrating how an object can be seen
       PS.7.5.4.     Energy: Design and conduct investigations of transparent, translucent, and opaque as applied to
                     light
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.5.5.     Energy: Investigate physical interactions of light and matter and the effect on color perception:
                     refraction, absorption, transmission, scattering
       PS.7.5.6.     Energy: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related to light energy
AR.8. Earth and Space Science: Earth Systems: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of Earth's structure and properties
       using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       ESS.8.5.1. Structure and Properties: Identify some basic elements composing minerals: silicon, oxygen,
                  iron, sodium, chlorine, calcium, carbon, hydrogen, aluminum
       ESS.8.5.2. Structure and Properties: Investigate the growth of crystals
       ESS.8.5.3. Structure and Properties: Identify characteristics of minerals
       ESS.8.5.4. Structure and Properties: Conduct investigations on mineral properties: luster, hardness, streak,
                  acid test for calcite, fluorescence
       ESS.8.5.5. Structure and Properties: Identify the following minerals: halite (salt), feldspar, sulfur, quartz,
                  diamonds, gypsum, calcite, talc, hematite (iron), precious metals, (gold, silver)
       ESS.8.5.6. Structure and Properties: Identify minerals found in Arkansas: bauxite, diamonds, quartz, galena
       ESS.8.5.7. Structure and Properties: Identify characteristics of sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic
                  rocks
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.5.8. Structure and Properties: Compare and contrast by investigation characteristics of the three
                  basic types of rocks: sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.5.9. Structure and Properties: Classify the three basic types of rocks
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.5.10. Structure and Properties: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related to
                   minerals and rocks
       ESS.8.5.11. Cycles: Investigate the formation of soil
       ESS.8.5.12. Cycles: Conduct investigations on sedimentation
       ESS.8.5.13. Cycles: Describe and illustrate the rock cycle
                   (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.9. Earth and Space Science: Earth's History: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of Earth's history using appropriate
       safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       ESS.9.5.1. Earth's History: Explain and give examples of how physical evidence from fossils supports the
                  theory that Earth has changed over time
       ESS.9.5.2. Earth's History: Analyze fossil record evidence about plants and animals that lived long ago
       ESS.9.5.3. Earth's History: Infer the nature of ancient environments based on fossil record evidence
AR.10. Earth and Space Science: Objects in the Universe: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of objects in the universe using
       appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       ESS.10.5.1. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Compare the physical characteristics of the
                   sun to other stars: size, color, brightness
       ESS.10.5.2. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Demonstrate the order of planets and other
                   space objects in our solar system
                   (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.10.5.3. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Compare the properties of planets in our
                   solar system: size, shape, density, atmosphere, distance from the sun, orbital path, moons,
                   surface, composition
                   (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS 10.5.4. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Distinguish between mass and weight
                   (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.10.5.5. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Compare the human body's mass to weight
                   on Earth, the moon, and other planets in our solar system
                   (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.10.5.6. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Investigate careers, scientists, and
                   historical breakthroughs related to planets



Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks - Science Grade 6
AR.1. Nature of Science: Characteristics and Processes of Science: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of the
       characteristics and processes of science using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       NS.1.6.1.     Processes of Science: Verify accuracy of observations
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.6.2.     Processes of Science: Apply components of experimental design used to produce empirical
                     evidence: hypothesis, replication, sample size, appropriate use of control, use of standardized
                     variables
       NS.1.6.3.     Processes of Science: Compare scientific data using mean, median, mode, and range using SI
                     units
       NS.1.6.4.     Processes of Science: Construct and interpret scientific data using data tables/charts, bar and
                     double bar graphs, line graphs, stem and leaf plots, line graphs
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.6.5.     Processes of Science: Communicate results and conclusions from scientific inquiry
       NS.1.6.6.     Processes of Science: Develop and implement strategies for long-term, accurate data collection
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.6.7.     Characteristics of Science: Distinguish between scientific fact and opinion
       NS.1.6.8.     Characteristics of Science: Explain the role of prediction in the development of a theory
       NS.1.6.9.     Characteristics of Science: Define and give examples of laws and theories
AR.2. Life Science: Living Systems: Characteristics, Structure, and Function: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of living
       systems using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       LS.2.6.1.     Structure and Function: Observe, describe, and illustrate plant and animal tissues: muscle,
                     blood, skin, xylem, phloem
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.6.2.     Structure and Function: Illustrate the hierarchical relationships of cells, tissues, and organs
       LS.2.6.3.     Structure and Function: Investigate the functions of tissues
       LS.2.6.4.     Structure and Function: Model and explain the functions of animal organs: heart, lung, kidneys,
                     eyes, ears, skin, teeth
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.6.5.     Structure and Function: Model and explain the function of plant organs: leaves, roots, stems,
                     flowers
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.6.6.     Structure and Function: Dissect organs, including but not limited to heart, eye, lung, stem, root
       LS.2.6.7.     Structure and Function: Describe the relationship between organ function and the following
                     needs of cells: oxygen, food, water, waste removal
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.6.8.     Structure and Function: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related to
                     tissues and organs
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.3. Life Science: Life Cycles, Reproduction, and Heredity: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of life cycles, reproduction,
       and heredity using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       LS.3.6.1.     Heredity and Reproduction: Describe characteristics of plants and animals manipulated through
                     selective breeding
       LS.3.6.2.     Heredity and Reproduction: Predict the outcome of selective breeding practices over several
                     generations
       LS.3.6.3.     Heredity and Reproduction: Relate the development of Earth's present-day complex species from
                     earlier, distinctly different simpler species
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.3.6.4.     Heredity and Reproduction: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related
                     to adaptations and selective breeding
       LS.3.6.5.     Regulation and Behavior: Describe behavioral adaptations of organisms to the environment:
                     hibernation, estivation, tropism, territorial behavior, migration
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.3.6.6.     Regulation and Behavior: Differentiate between innate behaviors (migration, web spinning,
                     defensive posture, communication, imprinting) and learned behaviors (speaking a language,
                     using tools, hunting skills)
       LS.3.6.7.     Regulation and Behavior: Describe the following structural adaptations for survival in the
                     environment: coloration, mimicry, odor glands, beaks, feet, wings, fur, ears, spines, teeth,
                     thorns, characteristics of seeds
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.3.6.8.     Regulation and Behavior: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related to
                     learned and innate behaviors
AR.4. Life Science: Populations and Ecosystems: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of populations and ecosystems using
       appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       LS.4.6.1.     Populations and Ecosystems: Identify environmental conditions that can affect the survival of
                     individual organisms and entire species
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.4.6.2.     Populations and Ecosystems: Conduct simulations demonstrating competition for resources
                     within an ecosystem
       LS.4.6.3.     Populations and Ecosystems: Conduct simulations demonstrating natural selection
       LS.4.6.4.     Populations and Ecosystems: Analyze natural selection
AR.5. Physical Science: Matter: Properties and Changes: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of matter, including properties
       and changes, using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.5.6.1.     Properties of Matter: Identify common examples of chemical properties: ability to burn, ability to
                     produce light, ability to react with other substances
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.6.2.     Properties of Matter: Compare and contrast characteristics of physical and chemical properties
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.6.3.     Properties of Matter: Conduct investigations using acid/base indicators
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.6.4.     Properties of Matter: Apply skills of scientific investigation to determine density using SI units
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.6.5.     Properties of Matter: Construct a density column using a minimum of four different liquids (e.g.,
                     alcohol, colored water, syrup, oil)
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.6.6.     Properties of Matter: Use a density column to test the density of various solid objects (e.g., piece
                     of candy, cork, candle, paper clip, egg)
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.6.7.     Properties of Matter: Identify characteristics of chemical changes: burning, production of a new
                     substance, production of light, color change, endothermic and exothermic reactions, reactivity
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.6.8.     Properties of Matter: Conduct investigations comparing and contrasting physical and chemical
                     changes
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.6.9.     Properties of Matter: Demonstrate the law of the conservation of matter
       PS.5.6.10.    Properties of Matter: Investigate scientists, careers, and historical breakthroughs related to
                     chemical properties and chemical changes
AR.6. Physical Science: Motion and Forces: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of motion and forces using appropriate
       safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.6.6.1.     Motion and Forces: Compare and contrast simple machines and compound machines
       PS.6.6.2.     Motion and Forces: Identify and analyze the simple machines that make up a compound machine
       PS.6.6.3.     Motion and Forces: Conduct investigations of various forces using SI units (Newton)
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.6.6.4.     Motion and Forces: Recognize and give examples of different types of forces: gravitational
                     forces, magnetic forces, friction
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.6.6.5.     Motion and Forces: Understand why objects have weight
       PS.6.6.6.     Motion and Forces: Compare and contrast weight and mass
       PS.6.6.7.     Motion and Forces: Describe the effects of force: move a stationary object, speed up, slow down
                     or change the direction of motion, change the shape of objects
       PS.6.6.8.     Motion and Forces: Conduct investigations to demonstrate change in direction caused by force
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.6.6.9.     Motion and Forces: Conduct investigations to calculate the change in speed caused by applying
                     forces to an object
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.6.6.10.    Motion and Forces: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related to
                     compound machines and forces
AR.7. Physical Science: Energy and Transfer of Energy: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of energy and transfer of energy
       using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.7.6.1.     Energy: Classify examples of energy forms: chemical, electromagnetic, mechanical, thermal,
                     nuclear
       PS.7.6.2.     Energy: Summarize the application of the law of conservation of energy in real world situations:
                     electrical energy into mechanical energy, electrical energy into heat, chemical energy into
                     mechanical energy, chemical energy into light
       PS.7.6.3.     Energy: Conduct investigations demonstrating how energy can be converted from one form to
                     another
       PS.7.6.4.     Energy: Investigate the transfer of energy in real world situations: conduction, convection,
                     radiation
       PS.7.6.5.     Energy: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related to energy forms and
                     conversions
AR.8. Earth and Space Science: Earth Systems: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of Earth's structure and properties
       using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       ESS.8.6.1. Structure and Properties: Identify and diagram the layers of the Earth: crust, mantle, inner and
                  outer core
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.6.2. Structure and Properties: Model the layers of the Earth
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.6.3. Structure and Properties: Model how convection currents in the mantle affect lithosphere
                  movement
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.6.4. Structure and Properties: Conduct investigations to identify the variables within volcanoes that
                  cause different types of eruptions
       ESS.8.6.5. Structure and Properties: Diagram and explain how volcanoes work
       ESS.8.6.6. Structure and Properties: Explain how volcanic activity relates to mountain formation
       ESS.8.6.7. Structure and Properties: Connect short-term changes in climate with volcanic activity
       ESS.8.6.8. Structure and Properties: Compare and contrast the different land forms caused by Earth's
                  internal forces: mountains, plateaus, trenches, islands
       ESS.8.6.9. Structure and Properties: Research local, regional, and state landforms created by internal
                   forces in the earth: Ozark Plateau, Crater of Diamonds, Ouachita Mountains, New Madrid Fault
       ESS.8.6.10. Structure and Properties: Identify the effects of earthquakes on Earth's surface: tsunamis,
                   floods, changes in natural and man-made structures
                   (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.6.11. Structure and Properties: Investigate and map patterns of earthquake and volcanic activity
       ESS.8.6.12. Structure and Properties: Locate earthquake belts on Earth: Mediterranean-Trans-Asiatic,
                   Circum-Pacific (Ring of Fire)
       ESS.8.6.13. Structure and Properties: Analyze how earthquake occurrences are recorded (seismograph) and
                   measured (Richter scale)
       ESS.8.6.14. Structure and Properties: Model the effect of major geological events on land and ocean
                   features: mountain building, ocean trenches, island formation, mid-ocean ridges
                   (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.6.15. Structure and Properties: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related to
                   internal forces that change the Earth
AR.9. Earth and Space Science: Earth's History: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of Earth's history using appropriate
       safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       ESS.9.6.1. Earth's History: Research methods of determining geologic time: fossil records, mountain
                  building, rock sequencing
       ESS.9.6.2. Earth's History: Model rock layer sequencing based on characteristics of fossils
       ESS.9.6.3. Earth's History: Analyze evidence that supports the theory of plate tectonics: matching
                  coastlines, similar rock types, fossil record
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.10. Earth and Space Science: Objects in the Universe: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of objects in the universe using
       appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       ESS.10.6.1. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Explain how planets seem to wander
                   against the background of the stars
                   (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.10.6.2. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Compare the distance of the following: from
                   the sun to Earth (light minutes), from the next nearest star to Earth (light years)
       ESS.10.6.3. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Describe how astronomers measure
                   distance to stars
       ESS.10.6.4. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Calculate the rate at which we would have
                   to travel to other stars and planets in our solar system using current technology
                   (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.10.6.5. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Explain the effect of the sun on comets
       ESS.10.6.6. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Compare and contrast comets, meteors,
                   and asteroids by size, orbits, nucleus, mass
       ESS.10.6.7. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Model moon phases demonstrating the
                   position of Earth, moon, and sun
                   (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.10.6.8. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Compare and contrast solar eclipse and
                   lunar eclipse
       ESS.10.6.9. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Investigate careers, scientists, and
                   historical breakthroughs related to the sun and space travel



Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks - Science Grade 7
AR.1. Nature of Science: Characteristics and Processes of Science: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of the
       characteristics and processes of science using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       NS.1.7.1.     Processes of Science: Interpret evidence based on observations
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.7.2.     Processes of Science: Analyze components of experimental design used to produce empirical
                     evidence: hypothesis, replication, sample size, appropriate use of control, use of standardized
                     variables
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.7.3.     Processes of Science: Interpret scientific data using mean, median, mode, and range using SI
                     units
       NS.1.7.4.     Processes of Science: Construct and interpret scientific data using histograms, circle graphs,
                     scatter plots, double line graphs, line graphs by approximating line of best fit
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.7.5.     Processes of Science: Communicate results and conclusions from scientific inquiry
       NS.1.7.6.     Processes of Science: Develop and implement strategies for long-term, accurate data collection
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.7.7.     Characteristics of Science: Distinguish between questions that can and cannot be answered by
                     science
       NS.1.7.8.     Characteristics of Science: Explain the role of testability and modification in the development of
                     a theory
       NS.1.7.9.     Characteristics of Science: Compare and contrast hypotheses, laws, and theories
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.2. Life Science: Living Systems: Characteristics, Structure, and Function: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of living
       systems using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       LS.2.7.1.     Structure and Function: Illustrate the hierarchical relationships of cells, tissues, organs, and
                     organ systems
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.7.2.     Structure and Function: Analyze how two or more organs work together to perform a function
                     (e.g., mouth and stomach to digest food)
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.7.3.     Structure and Function: Identify organ systems in vertebrates and plants
       LS.2.7.4.     Structure and Function: Analyze the structure and function of tissues, organs, and organ
                     systems of a vertebrate and an angiosperm using various models or methods of dissection
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.7.5.     Structure and Function: Compare and contrast vertebrate systems and plant organ systems
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.7.6.     Structure and Function: Identify human body systems: nervous, digestive, circulatory,
                     respiratory, excretory, integumentary, skeletal/muscular, endocrine, reproductive
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.7.7.     Structure and Function: Relate the structure of vertebrate and plant body systems to their
                     functions
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.7.8.     Structure and Function: Investigate functions of human body systems
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.7.9.     Structure and Function: Describe interactions between major organ systems
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.7.10.    Structure and Function: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related to
                     life systems
AR.3. Life Science: Life Cycles, Reproduction, and Heredity: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of life cycles, reproduction,
       and heredity using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       LS.3.7.1.     Heredity and Reproduction: Explain that the fertilized egg cell carries genetic information from
                     each parent and multiplies to form a complete organism
       LS.3.7.2.     Heredity and Reproduction: Distinguish between sperm cells and egg cells
       LS.3.7.3.     Heredity and Reproduction: Compare and contrast the structure and function of the sperm cell
                     and the egg cell in vertebrates and plants and their role in sexual reproduction
       LS.3.7.4.     Heredity and Reproduction: Investigate and analyze the development of embryos
       LS.3.7.5.     Heredity and Reproduction: Dissect a poultry egg to analyze its structure (e.g., paper, plastic, or
                     clay models, virtual dissection, or specimen dissection)
       LS.3.7.6.     Heredity and Reproduction: Dissect a flower to analyze the reproductive system of angiosperms
                     (e.g., paper, plastic, or clay models; virtual dissection; or specimen dissection)
       LS.3.7.7.     Heredity and Reproduction: Differentiate between sexual and asexual reproduction in
                     vertebrates, plants
       LS.3.7.8.     Heredity and Reproduction: Identify the number and source of chromosomes in human body
                     cells
       LS.3.7.9.     Heredity and Reproduction: Identify the number and source of chromosomes in human sex cells
       LS.3.7.10.    Heredity and Reproduction: Explain the role of cell division
       LS.3.7.11.    Heredity and Reproduction: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related
                     to reproduction
       LS.3.7.12.    Regulation and Behavior: Summarize the interactions between organ systems in the
                     maintenance of homeostasis
AR.4. Life Science: Populations and Ecosystems: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of populations and ecosystems using
       appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       LS.4.7.1.     Populations and Ecosystems: Explain the role of reproduction in the continuation of a species
AR.5. Physical Science: Matter: Properties and Changes: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of matter, including properties
       and changes, using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.5.7.1.     Properties of Matter: Explain how a small number of naturally-occurring elements can result in
                     the large variety of substances found in the world
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.7.2.     Properties of Matter: Create models of common compounds: water, carbon dioxide, salt, iron
                     oxide, ammonia
       PS.5.7.3.     Properties of Matter: Identify compounds as substances consisting of two or more elements
                     chemically combined
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.7.4.     Properties of Matter: Compare and contrast properties of compounds to those of the elements
                     that compose them: salt: sodium, chlorine, water: hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide: carbon,
                     oxygen
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.7.5.     Properties of Matter: Demonstrate techniques for forming and separating mixtures: mixing,
                     magnetic attraction, evaporation, filtration, chromatography, settling
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.7.6.     Properties of Matter: Classify substances as elements, compounds, mixtures
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.7.7.     Properties of Matter: Distinguish among solvent, solute, and solution
       PS.5.7.8.     Properties of Matter: Investigate the effect of variables on solubility rates
       PS.5.7.9.     Properties of Matter: Interpret solubility graphs
       PS.5.7.10.    Properties of Matter: Investigate scientists, careers, and historical breakthroughs related to
                     elements, mixtures, and compounds
AR.6. Physical Science: Motion and Forces: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of motion and forces using appropriate
       safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.6.7.1.     Motion and Forces: Compare and contrast Newton's three laws of motion
       PS.6.7.2.     Motion and Forces: Conduct investigations demonstrating Newton's first law of motion
       PS.6.7.3.     Motion and Forces: Demonstrate Newton's second law of motion
       PS.6.7.4.     Motion and Forces: Conduct investigations of Newton's third law of motion
       PS.6.7.5.     Motion and Forces: Explain how Newton's three laws of motion apply to real world situations
                     (e.g., sports, transportation)
       PS.6.7.6.     Motion and Forces: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related to laws
                     of motion
AR.7. Physical Science: Energy and Transfer of Energy: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of energy and transfer of energy
       using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.7.7.1.     Energy: Identify natural resources used to supply energy needs
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.7.2.     Energy: Describe alternatives to the use of fossil fuels: solar energy, geothermal energy, wind,
                     hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, biomass
       PS.7.7.3.     Energy: Conduct investigations to identify types of potential energy and kinetic energy
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.7.4.     Energy: Investigate alternative energy sources
       PS.7.7.5.     Energy: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related to natural
                     resources, alternative resources, electricity, and magnetism
AR.8. Earth and Space Science: Earth Systems: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of Earth's structure and properties
       using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       ESS.8.7.1. Structure and Properties: Describe the composition and physical characteristics of the
                  atmosphere
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.7.2. Structure and Properties: Investigate the influence of global patterns on local weather:
                  movement of air masses, Coriolis effect, jet stream, global wind belts
       ESS.8.7.3. Structure and Properties: Conduct investigations demonstrating the effects of solar energy on
                  the atmosphere
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.7.4. Structure and Properties: Investigate the effect that oceans have on climate
       ESS.8.7.5. Structure and Properties: Identify elements of weather: temperature, air pressure, wind speed,
                  wind direction, humidity
       ESS.8.7.6. Structure and Properties: Conduct investigations using weather measurement devices:
                  anemometers, barometers, sling psychrometers, thermometers, weather charts
       ESS.8.7.7. Structure and Properties: Predict weather conditions using data on the following: temperature,
                  air pressure: highs, lows, fronts, clouds, wind speed, wind direction, humidity
       ESS.8.7.8. Structure and Properties: Identify the causes and effects of weather-related phenomena:
                  thunderstorms, tornadoes/ hurricanes/cyclones/ typhoons, drought, acid precipitation
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.7.9. Structure and Properties: Explain tornado belt weather patterns using a map of the United States
       ESS.8.7.10. Structure and Properties: Describe ways human beings protect themselves, others, and their
                   property from adverse weather conditions
       ESS.8.7.11. Structure and Properties: Describe and map climates of major Earth regions
                   (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.7.12. Structure and Properties: Analyze the effect of the shape of Earth and the tilt of Earth's axis on
                   climate
       ESS.8.7.13. Structure and Properties: Identify and explain the effects that human activities have on weather
                   and atmosphere
       ESS.8.7.14. Structure and Properties: Describe causes and effects of acid precipitation
                   (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.7.15. Structure and Properties: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related to
                   atmosphere and weather
       ESS.8.7.16. Cycles: Conduct investigations demonstrating the water cycle
       ESS.8.7.17. Cycles: Explain the relationship between the water cycle and ground water
       ESS.8.7.18. Cycles: Investigate cloud formation
       ESS.8.7.19. Cycles: Conduct investigations demonstrating the greenhouse effect
       ESS.8.7.20. Cycles: Research how human activities may contribute to global warming
       ESS.8.7.21. Cycles: Explain examples of actual events that cause temporary climate changes: volcanic dust,
                   drought, meteor impact
AR.9. Earth and Space Science: Earth's History: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of Earth's history using appropriate
       safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       ESS.9.7.1. Earth's History: Analyze charts to infer past atmospheric conditions based on the organisms
                  found in the fossil record
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.9.7.2. Earth's History: Demonstrate that Earth has a magnetic field that is detectible at the surface with
                  a compass
       ESS.9.7.3. Earth's History: Compare and contrast Earth's magnetic field to those of natural or human-made
                  magnets with North and South poles, lines of force
       ESS.9.7.4. Earth's History: Analyze evidence of sea floor spreading: magnetic reversal, molten material,
                  drilling samples
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.9.7.5. Earth's History: Research ways in which people have used compasses
AR.10. Earth and Space Science: Objects in the Universe: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of objects in the universe using
       appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       ESS.10.7.1. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Identify and model the causes of night and
                   day
       ESS.10.7.2. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Compare and contrast Earth's day to those
                   of other planets in our solar system
       ESS.10.7.3. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Identify and model the cause of planetary
                   years
       ESS.10.7.4. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Compare and contrast Earth's year to those
                   of other planets in our solar system
       ESS.10.7.5. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Identify and model the causes of seasons
       ESS.10.7.6. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Investigate careers, scientists, and
                   historical breakthroughs related to rotations and revolutions of bodies in space



Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks - Science Grade 8
AR.1. Nature of Science: Characteristics and Processes of Science: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of the
       characteristics and processes of science using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       NS.1.8.1.     Processes of Science: Justify conclusions based on appropriate and unbiased observations
       NS.1.8.2.     Processes of Science: Evaluate the merits of empirical evidence based on experimental design:
                     hypothesis, replication, sample size, appropriate use of control, use of standardized independent
                     and dependent variables
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.8.3.     Processes of Science: Formulate a testable problem using experimental design
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.8.4.     Processes of Science: Analyze a set of scientific data using mean, median, mode, and range
                     using SI units
       NS.1.8.5.     Processes of Science: Suggest solutions to real world problems by analyzing scientific data in
                     data tables/charts, histograms, circle graphs, scatter plots, stem and leaf plots, line and double
                     line, graphs by approximating line of best fit
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.8.6.     Processes of Science: Formulate inferences based on scientific data
       NS.1.8.7.     Processes of Science: Communicate results and conclusions from scientific inquiry following
                     peer review
       NS.1.8.8.     Processes of Science: Develop and implement strategies for long-term, accurate data collection
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       NS.1.8.9.  Characteristics of Science: Generate questions that can and cannot be answered by science
       NS.1.8.10. Characteristics of Science: Explain the role of peer review, evidence, and modification in the
                  development of a theory
       NS.1.8.11. Characteristics of Science: Evaluate the merit of hypotheses, laws, and theories
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.2. Life Science: Living Systems: Characteristics, Structure, and Function: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of living
       systems using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       LS.2.8.1.     Structure and Function: Illustrate the hierarchical relationships of cells, tissues, organs, organ
                     systems, and organisms
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.8.2.     Structure and Function: Identify different types of single-celled organisms: protists, bacteria
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.8.3.     Structure and Function: Relate the effect of bacteria on oral health
       LS.2.8.4.     Structure and Function: Describe and illustrate single-celled organisms found in pond water
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.8.5.     Structure and Function: Use a dichotomous key to classify organisms found in pond water
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.8.6.     Structure and Function: Compare and contrast characteristics of unicellular organisms and
                     multi-cellular organisms
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.8.7.     Structure and Function: Classify cells as eukaryotic or prokaryotic
       LS.2.8.8.     Structure and Function: Identify and describe similarities and differences among organisms of
                     different, but closely related taxa (e.g., pine trees, big cats, rodents, ungulates)
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.2.8.9.     Structure and Function: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related to
                     organisms
AR.3. Life Science: Life Cycles, Reproduction, and Heredity: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of life cycles, reproduction,
       and heredity using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       LS.3.8.1.     Heredity and Reproduction: Identify and explain why inherited characteristics of living things
                     depend on genes
       LS.3.8.2.     Heredity and Reproduction: Differentiate between dominant and recessive traits
       LS.3.8.3.     Heredity and Reproduction: Observe and classify traits as dominant or recessive: tongue rolling,
                     detached earlobes, widow's peak, hitchhiker's thumb, dimples, unibrow
       LS.3.8.4.     Heredity and Reproduction: Differentiate among observed inherited traits and acquired traits of
                     plants and animals
       LS.3.8.5.     Heredity and Reproduction: Interpret simple genetic crosses using Punnett Squares
       LS.3.8.6.     Heredity and Reproduction: Predict patterns that emerge from simple genetic crosses
       LS.3.8.7.     Heredity and Reproduction: Conduct investigations demonstrating that the phenotype of a
                     genetic trait is the result of genotype
       LS.3.8.8.     Heredity and Reproduction: Explain how genetic variation within a species is a result of
                     dominant traits and recessive traits
       LS.3.8.9.     Heredity and Reproduction: Compare and contrast patterns of embryological development for all
                     vertebrates, including humans
       LS.3.8.10.    Heredity and Reproduction: Distinguish between characteristics of plants and animals through
                     selective breeding
       LS.3.8.11.    Heredity and Reproduction: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related
                     to genetics
       LS.3.8.12.    Regulation and Behavior: Compare the theory of evolution to the characteristics of a scientific
                     theory
       LS.3.8.13.    Regulation and Behavior: Identify basic ideas related to biological evolution: diversity of species,
                     variations within species, adaptations, natural selection, extinction of a species
       LS.3.8.14.    Regulation and Behavior: Explain that the fossil record provides evidence of life forms'
                     appearance, diversification, and extinction
       LS.3.8.15.    Regulation and Behavior: Explain the process of natural selection
       LS.3.8.16.    Regulation and Behavior: Identify genetic traits that make organisms more likely to survive and
                     reproduce in a particular environment
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       LS.3.8.17.    Regulation and Behavior: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related to
                     natural selection and the fossil record
AR.4. Life Science: Populations and Ecosystems: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of populations and ecosystems using
       appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology.
       LS.4.8.1.     Populations and Ecosystems: Analyze the effect of changes in environmental conditions on the
                     survival of individual organisms and entire species
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.5. Physical Science: Matter: Properties and Changes: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of matter, including properties
       and changes, using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.5.8.1.     Properties of Matter: Compare the atomic theory to the characteristics of a scientific theory
       PS.5.8.2.     Properties of Matter: Explain the structure of atoms
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.8.3.     Properties of Matter: Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.5.8.4.     Properties of Matter: Create atomic models of common elements
       PS.5.8.5.     Properties of Matter: Investigate scientists, careers, and historical breakthroughs related to the
                     atomic theory
AR.6. Physical Science: Motion and Forces: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of motion and forces using appropriate
       safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.6.8.1.     Motion and Forces: Model how motion and forces change Earth's surface: compression, tension,
                     weathering, erosion
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.6.8.2.     Motion and Forces: Conduct investigations demonstrating the field force (lines of force) in
                     magnetic fields
       PS.6.8.3.     Motion and Forces: Design and conduct investigations applying variables affecting the strength
                     of an electromagnet
       PS.6.8.4.     Motion and Forces: Analyze and compare the relationship between electricity and magnetism
       PS.6.8.5.     Motion and Forces: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related to
                     motion and forces that change Earth's surface
AR.7. Physical Science: Energy and Transfer of Energy: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of energy and transfer of energy
       using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       PS.7.8.1.     Energy: Construct open and closed electrical circuits: series circuits, parallel circuits
       PS.7.8.2.     Energy: Describe and diagram open and closed series and parallel circuits
       PS.7.8.3.     Energy: Compare and contrast open and closed series circuits and parallel circuits
       PS.7.8.4.     Energy: Conduct investigations demonstrating the characteristics of a wave: wavelength,
                     frequency, speed, amplitude
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.8.5.     Energy: Conduct investigations of longitudinal and transverse waves to determine how they are
                     different
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.8.6.     Energy: Explain how energy is transferred through waves: seismic waves, sound waves, water
                     waves, electromagnetic waves
       PS.7.8.7.     Energy: Describe how waves travel through different kinds of media
       PS.7.8.8.     Energy: Differentiate among reflection, refraction, and absorption of various types of waves
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
       PS.7.8.9.     Energy: Describe and diagram the electromagnetic spectrum
       PS.7.8.10.    Energy: Analyze the electromagnetic spectrum
       PS.7.8.11.    Energy: Investigate examples of real world uses of the electromagnetic spectrum
       PS.7.8.12.    Energy: Conduct investigations demonstrating the separation of white light into its spectrum
                     using refraction
       PS.7.8.13.    Energy: Compare ways to transfer information: sound, light, radio, microwave energy
       PS.7.8.14.    Energy: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related to waves and the
                     electromagnetic spectrum
AR.8. Earth and Space Science: Earth Systems: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of Earth's structure and properties
       using appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       ESS.8.8.1. Structure and Properties: Analyze the causes and predict the consequences of global warming
                  on the following: weather, temperature, ocean water levels
       ESS.8.8.2. Structure and Properties: Investigate how global patterns of water currents influence local
                  weather: Gulf Stream, Atlantic Currents, California Current
       ESS.8.8.3. Structure and Properties: Conduct investigations to compare and contrast different landforms
                  found on Earth: mountains, plateaus, plains
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.8.4. Structure and Properties: Synthesize and model the result of both constructive and destructive
                  forces on land forms: deposition, erosion, weathering, crustal deformation
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.8.5. Structure and Properties: Compare and contrast the different landforms caused by Earth's
                  external forces: plains, canyons, deltas, valleys, swamps
       ESS.8.8.6. Structure and Properties: Research local, regional, and state landforms created by external
                  forces on Earth: Gulf Coastal Plain, Arkansas River Valley, Mississippi Alluvial Plain, including
                  the delta region, Crowley's Ridge
       ESS.8.8.7. Structure and Properties: Use topographic maps to identify surface features of Earth
       ESS.8.8.8. Structure and Properties: Demonstrate an understanding of the agents of erosion: gravity, water,
                  ice, wind, animals, including humans
       ESS.8.8.9. Structure and Properties: Using models of rivers, predict changes when variables, such as load,
                   slope, amount of water, or the composition of a stream bed, are changed through erosion or
                   deposition
                   (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.8.10. Structure and Properties: Explain how weathering and erosion affect the oceans' salinity
       ESS.8.8.11. Structure and Properties: Investigate careers, scientists, and historical breakthroughs related to
                   external forces that change the Earth
       ESS.8.8.12. Cycles: Investigate the types of weathering involved in the breakdown of organic and inorganic
                   components of Earth's surface
                   (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.8.8.13. Cycles: Illustrate soil profiles
       ESS.8.8.14. Cycles: Apply knowledge of soil profiles to local soil samples
       ESS.8.8.15. Cycles: Investigate the formation of soil types
       ESS.8.8.16. Cycles: Identify components of soil as inorganic or organic through investigations
       ESS.8.8.17. Cycles: Identify the basic nutrients needed by plants that are present in soils: nitrogen,
                   phosphorous, potassium
       ESS.8.8.18. Cycles: Identify ways plants use organic and inorganic components in the soil
       ESS.8.8.19. Cycles: Investigate and analyze the composition of a variety of soils
       ESS.8.8.20. Cycles: Conduct investigations on soil permeability
AR.9. Earth and Space Science: Earth's History: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of Earth's history using appropriate
       safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       ESS.9.8.1. Earth's History: Explain processes that have changed Earth's surface that have resulted from
                  sudden events (e.g., earthquakes and volcanoes) and gradual changes (e.g., uplift, erosion, and
                  weathering)
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.9.8.2. Earth's History: Analyze how rock sequences may be disturbed by the following: erosion,
                  deposition, igneous intrusion, folding, faulting, uplifting
                  (Find correlated lesson activity)
       ESS.9.8.3. Earth's History: Explain how scientists determine the relative ages of fossils found in layers of
                  sedimentary rock: law of superposition, law of cross-cutting
       ESS.9.8.4. Earth's History: Apply geologic laws of superposition and cross-cutting to determine the relative
                  age of rock in a cross section
AR.10. Earth and Space Science: Objects in the Universe: Students shall demonstrate and apply knowledge of objects in the universe using
       appropriate safety procedures, equipment, and technology
       ESS.10.8.1. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Summarize the effects of gravity on bodies
                   in space
       ESS.10.8.2. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Identify variables that affect the amount of
                   gravitational force between two objects: mass of the objects, distance between the objects
       ESS.10.8.3. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Relate the effects of the moon's
                   gravitational force on Earth's ocean tides
       ESS.10.8.4. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Identify the causes of the following: high
                   tides, low tides, spring tides, neap tides
       ESS.10.8.5. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Define the terms galaxy and universe
       ESS.10.8.6. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Illustrate the appearance of galaxies as
                   seen through a telescope: clarity, shape
       ESS.10.8.7. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Compare and contrast the Milky Way Galaxy
                   to other galaxies
       ESS.10.8.8. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Illustrate the position of our solar system
                   within the Milky Way Galaxy
       ESS.10.8.9. Solar System: Sun, Earth, Moons, Planets, Galaxies: Investigate careers, scientists, and
                   historical breakthroughs related to gravity, galaxies, and the universe


Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks - Science Grade 9
AR.1.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Organization of the Human Body: Students shall explore the organizational structures of the body
           from the molecular to the organism level.
           OHB.1.AP.1 Infer the relationship between anatomy and physiology
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.2 Sequence the levels of organization of the human body
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.3 Identify the major body systems
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.4 Describe relative positions, body planes, body regions and body quadrants
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.5 Identify the major body cavities and the subdivisions of each cavity
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.6 Investigate homeostatic control mechanisms and their importance to health and diseases
           OHB.1.AP.7 Predict the effect of positive and negative feedback mechanisms on homeostasis
           OHB.1.AP.8 Identify the major characteristics of life: metabolism, responsiveness, movement, Growth,
                      reproduction, differentiation
AR.2.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Cellular Chemistry: Students shall understand the role of chemistry in body processes.
           CC.2.AP.1      Distinguish between matter and energy
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.2       Explain the basic assumptions and conclusions of the atomic theory
           CC.2.AP.3       Distinguish between compounds and mixtures
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.4       Explain the role of ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds in the human body
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.5       Write simple formulas and chemical word equations for the four basic types of reactions:
                           synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement
           CC.2.AP.6       Analyze the role of water in the human body
           CC.2.AP.7       Explain the relationship among acids, bases, and salts
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.8       Relate the concept of pH to homeostasis
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.9       Compare the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
           CC.2.AP.10 Describe the characteristics and importance of enzymes
AR.3.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Anatomy and Physiology of the Cell: Students shall understand that cells are the basic, structural, and
           functional units of life.
           APC.3.AP.1 Explain the structure and function of the plasma membrane
           APC.3.AP.2 Compare and contrast the different ways in which substances cross the plasma membrane:
                      diffusion and osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport, filtration, endocytosis,
                      exocytosis
           APC.3.AP.3 Describe the structure and function of organelles and cell parts
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           APC.3.AP.4 Identify chemical substances produced by cells
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           APC.3.AP.5 Differentiate among replication, transcription, and translation
           APC.3.AP.6 Differentiate between mitosis and meiosis
           APC.3.AP.7 Explain the consequences of abnormal cell division
AR.4.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Tissues: Students shall understand the histology of the human body
           T.4.AP.1        Describe the structure, location, and function of each tissue category: epithelial, connective,
                           nervous, muscle
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.5.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the integumentary system.
           BS.5.AP.1       Identify the components of the integumentary system
           BS.5.AP.2       Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the skin
           BS.5.AP.3       Identify the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the integumentary system
           BS.5.AP.4       Describe disorders associated with the integumentary system
AR.6.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the skeletal system.
           BS.6.AP.1       Identify the components the skeletal system
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.6.AP.2       Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the skeletal system
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.6.AP.3       Identify the macroscopic and microscopic structure of bone
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.6.AP.4       Describe disorders associated with the skeletal system
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.7.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the muscular system.
           BS.7.AP.1       Identify the components the muscular system
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.7.AP.2       Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the muscular system
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.7.AP.3       Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of muscle
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.7.AP.4       Describe disorders associated with the muscular system
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.8.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system.
           BS.8.AP.1       Identify the components the nervous system
           BS.8.AP.2       Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the nervous system
           BS.8.AP.3       Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the nervous system
           BS.8.AP.4       Describe disorders associated with the nervous system
AR.9.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the endocrine system.
           BS.9.AP.1      Identify the components of the endocrine system
           BS.9.AP.2      Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the endocrine system
           BS.9.AP.3      Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the endocrine system
           BS.9.AP.4      Describe disorders associated with the endocrine system
AR.10.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system.
           BS.10.AP.1 Identify the components of the cardiovascular system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.10.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the cardiovascular system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.10.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the cardiovascular system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.10.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the cardiovascular system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.11.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the immune and lymphatic
           systems.
           BS.11.AP.1 Identify the components of the immune and lymphatic systems
           BS.11.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the immune and lymphatic systems
           BS.11.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the immune and lymphatic
                      systems
           BS.11.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the immune and lymphatic systems
AR.12.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system.
           BS.12.AP.1 Identify the components of the respiratory system
           BS.12.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the respiratory system
           BS.12.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the respiratory system
           BS.12.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the respiratory system
AR.13.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the digestive system.
           BS.13.AP.1 Identify the components the digestive system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.13.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the digestive system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.13.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the digestive system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.13.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the digestive system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.14.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.
           BS.14.AP.1 Identify the components the urinary system
           BS.14.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the urinary system
           BS.14.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the urinary system
           BS.14.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the urinary system
AR.15.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the reproductive system
           BS.15.AP.1 Describe the components and the organization of the reproductive system
           BS.15.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the reproductive system
           BS.15.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the reproductive system
           BS.15.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the reproductive system
AR.16.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.16.AP.1 Explain why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.16.AP.2 Compare and contrast hypotheses, theories, and laws
           NS.16.AP.3 Distinguish between a scientific theory and the term 'theory' used in general conversation
           NS.16.AP.4 Summarize the guidelines of science: explanations are based on observations, evidence, and
                      testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change with
                      additional empirical data; scientific knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                      acceptance
AR.17.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall design and safely conduct scientific inquiry.
           NS.17.AP.1 Develop and explain the appropriate procedure, controls, and variables (dependent and
                      independent) in scientific experimentation
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.17.AP.2 Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (refer to ADE Guidelines) when designing
                      and/or conducting scientific investigations
           NS.17.AP.3 Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.17.AP.4 Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics
           NS.17.AP.5 Formulate valid conclusions without bias
           NS.17.AP.6 Communicate experimental results using appropriate reports, figures, and tables
AR.18.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of current life science theories.
           NS.18.AP.1 Understand that scientific theories may be modified or expanded based on additional
                      empirical data, verification, and peer review
           NS.18.AP.2 Relate the development of the cell theory to current trends in cellular biology
           NS.18.AP.3 Describe the relationship between the germ theory of disease and our current knowledge of
                      immunology and control of infectious diseases
           NS.18.AP.4 Relate the chromosome theory of heredity to recent findings in genetic research (e.g., Human
                      Genome Project-HGP, chromosome therapy)
           NS.18.AP.5 Research current events and topics in human biology
AR.19.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to
           communicate and solve life science problems.
           NS.19.AP.1 Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures, and
                      tables
           NS.19.AP.2 Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., microscopes,
                      centrifuges, flexible arm cameras, computer software and hardware)
           NS.19.AP.3 Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.20.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.20.AP.1 Compare and contrast human biology concepts in pure science and applied science
           NS.20.AP.2 Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.20.AP.3 Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                      advancements in science and technology
AR.21.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various health science careers and the training required
           for the selected career.
           NS.21.AP.1 Research and evaluate health science careers using the following criteria: educational
                      requirements; salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.B.    Biology: Molecules and Cells: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of chemistry in life processes.
           MC.1.B.1       Describe the structure and function of the major organic molecules found in living systems:
                          carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, lipids, nucleic acids
           MC.1.B.2       Describe the relationship between an enzyme and its substrate molecule(s)
           MC.1.B.3       Investigate the properties and importance of water and its significance for life: surface
                          tension, adhesion, cohesion, polarity, pH
           MC.1.B.4       Explain the role of energy in chemical reactions of living systems: activation energy,
                          exergonic reactions, endergonic reactions
AR.2.B.    Biology: Molecules and Cells: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of cells.
           MC.2.B.1       Construct a hierarchy of life from cells to ecosystems
           MC.2.B.2       Compare and contrast prokaryotes and eukaryotes
           MC.2.B.3       Describe the role of sub-cellular structures in the life of a cell: organelles, ribosomes,
                          cytoskeleton
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MC.2.B.4       Relate the function of the plasma (cell) membrane to its structure
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MC.2.B.5       Compare and contrast the structures of an animal cell to a plant cell
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MC.2.B.6       Compare and contrast the functions of autotrophs and heterotrophs
           MC.2.B.7       Compare and contrast active transport and passive transport mechanisms: diffusion,
                          osmosis, endocytosis, exocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis
           MC.2.B.8       Describe the main events in the cell cycle, including the differences in plant and animal cell
                          division: interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
           MC.2.B.9       List in order and describe the stages of mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.
           MC.2.B.10      Analyze the meiotic maintenance of a constant chromosome number from one generation to
                          the next
           MC.2.B.11      Discuss homeostasis using thermoregulation as an example
AR.3.B.    Biology: Molecules and Cells: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of how cells obtain and use energy (energetics).
           MC.3.B.1       Compare and contrast the structure and function of mitochondria and chloroplasts
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MC.3.B.2       Describe and model the conversion of stored energy in organic molecules into usable cellular
                          energy (ATP): glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain
           MC.3.B.3       Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration: lactic acid fermentation, alcoholic
                          fermentation
           MC.3.B.4       Describe and model the conversion of light energy to chemical energy by photosynthetic
                          organisms: light dependent reactions, light independent reactions
          MC.3.B.5       Compare and contrast cellular respiration and photosynthesis as energy conversion
                         pathways
AR.4.B.   Biology: Heredity and Evolution: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of heredity.
          HE.4.B.1       Summarize the outcomes of Gregor Mendel's experimental procedures
          HE.4.B.2       Differentiate among the laws and principles of inheritance: dominance, segregation,
                         independent assortment
          HE.4.B.3       Use the laws of probability and Punnett squares to predict genotypic and phenotypic ratios
          HE.4.B.4       Examine different modes of inheritance: sex linkage, codominance, crossing over,
                         incomplete dominance, multiple alleles
          HE.4.B.5       Analyze the historically significant work of prominent geneticists
          HE.4.B.6       Evaluate karyotypes for abnormalities: monosomy, trisomy
AR.5.B.   Biology: Heredity and Evolution: Students shall investigate the molecular basis of genetics.
          HE.5.B.1       Model the components of a DNA nucleotide and an RNA nucleotide
          HE.5.B.2       Describe the Watson-Crick double helix model of DNA, using the base-pairing rule (adenine-
                         thymine, cytosine-guanine)
          HE.5.B.3       Compare and contrast the structure and function of DNA and RNA
          HE.5.B.4       Describe and model the processes of replication, transcription, and translation
          HE.5.B.5       Compare and contrast the different types of mutation events, including point mutation,
                         frameshift mutation, deletion, and inversion
          HE.5.B.6       Identify effects of changes brought about by mutations: beneficial, harmful, neutral
AR.6.B.   Biology: Heredity and Evolution: Students shall examine the development of the theory of biological evolution.
          HE.6.B.1       Compare and contrast Lamarck's explanation of evolution with Darwin's theory of evolution
                         by natural selection
          HE.6.B.2       Recognize that evolution involves a change in allele frequencies in a population across
                         successive generations
          HE.6.B.3       Analyze the effects of mutations and the resulting variations within a population in terms of
                         natural selection
          HE.6.B.4       Illustrate mass extinction events using a time line
          HE.6.B.5       Evaluate evolution in terms of evidence as found in the following: fossil record, DNA
                         analysis, artificial selection, morphology, embryology, viral evolution, geographic distribution
                         of related species, antibiotic and pesticide resistance in various organisms
          HE.6.B.6       Compare the processes of relative dating and radioactive dating to determine the age of
                         fossils
          HE.6.B.7       Interpret a Cladogram
AR.7.B.   Biology: Classification and the Diversity of Life: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that organisms are diverse.
          CDL.7.B.1      Differentiate among the different domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
          CDL.7.B.2      Differentiate the characteristics of the six kingdoms: Eubacteria, Archaea, Protista, Fungi,
                         Plantae, Animalia
          CDL.7.B.3      Identify the seven major taxonomic categories: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus,
                         species
          CDL.7.B.4      Classify and name organisms based on their similarities and differences applying taxonomic
                         nomenclature using dichotomous keys
          CDL.7.B.5      Investigate Arkansas' biodiversity using appropriate tools and technology
          CDL.7.B.6      Compare and contrast the structures and characteristics of viruses (lytic and lysogenic
                         cycles) with non-living and living things
          CDL.7.B.7      Evaluate the medical and economic importance of viruses
          CDL.7.B.8      Compare and contrast life cycles of familiar organisms: sexual reproduction, asexual
                         reproduction, metamorphosis, alternation of generations
          CDL.7.B.9 Classify bacteria according to their characteristics and adaptations
          CDL.7.B.10 Evaluate the medical and economic importance of bacteria
          CDL.7.B.11 Describe the characteristics used to classify protists: plant-like, animal-like, fungal-like
          CDL.7.B.12 Evaluate the medical and economic importance of protists
          CDL.7.B.13 Compare and contrast fungi with other eukaryotic organisms
          CDL.7.B.14 Evaluate the medical and economic importance of fungi
          CDL.7.B.15 Differentiate between vascular and nonvascular plants
          CDL.7.B.16 Differentiate among cycads, gymnosperms, and angiosperms
          CDL.7.B.17 Describe the structure and function of the major parts of a plant: roots, stems, leaves, flowers
          CDL.7.B.18 Relate the structure of plant tissue to its function: epidermal, ground, vascular
          CDL.7.B.19 Evaluate the medical and economic importance of plants
          CDL.7.B.20 Identify the symmetry of organisms: radial, bilateral, asymmetrical
           CDL.7.B.21 Compare and contrast the major invertebrate classes according to their nervous, respiratory,
                      excretory, circulatory, and digestive systems
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CDL.7.B.22 Compare and contrast the major vertebrate classes according to their nervous, respiratory,
                      excretory, circulatory, digestive, reproductive and integumentary systems
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.8.B.    Biology: Ecology and Behavioral Relationships: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of ecological and behavioral
           relationships among organisms.
           EBR.8.B.1      Cite examples of abiotic and biotic factors of ecosystems
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           EBR.8.B.2      Compare and contrast the characteristics of biomes
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           EBR.8.B.3      Diagram the carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, and water cycles in an ecosystem
           EBR.8.B.4      Analyze an ecosystem's energy flow through food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids
           EBR.8.B.5      Identify and predict the factors that control population, including predation, competition,
                          crowding, water, nutrients, and shelter
           EBR.8.B.6      Summarize the symbiotic ways in which individuals within a community interact with each
                          other: commensalism, parasitism, mutualism
           EBR.8.B.7      Compare and contrast primary succession with secondary succession
           EBR.8.B.8      Identify the properties of each of the five levels of ecology: organism, population, community,
                          ecosystem, biosphere
AR.9.B.    Biology: Ecology and Behavioral Relationships: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the ecological impact of global
           issues.
           EBR.9.B.1      Analyze the effects of human population growth and technology on the
                          environment/biosphere
           EBR.9.B.2      Evaluate long range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal in terms of their
                          environmental, economic, and political impact
           EBR.9.B.3      Assess current world issues applying scientific themes (e.g., global changes in climate,
                          epidemics, pandemics, ozone depletion, UV radiation, natural resources, use of technology,
                          and public policy)
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.10.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.10.B.1      Explain why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.10.B.2      Compare and contrast hypotheses, theories, and laws
           NS.10.B.3      Distinguish between a scientific theory and the term 'theory' used in general conversation
           NS.10.B.4      Summarize the guidelines of science: explanations are based on observations, evidence, and
                          testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change with
                          additional empirical data; scientific knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                          acceptance
AR.11.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall design and safely conduct scientific inquiry.
           NS.11.B.1      Develop and explain the appropriate procedure, controls, and variables (dependent and
                          independent) in scientific experimentation
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.11.B.2      Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (refer to ADE Guidelines) when designing
                          and/or conducting scientific investigations
           NS.11.B.3      Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.11.B.4      Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics
           NS.11.B.5      Formulate valid conclusions without bias
           NS.11.B.6      Communicate experimental results using appropriate reports, figures, and tables
AR.12.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of current life science theories.
           NS.12.B.1      Recognize that theories are scientific explanations that require empirical data, verification,
                          and peer review
           NS.12.B.2      Understand that scientific theories may be modified or expanded based on additional
                          empirical data, verification, and peer review
           NS.12.B.3      Summarize biological evolution
           NS.12.B.4      Relate the development of the cell theory to current trends in cellular biology
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.12.B.5      Describe the relationship between the germ theory of disease and our current knowledge of
                          immunology and control of infectious diseases
           NS.12.B.6      Relate the chromosome theory of heredity to recent findings in genetic research (e.g., Human
                          Genome Project-HGP, chromosome therapy)
           NS.12.B.7      Research current events and topics in biology
AR.13.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to communicate and
           solve life science problems.
           NS.13.B.1      Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures, and
                          tables
           NS.13.B.2      Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., microscopes,
                          centrifuges, flexible arm cameras, computer software and hardware)
           NS.13.B.3      Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.14.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.14.B.1      Compare and contrast biological concepts in pure science and applied science
           NS.14.B.2      Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.14.B.3      Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                          environmental, economic, and political impact
           NS.14.B.4      Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                          advancements in science and technology
AR.15.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various life science careers and the training required for the selected career.
           NS.15.B.1      Research and evaluate science careers using the following criteria: educational
                          requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.C.    Chemistry: Atomic Theory: Students shall understand the historical development of the model of the atom.
           AT.1.C.1.      Summarize the discoveries of the subatomic particles: Rutherford's gold foil, Chadwick's
                          discovery of the neutron, Thomson's cathode ray, Millikan's Oil Drop
           AT.1.C.2       Explain the historical events that led to the development of the current atomic theory
AR.2.C.    Chemistry: Atomic Theory: Students shall understand the structure of the atom.
           AT.2.C.1       Analyze an atom's particle position, arrangement, and charge using: proton, neutron,
                          electron
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           AT.2.C.2       Compare the magnitude and range of nuclear forces to magnetic forces and gravitational
                          forces
           AT.2.C.3       Draw and explain nuclear symbols and hyphen notations for isotopes
           AT.2.C.4       Derive an average atomic mass
           AT.2.C.5       Determine the arrangement of subatomic particles in the ion(s) of an atom
AR.3.C.    Chemistry: Atomic Theory: Students shall understand how the arrangement of electrons in atoms relates to the quantum model.
           AT.3.C.1       Correlate emissions of visible light with the arrangement of electrons in atoms: quantum,
                          frequency, wavelength
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           AT.3.C.2       Apply the following rules or principles to model electron arrangement in atoms: Aufbau
                          Principle (diagonal filling order), Hund's Rule, Pauli's Exclusion Principle
           AT.3.C.3       Predict the placement of elements on the Periodic Table and their properties using electron
                          configuration
           AT.3.C.4       Demonstrate electron placement in atoms using the following notations: orbital notations,
                          electron configuration notation, Lewis electron dot structures
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.4.C.    Chemistry: Periodicity: Students shall understand the significance of the Periodic Table and its historical development.
           P.4.C.1        Compare and contrast the historical events leading to the evolution of the Periodic Table
           P.4.C.2        Describe the arrangement of the Periodic Table based on electron filling orders: Groups,
                          Periods
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.4.C.3        Interpret periodic trends: atomic radius, ionic radius, ionization energy, electron affinities,
                          electronegativities
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.5.C.    Chemistry: Periodicity: Students shall name and write formulas for binary and ternary compounds.
           P.5.C.1        Write formulas for binary and ternary compounds: IUPAC system, Greek prefixes, polyatomic
                          ions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.5.C.2        Name binary and ternary compounds
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.5.C.3        Predict the name and symbol for newly discovered elements using the IUPAC system
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.6.C.    Chemistry: Periodicity: Students shall explain the changes of matter using physical properties and chemical properties.
           P.6.C.1        Compare and contrast matter based on uniformity of particles: pure substances, solutions,
                          heterogeneous mixtures
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.6.C.2        Distinguish between extensive and intensive physical properties of matter
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.6.C.3        Separate homogeneous mixtures using physical processes: chromatography
           P.6.C.4        Design experiments tracing the energy involved in physical changes and chemical changes
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.6.C.5        Predict the chemical properties of substances based on their electron configuration: active,
                          inactive, inert
AR.7.C.    Chemistry: Periodicity: Students shall use atomic mass or experimental data to calculate relationships between elements and
           compounds.
           P.7.C.1        Demonstrate an understanding of the Law of Multiple Proportions
AR.8.C.    Chemistry: Bonding: Students shall understand the process of ionic bonding.
           B.8.C.1        Determine ion formation tendencies for groups on the Periodic Table: main group elements,
                          transition elements
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           B.8.C.2        Derive formula units based on the charges of ions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           B.8.C.3        Use the electronegativitiy chart to predict the bonding type of compounds: ionic, polar
                          covalent, non-polar covalent
AR.9.C.    Chemistry: Bonding: Students shall understand the process of covalent bonding.
           B.9.C.1        Draw Lewis structures to show valence electrons for covalent bonding: lone pairs, shared
                          pairs, hybridization, resonance
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           B.9.C.2        Determine the properties of covalent compounds based upon double and triple bonding
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           B.9.C.3        Predict the polarity and geometry of a molecule based upon shared electron pairs and lone
                          electron pairs: VSEPR Model
           B.9.C.4        Identify the strengths and effects of intermolecular forces (van der Waals): hydrogen
                          bonding, dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole, dispersion forces (London)
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.10.C.   Chemistry: Bonding: Students shall understand the process of metallic bonding.
           B.10.C.1       Explain the properties of metals due to delocalized electrons: molecular orbital model
AR.11.C.   Chemistry: Bonding: Students shall relate the physical properties of solids to different types of bonding.
           B.11.C.1       Distinguish between amorphous and crystalline solids
           B.11.C.2       Compare and contrast the properties of crystalline solids: ionic, covalent network, covalent
                          molecular, metallic
AR.12.C.   Chemistry: Stoichiometry: Students shall understand the relationships between balanced chemical equations and mole
           relationships.
           S.12.C.1       Balance chemical equations when all reactants and products are given
           S.12.C.2       Use balanced reaction equations to obtain information about the amounts of reactants and
                          products
           S.12.C.3       Distinguish between limiting reactants and excess reactants in balanced reaction equations
           S.12.C.4       Calculate stoichiometric quantities and use these to determine theoretical yields
AR.13.C.   Chemistry: Stoichiometry: Students shall understand the mole concept and Avogadro's number.
           S.13.C.1       Apply the mole concept to calculate the number of particles and the amount of substance:
                          Avogadro's constant = 6.02 x E23
           S.13.C.2       Determine the empirical and molecular formulas using the molar concept: molar mass,
                          average atomic mass, molecular mass, formula mass
AR.14.C.   Chemistry: Stoichiometry: Students shall predict products based upon the type of chemical reaction.
           S.14.C.1       Given the products and reactants predict products for the following types of reactions:
                          synthesis, decomposition, single displacement, double displacement, combustion
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.15.C.   Chemistry: Stoichiometry: Students shall understand the composition of solutions, their formation, and their strengths
           expressed in various units.
           S.15.C.1       Distinguish between the terms solute, solvent, solution and concentration
           S.15.C.2       Give examples for the nine solvent-solute pairs
           S.15.C.3       Calculate the following concentration expressions involving the amount of solute and volume
                          of solution: molarity (M), molality (m), percent composition, normality (N)
           S.15.C.4       Given the quantity of a solution, determine the quantity of another species in the reaction
           S.15.C.5       Define heat of solution
           S.15.C.6       Identify the physical state for each substance in a reaction equation
AR.16.C.   Chemistry: Gas Laws: Student shall understand the behavior of gas particles as it relates to the kinetic theory.
           GL.16.C.1      Demonstrate the relationship of the kinetic theory as it applies to gas particles: molecular
                          motion, elastic collisions, temperature, pressure, ideal gas
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           GL.16.C.2      Calculate the effects of pressure, temperature, and volume on the number of moles of gas
                          particles in chemical reactions
AR.17.C.   Chemistry: Gas Laws: Students shall understand the relationships between temperature, pressure, volume, and moles of a gas.
           GL.17.C.1      Calculate the effects of pressure, temperature, and volume to gases: Avogadro's Law,
                          Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, Combined Law, Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure, Graham's Law of
                          Effusion, Guy-Lussac, Ideal Gas Law
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.18.C.   Chemistry: Gas Laws: Student shall apply the stoichiometric mass and volume relationships of gases in chemical reactions.
           GL.18.C.1      Calculate volume/mass relationships in balanced chemical reaction equations
AR.19.C.   Chemistry: Acids and Bases: Students shall understand the historical development of the acid/base theories.
           AB.19.C.1      Compare and contrast the following acid/base theories: Arrhenius Theory, Bronsted-Lowry
                          Theory, Lewis Theory
AR.20.C.   Chemistry: Acids and Bases: Students shall demonstrate proficiency in acid, base, and salt nomenclature.
           AB.20.C.1      Name and write formulas for acids, bases and salts: binary acids, ternary acids, ionic
                          compounds
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.21.C.   Chemistry: Acids and Bases: Students shall apply rules of nomenclature to acids, bases, and salts.
           AB.21.C.1      Compare and contrast acid and base properties
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           AB.21.C.2      Describe the role that dissociation plays in the determination of strong and weak acids or
                          bases
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           AB.21.C.3      Use acid-base equilibrium constants to develop and explain: ionization constants, percent of
                          ionization, common ion effect
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           AB.21.C.4      Explain the role of the pH scale as applied to acids and bases
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.22.C.   Chemistry: Acids and Bases: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of titration as a laboratory tool.
           AB.22.C.1      Perform a titration to solve for the concentration of an acid or base
           AB.22.C.2      Use indicators in neutralization reactions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           AB.22.C.3      Investigate the role of buffers
AR.23.C.   Chemistry: Kinetics and Energetics: Students shall understand enthalpy, entropy, and free energy and their relationship to
           chemical reactions.
           KE.23.C.1      Define enthalpy and entropy and explain the relationship to exothermic and endothermic
                          reactions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           KE.23.C.2      Define free energy in terms of enthalpy and entropy: spontaneous reaction, increase in
                          disorder, decrease in disorder
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           KE.23.C.3      Calculate entropy, enthalpy, and free energy changes in chemical reactions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           KE.23.C.4      Define specific heat capacity and its relationship to calorimetric measurements
           KE.23.C.5      Determine the heat of formation and the heat of reaction using enthalpy values and the Law
                          of Conservation of Energy
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           KE.23.C.6      Explain the role of activation energy and collision theory in chemical reactions
AR.24.C.   Chemistry: Equilibrium: Students shall understand the factors that affect reaction rate and their relationship to quantitative
           chemical equilibrium.
           E.24.C.1       List and explain the factors which affect the rate of a reaction and the relationship of these
                          factors to chemical equilibrium: reversible reactions, reaction rate, nature of reactants,
                          concentration, temperature, catalysis
           E.24.C.2       Solve problems developing an equilibrium constant or the concentration of a reactant or
                          product
           E.24.C.3       Explain the relationship of LeChatelier's Principle to equilibrium systems: temperature,
                          pressure, concentration
           E.24.C.4       Describe the application of equilibrium and kinetic concepts to the Haber Process: high
                          concentration of hydrogen and nitrogen, removal of ammonia, precise temperature control,
                          use of a contact catalyst, high pressure
AR.25.C.   Chemistry: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions: Students shall understand oxidation-reduction reactions to develop skills in
           balancing redox equations.
           ORR.25.C.1 Identify substances that are oxidized and substances that are reduced in a chemical reaction
           ORR.25.C.2 Complete and balance redox reactions: assign oxidation numbers, identify the oxidizing
                      agent and reducing agent, write net ionic equations
AR.26.C.   Chemistry: Oxidation-Reduction Reaction: Students shall explain the role of oxidation-reduction reactions in the production of
           electricity in a voltaic cell.
           ORR.26.C.1 Write equations for the reactions occurring at the cathode and anode in electrolytic
                      conduction
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           ORR.26.C.2 Build a voltaic cell and measure cell potential: half-cells, salt bridge
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           ORR.26.C.3 Explain the process of obtaining electricity from a chemical voltaic cell: line notation: anode
                      (oxidation); cathode (reduction)
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           ORR.26.C.4 Calculate electric potential of a cell using redox potentials and predict product
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           ORR.26.C.5 Use redox potentials to predict electrolysis products and the electric potential of a cell
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.27.C.   Chemistry: Organic Chemistry: Students shall differentiate between aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons.
           OC.27.C.1      Examine the bonding and structural differences of organic compounds: alkanes, alkenes,
                          alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons
           OC.27.C.2      Differentiate between the role and importance of aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons
           OC.27.C.3      Compare and contrast isomers
AR.28.C.   Chemistry: Organic Chemistry: Students shall describe the functional groups in organic chemistry.
           OC.28.C.1      Describe the functional groups in organic chemistry: halohydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers,
                          aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amines, amides, amino acids, nitro compounds
           OC.28.C.2      Name and write formulas for aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons
AR.29.C.   Chemistry: Organic Chemistry: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of organic compounds in living and
           non-living systems.
           OC.29.C.1      Differentiate among the biochemical functions of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic
                          acids
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OC.29.C.2      Describe the manufacture of polymers derived from organic compounds: polymerization,
                          crosslinking
AR.30.C.   Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry: Students shall understand the process transformations of nuclear radiation.
           NC.30.C.1      Describe the following radiation emissions: alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays,
                          positron particles
           NC.30.C.2      Write and balance nuclear reactions
           NC.30.C.3      Compare and contrast fission and fusion
           NC.30.C.4      Apply the concept of half life to nuclear decay
AR.31.C.   Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry: Students shall understand the current and historical ramifications of nuclear energy.
           NC.31.C.1      Construct models of instruments used to study, control, and utilize radioactive materials and
                          nuclear processes
           NC.31.C.2      Research the role of nuclear reactions in society: transmutation, nuclear power plants,
                          Manhattan Project
AR.32.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.32.C.1      Explain why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.32.C.2      Compare and contrast hypotheses, theories, and laws
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.32.C.3      Compare and contrast the criteria for the formation of scientific theory and scientific law
           NS.32.C.4      Distinguish between a scientific theory and the term 'theory' used in general conversation
           NS.32.C.5      Summarize the guidelines of science: explanations are based on observations, evidence, and
                          testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change with
                          additional empirical data; scientific knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                          acceptance
AR.33.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall design and safely conduct scientific inquiry.
           NS.33.C.1      Develop and explain the appropriate procedure, controls, and variables (dependent and
                          independent) in scientific experimentation
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.33.C.2      Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (refer to Arkansas Safety Lab Guide)
                          when designing and/or conducting scientific investigations
           NS.33.C.3      Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.33.C.4      Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics
           NS.33.C.5      Formulate valid conclusions without bias
           NS.33.C.6      Communicate experimental results using appropriate reports, figures, and tables
AR.34.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the current theories in chemistry.
           NS.34.C.1      Recognize that theories are scientific explanations that require empirical data, verification,
                          and peer review
           NS.34.C.2      Understand that scientific theories may be modified or expanded based on additional
                          empirical data, verification, and peer review
           NS.34.C.3      Research current events and topics in chemistry
AR.35.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to communicate
           and solve problems in chemistry.
           NS.35.C.1      Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures, and
                          tables
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.35.C.2      Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.35.C.3      Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.36.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.36.C.1      Compare and contrast chemistry concepts in pure science and applied science
           NS.36.C.2      Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.36.C.3      Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                          environmental, economic, and political impact
           NS.36.C.4      Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                          advancements in science and technology
AR.37.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various careers in chemistry and the training required for the selected
           career
           NS.37.C.1      Research and evaluate science careers using the following criteria: educational
                          requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.ES. Environmental Science: Physical Dynamics: Students shall understand the physical dynamics of Earth
           PD.1.ES.1      Describe the structure, origin, and evolution of the Earth's components: atmosphere,
                          biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           PD.1.ES.2      Relate eras, epochs, and periods of Earth's history to geological development
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           PD.1.ES.3      Determine the relative and absolute ages of rock layers
           PD.1.ES.4      Categorize the type and composition of various minerals
           PD.1.ES.5      Explain the processes of the rock cycle
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           PD.1.ES.6      Describe the processes of degradation by weathering and erosion
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           PD.1.ES.7      Describe tectonic forces relating to internal energy production and convection currents
           PD.1.ES.8      Describe the relationships of degradation (a general lowering of the earth's surface by
                          erosion or weathering) and tectonic forces: volcanoes, earthquakes
           PD.1.ES.9 Construct and interpret information on topographic maps
           PD.1.ES.10 Describe the characteristics of each of the natural divisions of Arkansas: Ozark Plateau,
                      Arkansas River Valley, Ouachita Mountains, Coastal Plain, Mississippi Alluvial Plain (Delta),
                      Crowley's Ridge
           PD.1.ES.11 Describe the physical and chemical properties of water
           PD.1.ES.12 Compare and contrast characteristics of the oceans: composition, physical features of the
                      ocean floor, life within the ocean, lateral and vertical motion
           PD.1.ES.13 Investigate the evolution of the ocean floor
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           PD.1.ES.14 Investigate the stratification of the ocean: colligative properties (depends on the ratio of the
                      number of particles of solute and solvent in the solution, not the identity of the solute);
                      biological zonation (distribution of organisms in biogeographic zones)
           PD.1.ES.15 Predict the effects of ocean currents on climate
           PD.1.ES.16 Explain heat transfer in the atmosphere and its relationship to meteorological processes:
                      pressure, winds, evaporation, precipitation
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           PD.1.ES.17 Compare and contrast meteorological processes related to air masses, weather systems, and
                      forecasting
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           PD.1.ES.18 Construct and interpret weather maps
           PD.1.ES.19 Describe the cycling of materials and energy: nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, phosphorous,
                      hydrological, sulfur
AR.2.ES. Environmental Science: Biological Dynamics: Students shall understand the biological dynamics of Earth
           BD.2.ES.1      Compare and contrast biomes
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BD.2.ES.2      Describe relationships within a community: predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism,
                          commensalism
           BD.2.ES.3      Differentiate between primary and secondary succession
           BD.2.ES.4      Construct a trophic-level pyramid (energy level)
           BD.2.ES.5      Construct a food chain
           BD.2.ES.6      Diagram a food web
           BD.2.ES.7      Compare and contrast food webs and food chains
           BD.2.ES.8      Describe biodiversity
           BD.2.ES.9 Explain how limiting factors affect populations and ecosystems
           BD.2.ES.10 Describe the natural selection process in populations
AR.3.ES. Environmental Science: Social Perspectives: Students shall understand the impact of human activities on the environment.
           SP.3.ES.1      Explain the reciprocal relationships between Earth's processes (natural disasters) and
                          human activities
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           SP.3.ES.2      Investigate the relationships between human consumption of natural resources and the
                          stewardship responsibility for reclamations including disposal of hazardous and non-
                          hazardous waste
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           SP.3.ES.3      Explain common problems related to water quality: conservation, usage, supply, treatment,
                          pollutants (point and non-point sources)
           SP.3.ES.4      Explain problems related to air quality: automobiles, industry, natural emissions
           SP.3.ES.5      Evaluate the impact of different points of view on health, population, resource, and
                          environmental issues: governmental, economic, societal
           SP.3.ES.6      Research how political systems influence environmental decisions
           SP.3.ES.7      Investigate which federal and state agencies have responsibility for environmental
                          monitoring and action
           SP.3.ES.8      Compare and contrast man-made environments and natural environments
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           SP.3.ES.9      Evaluate personal and societal benefits when examining health, population, resource, and
                          environmental issues
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           SP.3.ES.10 Predict the long-term societal impact of specific health, population, resource, and
                      environmental issues
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           SP.3.ES.11 Investigate the effect of public policy decisions on health, population, resource, and
                      environmental issues
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           SP.3.ES.12 Explain the impact of factors such as birth rate, death rate, and migration rate on population
                      changes
           SP.3.ES.13 Distinguish between developed and developing countries
AR.4.ES. Environmental Science: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to
           communicate and solve environmental science problems.
           NS.4.ES.1      Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures and
                          tables
           NS.4.ES.2      Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., microscopes,
                          centrifuges, flexible arm cameras, computer software and hardware)
           NS.4.ES.3      Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.5.ES. Environmental Science: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.5.ES.1      Compare and contrast environmental concepts in pure science and applied science
           NS.5.ES.2      Explain why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.5.ES.3      Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                          environmental, economical and political impact
           NS.5.ES.4      Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                          advancements in science and technology
AR.6.ES. Environmental Science: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various environmental science careers and the training
           required for the selected career.
           NS.6.ES.1      Research and evaluate science careers using the following criteria: educational
                          requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.PS. Physical Science: Chemistry: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of matter's composition and structure.
           C.1.PS.1       Compare and contrast chemical and physical properties of matter, including but not limited
                          to flammability, reactivity, density, buoyancy, viscosity, melting point and boiling point
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.2       Compare and contrast chemical and physical changes, including but not limited to rusting,
                          burning, evaporation, boiling and dehydration
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.3       Discuss and model the relative size and placement of sub-atomic particles
           C.1.PS.4      Illustrate the placement of electrons in the first twenty elements using energy levels and
                         orbitals
           C.1.PS.5      Distinguish among atoms, ions, and isotopes
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.6      Model the valence electrons using electron dot structures (Lewis electron dot structures)
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.7      Explain the role of valence electrons in determining chemical properties
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.8      Explain the role of valence electrons in forming chemical bonds
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.9      Model bonding: ionic, covalent, metallic
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.10     Identify commonly used polyatomic ions
           C.1.PS.11     Write formulas for ionic and covalent compounds
           C.1.PS.12     Name ionic and covalent compounds
           C.1.PS.13     Identify the mole and amu (atomic mass unit) as units of measurement in chemistry
           C.1.PS.14     Calculate the molar mass of compounds based on average atomic mass.
AR.2.PS. Physical Science: Chemistry: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of energy in chemistry.
           C.2.PS.1      Identify the kinetic theory throughout the phases of matter
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.2.PS.2      Create and label heat versus temperature graphs (heating curves): solid, liquid, gas, triple
                         point, heat of fusion, heat of vaporization
           C.2.PS.3      Relate thermal expansion to the kinetic theory
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.2.PS.4      Compare and contrast Boyle's law and Charles' law
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.2.PS.5      Compare and contrast endothermic and exothermic reactions as energy is transferred
           C.2.PS.6      Distinguish between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion
           C.2.PS.7      Compare and contrast the emissions produced by radioactive decay: alpha particles, beta
                         particles, gamma rays
AR.3.PS. Physical Science: Chemistry: Students shall compare and contrast chemical reactions.
           C.3.PS.1      Identify and write balanced chemical equations: decomposition reaction, synthesis reaction,
                         single displacement reaction, double displacement reaction, combustion reaction
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.2      Predict the product(s) of a chemical reaction when given the reactants using chemical
                         symbols and words
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.3      Balance chemical equations using the Law of Conservation of Mass
           C.3.PS.4      Determine mole ratio from a balanced reaction equation
           C.3.PS.5      Compare and contrast the properties of reactants and products of a chemical reaction
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.6      Model the role of activation energy in chemical reactions
           C.3.PS.7      Examine factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions, including but not limited to
                         temperature, light, concentration, catalysts, surface area, pressure
           C.3.PS.8      Identify the observable evidence of a chemical reaction: formation of a precipitate,
                         production of a gas, color change, changes in heat and light
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.9      Relate fire safety measures to conditions necessary for combustion
AR.4.PS. Physical Science: Chemistry: Students shall classify organic compounds.
           C.4.PS.1      Summarize carbon bonding: allotropes (diamond, graphite, fullerenes); carbon-carbon
                         (single, double, triple); isomers (branched, straight-chain, ring)
           C.4.PS.2      Identify organic compounds by their: formula, structure, properties, functional groups
           C.4.PS.3      Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons
           C.4.PS.4      Describe organic compounds and their functions in the human body: carbohydrates, lipids,
                         proteins, nucleic acids
AR.5.PS. Physical Science: Physics: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of energy in physics.
           P.5.PS.1      Distinguish among thermal energy, heat, and temperature
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.5.PS.2      Calculate changes in thermal energy using: q = mcT (Where q=heat energy; m=mass;
                         c=specific heat; T=change in temperature)
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.6.PS. Physical Science: Physics: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of forces in physics.
           P.6.PS.1       Analyze how force affects motion: one-dimensional (linear), two-dimensional (projectile and
                          rotational)
           P.6.PS.2       Explain how motion is relative to a reference point
           P.6.PS.3       Compare and contrast among speed, velocity and acceleration
           P.6.PS.4       Solve problems using the formulas for speed and acceleration
           P.6.PS.5       Interpret graphs related to motion: distance versus time (d-t); velocity versus time (v-t);
                          acceleration versus time (a-t)
           P.6.PS.6       Compare and contrast Newton's three laws of motion
           P.6.PS.7       Design and conduct investigations demonstrating Newton's first law of motion
           P.6.PS.8       Conduct investigations demonstrating Newton's second law of motion
           P.6.PS.9       Design and conduct investigations demonstrating Newton's third law of motion
           P.6.PS.10      Calculate force, mass, and acceleration using Newton's second law of motion: F = ma (Where
                          F=force, m=mass, a=acceleration)
           P.6.PS.11      Relate the Law of Conservation of Momentum to how it affects the movement of objects
           P.6.PS.12      Compare and contrast the effects of forces on fluids: Archimedes' principle, Pascal's
                          principle, Bernoulli's principle
           P.6.PS.13      Design an experiment to show conversion of energy: mechanical (potential and kinetic),
                          chemical, thermal, sound, light, nuclear
           P.6.PS.14      Solve problems by using formulas for gravitational potential and kinetic energy
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.7.PS. Physical Science: Physics: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of wave and particle motion.
           P.7.PS.1       Compare and contrast a wave's speed through various mediums
           P.7.PS.2       Explain diffraction of waves
           P.7.PS.3       Explain Doppler effect using examples
           P.7.PS.4       Calculate problems relating to wave properties: wavelength, frequency, period, velocity
           P.7.PS.5       Describe how the physical properties of sound waves affect its perception
           P.7.PS.6       Define light in terms of waves and particles
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.7.PS.7       Explain the formation of color by light and by pigments
           P.7.PS.8       Investigate the separation of white light into colors by diffraction
           P.7.PS.9       Illustrate constructive and destructive interference of light waves
           P.7.PS.10      Differentiate among the reflected images produced by concave, convex, and plane mirrors
           P.7.PS.11      Differentiate between the refracted images produced by concave and convex lenses
           P.7.PS.12      Research current uses of optics and sound
AR.8.PS. Physical Science: Physics: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of electricity and magnetism in the physical
           world.
           P.8.PS.1       Calculate voltage, current, and resistance from a schematic diagram
           P.8.PS.2       Calculate electrical power using current and voltage: P = IV (Where P=power, I=current,
                          V=voltage)
           P.8.PS.3       Calculate electrical energy using electrical power and time: E=Pt (Where E=energy, P=power,
                          t=time)
           P.8.PS.4       Explain the use of electromagnets in step-up and step-down transformers
           P.8.PS.5       Research current uses of electromagnets
AR.9.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.9.PS.1      Explain why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.9.PS.2      Compare and contrast hypotheses, theories, and laws
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.9.PS.3      Distinguish between a scientific theory and the term 'theory' used in general conversation
           NS.9.PS.4      Summarize the guidelines of science: explanations are based on observations, evidence, and
                          testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change with
                          additional empirical data; scientific knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                          acceptance
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.10.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall design and safely conduct a scientific inquiry to solve valid problems.
           NS.10.PS.1 Develop and explain the appropriate procedure, controls, and variables (dependent and
                      independent) in scientific experimentation
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.10.PS.2 Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (refer to ADE Guidelines) when designing
                      and/or conducting scientific investigations
           NS.10.PS.3 Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.10.PS.4 Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics
           NS.10.PS.5 Formulate valid conclusions without bias
           NS.10.PS.6 Communicate experimental results using appropriate reports, figures, and tables
AR.11.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of historical trends in physical science.
           NS.11.PS.1 Recognize the factors that constitute a scientific theory
           NS.11.PS.2 Explain why scientific theories may be modified or expanded using additional empirical data,
                      verification, and peer review
           NS.11.PS.3 Summarize the development of the current atomic theory
           NS.11.PS.4 Analyze the development of the periodic table
           NS.11.PS.5 Research historical events in physical science
           NS.11.PS.6 Research current events and topics in physical science
AR.12.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to
           communicate and solve physical science problems.
           NS.12.PS.1 Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., balances,
                      scales, calculators, probes, glassware, burners, computer software and hardware)
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.12.PS.2 Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures, and
                      tables
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.12.PS.3 Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.13.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.13.PS.1 Compare and contrast physical science concepts in pure science and applied science
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.13.PS.2 Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.13.PS.3 Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                      environmental, economic, and political impact
           NS.13.PS.4 Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                      advancements in science and technology
           NS.13.PS.5 Describe in detail the methods used by scientists in their research
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.14.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various physical science careers and the training required for the
           selected career.
           NS.14.PS.1 Research and evaluate physical science careers using the following criteria: educational
                      requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.P.    Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand one-dimensional motion.
           MF.1.P.1       Compare and contrast scalar and vector quantities
           MF.1.P.2       Solve problems involving constant and average velocity
           MF.1.P.3       Apply kinematic equations to calculate distance, time, or velocity under conditions of
                          constant acceleration
           MF.1.P.4       Compare graphic representations of motion: d-t, v-t, a-t
           MF.1.P.5       Calculate the components of a free falling object at various points in motion
           MF.1.P.6       Compare and contrast contact force (e.g., friction) and field forces (e.g., gravitational force)
           MF.1.P.7       Draw free body diagrams of all forces acting upon an object
           MF.1.P.8       Calculate the applied forces represented in a free body diagram
           MF.1.P.9       Apply Newton's first law of motion to show balanced and unbalanced forces
           MF.1.P.10      Apply Newton's second law of motion to solve motion problems that involve constant forces:
                          F=ma
           MF.1.P.11      Apply Newton's third law of motion to explain action-reaction pairs
           MF.1.P.12      Calculate frictional forces (i.e., kinetic and static)
           MF.1.P.13      Calculate the magnitude of the force of friction
AR.2.P.    Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand two-dimensional motion.
           MF.2.P.1       Calculate the resultant vector of a moving object
           MF.2.P.2       Resolve two-dimensional vectors into their components
           MF.2.P.3       Calculate the magnitude and direction of a vector from its components
           MF.2.P.4       Solve two-dimensional problems using balanced forces
           MF.2.P.5       Solve two-dimensional problems using the Pythagorean Theorem or the quadratic formula
           MF.2.P.6       Describe the path of a projectile as a parabola
           MF.2.P.7       Apply kinematic equations to solve problems involving projectile motion of an object
                          launched at an angle
           MF.2.P.8       Apply kinematic equations to solve problems involving projectile motion of an object
                          launched with initial horizontal velocity
           MF.2.P.9       Calculate rotational motion with a constant force directed toward the center
           MF.2.P.10      Solve problems in circular motion by using centripetal acceleration
AR.3.P.    Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand the dynamics of rotational equilibrium.
           MF.3.P.1       Relate radians to degrees
           MF.3.P.2       Calculate the magnitude of torque on an object
           MF.3.P.3       Calculate angular speed and angular acceleration
           MF.3.P.4       Solve problems using kinematic equations for angular motion
           MF.3.P.5       Solve problems involving tangential speed
           MF.3.P.6       Solve problems involving tangential acceleration
           MF.3.P.7       Calculate centripetal acceleration
           MF.3.P.8       Apply Newton's universal law of gravitation to find the gravitational force between two
                          masses
AR.4.P.    Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand the relationship between work and energy.
           MF.4.P.1       Calculate net work done by a constant net force
           MF.4.P.2       Solve problems relating kinetic energy and potential energy to the work-energy theorem
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MF.4.P.3       Solve problems through the application of conservation of mechanical energy
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MF.4.P.4       Relate the concepts of time and energy to power
           MF.4.P.5       Prove the relationship of time, energy and power through problem solving
AR.5.P.    Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand the law of conservation of momentum.
           MF.5.P.1       Describe changes in momentum in terms of force and time
           MF.5.P.2       Solve problems using the impulse-momentum theorem
           MF.5.P.3       Compare total momentum of two objects before and after they interact
           MF.5.P.4       Solve problems for perfectly inelastic and elastic collisions
AR.6.P.    Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand the concepts of fluid mechanics.
           MF.6.P.1       Calibrate the applied buoyant force to determine if the object will sink or float
           MF.6.P.2       Apply Pascal's principle to an enclosed fluid system
           MF.6.P.3       Apply Bernoulli's equation to solve fluid-flow problems
           MF.6.P.4       Use the ideal gas law to predict the properties of an ideal gas under different conditions:
                          Physics (PV=NkbT - N=number of gas particles; kb=Boltzmann's constant; T=temperature);
                          Chemistry (PV=nRT - n=number of moles; R=Molar gas constant; T=temperature)
AR.7.P.    Physics: Heat and Thermodynamics: Students shall understand the effects of thermal energy on particles and systems.
           HT.7.P.1       Perform specific heat capacity calculations
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           HT.7.P.2       Perform calculations involving latent heat
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           HT.7.P.3       Interpret the various sections of a heating curve diagram
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           HT.7.P.4       Calculate heat energy of the different phase changes of a substance
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.8.P.    Physics: Heat and Thermodynamics: Students shall apply the two laws of thermodynamics.
           HT.8.P.1       Describe how the first law of thermodynamics is a statement of energy conversion
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           HT.8.P.2       Calculate heat, work, and the change in internal energy by applying the first law of
                          thermodynamics
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           HT.8.P.3       Calculate the efficiency of a heat engine by using the second law of thermodynamics
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           HT.8.P.4       Distinguish between entropy changes within systems and the entropy change for the
                          universe as a whole
AR.9.P.    Physics: Waves and Optics: Students shall distinguish between simple harmonic motion and waves.
           WO.9.P.1       Explain how force, velocity, and acceleration change as an object vibrates with simple
                          harmonic motion
           WO.9.P.2       Calculate the spring force using Hooke's law: F elastic=-kx (Where -k=spring constant)
           WO.9.P.3       Calculate the period and frequency of an object vibrating with a simple harmonic motion
           WO.9.P.4       Differentiate between pulse and periodic waves
           WO.9.P.5       Relate energy and amplitude
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.10.P.   Physics: Waves and Optics: Students shall compare and contrast the law of reflection and the law of refraction.
           WO.10.P.1      Calculate the frequency and wavelength of electromagnetic radiation
           WO.10.P.2      Apply the law of reflection for flat mirrors
           WO.10.P.3      Describe the images formed by flat mirrors
           WO.10.P.4      Calculate distances and focal lengths for curved mirrors
           WO.10.P.5      Draw ray diagrams to find the image distance and magnification for curved mirrors
           WO.10.P.6      Solve problems using Snell's law
           WO.10.P.7      Calculate the index of refraction through various media using the following equation: n=c/v
                          (Where n=index of refraction; c=speed of light in vacuum; v=speed of light in medium)
           WO.10.P.8  Use a ray diagram to find the position of an image produced by a lens
           WO.10.P.9  Solve problems using the thin-lens equation: 1/p + 1/q + 1/f (Where q=image distance;
                      p=object distance; f=focal length)
           WO.10.P.10 Calculate the magnification of lenses: M=h'/h=q/p (Where M=magnification; h'=image height;
                      h=object height; q=image distance; p=object distance)
AR.11.P.   Physics: Electricity and Magnetism: Students shall understand the relationship between electric forces and electric fields.
           EM.11.P.1      Calculate electric force using Coulomb's law
           EM.11.P.2      Calculate electric field strength
           EM.11.P.3      Draw and interpret electric field lines
AR.12.P.   Physics: Electricity and Magnetism: Students shall understand the relationship between electric energy and capacitance.
           EM.12.P.1      Calculate electrical potential energy
           EM.12.P.2      Compute the electric potential for various charge distributions
           EM.12.P.3      Calculate the capacitance of various devices
           EM.12.P.4      Construct a circuit to produce a pre-determined value of an Ohm's law variable
AR.13.P.   Physics: Electricity and Magnetism: Students shall understand how magnetism relates to induced and alternating currents.
           EM.13.P.1      Determine the strength of a magnetic field
           EM.13.P.2      Use the first right-hand rule to find the direction of the force on the charge moving through a
                          magnetic field
           EM.13.P.3      Determine the magnitude and direction of the force on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic
                          field
           EM.13.P.4      Describe how the change in the number of magnetic field lines through a circuit loop affects
                          the magnitude and direction of the induced current
           EM.13.P.5      Calculate the induced electromagnetic field (emf) and current using Faraday's law of
                          induction
AR.14.P.   Physics: Nuclear Physics: Students shall understand the concepts of quantum mechanics as they apply to the atomic spectrum.
           NP.14.P.1      Calculate energy quanta using Planck's equation: E=hf
           NP.14.P.2      Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of matter: wavelength=h/p=h/mv
           NP.14.P.3      Distinguish between classical ideas of measurement and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
           NP.14.P.4      Research emerging theories in physics, such as string theory
AR.15.P.   Physics: Nuclear Physics: Students shall understand the process of nuclear decay.
           NP.15.P.1      Calculate the binding energy of various nuclei
           NP.15.P.2      Predict the products of nuclear decay
           NP.15.P.3      Calculate the decay constant and the half-life of a radioactive substance
AR.16.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.16.P.1      Describe why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.16.P.2      Compare and contrast the criteria for the formation of hypotheses, theories and laws
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.16.P.3      Summarize the guidelines of science: results are based on observations, evidence, and
                          testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change as
                          new data are generated; empirical knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                          acceptance
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.17.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall safely design and conduct a scientific inquiry to solve valid problems.
           NS.17.P.1      Develop the appropriate procedures using controls and variables (dependent and
                          independent) in scientific experimentation
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.17.P.2      Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (ADE Guidelines) when designing and/or
                          conducting scientific investigations
           NS.17.P.3      Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.17.P.4      Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics (e.g., percent yield, percent
                          error)
           NS.17.P.5      Formulate valid conclusions without bias
AR.18.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of historical trends in physics.
           NS.18.P.1      Recognize that theories are scientific explanations that require empirical data, verification
                          and peer review
           NS.18.P.2      Research historical and current events in physics
AR.19.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to communicate and
           solve physics problems.
           NS.19.P.1      Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., balances,
                          scales, calculators, probes, glassware, burners, computer software and hardware)
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.19.P.2      Manipulate scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, charts, tables, and
                          graphs
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.19.P.3      Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.20.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.20.P.1      Compare and contrast the connections between pure science and applied science as it
                          relates to physics
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.20.P.2      Give examples of scientific bias that affect outcomes of experimental results
           NS.20.P.3      Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.20.P.4      Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                          environmental, economic, and political impact.
           NS.20.P.5      Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                          advancements in science and technology
AR.21.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various physics careers and the training required for the selected career.
           NS.21.P.1      Research and evaluate careers in physics using the following criteria: educational
                          requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions



Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks - Science Grade 10
AR.1.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Organization of the Human Body: Students shall explore the organizational structures of the body
           from the molecular to the organism level.
           OHB.1.AP.1 Infer the relationship between anatomy and physiology
           OHB.1.AP.2 Sequence the levels of organization of the human body
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.3 Identify the major body systems
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.4 Describe relative positions, body planes, body regions and body quadrants
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.5 Identify the major body cavities and the subdivisions of each cavity
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.6 Investigate homeostatic control mechanisms and their importance to health and diseases
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.7 Predict the effect of positive and negative feedback mechanisms on homeostasis
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.8 Identify the major characteristics of life: metabolism, responsiveness, movement, Growth,
                      reproduction, differentiation
AR.2.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Cellular Chemistry: Students shall understand the role of chemistry in body processes.
           CC.2.AP.1      Distinguish between matter and energy
           CC.2.AP.2      Explain the basic assumptions and conclusions of the atomic theory
           CC.2.AP.3      Distinguish between compounds and mixtures
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.4      Explain the role of ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds in the human body
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.5      Write simple formulas and chemical word equations for the four basic types of reactions:
                          synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.6      Analyze the role of water in the human body
           CC.2.AP.7      Explain the relationship among acids, bases, and salts
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.8      Relate the concept of pH to homeostasis
           CC.2.AP.9      Compare the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.10 Describe the characteristics and importance of enzymes
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.3.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Anatomy and Physiology of the Cell: Students shall understand that cells are the basic, structural, and
           functional units of life.
           APC.3.AP.1 Explain the structure and function of the plasma membrane
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           APC.3.AP.2 Compare and contrast the different ways in which substances cross the plasma membrane:
                      diffusion and osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport, filtration, endocytosis,
                      exocytosis
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           APC.3.AP.3 Describe the structure and function of organelles and cell parts
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           APC.3.AP.4 Identify chemical substances produced by cells
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           APC.3.AP.5 Differentiate among replication, transcription, and translation
           APC.3.AP.6 Differentiate between mitosis and meiosis
           APC.3.AP.7 Explain the consequences of abnormal cell division
AR.4.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Tissues: Students shall understand the histology of the human body
           T.4.AP.1        Describe the structure, location, and function of each tissue category: epithelial, connective,
                           nervous, muscle
AR.5.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the integumentary system.
           BS.5.AP.1       Identify the components of the integumentary system
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.5.AP.2       Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the skin
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.5.AP.3       Identify the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the integumentary system
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.5.AP.4       Describe disorders associated with the integumentary system
AR.6.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the skeletal system.
           BS.6.AP.1       Identify the components the skeletal system
           BS.6.AP.2       Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the skeletal system
           BS.6.AP.3       Identify the macroscopic and microscopic structure of bone
           BS.6.AP.4       Describe disorders associated with the skeletal system
AR.7.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the muscular system.
           BS.7.AP.1       Identify the components the muscular system
           BS.7.AP.2       Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the muscular system
           BS.7.AP.3       Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of muscle
           BS.7.AP.4       Describe disorders associated with the muscular system
AR.8.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system.
           BS.8.AP.1       Identify the components the nervous system
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.8.AP.2       Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the nervous system
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.8.AP.3       Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the nervous system
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.8.AP.4       Describe disorders associated with the nervous system
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.9.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the endocrine system.
           BS.9.AP.1       Identify the components of the endocrine system
           BS.9.AP.2       Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the endocrine system
           BS.9.AP.3       Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the endocrine system
           BS.9.AP.4       Describe disorders associated with the endocrine system
AR.10.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system.
           BS.10.AP.1 Identify the components of the cardiovascular system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.10.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the cardiovascular system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.10.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the cardiovascular system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.10.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the cardiovascular system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.11.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the immune and lymphatic
           systems.
           BS.11.AP.1 Identify the components of the immune and lymphatic systems
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.11.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the immune and lymphatic systems
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.11.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the immune and lymphatic
                      systems
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.11.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the immune and lymphatic systems
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.12.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system.
           BS.12.AP.1 Identify the components of the respiratory system
           BS.12.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the respiratory system
           BS.12.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the respiratory system
           BS.12.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the respiratory system
AR.13.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the digestive system.
           BS.13.AP.1 Identify the components the digestive system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.13.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the digestive system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.13.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the digestive system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.13.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the digestive system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.14.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.
           BS.14.AP.1 Identify the components the urinary system
           BS.14.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the urinary system
           BS.14.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the urinary system
           BS.14.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the urinary system
AR.15.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the reproductive system
           BS.15.AP.1 Describe the components and the organization of the reproductive system
           BS.15.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the reproductive system
           BS.15.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the reproductive system
           BS.15.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the reproductive system
AR.16.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.16.AP.1 Explain why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.16.AP.2 Compare and contrast hypotheses, theories, and laws
           NS.16.AP.3 Distinguish between a scientific theory and the term 'theory' used in general conversation
           NS.16.AP.4 Summarize the guidelines of science: explanations are based on observations, evidence, and
                      testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change with
                      additional empirical data; scientific knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                      acceptance
AR.17.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall design and safely conduct scientific inquiry.
           NS.17.AP.1 Develop and explain the appropriate procedure, controls, and variables (dependent and
                      independent) in scientific experimentation
           NS.17.AP.2 Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (refer to ADE Guidelines) when designing
                      and/or conducting scientific investigations
           NS.17.AP.3 Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.17.AP.4 Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics
           NS.17.AP.5 Formulate valid conclusions without bias
           NS.17.AP.6 Communicate experimental results using appropriate reports, figures, and tables
AR.18.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of current life science theories.
           NS.18.AP.1 Understand that scientific theories may be modified or expanded based on additional
                      empirical data, verification, and peer review
           NS.18.AP.2 Relate the development of the cell theory to current trends in cellular biology
           NS.18.AP.3 Describe the relationship between the germ theory of disease and our current knowledge of
                      immunology and control of infectious diseases
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.18.AP.4 Relate the chromosome theory of heredity to recent findings in genetic research (e.g., Human
                      Genome Project-HGP, chromosome therapy)
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.18.AP.5 Research current events and topics in human biology
AR.19.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to
           communicate and solve life science problems.
           NS.19.AP.1 Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures, and
                      tables
           NS.19.AP.2 Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., microscopes,
                      centrifuges, flexible arm cameras, computer software and hardware)
           NS.19.AP.3 Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.20.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.20.AP.1 Compare and contrast human biology concepts in pure science and applied science
           NS.20.AP.2 Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.20.AP.3 Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                      advancements in science and technology
AR.21.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various health science careers and the training required
           for the selected career.
           NS.21.AP.1 Research and evaluate health science careers using the following criteria: educational
                      requirements; salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.B.    Biology: Molecules and Cells: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of chemistry in life processes.
           MC.1.B.1       Describe the structure and function of the major organic molecules found in living systems:
                          carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, lipids, nucleic acids
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MC.1.B.2       Describe the relationship between an enzyme and its substrate molecule(s)
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MC.1.B.3       Investigate the properties and importance of water and its significance for life: surface
                          tension, adhesion, cohesion, polarity, pH
           MC.1.B.4       Explain the role of energy in chemical reactions of living systems: activation energy,
                          exergonic reactions, endergonic reactions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.2.B.    Biology: Molecules and Cells: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of cells.
           MC.2.B.1       Construct a hierarchy of life from cells to ecosystems
           MC.2.B.2       Compare and contrast prokaryotes and eukaryotes
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MC.2.B.3       Describe the role of sub-cellular structures in the life of a cell: organelles, ribosomes,
                          cytoskeleton
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MC.2.B.4       Relate the function of the plasma (cell) membrane to its structure
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MC.2.B.5       Compare and contrast the structures of an animal cell to a plant cell
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MC.2.B.6       Compare and contrast the functions of autotrophs and heterotrophs
           MC.2.B.7       Compare and contrast active transport and passive transport mechanisms: diffusion,
                          osmosis, endocytosis, exocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis
           MC.2.B.8       Describe the main events in the cell cycle, including the differences in plant and animal cell
                          division: interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
           MC.2.B.9       List in order and describe the stages of mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.
           MC.2.B.10      Analyze the meiotic maintenance of a constant chromosome number from one generation to
                          the next
           MC.2.B.11      Discuss homeostasis using thermoregulation as an example
AR.3.B.    Biology: Molecules and Cells: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of how cells obtain and use energy (energetics).
           MC.3.B.1       Compare and contrast the structure and function of mitochondria and chloroplasts
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MC.3.B.2       Describe and model the conversion of stored energy in organic molecules into usable cellular
                          energy (ATP): glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MC.3.B.3       Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration: lactic acid fermentation, alcoholic
                          fermentation
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MC.3.B.4       Describe and model the conversion of light energy to chemical energy by photosynthetic
                          organisms: light dependent reactions, light independent reactions
           MC.3.B.5       Compare and contrast cellular respiration and photosynthesis as energy conversion
                          pathways
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.4.B.    Biology: Heredity and Evolution: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of heredity.
           HE.4.B.1       Summarize the outcomes of Gregor Mendel's experimental procedures
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
          HE.4.B.2       Differentiate among the laws and principles of inheritance: dominance, segregation,
                         independent assortment
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          HE.4.B.3       Use the laws of probability and Punnett squares to predict genotypic and phenotypic ratios
          HE.4.B.4       Examine different modes of inheritance: sex linkage, codominance, crossing over,
                         incomplete dominance, multiple alleles
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          HE.4.B.5       Analyze the historically significant work of prominent geneticists
          HE.4.B.6       Evaluate karyotypes for abnormalities: monosomy, trisomy
AR.5.B.   Biology: Heredity and Evolution: Students shall investigate the molecular basis of genetics.
          HE.5.B.1       Model the components of a DNA nucleotide and an RNA nucleotide
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          HE.5.B.2       Describe the Watson-Crick double helix model of DNA, using the base-pairing rule (adenine-
                         thymine, cytosine-guanine)
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          HE.5.B.3       Compare and contrast the structure and function of DNA and RNA
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          HE.5.B.4       Describe and model the processes of replication, transcription, and translation
          HE.5.B.5       Compare and contrast the different types of mutation events, including point mutation,
                         frameshift mutation, deletion, and inversion
          HE.5.B.6       Identify effects of changes brought about by mutations: beneficial, harmful, neutral
AR.6.B.   Biology: Heredity and Evolution: Students shall examine the development of the theory of biological evolution.
          HE.6.B.1       Compare and contrast Lamarck's explanation of evolution with Darwin's theory of evolution
                         by natural selection
          HE.6.B.2       Recognize that evolution involves a change in allele frequencies in a population across
                         successive generations
          HE.6.B.3       Analyze the effects of mutations and the resulting variations within a population in terms of
                         natural selection
          HE.6.B.4       Illustrate mass extinction events using a time line
          HE.6.B.5       Evaluate evolution in terms of evidence as found in the following: fossil record, DNA
                         analysis, artificial selection, morphology, embryology, viral evolution, geographic distribution
                         of related species, antibiotic and pesticide resistance in various organisms
          HE.6.B.6       Compare the processes of relative dating and radioactive dating to determine the age of
                         fossils
          HE.6.B.7       Interpret a Cladogram
AR.7.B.   Biology: Classification and the Diversity of Life: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that organisms are diverse.
          CDL.7.B.1      Differentiate among the different domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
          CDL.7.B.2      Differentiate the characteristics of the six kingdoms: Eubacteria, Archaea, Protista, Fungi,
                         Plantae, Animalia
          CDL.7.B.3      Identify the seven major taxonomic categories: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus,
                         species
          CDL.7.B.4      Classify and name organisms based on their similarities and differences applying taxonomic
                         nomenclature using dichotomous keys
          CDL.7.B.5      Investigate Arkansas' biodiversity using appropriate tools and technology
          CDL.7.B.6      Compare and contrast the structures and characteristics of viruses (lytic and lysogenic
                         cycles) with non-living and living things
          CDL.7.B.7      Evaluate the medical and economic importance of viruses
          CDL.7.B.8      Compare and contrast life cycles of familiar organisms: sexual reproduction, asexual
                         reproduction, metamorphosis, alternation of generations
          CDL.7.B.9      Classify bacteria according to their characteristics and adaptations
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          CDL.7.B.10 Evaluate the medical and economic importance of bacteria
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
          CDL.7.B.11 Describe the characteristics used to classify protists: plant-like, animal-like, fungal-like
          CDL.7.B.12 Evaluate the medical and economic importance of protists
          CDL.7.B.13 Compare and contrast fungi with other eukaryotic organisms
          CDL.7.B.14 Evaluate the medical and economic importance of fungi
          CDL.7.B.15 Differentiate between vascular and nonvascular plants
          CDL.7.B.16 Differentiate among cycads, gymnosperms, and angiosperms
          CDL.7.B.17 Describe the structure and function of the major parts of a plant: roots, stems, leaves, flowers
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
          CDL.7.B.18 Relate the structure of plant tissue to its function: epidermal, ground, vascular
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CDL.7.B.19 Evaluate the medical and economic importance of plants
           CDL.7.B.20 Identify the symmetry of organisms: radial, bilateral, asymmetrical
           CDL.7.B.21 Compare and contrast the major invertebrate classes according to their nervous, respiratory,
                      excretory, circulatory, and digestive systems
           CDL.7.B.22 Compare and contrast the major vertebrate classes according to their nervous, respiratory,
                      excretory, circulatory, digestive, reproductive and integumentary systems
AR.8.B.    Biology: Ecology and Behavioral Relationships: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of ecological and behavioral
           relationships among organisms.
           EBR.8.B.1      Cite examples of abiotic and biotic factors of ecosystems
           EBR.8.B.2      Compare and contrast the characteristics of biomes
           EBR.8.B.3      Diagram the carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, and water cycles in an ecosystem
           EBR.8.B.4      Analyze an ecosystem's energy flow through food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids
           EBR.8.B.5      Identify and predict the factors that control population, including predation, competition,
                          crowding, water, nutrients, and shelter
           EBR.8.B.6      Summarize the symbiotic ways in which individuals within a community interact with each
                          other: commensalism, parasitism, mutualism
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           EBR.8.B.7      Compare and contrast primary succession with secondary succession
           EBR.8.B.8      Identify the properties of each of the five levels of ecology: organism, population, community,
                          ecosystem, biosphere
AR.9.B.    Biology: Ecology and Behavioral Relationships: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the ecological impact of global
           issues.
           EBR.9.B.1      Analyze the effects of human population growth and technology on the
                          environment/biosphere
           EBR.9.B.2      Evaluate long range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal in terms of their
                          environmental, economic, and political impact
           EBR.9.B.3      Assess current world issues applying scientific themes (e.g., global changes in climate,
                          epidemics, pandemics, ozone depletion, UV radiation, natural resources, use of technology,
                          and public policy)
AR.10.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.10.B.1      Explain why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.10.B.2      Compare and contrast hypotheses, theories, and laws
           NS.10.B.3      Distinguish between a scientific theory and the term 'theory' used in general conversation
           NS.10.B.4      Summarize the guidelines of science: explanations are based on observations, evidence, and
                          testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change with
                          additional empirical data; scientific knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                          acceptance
AR.11.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall design and safely conduct scientific inquiry.
           NS.11.B.1      Develop and explain the appropriate procedure, controls, and variables (dependent and
                          independent) in scientific experimentation
           NS.11.B.2      Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (refer to ADE Guidelines) when designing
                          and/or conducting scientific investigations
           NS.11.B.3      Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.11.B.4      Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics
           NS.11.B.5      Formulate valid conclusions without bias
           NS.11.B.6      Communicate experimental results using appropriate reports, figures, and tables
AR.12.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of current life science theories.
           NS.12.B.1      Recognize that theories are scientific explanations that require empirical data, verification,
                          and peer review
           NS.12.B.2      Understand that scientific theories may be modified or expanded based on additional
                          empirical data, verification, and peer review
           NS.12.B.3      Summarize biological evolution
           NS.12.B.4      Relate the development of the cell theory to current trends in cellular biology
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.12.B.5      Describe the relationship between the germ theory of disease and our current knowledge of
                          immunology and control of infectious diseases
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.12.B.6      Relate the chromosome theory of heredity to recent findings in genetic research (e.g., Human
                          Genome Project-HGP, chromosome therapy)
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.12.B.7      Research current events and topics in biology
AR.13.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to communicate and
           solve life science problems.
           NS.13.B.1      Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures, and
                          tables
           NS.13.B.2      Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., microscopes,
                          centrifuges, flexible arm cameras, computer software and hardware)
           NS.13.B.3      Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.14.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.14.B.1      Compare and contrast biological concepts in pure science and applied science
           NS.14.B.2      Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.14.B.3      Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                          environmental, economic, and political impact
           NS.14.B.4      Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                          advancements in science and technology
AR.15.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various life science careers and the training required for the selected career.
           NS.15.B.1      Research and evaluate science careers using the following criteria: educational
                          requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.C.    Chemistry: Atomic Theory: Students shall understand the historical development of the model of the atom.
           AT.1.C.1.      Summarize the discoveries of the subatomic particles: Rutherford's gold foil, Chadwick's
                          discovery of the neutron, Thomson's cathode ray, Millikan's Oil Drop
           AT.1.C.2       Explain the historical events that led to the development of the current atomic theory
AR.2.C.    Chemistry: Atomic Theory: Students shall understand the structure of the atom.
           AT.2.C.1       Analyze an atom's particle position, arrangement, and charge using: proton, neutron,
                          electron
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           AT.2.C.2       Compare the magnitude and range of nuclear forces to magnetic forces and gravitational
                          forces
           AT.2.C.3       Draw and explain nuclear symbols and hyphen notations for isotopes
           AT.2.C.4       Derive an average atomic mass
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           AT.2.C.5       Determine the arrangement of subatomic particles in the ion(s) of an atom
AR.3.C.    Chemistry: Atomic Theory: Students shall understand how the arrangement of electrons in atoms relates to the quantum model.
           AT.3.C.1       Correlate emissions of visible light with the arrangement of electrons in atoms: quantum,
                          frequency, wavelength
           AT.3.C.2       Apply the following rules or principles to model electron arrangement in atoms: Aufbau
                          Principle (diagonal filling order), Hund's Rule, Pauli's Exclusion Principle
           AT.3.C.3       Predict the placement of elements on the Periodic Table and their properties using electron
                          configuration
           AT.3.C.4       Demonstrate electron placement in atoms using the following notations: orbital notations,
                          electron configuration notation, Lewis electron dot structures
AR.4.C.    Chemistry: Periodicity: Students shall understand the significance of the Periodic Table and its historical development.
           P.4.C.1        Compare and contrast the historical events leading to the evolution of the Periodic Table
           P.4.C.2        Describe the arrangement of the Periodic Table based on electron filling orders: Groups,
                          Periods
           P.4.C.3        Interpret periodic trends: atomic radius, ionic radius, ionization energy, electron affinities,
                          electronegativities
AR.5.C.    Chemistry: Periodicity: Students shall name and write formulas for binary and ternary compounds.
           P.5.C.1        Write formulas for binary and ternary compounds: IUPAC system, Greek prefixes, polyatomic
                          ions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.5.C.2        Name binary and ternary compounds
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.5.C.3        Predict the name and symbol for newly discovered elements using the IUPAC system
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.6.C.    Chemistry: Periodicity: Students shall explain the changes of matter using physical properties and chemical properties.
           P.6.C.1        Compare and contrast matter based on uniformity of particles: pure substances, solutions,
                          heterogeneous mixtures
           P.6.C.2        Distinguish between extensive and intensive physical properties of matter
           P.6.C.3        Separate homogeneous mixtures using physical processes: chromatography
           P.6.C.4        Design experiments tracing the energy involved in physical changes and chemical changes
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.6.C.5        Predict the chemical properties of substances based on their electron configuration: active,
                          inactive, inert
AR.7.C.    Chemistry: Periodicity: Students shall use atomic mass or experimental data to calculate relationships between elements and
           compounds.
           P.7.C.1        Demonstrate an understanding of the Law of Multiple Proportions
AR.8.C.    Chemistry: Bonding: Students shall understand the process of ionic bonding.
           B.8.C.1        Determine ion formation tendencies for groups on the Periodic Table: main group elements,
                          transition elements
           B.8.C.2        Derive formula units based on the charges of ions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           B.8.C.3        Use the electronegativitiy chart to predict the bonding type of compounds: ionic, polar
                          covalent, non-polar covalent
AR.9.C.    Chemistry: Bonding: Students shall understand the process of covalent bonding.
           B.9.C.1        Draw Lewis structures to show valence electrons for covalent bonding: lone pairs, shared
                          pairs, hybridization, resonance
           B.9.C.2        Determine the properties of covalent compounds based upon double and triple bonding
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           B.9.C.3        Predict the polarity and geometry of a molecule based upon shared electron pairs and lone
                          electron pairs: VSEPR Model
           B.9.C.4        Identify the strengths and effects of intermolecular forces (van der Waals): hydrogen
                          bonding, dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole, dispersion forces (London)
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.10.C.   Chemistry: Bonding: Students shall understand the process of metallic bonding.
           B.10.C.1       Explain the properties of metals due to delocalized electrons: molecular orbital model
AR.11.C.   Chemistry: Bonding: Students shall relate the physical properties of solids to different types of bonding.
           B.11.C.1       Distinguish between amorphous and crystalline solids
           B.11.C.2       Compare and contrast the properties of crystalline solids: ionic, covalent network, covalent
                          molecular, metallic
AR.12.C.   Chemistry: Stoichiometry: Students shall understand the relationships between balanced chemical equations and mole
           relationships.
           S.12.C.1       Balance chemical equations when all reactants and products are given
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           S.12.C.2       Use balanced reaction equations to obtain information about the amounts of reactants and
                          products
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           S.12.C.3       Distinguish between limiting reactants and excess reactants in balanced reaction equations
           S.12.C.4       Calculate stoichiometric quantities and use these to determine theoretical yields
AR.13.C.   Chemistry: Stoichiometry: Students shall understand the mole concept and Avogadro's number.
           S.13.C.1       Apply the mole concept to calculate the number of particles and the amount of substance:
                          Avogadro's constant = 6.02 x E23
           S.13.C.2       Determine the empirical and molecular formulas using the molar concept: molar mass,
                          average atomic mass, molecular mass, formula mass
AR.14.C.   Chemistry: Stoichiometry: Students shall predict products based upon the type of chemical reaction.
           S.14.C.1       Given the products and reactants predict products for the following types of reactions:
                          synthesis, decomposition, single displacement, double displacement, combustion
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.15.C.   Chemistry: Stoichiometry: Students shall understand the composition of solutions, their formation, and their strengths
           expressed in various units.
           S.15.C.1       Distinguish between the terms solute, solvent, solution and concentration
           S.15.C.2       Give examples for the nine solvent-solute pairs
           S.15.C.3       Calculate the following concentration expressions involving the amount of solute and volume
                          of solution: molarity (M), molality (m), percent composition, normality (N)
           S.15.C.4       Given the quantity of a solution, determine the quantity of another species in the reaction
           S.15.C.5       Define heat of solution
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           S.15.C.6       Identify the physical state for each substance in a reaction equation
AR.16.C.   Chemistry: Gas Laws: Student shall understand the behavior of gas particles as it relates to the kinetic theory.
           GL.16.C.1      Demonstrate the relationship of the kinetic theory as it applies to gas particles: molecular
                          motion, elastic collisions, temperature, pressure, ideal gas
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           GL.16.C.2      Calculate the effects of pressure, temperature, and volume on the number of moles of gas
                          particles in chemical reactions
AR.17.C.   Chemistry: Gas Laws: Students shall understand the relationships between temperature, pressure, volume, and moles of a gas.
           GL.17.C.1      Calculate the effects of pressure, temperature, and volume to gases: Avogadro's Law,
                          Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, Combined Law, Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure, Graham's Law of
                          Effusion, Guy-Lussac, Ideal Gas Law
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.18.C.   Chemistry: Gas Laws: Student shall apply the stoichiometric mass and volume relationships of gases in chemical reactions.
           GL.18.C.1      Calculate volume/mass relationships in balanced chemical reaction equations
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.19.C.   Chemistry: Acids and Bases: Students shall understand the historical development of the acid/base theories.
           AB.19.C.1      Compare and contrast the following acid/base theories: Arrhenius Theory, Bronsted-Lowry
                          Theory, Lewis Theory
AR.20.C.   Chemistry: Acids and Bases: Students shall demonstrate proficiency in acid, base, and salt nomenclature.
           AB.20.C.1      Name and write formulas for acids, bases and salts: binary acids, ternary acids, ionic
                          compounds
AR.21.C.   Chemistry: Acids and Bases: Students shall apply rules of nomenclature to acids, bases, and salts.
           AB.21.C.1      Compare and contrast acid and base properties
           AB.21.C.2      Describe the role that dissociation plays in the determination of strong and weak acids or
                          bases
           AB.21.C.3      Use acid-base equilibrium constants to develop and explain: ionization constants, percent of
                          ionization, common ion effect
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           AB.21.C.4      Explain the role of the pH scale as applied to acids and bases
AR.22.C.   Chemistry: Acids and Bases: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of titration as a laboratory tool.
           AB.22.C.1      Perform a titration to solve for the concentration of an acid or base
           AB.22.C.2      Use indicators in neutralization reactions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           AB.22.C.3      Investigate the role of buffers
AR.23.C.   Chemistry: Kinetics and Energetics: Students shall understand enthalpy, entropy, and free energy and their relationship to
           chemical reactions.
           KE.23.C.1      Define enthalpy and entropy and explain the relationship to exothermic and endothermic
                          reactions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           KE.23.C.2      Define free energy in terms of enthalpy and entropy: spontaneous reaction, increase in
                          disorder, decrease in disorder
           KE.23.C.3      Calculate entropy, enthalpy, and free energy changes in chemical reactions
           KE.23.C.4      Define specific heat capacity and its relationship to calorimetric measurements
           KE.23.C.5      Determine the heat of formation and the heat of reaction using enthalpy values and the Law
                          of Conservation of Energy
           KE.23.C.6      Explain the role of activation energy and collision theory in chemical reactions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.24.C.   Chemistry: Equilibrium: Students shall understand the factors that affect reaction rate and their relationship to quantitative
           chemical equilibrium.
           E.24.C.1       List and explain the factors which affect the rate of a reaction and the relationship of these
                          factors to chemical equilibrium: reversible reactions, reaction rate, nature of reactants,
                          concentration, temperature, catalysis
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           E.24.C.2       Solve problems developing an equilibrium constant or the concentration of a reactant or
                          product
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           E.24.C.3       Explain the relationship of LeChatelier's Principle to equilibrium systems: temperature,
                          pressure, concentration
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           E.24.C.4       Describe the application of equilibrium and kinetic concepts to the Haber Process: high
                          concentration of hydrogen and nitrogen, removal of ammonia, precise temperature control,
                          use of a contact catalyst, high pressure
AR.25.C.   Chemistry: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions: Students shall understand oxidation-reduction reactions to develop skills in
           balancing redox equations.
           ORR.25.C.1 Identify substances that are oxidized and substances that are reduced in a chemical reaction
           ORR.25.C.2 Complete and balance redox reactions: assign oxidation numbers, identify the oxidizing
                      agent and reducing agent, write net ionic equations
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.26.C.   Chemistry: Oxidation-Reduction Reaction: Students shall explain the role of oxidation-reduction reactions in the production of
           electricity in a voltaic cell.
           ORR.26.C.1 Write equations for the reactions occurring at the cathode and anode in electrolytic
                      conduction
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           ORR.26.C.2 Build a voltaic cell and measure cell potential: half-cells, salt bridge
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           ORR.26.C.3 Explain the process of obtaining electricity from a chemical voltaic cell: line notation: anode
                      (oxidation); cathode (reduction)
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           ORR.26.C.4 Calculate electric potential of a cell using redox potentials and predict product
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           ORR.26.C.5 Use redox potentials to predict electrolysis products and the electric potential of a cell
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.27.C.   Chemistry: Organic Chemistry: Students shall differentiate between aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons.
           OC.27.C.1      Examine the bonding and structural differences of organic compounds: alkanes, alkenes,
                          alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OC.27.C.2      Differentiate between the role and importance of aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OC.27.C.3      Compare and contrast isomers
AR.28.C.   Chemistry: Organic Chemistry: Students shall describe the functional groups in organic chemistry.
           OC.28.C.1      Describe the functional groups in organic chemistry: halohydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers,
                          aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amines, amides, amino acids, nitro compounds
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OC.28.C.2      Name and write formulas for aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.29.C.   Chemistry: Organic Chemistry: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of organic compounds in living and
           non-living systems.
           OC.29.C.1      Differentiate among the biochemical functions of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic
                          acids
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OC.29.C.2      Describe the manufacture of polymers derived from organic compounds: polymerization,
                          crosslinking
AR.30.C.   Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry: Students shall understand the process transformations of nuclear radiation.
           NC.30.C.1      Describe the following radiation emissions: alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays,
                          positron particles
           NC.30.C.2      Write and balance nuclear reactions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NC.30.C.3      Compare and contrast fission and fusion
           NC.30.C.4      Apply the concept of half life to nuclear decay
AR.31.C.   Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry: Students shall understand the current and historical ramifications of nuclear energy.
           NC.31.C.1      Construct models of instruments used to study, control, and utilize radioactive materials and
                          nuclear processes
           NC.31.C.2      Research the role of nuclear reactions in society: transmutation, nuclear power plants,
                          Manhattan Project
AR.32.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.32.C.1      Explain why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.32.C.2      Compare and contrast hypotheses, theories, and laws
           NS.32.C.3      Compare and contrast the criteria for the formation of scientific theory and scientific law
           NS.32.C.4      Distinguish between a scientific theory and the term 'theory' used in general conversation
           NS.32.C.5      Summarize the guidelines of science: explanations are based on observations, evidence, and
                          testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change with
                          additional empirical data; scientific knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                          acceptance
AR.33.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall design and safely conduct scientific inquiry.
           NS.33.C.1      Develop and explain the appropriate procedure, controls, and variables (dependent and
                          independent) in scientific experimentation
           NS.33.C.2      Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (refer to Arkansas Safety Lab Guide)
                          when designing and/or conducting scientific investigations
           NS.33.C.3      Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.33.C.4      Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics
           NS.33.C.5      Formulate valid conclusions without bias
           NS.33.C.6      Communicate experimental results using appropriate reports, figures, and tables
AR.34.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the current theories in chemistry.
           NS.34.C.1      Recognize that theories are scientific explanations that require empirical data, verification,
                          and peer review
           NS.34.C.2      Understand that scientific theories may be modified or expanded based on additional
                          empirical data, verification, and peer review
           NS.34.C.3      Research current events and topics in chemistry
AR.35.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to communicate
           and solve problems in chemistry.
           NS.35.C.1      Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures, and
                          tables
           NS.35.C.2      Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems
           NS.35.C.3      Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.36.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.36.C.1      Compare and contrast chemistry concepts in pure science and applied science
           NS.36.C.2      Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.36.C.3      Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                          environmental, economic, and political impact
           NS.36.C.4      Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                          advancements in science and technology
AR.37.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various careers in chemistry and the training required for the selected
           career
           NS.37.C.1      Research and evaluate science careers using the following criteria: educational
                          requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.ES. Environmental Science: Physical Dynamics: Students shall understand the physical dynamics of Earth
           PD.1.ES.1      Describe the structure, origin, and evolution of the Earth's components: atmosphere,
                          biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           PD.1.ES.2      Relate eras, epochs, and periods of Earth's history to geological development
           PD.1.ES.3      Determine the relative and absolute ages of rock layers
           PD.1.ES.4      Categorize the type and composition of various minerals
           PD.1.ES.5      Explain the processes of the rock cycle
           PD.1.ES.6      Describe the processes of degradation by weathering and erosion
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           PD.1.ES.7      Describe tectonic forces relating to internal energy production and convection currents
           PD.1.ES.8      Describe the relationships of degradation (a general lowering of the earth's surface by
                          erosion or weathering) and tectonic forces: volcanoes, earthquakes
           PD.1.ES.9 Construct and interpret information on topographic maps
           PD.1.ES.10 Describe the characteristics of each of the natural divisions of Arkansas: Ozark Plateau,
                      Arkansas River Valley, Ouachita Mountains, Coastal Plain, Mississippi Alluvial Plain (Delta),
                      Crowley's Ridge
           PD.1.ES.11 Describe the physical and chemical properties of water
           PD.1.ES.12 Compare and contrast characteristics of the oceans: composition, physical features of the
                      ocean floor, life within the ocean, lateral and vertical motion
           PD.1.ES.13 Investigate the evolution of the ocean floor
           PD.1.ES.14 Investigate the stratification of the ocean: colligative properties (depends on the ratio of the
                      number of particles of solute and solvent in the solution, not the identity of the solute);
                      biological zonation (distribution of organisms in biogeographic zones)
           PD.1.ES.15 Predict the effects of ocean currents on climate
           PD.1.ES.16 Explain heat transfer in the atmosphere and its relationship to meteorological processes:
                      pressure, winds, evaporation, precipitation
           PD.1.ES.17 Compare and contrast meteorological processes related to air masses, weather systems, and
                      forecasting
           PD.1.ES.18 Construct and interpret weather maps
           PD.1.ES.19 Describe the cycling of materials and energy: nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, phosphorous,
                      hydrological, sulfur
AR.2.ES. Environmental Science: Biological Dynamics: Students shall understand the biological dynamics of Earth
           BD.2.ES.1      Compare and contrast biomes
           BD.2.ES.2      Describe relationships within a community: predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism,
                          commensalism
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BD.2.ES.3      Differentiate between primary and secondary succession
           BD.2.ES.4      Construct a trophic-level pyramid (energy level)
           BD.2.ES.5      Construct a food chain
           BD.2.ES.6      Diagram a food web
           BD.2.ES.7      Compare and contrast food webs and food chains
           BD.2.ES.8      Describe biodiversity
           BD.2.ES.9 Explain how limiting factors affect populations and ecosystems
           BD.2.ES.10 Describe the natural selection process in populations
AR.3.ES. Environmental Science: Social Perspectives: Students shall understand the impact of human activities on the environment.
           SP.3.ES.1      Explain the reciprocal relationships between Earth's processes (natural disasters) and
                          human activities
           SP.3.ES.2      Investigate the relationships between human consumption of natural resources and the
                          stewardship responsibility for reclamations including disposal of hazardous and non-
                          hazardous waste
           SP.3.ES.3      Explain common problems related to water quality: conservation, usage, supply, treatment,
                          pollutants (point and non-point sources)
           SP.3.ES.4      Explain problems related to air quality: automobiles, industry, natural emissions
           SP.3.ES.5      Evaluate the impact of different points of view on health, population, resource, and
                          environmental issues: governmental, economic, societal
           SP.3.ES.6      Research how political systems influence environmental decisions
           SP.3.ES.7      Investigate which federal and state agencies have responsibility for environmental
                          monitoring and action
           SP.3.ES.8      Compare and contrast man-made environments and natural environments
           SP.3.ES.9      Evaluate personal and societal benefits when examining health, population, resource, and
                          environmental issues
           SP.3.ES.10     Predict the long-term societal impact of specific health, population, resource, and
                          environmental issues
           SP.3.ES.11     Investigate the effect of public policy decisions on health, population, resource, and
                          environmental issues
           SP.3.ES.12     Explain the impact of factors such as birth rate, death rate, and migration rate on population
                          changes
           SP.3.ES.13     Distinguish between developed and developing countries
AR.4.ES. Environmental Science: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to
           communicate and solve environmental science problems.
           NS.4.ES.1      Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures and
                          tables
           NS.4.ES.2      Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., microscopes,
                          centrifuges, flexible arm cameras, computer software and hardware)
           NS.4.ES.3      Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.5.ES. Environmental Science: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.5.ES.1      Compare and contrast environmental concepts in pure science and applied science
           NS.5.ES.2      Explain why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.5.ES.3      Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                          environmental, economical and political impact
           NS.5.ES.4      Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                          advancements in science and technology
AR.6.ES. Environmental Science: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various environmental science careers and the training
           required for the selected career.
           NS.6.ES.1      Research and evaluate science careers using the following criteria: educational
                          requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.PS. Physical Science: Chemistry: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of matter's composition and structure.
           C.1.PS.1       Compare and contrast chemical and physical properties of matter, including but not limited
                          to flammability, reactivity, density, buoyancy, viscosity, melting point and boiling point
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.2       Compare and contrast chemical and physical changes, including but not limited to rusting,
                          burning, evaporation, boiling and dehydration
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.3       Discuss and model the relative size and placement of sub-atomic particles
           C.1.PS.4       Illustrate the placement of electrons in the first twenty elements using energy levels and
                          orbitals
           C.1.PS.5       Distinguish among atoms, ions, and isotopes
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.6       Model the valence electrons using electron dot structures (Lewis electron dot structures)
           C.1.PS.7       Explain the role of valence electrons in determining chemical properties
           C.1.PS.8       Explain the role of valence electrons in forming chemical bonds
           C.1.PS.9       Model bonding: ionic, covalent, metallic
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.10      Identify commonly used polyatomic ions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.11     Write formulas for ionic and covalent compounds
           C.1.PS.12     Name ionic and covalent compounds
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.13     Identify the mole and amu (atomic mass unit) as units of measurement in chemistry
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.14     Calculate the molar mass of compounds based on average atomic mass.
AR.2.PS. Physical Science: Chemistry: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of energy in chemistry.
           C.2.PS.1      Identify the kinetic theory throughout the phases of matter
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.2.PS.2      Create and label heat versus temperature graphs (heating curves): solid, liquid, gas, triple
                         point, heat of fusion, heat of vaporization
           C.2.PS.3      Relate thermal expansion to the kinetic theory
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.2.PS.4      Compare and contrast Boyle's law and Charles' law
           C.2.PS.5      Compare and contrast endothermic and exothermic reactions as energy is transferred
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.2.PS.6      Distinguish between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion
           C.2.PS.7      Compare and contrast the emissions produced by radioactive decay: alpha particles, beta
                         particles, gamma rays
AR.3.PS. Physical Science: Chemistry: Students shall compare and contrast chemical reactions.
           C.3.PS.1      Identify and write balanced chemical equations: decomposition reaction, synthesis reaction,
                         single displacement reaction, double displacement reaction, combustion reaction
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.2      Predict the product(s) of a chemical reaction when given the reactants using chemical
                         symbols and words
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.3      Balance chemical equations using the Law of Conservation of Mass
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.4      Determine mole ratio from a balanced reaction equation
           C.3.PS.5      Compare and contrast the properties of reactants and products of a chemical reaction
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.6      Model the role of activation energy in chemical reactions
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.7      Examine factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions, including but not limited to
                         temperature, light, concentration, catalysts, surface area, pressure
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.8      Identify the observable evidence of a chemical reaction: formation of a precipitate,
                         production of a gas, color change, changes in heat and light
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.9      Relate fire safety measures to conditions necessary for combustion
AR.4.PS. Physical Science: Chemistry: Students shall classify organic compounds.
           C.4.PS.1      Summarize carbon bonding: allotropes (diamond, graphite, fullerenes); carbon-carbon
                         (single, double, triple); isomers (branched, straight-chain, ring)
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.4.PS.2      Identify organic compounds by their: formula, structure, properties, functional groups
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.4.PS.3      Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.4.PS.4      Describe organic compounds and their functions in the human body: carbohydrates, lipids,
                         proteins, nucleic acids
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.5.PS. Physical Science: Physics: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of energy in physics.
           P.5.PS.1      Distinguish among thermal energy, heat, and temperature
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.5.PS.2      Calculate changes in thermal energy using: q = mcT (Where q=heat energy; m=mass;
                         c=specific heat; T=change in temperature)
AR.6.PS. Physical Science: Physics: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of forces in physics.
           P.6.PS.1      Analyze how force affects motion: one-dimensional (linear), two-dimensional (projectile and
                         rotational)
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.6.PS.2      Explain how motion is relative to a reference point
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.6.PS.3      Compare and contrast among speed, velocity and acceleration
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.6.PS.4       Solve problems using the formulas for speed and acceleration
           P.6.PS.5       Interpret graphs related to motion: distance versus time (d-t); velocity versus time (v-t);
                          acceleration versus time (a-t)
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.6.PS.6       Compare and contrast Newton's three laws of motion
           P.6.PS.7       Design and conduct investigations demonstrating Newton's first law of motion
           P.6.PS.8       Conduct investigations demonstrating Newton's second law of motion
           P.6.PS.9       Design and conduct investigations demonstrating Newton's third law of motion
           P.6.PS.10      Calculate force, mass, and acceleration using Newton's second law of motion: F = ma (Where
                          F=force, m=mass, a=acceleration)
           P.6.PS.11      Relate the Law of Conservation of Momentum to how it affects the movement of objects
           P.6.PS.12      Compare and contrast the effects of forces on fluids: Archimedes' principle, Pascal's
                          principle, Bernoulli's principle
           P.6.PS.13      Design an experiment to show conversion of energy: mechanical (potential and kinetic),
                          chemical, thermal, sound, light, nuclear
           P.6.PS.14      Solve problems by using formulas for gravitational potential and kinetic energy
AR.7.PS. Physical Science: Physics: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of wave and particle motion.
           P.7.PS.1       Compare and contrast a wave's speed through various mediums
           P.7.PS.2       Explain diffraction of waves
           P.7.PS.3       Explain Doppler effect using examples
           P.7.PS.4       Calculate problems relating to wave properties: wavelength, frequency, period, velocity
           P.7.PS.5       Describe how the physical properties of sound waves affect its perception
           P.7.PS.6       Define light in terms of waves and particles
           P.7.PS.7       Explain the formation of color by light and by pigments
           P.7.PS.8       Investigate the separation of white light into colors by diffraction
           P.7.PS.9       Illustrate constructive and destructive interference of light waves
           P.7.PS.10      Differentiate among the reflected images produced by concave, convex, and plane mirrors
           P.7.PS.11      Differentiate between the refracted images produced by concave and convex lenses
           P.7.PS.12      Research current uses of optics and sound
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.8.PS. Physical Science: Physics: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of electricity and magnetism in the physical
           world.
           P.8.PS.1       Calculate voltage, current, and resistance from a schematic diagram
           P.8.PS.2       Calculate electrical power using current and voltage: P = IV (Where P=power, I=current,
                          V=voltage)
           P.8.PS.3       Calculate electrical energy using electrical power and time: E=Pt (Where E=energy, P=power,
                          t=time)
           P.8.PS.4       Explain the use of electromagnets in step-up and step-down transformers
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.8.PS.5       Research current uses of electromagnets
AR.9.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.9.PS.1      Explain why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.9.PS.2      Compare and contrast hypotheses, theories, and laws
           NS.9.PS.3      Distinguish between a scientific theory and the term 'theory' used in general conversation
           NS.9.PS.4      Summarize the guidelines of science: explanations are based on observations, evidence, and
                          testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change with
                          additional empirical data; scientific knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                          acceptance
AR.10.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall design and safely conduct a scientific inquiry to solve valid problems.
           NS.10.PS.1 Develop and explain the appropriate procedure, controls, and variables (dependent and
                      independent) in scientific experimentation
           NS.10.PS.2 Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (refer to ADE Guidelines) when designing
                      and/or conducting scientific investigations
           NS.10.PS.3 Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.10.PS.4 Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics
           NS.10.PS.5 Formulate valid conclusions without bias
           NS.10.PS.6 Communicate experimental results using appropriate reports, figures, and tables
AR.11.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of historical trends in physical science.
           NS.11.PS.1 Recognize the factors that constitute a scientific theory
           NS.11.PS.2 Explain why scientific theories may be modified or expanded using additional empirical data,
                      verification, and peer review
           NS.11.PS.3 Summarize the development of the current atomic theory
           NS.11.PS.4 Analyze the development of the periodic table
           NS.11.PS.5 Research historical events in physical science
           NS.11.PS.6 Research current events and topics in physical science
AR.12.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to
           communicate and solve physical science problems.
           NS.12.PS.1 Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., balances,
                      scales, calculators, probes, glassware, burners, computer software and hardware)
           NS.12.PS.2 Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures, and
                      tables
           NS.12.PS.3 Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.13.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.13.PS.1 Compare and contrast physical science concepts in pure science and applied science
           NS.13.PS.2 Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.13.PS.3 Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                      environmental, economic, and political impact
           NS.13.PS.4 Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                      advancements in science and technology
           NS.13.PS.5 Describe in detail the methods used by scientists in their research
AR.14.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various physical science careers and the training required for the
           selected career.
           NS.14.PS.1 Research and evaluate physical science careers using the following criteria: educational
                      requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.P.    Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand one-dimensional motion.
           MF.1.P.1       Compare and contrast scalar and vector quantities
           MF.1.P.2       Solve problems involving constant and average velocity
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MF.1.P.3       Apply kinematic equations to calculate distance, time, or velocity under conditions of
                          constant acceleration
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MF.1.P.4       Compare graphic representations of motion: d-t, v-t, a-t
           MF.1.P.5       Calculate the components of a free falling object at various points in motion
           MF.1.P.6       Compare and contrast contact force (e.g., friction) and field forces (e.g., gravitational force)
           MF.1.P.7       Draw free body diagrams of all forces acting upon an object
           MF.1.P.8       Calculate the applied forces represented in a free body diagram
           MF.1.P.9       Apply Newton's first law of motion to show balanced and unbalanced forces
           MF.1.P.10      Apply Newton's second law of motion to solve motion problems that involve constant forces:
                          F=ma
           MF.1.P.11      Apply Newton's third law of motion to explain action-reaction pairs
           MF.1.P.12      Calculate frictional forces (i.e., kinetic and static)
           MF.1.P.13      Calculate the magnitude of the force of friction
AR.2.P.    Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand two-dimensional motion.
           MF.2.P.1       Calculate the resultant vector of a moving object
           MF.2.P.2       Resolve two-dimensional vectors into their components
           MF.2.P.3       Calculate the magnitude and direction of a vector from its components
           MF.2.P.4       Solve two-dimensional problems using balanced forces
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MF.2.P.5       Solve two-dimensional problems using the Pythagorean Theorem or the quadratic formula
           MF.2.P.6       Describe the path of a projectile as a parabola
           MF.2.P.7       Apply kinematic equations to solve problems involving projectile motion of an object
                          launched at an angle
           MF.2.P.8       Apply kinematic equations to solve problems involving projectile motion of an object
                          launched with initial horizontal velocity
           MF.2.P.9       Calculate rotational motion with a constant force directed toward the center
           MF.2.P.10      Solve problems in circular motion by using centripetal acceleration
AR.3.P.    Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand the dynamics of rotational equilibrium.
           MF.3.P.1       Relate radians to degrees
           MF.3.P.2       Calculate the magnitude of torque on an object
           MF.3.P.3       Calculate angular speed and angular acceleration
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MF.3.P.4       Solve problems using kinematic equations for angular motion
           MF.3.P.5       Solve problems involving tangential speed
           MF.3.P.6       Solve problems involving tangential acceleration
           MF.3.P.7       Calculate centripetal acceleration
           MF.3.P.8       Apply Newton's universal law of gravitation to find the gravitational force between two
                          masses
AR.4.P.    Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand the relationship between work and energy.
           MF.4.P.1       Calculate net work done by a constant net force
           MF.4.P.2       Solve problems relating kinetic energy and potential energy to the work-energy theorem
           MF.4.P.3       Solve problems through the application of conservation of mechanical energy
           MF.4.P.4       Relate the concepts of time and energy to power
           MF.4.P.5       Prove the relationship of time, energy and power through problem solving
AR.5.P.    Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand the law of conservation of momentum.
           MF.5.P.1       Describe changes in momentum in terms of force and time
           MF.5.P.2       Solve problems using the impulse-momentum theorem
           MF.5.P.3       Compare total momentum of two objects before and after they interact
           MF.5.P.4       Solve problems for perfectly inelastic and elastic collisions
AR.6.P.    Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand the concepts of fluid mechanics.
           MF.6.P.1       Calibrate the applied buoyant force to determine if the object will sink or float
           MF.6.P.2       Apply Pascal's principle to an enclosed fluid system
           MF.6.P.3       Apply Bernoulli's equation to solve fluid-flow problems
           MF.6.P.4       Use the ideal gas law to predict the properties of an ideal gas under different conditions:
                          Physics (PV=NkbT - N=number of gas particles; kb=Boltzmann's constant; T=temperature);
                          Chemistry (PV=nRT - n=number of moles; R=Molar gas constant; T=temperature)
AR.7.P.    Physics: Heat and Thermodynamics: Students shall understand the effects of thermal energy on particles and systems.
           HT.7.P.1       Perform specific heat capacity calculations
           HT.7.P.2       Perform calculations involving latent heat
           HT.7.P.3       Interpret the various sections of a heating curve diagram
           HT.7.P.4       Calculate heat energy of the different phase changes of a substance
AR.8.P.    Physics: Heat and Thermodynamics: Students shall apply the two laws of thermodynamics.
           HT.8.P.1       Describe how the first law of thermodynamics is a statement of energy conversion
           HT.8.P.2       Calculate heat, work, and the change in internal energy by applying the first law of
                          thermodynamics
           HT.8.P.3       Calculate the efficiency of a heat engine by using the second law of thermodynamics
           HT.8.P.4       Distinguish between entropy changes within systems and the entropy change for the
                          universe as a whole
AR.9.P.    Physics: Waves and Optics: Students shall distinguish between simple harmonic motion and waves.
           WO.9.P.1       Explain how force, velocity, and acceleration change as an object vibrates with simple
                          harmonic motion
           WO.9.P.2       Calculate the spring force using Hooke's law: F elastic=-kx (Where -k=spring constant)
           WO.9.P.3       Calculate the period and frequency of an object vibrating with a simple harmonic motion
           WO.9.P.4       Differentiate between pulse and periodic waves
           WO.9.P.5       Relate energy and amplitude
AR.10.P.   Physics: Waves and Optics: Students shall compare and contrast the law of reflection and the law of refraction.
           WO.10.P.1      Calculate the frequency and wavelength of electromagnetic radiation
           WO.10.P.2      Apply the law of reflection for flat mirrors
           WO.10.P.3      Describe the images formed by flat mirrors
           WO.10.P.4      Calculate distances and focal lengths for curved mirrors
           WO.10.P.5      Draw ray diagrams to find the image distance and magnification for curved mirrors
           WO.10.P.6      Solve problems using Snell's law
           WO.10.P.7      Calculate the index of refraction through various media using the following equation: n=c/v
                          (Where n=index of refraction; c=speed of light in vacuum; v=speed of light in medium)
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           WO.10.P.8      Use a ray diagram to find the position of an image produced by a lens
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           WO.10.P.9      Solve problems using the thin-lens equation: 1/p + 1/q + 1/f (Where q=image distance;
                          p=object distance; f=focal length)
           WO.10.P.10 Calculate the magnification of lenses: M=h'/h=q/p (Where M=magnification; h'=image height;
                      h=object height; q=image distance; p=object distance)
AR.11.P.   Physics: Electricity and Magnetism: Students shall understand the relationship between electric forces and electric fields.
           EM.11.P.1      Calculate electric force using Coulomb's law
           EM.11.P.2      Calculate electric field strength
           EM.11.P.3      Draw and interpret electric field lines
AR.12.P.   Physics: Electricity and Magnetism: Students shall understand the relationship between electric energy and capacitance.
           EM.12.P.1      Calculate electrical potential energy
           EM.12.P.2      Compute the electric potential for various charge distributions
           EM.12.P.3      Calculate the capacitance of various devices
           EM.12.P.4      Construct a circuit to produce a pre-determined value of an Ohm's law variable
AR.13.P.   Physics: Electricity and Magnetism: Students shall understand how magnetism relates to induced and alternating currents.
           EM.13.P.1      Determine the strength of a magnetic field
           EM.13.P.2      Use the first right-hand rule to find the direction of the force on the charge moving through a
                          magnetic field
           EM.13.P.3      Determine the magnitude and direction of the force on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic
                          field
           EM.13.P.4      Describe how the change in the number of magnetic field lines through a circuit loop affects
                          the magnitude and direction of the induced current
           EM.13.P.5      Calculate the induced electromagnetic field (emf) and current using Faraday's law of
                          induction
AR.14.P.   Physics: Nuclear Physics: Students shall understand the concepts of quantum mechanics as they apply to the atomic spectrum.
           NP.14.P.1      Calculate energy quanta using Planck's equation: E=hf
           NP.14.P.2      Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of matter: wavelength=h/p=h/mv
           NP.14.P.3      Distinguish between classical ideas of measurement and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
           NP.14.P.4      Research emerging theories in physics, such as string theory
AR.15.P.   Physics: Nuclear Physics: Students shall understand the process of nuclear decay.
           NP.15.P.1      Calculate the binding energy of various nuclei
           NP.15.P.2      Predict the products of nuclear decay
           NP.15.P.3      Calculate the decay constant and the half-life of a radioactive substance
AR.16.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.16.P.1      Describe why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.16.P.2      Compare and contrast the criteria for the formation of hypotheses, theories and laws
           NS.16.P.3      Summarize the guidelines of science: results are based on observations, evidence, and
                          testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change as
                          new data are generated; empirical knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                          acceptance
AR.17.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall safely design and conduct a scientific inquiry to solve valid problems.
           NS.17.P.1      Develop the appropriate procedures using controls and variables (dependent and
                          independent) in scientific experimentation
           NS.17.P.2      Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (ADE Guidelines) when designing and/or
                          conducting scientific investigations
           NS.17.P.3      Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.17.P.4      Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics (e.g., percent yield, percent
                          error)
           NS.17.P.5      Formulate valid conclusions without bias
AR.18.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of historical trends in physics.
           NS.18.P.1      Recognize that theories are scientific explanations that require empirical data, verification
                          and peer review
           NS.18.P.2      Research historical and current events in physics
AR.19.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to communicate and
           solve physics problems.
           NS.19.P.1      Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., balances,
                          scales, calculators, probes, glassware, burners, computer software and hardware)
           NS.19.P.2      Manipulate scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, charts, tables, and
                          graphs
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.19.P.3      Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.20.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.20.P.1      Compare and contrast the connections between pure science and applied science as it
                          relates to physics
           NS.20.P.2       Give examples of scientific bias that affect outcomes of experimental results
           NS.20.P.3       Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.20.P.4       Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                           environmental, economic, and political impact.
           NS.20.P.5       Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                           advancements in science and technology
AR.21.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various physics careers and the training required for the selected career.
           NS.21.P.1       Research and evaluate careers in physics using the following criteria: educational
                           requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions



Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks - Science Grade 11
AR.1.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Organization of the Human Body: Students shall explore the organizational structures of the body
           from the molecular to the organism level.
           OHB.1.AP.1 Infer the relationship between anatomy and physiology
           OHB.1.AP.2 Sequence the levels of organization of the human body
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.3 Identify the major body systems
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.4 Describe relative positions, body planes, body regions and body quadrants
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.5 Identify the major body cavities and the subdivisions of each cavity
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.6 Investigate homeostatic control mechanisms and their importance to health and diseases
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.7 Predict the effect of positive and negative feedback mechanisms on homeostasis
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.8 Identify the major characteristics of life: metabolism, responsiveness, movement, Growth,
                      reproduction, differentiation
AR.2.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Cellular Chemistry: Students shall understand the role of chemistry in body processes.
           CC.2.AP.1       Distinguish between matter and energy
           CC.2.AP.2       Explain the basic assumptions and conclusions of the atomic theory
           CC.2.AP.3       Distinguish between compounds and mixtures
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.4       Explain the role of ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds in the human body
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.5       Write simple formulas and chemical word equations for the four basic types of reactions:
                           synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.6       Analyze the role of water in the human body
           CC.2.AP.7       Explain the relationship among acids, bases, and salts
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.8  Relate the concept of pH to homeostasis
           CC.2.AP.9  Compare the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.10 Describe the characteristics and importance of enzymes
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.3.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Anatomy and Physiology of the Cell: Students shall understand that cells are the basic, structural, and
           functional units of life.
           APC.3.AP.1 Explain the structure and function of the plasma membrane
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           APC.3.AP.2 Compare and contrast the different ways in which substances cross the plasma membrane:
                      diffusion and osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport, filtration, endocytosis,
                      exocytosis
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           APC.3.AP.3 Describe the structure and function of organelles and cell parts
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           APC.3.AP.4 Identify chemical substances produced by cells
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           APC.3.AP.5 Differentiate among replication, transcription, and translation
           APC.3.AP.6 Differentiate between mitosis and meiosis
           APC.3.AP.7 Explain the consequences of abnormal cell division
AR.4.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Tissues: Students shall understand the histology of the human body
           T.4.AP.1      Describe the structure, location, and function of each tissue category: epithelial, connective,
                         nervous, muscle
AR.5.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the integumentary system.
           BS.5.AP.1     Identify the components of the integumentary system
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.5.AP.2     Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the skin
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.5.AP.3     Identify the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the integumentary system
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.5.AP.4     Describe disorders associated with the integumentary system
AR.6.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the skeletal system.
           BS.6.AP.1     Identify the components the skeletal system
           BS.6.AP.2     Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the skeletal system
           BS.6.AP.3     Identify the macroscopic and microscopic structure of bone
           BS.6.AP.4     Describe disorders associated with the skeletal system
AR.7.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the muscular system.
           BS.7.AP.1     Identify the components the muscular system
           BS.7.AP.2     Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the muscular system
           BS.7.AP.3     Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of muscle
           BS.7.AP.4     Describe disorders associated with the muscular system
AR.8.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system.
           BS.8.AP.1     Identify the components the nervous system
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.8.AP.2     Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the nervous system
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.8.AP.3     Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the nervous system
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.8.AP.4     Describe disorders associated with the nervous system
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.9.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the endocrine system.
           BS.9.AP.1     Identify the components of the endocrine system
           BS.9.AP.2     Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the endocrine system
           BS.9.AP.3     Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the endocrine system
           BS.9.AP.4     Describe disorders associated with the endocrine system
AR.10.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system.
           BS.10.AP.1 Identify the components of the cardiovascular system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.10.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the cardiovascular system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.10.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the cardiovascular system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.10.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the cardiovascular system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.11.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the immune and lymphatic
           systems.
           BS.11.AP.1 Identify the components of the immune and lymphatic systems
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.11.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the immune and lymphatic systems
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.11.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the immune and lymphatic
                      systems
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.11.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the immune and lymphatic systems
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.12.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system.
           BS.12.AP.1 Identify the components of the respiratory system
           BS.12.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the respiratory system
           BS.12.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the respiratory system
           BS.12.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the respiratory system
AR.13.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the digestive system.
           BS.13.AP.1 Identify the components the digestive system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.13.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the digestive system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.13.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the digestive system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.13.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the digestive system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.14.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.
           BS.14.AP.1 Identify the components the urinary system
           BS.14.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the urinary system
           BS.14.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the urinary system
           BS.14.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the urinary system
AR.15.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the reproductive system
           BS.15.AP.1 Describe the components and the organization of the reproductive system
           BS.15.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the reproductive system
           BS.15.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the reproductive system
           BS.15.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the reproductive system
AR.16.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.16.AP.1 Explain why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.16.AP.2 Compare and contrast hypotheses, theories, and laws
           NS.16.AP.3 Distinguish between a scientific theory and the term 'theory' used in general conversation
           NS.16.AP.4 Summarize the guidelines of science: explanations are based on observations, evidence, and
                      testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change with
                      additional empirical data; scientific knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                      acceptance
AR.17.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall design and safely conduct scientific inquiry.
           NS.17.AP.1 Develop and explain the appropriate procedure, controls, and variables (dependent and
                      independent) in scientific experimentation
           NS.17.AP.2 Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (refer to ADE Guidelines) when designing
                      and/or conducting scientific investigations
           NS.17.AP.3 Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.17.AP.4 Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics
           NS.17.AP.5 Formulate valid conclusions without bias
           NS.17.AP.6 Communicate experimental results using appropriate reports, figures, and tables
AR.18.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of current life science theories.
           NS.18.AP.1 Understand that scientific theories may be modified or expanded based on additional
                      empirical data, verification, and peer review
           NS.18.AP.2 Relate the development of the cell theory to current trends in cellular biology
           NS.18.AP.3 Describe the relationship between the germ theory of disease and our current knowledge of
                      immunology and control of infectious diseases
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.18.AP.4 Relate the chromosome theory of heredity to recent findings in genetic research (e.g., Human
                      Genome Project-HGP, chromosome therapy)
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.18.AP.5 Research current events and topics in human biology
AR.19.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to
           communicate and solve life science problems.
           NS.19.AP.1 Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures, and
                      tables
           NS.19.AP.2 Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., microscopes,
                      centrifuges, flexible arm cameras, computer software and hardware)
           NS.19.AP.3 Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.20.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.20.AP.1 Compare and contrast human biology concepts in pure science and applied science
           NS.20.AP.2 Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.20.AP.3 Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                      advancements in science and technology
AR.21.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various health science careers and the training required
           for the selected career.
           NS.21.AP.1 Research and evaluate health science careers using the following criteria: educational
                      requirements; salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.B.   Biology: Molecules and Cells: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of chemistry in life processes.
          MC.1.B.1       Describe the structure and function of the major organic molecules found in living systems:
                         carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, lipids, nucleic acids
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          MC.1.B.2       Describe the relationship between an enzyme and its substrate molecule(s)
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          MC.1.B.3       Investigate the properties and importance of water and its significance for life: surface
                         tension, adhesion, cohesion, polarity, pH
          MC.1.B.4       Explain the role of energy in chemical reactions of living systems: activation energy,
                         exergonic reactions, endergonic reactions
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.2.B.   Biology: Molecules and Cells: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of cells.
          MC.2.B.1       Construct a hierarchy of life from cells to ecosystems
          MC.2.B.2       Compare and contrast prokaryotes and eukaryotes
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          MC.2.B.3       Describe the role of sub-cellular structures in the life of a cell: organelles, ribosomes,
                         cytoskeleton
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          MC.2.B.4       Relate the function of the plasma (cell) membrane to its structure
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          MC.2.B.5       Compare and contrast the structures of an animal cell to a plant cell
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          MC.2.B.6       Compare and contrast the functions of autotrophs and heterotrophs
          MC.2.B.7       Compare and contrast active transport and passive transport mechanisms: diffusion,
                         osmosis, endocytosis, exocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis
          MC.2.B.8       Describe the main events in the cell cycle, including the differences in plant and animal cell
                         division: interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
          MC.2.B.9       List in order and describe the stages of mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.
          MC.2.B.10      Analyze the meiotic maintenance of a constant chromosome number from one generation to
                         the next
          MC.2.B.11      Discuss homeostasis using thermoregulation as an example
AR.3.B.   Biology: Molecules and Cells: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of how cells obtain and use energy (energetics).
          MC.3.B.1       Compare and contrast the structure and function of mitochondria and chloroplasts
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          MC.3.B.2       Describe and model the conversion of stored energy in organic molecules into usable cellular
                         energy (ATP): glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          MC.3.B.3       Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration: lactic acid fermentation, alcoholic
                         fermentation
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          MC.3.B.4       Describe and model the conversion of light energy to chemical energy by photosynthetic
                         organisms: light dependent reactions, light independent reactions
          MC.3.B.5       Compare and contrast cellular respiration and photosynthesis as energy conversion
                         pathways
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.4.B.   Biology: Heredity and Evolution: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of heredity.
          HE.4.B.1       Summarize the outcomes of Gregor Mendel's experimental procedures
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          HE.4.B.2       Differentiate among the laws and principles of inheritance: dominance, segregation,
                         independent assortment
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          HE.4.B.3       Use the laws of probability and Punnett squares to predict genotypic and phenotypic ratios
          HE.4.B.4       Examine different modes of inheritance: sex linkage, codominance, crossing over,
                         incomplete dominance, multiple alleles
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          HE.4.B.5       Analyze the historically significant work of prominent geneticists
          HE.4.B.6       Evaluate karyotypes for abnormalities: monosomy, trisomy
AR.5.B.   Biology: Heredity and Evolution: Students shall investigate the molecular basis of genetics.
          HE.5.B.1       Model the components of a DNA nucleotide and an RNA nucleotide
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          HE.5.B.2       Describe the Watson-Crick double helix model of DNA, using the base-pairing rule (adenine-
                         thymine, cytosine-guanine)
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          HE.5.B.3       Compare and contrast the structure and function of DNA and RNA
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          HE.5.B.4       Describe and model the processes of replication, transcription, and translation
          HE.5.B.5       Compare and contrast the different types of mutation events, including point mutation,
                         frameshift mutation, deletion, and inversion
          HE.5.B.6       Identify effects of changes brought about by mutations: beneficial, harmful, neutral
AR.6.B.   Biology: Heredity and Evolution: Students shall examine the development of the theory of biological evolution.
          HE.6.B.1       Compare and contrast Lamarck's explanation of evolution with Darwin's theory of evolution
                         by natural selection
          HE.6.B.2       Recognize that evolution involves a change in allele frequencies in a population across
                         successive generations
          HE.6.B.3       Analyze the effects of mutations and the resulting variations within a population in terms of
                         natural selection
          HE.6.B.4       Illustrate mass extinction events using a time line
          HE.6.B.5       Evaluate evolution in terms of evidence as found in the following: fossil record, DNA
                         analysis, artificial selection, morphology, embryology, viral evolution, geographic distribution
                         of related species, antibiotic and pesticide resistance in various organisms
          HE.6.B.6       Compare the processes of relative dating and radioactive dating to determine the age of
                         fossils
          HE.6.B.7       Interpret a Cladogram
AR.7.B.   Biology: Classification and the Diversity of Life: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that organisms are diverse.
          CDL.7.B.1      Differentiate among the different domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
          CDL.7.B.2      Differentiate the characteristics of the six kingdoms: Eubacteria, Archaea, Protista, Fungi,
                         Plantae, Animalia
          CDL.7.B.3      Identify the seven major taxonomic categories: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus,
                         species
          CDL.7.B.4      Classify and name organisms based on their similarities and differences applying taxonomic
                         nomenclature using dichotomous keys
          CDL.7.B.5      Investigate Arkansas' biodiversity using appropriate tools and technology
          CDL.7.B.6      Compare and contrast the structures and characteristics of viruses (lytic and lysogenic
                         cycles) with non-living and living things
          CDL.7.B.7      Evaluate the medical and economic importance of viruses
          CDL.7.B.8      Compare and contrast life cycles of familiar organisms: sexual reproduction, asexual
                         reproduction, metamorphosis, alternation of generations
          CDL.7.B.9      Classify bacteria according to their characteristics and adaptations
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          CDL.7.B.10 Evaluate the medical and economic importance of bacteria
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
          CDL.7.B.11 Describe the characteristics used to classify protists: plant-like, animal-like, fungal-like
          CDL.7.B.12 Evaluate the medical and economic importance of protists
          CDL.7.B.13 Compare and contrast fungi with other eukaryotic organisms
          CDL.7.B.14 Evaluate the medical and economic importance of fungi
          CDL.7.B.15 Differentiate between vascular and nonvascular plants
          CDL.7.B.16 Differentiate among cycads, gymnosperms, and angiosperms
          CDL.7.B.17 Describe the structure and function of the major parts of a plant: roots, stems, leaves, flowers
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
          CDL.7.B.18 Relate the structure of plant tissue to its function: epidermal, ground, vascular
                     (Find correlated lesson activity)
          CDL.7.B.19 Evaluate the medical and economic importance of plants
          CDL.7.B.20 Identify the symmetry of organisms: radial, bilateral, asymmetrical
          CDL.7.B.21 Compare and contrast the major invertebrate classes according to their nervous, respiratory,
                     excretory, circulatory, and digestive systems
          CDL.7.B.22 Compare and contrast the major vertebrate classes according to their nervous, respiratory,
                     excretory, circulatory, digestive, reproductive and integumentary systems
AR.8.B.   Biology: Ecology and Behavioral Relationships: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of ecological and behavioral
          relationships among organisms.
          EBR.8.B.1      Cite examples of abiotic and biotic factors of ecosystems
          EBR.8.B.2      Compare and contrast the characteristics of biomes
          EBR.8.B.3      Diagram the carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, and water cycles in an ecosystem
          EBR.8.B.4      Analyze an ecosystem's energy flow through food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids
          EBR.8.B.5      Identify and predict the factors that control population, including predation, competition,
                          crowding, water, nutrients, and shelter
           EBR.8.B.6      Summarize the symbiotic ways in which individuals within a community interact with each
                          other: commensalism, parasitism, mutualism
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           EBR.8.B.7      Compare and contrast primary succession with secondary succession
           EBR.8.B.8      Identify the properties of each of the five levels of ecology: organism, population, community,
                          ecosystem, biosphere
AR.9.B.    Biology: Ecology and Behavioral Relationships: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the ecological impact of global
           issues.
           EBR.9.B.1      Analyze the effects of human population growth and technology on the
                          environment/biosphere
           EBR.9.B.2      Evaluate long range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal in terms of their
                          environmental, economic, and political impact
           EBR.9.B.3      Assess current world issues applying scientific themes (e.g., global changes in climate,
                          epidemics, pandemics, ozone depletion, UV radiation, natural resources, use of technology,
                          and public policy)
AR.10.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.10.B.1      Explain why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.10.B.2      Compare and contrast hypotheses, theories, and laws
           NS.10.B.3      Distinguish between a scientific theory and the term 'theory' used in general conversation
           NS.10.B.4      Summarize the guidelines of science: explanations are based on observations, evidence, and
                          testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change with
                          additional empirical data; scientific knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                          acceptance
AR.11.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall design and safely conduct scientific inquiry.
           NS.11.B.1      Develop and explain the appropriate procedure, controls, and variables (dependent and
                          independent) in scientific experimentation
           NS.11.B.2      Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (refer to ADE Guidelines) when designing
                          and/or conducting scientific investigations
           NS.11.B.3      Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.11.B.4      Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics
           NS.11.B.5      Formulate valid conclusions without bias
           NS.11.B.6      Communicate experimental results using appropriate reports, figures, and tables
AR.12.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of current life science theories.
           NS.12.B.1      Recognize that theories are scientific explanations that require empirical data, verification,
                          and peer review
           NS.12.B.2      Understand that scientific theories may be modified or expanded based on additional
                          empirical data, verification, and peer review
           NS.12.B.3      Summarize biological evolution
           NS.12.B.4      Relate the development of the cell theory to current trends in cellular biology
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.12.B.5      Describe the relationship between the germ theory of disease and our current knowledge of
                          immunology and control of infectious diseases
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.12.B.6      Relate the chromosome theory of heredity to recent findings in genetic research (e.g., Human
                          Genome Project-HGP, chromosome therapy)
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.12.B.7      Research current events and topics in biology
AR.13.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to communicate and
           solve life science problems.
           NS.13.B.1      Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures, and
                          tables
           NS.13.B.2      Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., microscopes,
                          centrifuges, flexible arm cameras, computer software and hardware)
           NS.13.B.3      Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.14.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.14.B.1      Compare and contrast biological concepts in pure science and applied science
           NS.14.B.2      Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.14.B.3      Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                          environmental, economic, and political impact
           NS.14.B.4      Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                          advancements in science and technology
AR.15.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various life science careers and the training required for the selected career.
          NS.15.B.1      Research and evaluate science careers using the following criteria: educational
                         requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.C.   Chemistry: Atomic Theory: Students shall understand the historical development of the model of the atom.
          AT.1.C.1.      Summarize the discoveries of the subatomic particles: Rutherford's gold foil, Chadwick's
                         discovery of the neutron, Thomson's cathode ray, Millikan's Oil Drop
          AT.1.C.2       Explain the historical events that led to the development of the current atomic theory
AR.2.C.   Chemistry: Atomic Theory: Students shall understand the structure of the atom.
          AT.2.C.1       Analyze an atom's particle position, arrangement, and charge using: proton, neutron,
                         electron
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          AT.2.C.2       Compare the magnitude and range of nuclear forces to magnetic forces and gravitational
                         forces
          AT.2.C.3       Draw and explain nuclear symbols and hyphen notations for isotopes
          AT.2.C.4       Derive an average atomic mass
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          AT.2.C.5       Determine the arrangement of subatomic particles in the ion(s) of an atom
AR.3.C.   Chemistry: Atomic Theory: Students shall understand how the arrangement of electrons in atoms relates to the quantum model.
          AT.3.C.1       Correlate emissions of visible light with the arrangement of electrons in atoms: quantum,
                         frequency, wavelength
          AT.3.C.2       Apply the following rules or principles to model electron arrangement in atoms: Aufbau
                         Principle (diagonal filling order), Hund's Rule, Pauli's Exclusion Principle
          AT.3.C.3       Predict the placement of elements on the Periodic Table and their properties using electron
                         configuration
          AT.3.C.4       Demonstrate electron placement in atoms using the following notations: orbital notations,
                         electron configuration notation, Lewis electron dot structures
AR.4.C.   Chemistry: Periodicity: Students shall understand the significance of the Periodic Table and its historical development.
          P.4.C.1        Compare and contrast the historical events leading to the evolution of the Periodic Table
          P.4.C.2        Describe the arrangement of the Periodic Table based on electron filling orders: Groups,
                         Periods
          P.4.C.3        Interpret periodic trends: atomic radius, ionic radius, ionization energy, electron affinities,
                         electronegativities
AR.5.C.   Chemistry: Periodicity: Students shall name and write formulas for binary and ternary compounds.
          P.5.C.1        Write formulas for binary and ternary compounds: IUPAC system, Greek prefixes, polyatomic
                         ions
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          P.5.C.2        Name binary and ternary compounds
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          P.5.C.3        Predict the name and symbol for newly discovered elements using the IUPAC system
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.6.C.   Chemistry: Periodicity: Students shall explain the changes of matter using physical properties and chemical properties.
          P.6.C.1        Compare and contrast matter based on uniformity of particles: pure substances, solutions,
                         heterogeneous mixtures
          P.6.C.2        Distinguish between extensive and intensive physical properties of matter
          P.6.C.3        Separate homogeneous mixtures using physical processes: chromatography
          P.6.C.4        Design experiments tracing the energy involved in physical changes and chemical changes
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          P.6.C.5        Predict the chemical properties of substances based on their electron configuration: active,
                         inactive, inert
AR.7.C.   Chemistry: Periodicity: Students shall use atomic mass or experimental data to calculate relationships between elements and
          compounds.
          P.7.C.1        Demonstrate an understanding of the Law of Multiple Proportions
AR.8.C.   Chemistry: Bonding: Students shall understand the process of ionic bonding.
          B.8.C.1        Determine ion formation tendencies for groups on the Periodic Table: main group elements,
                         transition elements
          B.8.C.2        Derive formula units based on the charges of ions
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          B.8.C.3        Use the electronegativitiy chart to predict the bonding type of compounds: ionic, polar
                         covalent, non-polar covalent
AR.9.C.   Chemistry: Bonding: Students shall understand the process of covalent bonding.
          B.9.C.1        Draw Lewis structures to show valence electrons for covalent bonding: lone pairs, shared
                         pairs, hybridization, resonance
          B.9.C.2        Determine the properties of covalent compounds based upon double and triple bonding
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           B.9.C.3        Predict the polarity and geometry of a molecule based upon shared electron pairs and lone
                          electron pairs: VSEPR Model
           B.9.C.4        Identify the strengths and effects of intermolecular forces (van der Waals): hydrogen
                          bonding, dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole, dispersion forces (London)
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.10.C.   Chemistry: Bonding: Students shall understand the process of metallic bonding.
           B.10.C.1       Explain the properties of metals due to delocalized electrons: molecular orbital model
AR.11.C.   Chemistry: Bonding: Students shall relate the physical properties of solids to different types of bonding.
           B.11.C.1       Distinguish between amorphous and crystalline solids
           B.11.C.2       Compare and contrast the properties of crystalline solids: ionic, covalent network, covalent
                          molecular, metallic
AR.12.C.   Chemistry: Stoichiometry: Students shall understand the relationships between balanced chemical equations and mole
           relationships.
           S.12.C.1       Balance chemical equations when all reactants and products are given
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           S.12.C.2       Use balanced reaction equations to obtain information about the amounts of reactants and
                          products
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           S.12.C.3       Distinguish between limiting reactants and excess reactants in balanced reaction equations
           S.12.C.4       Calculate stoichiometric quantities and use these to determine theoretical yields
AR.13.C.   Chemistry: Stoichiometry: Students shall understand the mole concept and Avogadro's number.
           S.13.C.1       Apply the mole concept to calculate the number of particles and the amount of substance:
                          Avogadro's constant = 6.02 x E23
           S.13.C.2       Determine the empirical and molecular formulas using the molar concept: molar mass,
                          average atomic mass, molecular mass, formula mass
AR.14.C.   Chemistry: Stoichiometry: Students shall predict products based upon the type of chemical reaction.
           S.14.C.1       Given the products and reactants predict products for the following types of reactions:
                          synthesis, decomposition, single displacement, double displacement, combustion
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.15.C.   Chemistry: Stoichiometry: Students shall understand the composition of solutions, their formation, and their strengths
           expressed in various units.
           S.15.C.1       Distinguish between the terms solute, solvent, solution and concentration
           S.15.C.2       Give examples for the nine solvent-solute pairs
           S.15.C.3       Calculate the following concentration expressions involving the amount of solute and volume
                          of solution: molarity (M), molality (m), percent composition, normality (N)
           S.15.C.4       Given the quantity of a solution, determine the quantity of another species in the reaction
           S.15.C.5       Define heat of solution
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           S.15.C.6       Identify the physical state for each substance in a reaction equation
AR.16.C.   Chemistry: Gas Laws: Student shall understand the behavior of gas particles as it relates to the kinetic theory.
           GL.16.C.1      Demonstrate the relationship of the kinetic theory as it applies to gas particles: molecular
                          motion, elastic collisions, temperature, pressure, ideal gas
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           GL.16.C.2      Calculate the effects of pressure, temperature, and volume on the number of moles of gas
                          particles in chemical reactions
AR.17.C.   Chemistry: Gas Laws: Students shall understand the relationships between temperature, pressure, volume, and moles of a gas.
           GL.17.C.1      Calculate the effects of pressure, temperature, and volume to gases: Avogadro's Law,
                          Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, Combined Law, Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure, Graham's Law of
                          Effusion, Guy-Lussac, Ideal Gas Law
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.18.C.   Chemistry: Gas Laws: Student shall apply the stoichiometric mass and volume relationships of gases in chemical reactions.
           GL.18.C.1      Calculate volume/mass relationships in balanced chemical reaction equations
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.19.C.   Chemistry: Acids and Bases: Students shall understand the historical development of the acid/base theories.
           AB.19.C.1      Compare and contrast the following acid/base theories: Arrhenius Theory, Bronsted-Lowry
                          Theory, Lewis Theory
AR.20.C.   Chemistry: Acids and Bases: Students shall demonstrate proficiency in acid, base, and salt nomenclature.
           AB.20.C.1      Name and write formulas for acids, bases and salts: binary acids, ternary acids, ionic
                          compounds
AR.21.C.   Chemistry: Acids and Bases: Students shall apply rules of nomenclature to acids, bases, and salts.
           AB.21.C.1      Compare and contrast acid and base properties
           AB.21.C.2      Describe the role that dissociation plays in the determination of strong and weak acids or
                          bases
           AB.21.C.3      Use acid-base equilibrium constants to develop and explain: ionization constants, percent of
                          ionization, common ion effect
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           AB.21.C.4      Explain the role of the pH scale as applied to acids and bases
AR.22.C.   Chemistry: Acids and Bases: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of titration as a laboratory tool.
           AB.22.C.1      Perform a titration to solve for the concentration of an acid or base
           AB.22.C.2      Use indicators in neutralization reactions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           AB.22.C.3      Investigate the role of buffers
AR.23.C.   Chemistry: Kinetics and Energetics: Students shall understand enthalpy, entropy, and free energy and their relationship to
           chemical reactions.
           KE.23.C.1      Define enthalpy and entropy and explain the relationship to exothermic and endothermic
                          reactions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           KE.23.C.2      Define free energy in terms of enthalpy and entropy: spontaneous reaction, increase in
                          disorder, decrease in disorder
           KE.23.C.3      Calculate entropy, enthalpy, and free energy changes in chemical reactions
           KE.23.C.4      Define specific heat capacity and its relationship to calorimetric measurements
           KE.23.C.5      Determine the heat of formation and the heat of reaction using enthalpy values and the Law
                          of Conservation of Energy
           KE.23.C.6      Explain the role of activation energy and collision theory in chemical reactions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.24.C.   Chemistry: Equilibrium: Students shall understand the factors that affect reaction rate and their relationship to quantitative
           chemical equilibrium.
           E.24.C.1       List and explain the factors which affect the rate of a reaction and the relationship of these
                          factors to chemical equilibrium: reversible reactions, reaction rate, nature of reactants,
                          concentration, temperature, catalysis
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           E.24.C.2       Solve problems developing an equilibrium constant or the concentration of a reactant or
                          product
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           E.24.C.3       Explain the relationship of LeChatelier's Principle to equilibrium systems: temperature,
                          pressure, concentration
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           E.24.C.4       Describe the application of equilibrium and kinetic concepts to the Haber Process: high
                          concentration of hydrogen and nitrogen, removal of ammonia, precise temperature control,
                          use of a contact catalyst, high pressure
AR.25.C.   Chemistry: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions: Students shall understand oxidation-reduction reactions to develop skills in
           balancing redox equations.
           ORR.25.C.1 Identify substances that are oxidized and substances that are reduced in a chemical reaction
           ORR.25.C.2 Complete and balance redox reactions: assign oxidation numbers, identify the oxidizing
                      agent and reducing agent, write net ionic equations
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.26.C.   Chemistry: Oxidation-Reduction Reaction: Students shall explain the role of oxidation-reduction reactions in the production of
           electricity in a voltaic cell.
           ORR.26.C.1 Write equations for the reactions occurring at the cathode and anode in electrolytic
                      conduction
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           ORR.26.C.2 Build a voltaic cell and measure cell potential: half-cells, salt bridge
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           ORR.26.C.3 Explain the process of obtaining electricity from a chemical voltaic cell: line notation: anode
                      (oxidation); cathode (reduction)
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           ORR.26.C.4 Calculate electric potential of a cell using redox potentials and predict product
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           ORR.26.C.5 Use redox potentials to predict electrolysis products and the electric potential of a cell
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.27.C.   Chemistry: Organic Chemistry: Students shall differentiate between aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons.
           OC.27.C.1      Examine the bonding and structural differences of organic compounds: alkanes, alkenes,
                          alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OC.27.C.2      Differentiate between the role and importance of aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OC.27.C.3      Compare and contrast isomers
AR.28.C.   Chemistry: Organic Chemistry: Students shall describe the functional groups in organic chemistry.
           OC.28.C.1      Describe the functional groups in organic chemistry: halohydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers,
                          aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amines, amides, amino acids, nitro compounds
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OC.28.C.2      Name and write formulas for aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.29.C.   Chemistry: Organic Chemistry: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of organic compounds in living and
           non-living systems.
           OC.29.C.1      Differentiate among the biochemical functions of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic
                          acids
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OC.29.C.2      Describe the manufacture of polymers derived from organic compounds: polymerization,
                          crosslinking
AR.30.C.   Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry: Students shall understand the process transformations of nuclear radiation.
           NC.30.C.1      Describe the following radiation emissions: alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays,
                          positron particles
           NC.30.C.2      Write and balance nuclear reactions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NC.30.C.3      Compare and contrast fission and fusion
           NC.30.C.4      Apply the concept of half life to nuclear decay
AR.31.C.   Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry: Students shall understand the current and historical ramifications of nuclear energy.
           NC.31.C.1      Construct models of instruments used to study, control, and utilize radioactive materials and
                          nuclear processes
           NC.31.C.2      Research the role of nuclear reactions in society: transmutation, nuclear power plants,
                          Manhattan Project
AR.32.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.32.C.1      Explain why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.32.C.2      Compare and contrast hypotheses, theories, and laws
           NS.32.C.3      Compare and contrast the criteria for the formation of scientific theory and scientific law
           NS.32.C.4      Distinguish between a scientific theory and the term 'theory' used in general conversation
           NS.32.C.5      Summarize the guidelines of science: explanations are based on observations, evidence, and
                          testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change with
                          additional empirical data; scientific knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                          acceptance
AR.33.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall design and safely conduct scientific inquiry.
           NS.33.C.1      Develop and explain the appropriate procedure, controls, and variables (dependent and
                          independent) in scientific experimentation
           NS.33.C.2      Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (refer to Arkansas Safety Lab Guide)
                          when designing and/or conducting scientific investigations
           NS.33.C.3      Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.33.C.4      Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics
           NS.33.C.5      Formulate valid conclusions without bias
           NS.33.C.6      Communicate experimental results using appropriate reports, figures, and tables
AR.34.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the current theories in chemistry.
           NS.34.C.1      Recognize that theories are scientific explanations that require empirical data, verification,
                          and peer review
           NS.34.C.2      Understand that scientific theories may be modified or expanded based on additional
                          empirical data, verification, and peer review
           NS.34.C.3      Research current events and topics in chemistry
AR.35.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to communicate
           and solve problems in chemistry.
           NS.35.C.1      Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures, and
                          tables
           NS.35.C.2      Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems
           NS.35.C.3      Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.36.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.36.C.1      Compare and contrast chemistry concepts in pure science and applied science
           NS.36.C.2      Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.36.C.3      Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                          environmental, economic, and political impact
           NS.36.C.4      Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                          advancements in science and technology
AR.37.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various careers in chemistry and the training required for the selected
           career
           NS.37.C.1     Research and evaluate science careers using the following criteria: educational
                         requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.ES. Environmental Science: Physical Dynamics: Students shall understand the physical dynamics of Earth
           PD.1.ES.1     Describe the structure, origin, and evolution of the Earth's components: atmosphere,
                         biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           PD.1.ES.2     Relate eras, epochs, and periods of Earth's history to geological development
           PD.1.ES.3     Determine the relative and absolute ages of rock layers
           PD.1.ES.4     Categorize the type and composition of various minerals
           PD.1.ES.5     Explain the processes of the rock cycle
           PD.1.ES.6     Describe the processes of degradation by weathering and erosion
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           PD.1.ES.7     Describe tectonic forces relating to internal energy production and convection currents
           PD.1.ES.8     Describe the relationships of degradation (a general lowering of the earth's surface by
                         erosion or weathering) and tectonic forces: volcanoes, earthquakes
           PD.1.ES.9 Construct and interpret information on topographic maps
           PD.1.ES.10 Describe the characteristics of each of the natural divisions of Arkansas: Ozark Plateau,
                      Arkansas River Valley, Ouachita Mountains, Coastal Plain, Mississippi Alluvial Plain (Delta),
                      Crowley's Ridge
           PD.1.ES.11 Describe the physical and chemical properties of water
           PD.1.ES.12 Compare and contrast characteristics of the oceans: composition, physical features of the
                      ocean floor, life within the ocean, lateral and vertical motion
           PD.1.ES.13 Investigate the evolution of the ocean floor
           PD.1.ES.14 Investigate the stratification of the ocean: colligative properties (depends on the ratio of the
                      number of particles of solute and solvent in the solution, not the identity of the solute);
                      biological zonation (distribution of organisms in biogeographic zones)
           PD.1.ES.15 Predict the effects of ocean currents on climate
           PD.1.ES.16 Explain heat transfer in the atmosphere and its relationship to meteorological processes:
                      pressure, winds, evaporation, precipitation
           PD.1.ES.17 Compare and contrast meteorological processes related to air masses, weather systems, and
                      forecasting
           PD.1.ES.18 Construct and interpret weather maps
           PD.1.ES.19 Describe the cycling of materials and energy: nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, phosphorous,
                      hydrological, sulfur
AR.2.ES. Environmental Science: Biological Dynamics: Students shall understand the biological dynamics of Earth
           BD.2.ES.1     Compare and contrast biomes
           BD.2.ES.2     Describe relationships within a community: predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism,
                         commensalism
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BD.2.ES.3     Differentiate between primary and secondary succession
           BD.2.ES.4     Construct a trophic-level pyramid (energy level)
           BD.2.ES.5     Construct a food chain
           BD.2.ES.6     Diagram a food web
           BD.2.ES.7     Compare and contrast food webs and food chains
           BD.2.ES.8     Describe biodiversity
           BD.2.ES.9 Explain how limiting factors affect populations and ecosystems
           BD.2.ES.10 Describe the natural selection process in populations
AR.3.ES. Environmental Science: Social Perspectives: Students shall understand the impact of human activities on the environment.
           SP.3.ES.1     Explain the reciprocal relationships between Earth's processes (natural disasters) and
                         human activities
           SP.3.ES.2     Investigate the relationships between human consumption of natural resources and the
                         stewardship responsibility for reclamations including disposal of hazardous and non-
                         hazardous waste
           SP.3.ES.3     Explain common problems related to water quality: conservation, usage, supply, treatment,
                         pollutants (point and non-point sources)
           SP.3.ES.4     Explain problems related to air quality: automobiles, industry, natural emissions
           SP.3.ES.5     Evaluate the impact of different points of view on health, population, resource, and
                         environmental issues: governmental, economic, societal
           SP.3.ES.6     Research how political systems influence environmental decisions
           SP.3.ES.7     Investigate which federal and state agencies have responsibility for environmental
                         monitoring and action
           SP.3.ES.8      Compare and contrast man-made environments and natural environments
           SP.3.ES.9      Evaluate personal and societal benefits when examining health, population, resource, and
                          environmental issues
           SP.3.ES.10 Predict the long-term societal impact of specific health, population, resource, and
                      environmental issues
           SP.3.ES.11 Investigate the effect of public policy decisions on health, population, resource, and
                      environmental issues
           SP.3.ES.12 Explain the impact of factors such as birth rate, death rate, and migration rate on population
                      changes
           SP.3.ES.13 Distinguish between developed and developing countries
AR.4.ES. Environmental Science: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to
           communicate and solve environmental science problems.
           NS.4.ES.1      Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures and
                          tables
           NS.4.ES.2      Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., microscopes,
                          centrifuges, flexible arm cameras, computer software and hardware)
           NS.4.ES.3      Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.5.ES. Environmental Science: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.5.ES.1      Compare and contrast environmental concepts in pure science and applied science
           NS.5.ES.2      Explain why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.5.ES.3      Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                          environmental, economical and political impact
           NS.5.ES.4      Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                          advancements in science and technology
AR.6.ES. Environmental Science: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various environmental science careers and the training
           required for the selected career.
           NS.6.ES.1      Research and evaluate science careers using the following criteria: educational
                          requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.PS. Physical Science: Chemistry: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of matter's composition and structure.
           C.1.PS.1       Compare and contrast chemical and physical properties of matter, including but not limited
                          to flammability, reactivity, density, buoyancy, viscosity, melting point and boiling point
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.2       Compare and contrast chemical and physical changes, including but not limited to rusting,
                          burning, evaporation, boiling and dehydration
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.3       Discuss and model the relative size and placement of sub-atomic particles
           C.1.PS.4       Illustrate the placement of electrons in the first twenty elements using energy levels and
                          orbitals
           C.1.PS.5       Distinguish among atoms, ions, and isotopes
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.6       Model the valence electrons using electron dot structures (Lewis electron dot structures)
           C.1.PS.7       Explain the role of valence electrons in determining chemical properties
           C.1.PS.8       Explain the role of valence electrons in forming chemical bonds
           C.1.PS.9       Model bonding: ionic, covalent, metallic
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.10      Identify commonly used polyatomic ions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.11      Write formulas for ionic and covalent compounds
           C.1.PS.12      Name ionic and covalent compounds
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.13      Identify the mole and amu (atomic mass unit) as units of measurement in chemistry
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.14      Calculate the molar mass of compounds based on average atomic mass.
AR.2.PS. Physical Science: Chemistry: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of energy in chemistry.
           C.2.PS.1       Identify the kinetic theory throughout the phases of matter
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.2.PS.2       Create and label heat versus temperature graphs (heating curves): solid, liquid, gas, triple
                          point, heat of fusion, heat of vaporization
           C.2.PS.3       Relate thermal expansion to the kinetic theory
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.2.PS.4       Compare and contrast Boyle's law and Charles' law
           C.2.PS.5       Compare and contrast endothermic and exothermic reactions as energy is transferred
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.2.PS.6      Distinguish between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion
           C.2.PS.7      Compare and contrast the emissions produced by radioactive decay: alpha particles, beta
                         particles, gamma rays
AR.3.PS. Physical Science: Chemistry: Students shall compare and contrast chemical reactions.
           C.3.PS.1      Identify and write balanced chemical equations: decomposition reaction, synthesis reaction,
                         single displacement reaction, double displacement reaction, combustion reaction
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.2      Predict the product(s) of a chemical reaction when given the reactants using chemical
                         symbols and words
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.3      Balance chemical equations using the Law of Conservation of Mass
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.4      Determine mole ratio from a balanced reaction equation
           C.3.PS.5      Compare and contrast the properties of reactants and products of a chemical reaction
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.6      Model the role of activation energy in chemical reactions
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.7      Examine factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions, including but not limited to
                         temperature, light, concentration, catalysts, surface area, pressure
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.8      Identify the observable evidence of a chemical reaction: formation of a precipitate,
                         production of a gas, color change, changes in heat and light
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.9      Relate fire safety measures to conditions necessary for combustion
AR.4.PS. Physical Science: Chemistry: Students shall classify organic compounds.
           C.4.PS.1      Summarize carbon bonding: allotropes (diamond, graphite, fullerenes); carbon-carbon
                         (single, double, triple); isomers (branched, straight-chain, ring)
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.4.PS.2      Identify organic compounds by their: formula, structure, properties, functional groups
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.4.PS.3      Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.4.PS.4      Describe organic compounds and their functions in the human body: carbohydrates, lipids,
                         proteins, nucleic acids
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.5.PS. Physical Science: Physics: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of energy in physics.
           P.5.PS.1      Distinguish among thermal energy, heat, and temperature
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.5.PS.2      Calculate changes in thermal energy using: q = mcT (Where q=heat energy; m=mass;
                         c=specific heat; T=change in temperature)
AR.6.PS. Physical Science: Physics: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of forces in physics.
           P.6.PS.1      Analyze how force affects motion: one-dimensional (linear), two-dimensional (projectile and
                         rotational)
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.6.PS.2      Explain how motion is relative to a reference point
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.6.PS.3      Compare and contrast among speed, velocity and acceleration
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.6.PS.4      Solve problems using the formulas for speed and acceleration
           P.6.PS.5      Interpret graphs related to motion: distance versus time (d-t); velocity versus time (v-t);
                         acceleration versus time (a-t)
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.6.PS.6      Compare and contrast Newton's three laws of motion
           P.6.PS.7      Design and conduct investigations demonstrating Newton's first law of motion
           P.6.PS.8      Conduct investigations demonstrating Newton's second law of motion
           P.6.PS.9      Design and conduct investigations demonstrating Newton's third law of motion
           P.6.PS.10     Calculate force, mass, and acceleration using Newton's second law of motion: F = ma (Where
                         F=force, m=mass, a=acceleration)
           P.6.PS.11     Relate the Law of Conservation of Momentum to how it affects the movement of objects
           P.6.PS.12     Compare and contrast the effects of forces on fluids: Archimedes' principle, Pascal's
                         principle, Bernoulli's principle
           P.6.PS.13     Design an experiment to show conversion of energy: mechanical (potential and kinetic),
                         chemical, thermal, sound, light, nuclear
           P.6.PS.14      Solve problems by using formulas for gravitational potential and kinetic energy
AR.7.PS. Physical Science: Physics: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of wave and particle motion.
           P.7.PS.1       Compare and contrast a wave's speed through various mediums
           P.7.PS.2       Explain diffraction of waves
           P.7.PS.3       Explain Doppler effect using examples
           P.7.PS.4       Calculate problems relating to wave properties: wavelength, frequency, period, velocity
           P.7.PS.5       Describe how the physical properties of sound waves affect its perception
           P.7.PS.6       Define light in terms of waves and particles
           P.7.PS.7       Explain the formation of color by light and by pigments
           P.7.PS.8       Investigate the separation of white light into colors by diffraction
           P.7.PS.9       Illustrate constructive and destructive interference of light waves
           P.7.PS.10      Differentiate among the reflected images produced by concave, convex, and plane mirrors
           P.7.PS.11      Differentiate between the refracted images produced by concave and convex lenses
           P.7.PS.12      Research current uses of optics and sound
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.8.PS. Physical Science: Physics: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of electricity and magnetism in the physical
           world.
           P.8.PS.1       Calculate voltage, current, and resistance from a schematic diagram
           P.8.PS.2       Calculate electrical power using current and voltage: P = IV (Where P=power, I=current,
                          V=voltage)
           P.8.PS.3       Calculate electrical energy using electrical power and time: E=Pt (Where E=energy, P=power,
                          t=time)
           P.8.PS.4       Explain the use of electromagnets in step-up and step-down transformers
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.8.PS.5       Research current uses of electromagnets
AR.9.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.9.PS.1      Explain why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.9.PS.2      Compare and contrast hypotheses, theories, and laws
           NS.9.PS.3      Distinguish between a scientific theory and the term 'theory' used in general conversation
           NS.9.PS.4      Summarize the guidelines of science: explanations are based on observations, evidence, and
                          testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change with
                          additional empirical data; scientific knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                          acceptance
AR.10.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall design and safely conduct a scientific inquiry to solve valid problems.
           NS.10.PS.1 Develop and explain the appropriate procedure, controls, and variables (dependent and
                      independent) in scientific experimentation
           NS.10.PS.2 Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (refer to ADE Guidelines) when designing
                      and/or conducting scientific investigations
           NS.10.PS.3 Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.10.PS.4 Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics
           NS.10.PS.5 Formulate valid conclusions without bias
           NS.10.PS.6 Communicate experimental results using appropriate reports, figures, and tables
AR.11.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of historical trends in physical science.
           NS.11.PS.1 Recognize the factors that constitute a scientific theory
           NS.11.PS.2 Explain why scientific theories may be modified or expanded using additional empirical data,
                      verification, and peer review
           NS.11.PS.3 Summarize the development of the current atomic theory
           NS.11.PS.4 Analyze the development of the periodic table
           NS.11.PS.5 Research historical events in physical science
           NS.11.PS.6 Research current events and topics in physical science
AR.12.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to
           communicate and solve physical science problems.
           NS.12.PS.1 Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., balances,
                      scales, calculators, probes, glassware, burners, computer software and hardware)
           NS.12.PS.2 Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures, and
                      tables
           NS.12.PS.3 Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.13.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.13.PS.1 Compare and contrast physical science concepts in pure science and applied science
           NS.13.PS.2 Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.13.PS.3 Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                      environmental, economic, and political impact
           NS.13.PS.4 Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                      advancements in science and technology
           NS.13.PS.5 Describe in detail the methods used by scientists in their research
AR.14.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various physical science careers and the training required for the
           selected career.
           NS.14.PS.1 Research and evaluate physical science careers using the following criteria: educational
                      requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.P.    Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand one-dimensional motion.
           MF.1.P.1       Compare and contrast scalar and vector quantities
           MF.1.P.2       Solve problems involving constant and average velocity
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MF.1.P.3       Apply kinematic equations to calculate distance, time, or velocity under conditions of
                          constant acceleration
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MF.1.P.4       Compare graphic representations of motion: d-t, v-t, a-t
           MF.1.P.5       Calculate the components of a free falling object at various points in motion
           MF.1.P.6       Compare and contrast contact force (e.g., friction) and field forces (e.g., gravitational force)
           MF.1.P.7       Draw free body diagrams of all forces acting upon an object
           MF.1.P.8       Calculate the applied forces represented in a free body diagram
           MF.1.P.9       Apply Newton's first law of motion to show balanced and unbalanced forces
           MF.1.P.10      Apply Newton's second law of motion to solve motion problems that involve constant forces:
                          F=ma
           MF.1.P.11      Apply Newton's third law of motion to explain action-reaction pairs
           MF.1.P.12      Calculate frictional forces (i.e., kinetic and static)
           MF.1.P.13      Calculate the magnitude of the force of friction
AR.2.P.    Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand two-dimensional motion.
           MF.2.P.1       Calculate the resultant vector of a moving object
           MF.2.P.2       Resolve two-dimensional vectors into their components
           MF.2.P.3       Calculate the magnitude and direction of a vector from its components
           MF.2.P.4       Solve two-dimensional problems using balanced forces
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MF.2.P.5       Solve two-dimensional problems using the Pythagorean Theorem or the quadratic formula
           MF.2.P.6       Describe the path of a projectile as a parabola
           MF.2.P.7       Apply kinematic equations to solve problems involving projectile motion of an object
                          launched at an angle
           MF.2.P.8       Apply kinematic equations to solve problems involving projectile motion of an object
                          launched with initial horizontal velocity
           MF.2.P.9       Calculate rotational motion with a constant force directed toward the center
           MF.2.P.10      Solve problems in circular motion by using centripetal acceleration
AR.3.P.    Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand the dynamics of rotational equilibrium.
           MF.3.P.1       Relate radians to degrees
           MF.3.P.2       Calculate the magnitude of torque on an object
           MF.3.P.3       Calculate angular speed and angular acceleration
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MF.3.P.4       Solve problems using kinematic equations for angular motion
           MF.3.P.5       Solve problems involving tangential speed
           MF.3.P.6       Solve problems involving tangential acceleration
           MF.3.P.7       Calculate centripetal acceleration
           MF.3.P.8       Apply Newton's universal law of gravitation to find the gravitational force between two
                          masses
AR.4.P.    Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand the relationship between work and energy.
           MF.4.P.1       Calculate net work done by a constant net force
           MF.4.P.2       Solve problems relating kinetic energy and potential energy to the work-energy theorem
           MF.4.P.3       Solve problems through the application of conservation of mechanical energy
           MF.4.P.4       Relate the concepts of time and energy to power
           MF.4.P.5       Prove the relationship of time, energy and power through problem solving
AR.5.P.    Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand the law of conservation of momentum.
           MF.5.P.1       Describe changes in momentum in terms of force and time
           MF.5.P.2       Solve problems using the impulse-momentum theorem
           MF.5.P.3       Compare total momentum of two objects before and after they interact
           MF.5.P.4       Solve problems for perfectly inelastic and elastic collisions
AR.6.P.    Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand the concepts of fluid mechanics.
           MF.6.P.1       Calibrate the applied buoyant force to determine if the object will sink or float
           MF.6.P.2       Apply Pascal's principle to an enclosed fluid system
           MF.6.P.3       Apply Bernoulli's equation to solve fluid-flow problems
           MF.6.P.4       Use the ideal gas law to predict the properties of an ideal gas under different conditions:
                          Physics (PV=NkbT - N=number of gas particles; kb=Boltzmann's constant; T=temperature);
                          Chemistry (PV=nRT - n=number of moles; R=Molar gas constant; T=temperature)
AR.7.P.    Physics: Heat and Thermodynamics: Students shall understand the effects of thermal energy on particles and systems.
           HT.7.P.1       Perform specific heat capacity calculations
           HT.7.P.2       Perform calculations involving latent heat
           HT.7.P.3       Interpret the various sections of a heating curve diagram
           HT.7.P.4       Calculate heat energy of the different phase changes of a substance
AR.8.P.    Physics: Heat and Thermodynamics: Students shall apply the two laws of thermodynamics.
           HT.8.P.1       Describe how the first law of thermodynamics is a statement of energy conversion
           HT.8.P.2       Calculate heat, work, and the change in internal energy by applying the first law of
                          thermodynamics
           HT.8.P.3       Calculate the efficiency of a heat engine by using the second law of thermodynamics
           HT.8.P.4       Distinguish between entropy changes within systems and the entropy change for the
                          universe as a whole
AR.9.P.    Physics: Waves and Optics: Students shall distinguish between simple harmonic motion and waves.
           WO.9.P.1       Explain how force, velocity, and acceleration change as an object vibrates with simple
                          harmonic motion
           WO.9.P.2       Calculate the spring force using Hooke's law: F elastic=-kx (Where -k=spring constant)
           WO.9.P.3       Calculate the period and frequency of an object vibrating with a simple harmonic motion
           WO.9.P.4       Differentiate between pulse and periodic waves
           WO.9.P.5       Relate energy and amplitude
AR.10.P.   Physics: Waves and Optics: Students shall compare and contrast the law of reflection and the law of refraction.
           WO.10.P.1      Calculate the frequency and wavelength of electromagnetic radiation
           WO.10.P.2      Apply the law of reflection for flat mirrors
           WO.10.P.3      Describe the images formed by flat mirrors
           WO.10.P.4      Calculate distances and focal lengths for curved mirrors
           WO.10.P.5      Draw ray diagrams to find the image distance and magnification for curved mirrors
           WO.10.P.6      Solve problems using Snell's law
           WO.10.P.7  Calculate the index of refraction through various media using the following equation: n=c/v
                      (Where n=index of refraction; c=speed of light in vacuum; v=speed of light in medium)
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           WO.10.P.8 Use a ray diagram to find the position of an image produced by a lens
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           WO.10.P.9 Solve problems using the thin-lens equation: 1/p + 1/q + 1/f (Where q=image distance;
                      p=object distance; f=focal length)
           WO.10.P.10 Calculate the magnification of lenses: M=h'/h=q/p (Where M=magnification; h'=image height;
                      h=object height; q=image distance; p=object distance)
AR.11.P.   Physics: Electricity and Magnetism: Students shall understand the relationship between electric forces and electric fields.
           EM.11.P.1      Calculate electric force using Coulomb's law
           EM.11.P.2      Calculate electric field strength
           EM.11.P.3      Draw and interpret electric field lines
AR.12.P.   Physics: Electricity and Magnetism: Students shall understand the relationship between electric energy and capacitance.
           EM.12.P.1      Calculate electrical potential energy
           EM.12.P.2      Compute the electric potential for various charge distributions
           EM.12.P.3      Calculate the capacitance of various devices
           EM.12.P.4      Construct a circuit to produce a pre-determined value of an Ohm's law variable
AR.13.P.   Physics: Electricity and Magnetism: Students shall understand how magnetism relates to induced and alternating currents.
           EM.13.P.1      Determine the strength of a magnetic field
           EM.13.P.2      Use the first right-hand rule to find the direction of the force on the charge moving through a
                          magnetic field
           EM.13.P.3      Determine the magnitude and direction of the force on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic
                          field
           EM.13.P.4      Describe how the change in the number of magnetic field lines through a circuit loop affects
                          the magnitude and direction of the induced current
           EM.13.P.5      Calculate the induced electromagnetic field (emf) and current using Faraday's law of
                          induction
AR.14.P.   Physics: Nuclear Physics: Students shall understand the concepts of quantum mechanics as they apply to the atomic spectrum.
           NP.14.P.1      Calculate energy quanta using Planck's equation: E=hf
           NP.14.P.2      Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of matter: wavelength=h/p=h/mv
           NP.14.P.3      Distinguish between classical ideas of measurement and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
           NP.14.P.4      Research emerging theories in physics, such as string theory
AR.15.P.   Physics: Nuclear Physics: Students shall understand the process of nuclear decay.
           NP.15.P.1      Calculate the binding energy of various nuclei
           NP.15.P.2      Predict the products of nuclear decay
           NP.15.P.3      Calculate the decay constant and the half-life of a radioactive substance
AR.16.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.16.P.1      Describe why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.16.P.2      Compare and contrast the criteria for the formation of hypotheses, theories and laws
           NS.16.P.3      Summarize the guidelines of science: results are based on observations, evidence, and
                          testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change as
                          new data are generated; empirical knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                          acceptance
AR.17.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall safely design and conduct a scientific inquiry to solve valid problems.
           NS.17.P.1      Develop the appropriate procedures using controls and variables (dependent and
                          independent) in scientific experimentation
           NS.17.P.2      Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (ADE Guidelines) when designing and/or
                          conducting scientific investigations
           NS.17.P.3      Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.17.P.4      Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics (e.g., percent yield, percent
                          error)
           NS.17.P.5      Formulate valid conclusions without bias
AR.18.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of historical trends in physics.
           NS.18.P.1      Recognize that theories are scientific explanations that require empirical data, verification
                          and peer review
           NS.18.P.2      Research historical and current events in physics
AR.19.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to communicate and
           solve physics problems.
           NS.19.P.1      Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., balances,
                          scales, calculators, probes, glassware, burners, computer software and hardware)
           NS.19.P.2      Manipulate scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, charts, tables, and
                          graphs
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.19.P.3      Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.20.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.20.P.1      Compare and contrast the connections between pure science and applied science as it
                          relates to physics
           NS.20.P.2      Give examples of scientific bias that affect outcomes of experimental results
           NS.20.P.3      Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.20.P.4      Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                          environmental, economic, and political impact.
           NS.20.P.5      Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                          advancements in science and technology
AR.21.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various physics careers and the training required for the selected career.
           NS.21.P.1      Research and evaluate careers in physics using the following criteria: educational
                          requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions



Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks - Science Grade 12
AR.1.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Organization of the Human Body: Students shall explore the organizational structures of the body
           from the molecular to the organism level.
           OHB.1.AP.1 Infer the relationship between anatomy and physiology
           OHB.1.AP.2 Sequence the levels of organization of the human body
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.3 Identify the major body systems
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.4 Describe relative positions, body planes, body regions and body quadrants
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.5 Identify the major body cavities and the subdivisions of each cavity
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.6 Investigate homeostatic control mechanisms and their importance to health and diseases
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.7 Predict the effect of positive and negative feedback mechanisms on homeostasis
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OHB.1.AP.8 Identify the major characteristics of life: metabolism, responsiveness, movement, Growth,
                      reproduction, differentiation
AR.2.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Cellular Chemistry: Students shall understand the role of chemistry in body processes.
           CC.2.AP.1       Distinguish between matter and energy
           CC.2.AP.2       Explain the basic assumptions and conclusions of the atomic theory
           CC.2.AP.3       Distinguish between compounds and mixtures
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.4       Explain the role of ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds in the human body
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.5       Write simple formulas and chemical word equations for the four basic types of reactions:
                           synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.6       Analyze the role of water in the human body
           CC.2.AP.7       Explain the relationship among acids, bases, and salts
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.8       Relate the concept of pH to homeostasis
           CC.2.AP.9       Compare the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CC.2.AP.10 Describe the characteristics and importance of enzymes
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.3.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Anatomy and Physiology of the Cell: Students shall understand that cells are the basic, structural, and
           functional units of life.
           APC.3.AP.1 Explain the structure and function of the plasma membrane
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           APC.3.AP.2 Compare and contrast the different ways in which substances cross the plasma membrane:
                      diffusion and osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport, filtration, endocytosis,
                      exocytosis
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           APC.3.AP.3 Describe the structure and function of organelles and cell parts
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           APC.3.AP.4 Identify chemical substances produced by cells
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           APC.3.AP.5 Differentiate among replication, transcription, and translation
           APC.3.AP.6 Differentiate between mitosis and meiosis
           APC.3.AP.7 Explain the consequences of abnormal cell division
AR.4.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Tissues: Students shall understand the histology of the human body
           T.4.AP.1        Describe the structure, location, and function of each tissue category: epithelial, connective,
                           nervous, muscle
AR.5.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the integumentary system.
           BS.5.AP.1       Identify the components of the integumentary system
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.5.AP.2       Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the skin
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.5.AP.3       Identify the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the integumentary system
                           (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.5.AP.4       Describe disorders associated with the integumentary system
AR.6.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the skeletal system.
           BS.6.AP.1       Identify the components the skeletal system
           BS.6.AP.2       Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the skeletal system
           BS.6.AP.3       Identify the macroscopic and microscopic structure of bone
           BS.6.AP.4       Describe disorders associated with the skeletal system
AR.7.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the muscular system.
           BS.7.AP.1     Identify the components the muscular system
           BS.7.AP.2     Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the muscular system
           BS.7.AP.3     Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of muscle
           BS.7.AP.4     Describe disorders associated with the muscular system
AR.8.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system.
           BS.8.AP.1     Identify the components the nervous system
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.8.AP.2     Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the nervous system
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.8.AP.3     Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the nervous system
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.8.AP.4     Describe disorders associated with the nervous system
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.9.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the endocrine system.
           BS.9.AP.1     Identify the components of the endocrine system
           BS.9.AP.2     Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the endocrine system
           BS.9.AP.3     Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the endocrine system
           BS.9.AP.4     Describe disorders associated with the endocrine system
AR.10.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system.
           BS.10.AP.1 Identify the components of the cardiovascular system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.10.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the cardiovascular system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.10.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the cardiovascular system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.10.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the cardiovascular system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.11.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the immune and lymphatic
           systems.
           BS.11.AP.1 Identify the components of the immune and lymphatic systems
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.11.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the immune and lymphatic systems
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.11.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the immune and lymphatic
                      systems
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.11.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the immune and lymphatic systems
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.12.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system.
           BS.12.AP.1 Identify the components of the respiratory system
           BS.12.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the respiratory system
           BS.12.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the respiratory system
           BS.12.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the respiratory system
AR.13.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the digestive system.
           BS.13.AP.1 Identify the components the digestive system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.13.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the digestive system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.13.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the digestive system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BS.13.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the digestive system
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.14.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.
           BS.14.AP.1 Identify the components the urinary system
           BS.14.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the urinary system
           BS.14.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the urinary system
           BS.14.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the urinary system
AR.15.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Body Systems: Students shall describe the anatomy and physiology of the reproductive system
           BS.15.AP.1 Describe the components and the organization of the reproductive system
           BS.15.AP.2 Discuss the physiological mechanisms of the reproductive system
           BS.15.AP.3 Identify the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular structure of the reproductive system
           BS.15.AP.4 Describe disorders associated with the reproductive system
AR.16.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.16.AP.1 Explain why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.16.AP.2 Compare and contrast hypotheses, theories, and laws
           NS.16.AP.3 Distinguish between a scientific theory and the term 'theory' used in general conversation
           NS.16.AP.4 Summarize the guidelines of science: explanations are based on observations, evidence, and
                      testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change with
                      additional empirical data; scientific knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                      acceptance
AR.17.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall design and safely conduct scientific inquiry.
           NS.17.AP.1 Develop and explain the appropriate procedure, controls, and variables (dependent and
                      independent) in scientific experimentation
           NS.17.AP.2 Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (refer to ADE Guidelines) when designing
                      and/or conducting scientific investigations
           NS.17.AP.3 Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.17.AP.4 Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics
           NS.17.AP.5 Formulate valid conclusions without bias
           NS.17.AP.6 Communicate experimental results using appropriate reports, figures, and tables
AR.18.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of current life science theories.
           NS.18.AP.1 Understand that scientific theories may be modified or expanded based on additional
                      empirical data, verification, and peer review
           NS.18.AP.2 Relate the development of the cell theory to current trends in cellular biology
           NS.18.AP.3 Describe the relationship between the germ theory of disease and our current knowledge of
                      immunology and control of infectious diseases
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.18.AP.4 Relate the chromosome theory of heredity to recent findings in genetic research (e.g., Human
                      Genome Project-HGP, chromosome therapy)
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.18.AP.5 Research current events and topics in human biology
AR.19.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to
           communicate and solve life science problems.
           NS.19.AP.1 Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures, and
                      tables
           NS.19.AP.2 Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., microscopes,
                      centrifuges, flexible arm cameras, computer software and hardware)
           NS.19.AP.3 Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.20.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.20.AP.1 Compare and contrast human biology concepts in pure science and applied science
           NS.20.AP.2 Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.20.AP.3 Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                      advancements in science and technology
AR.21.AP. Anatomy and Physiology: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various health science careers and the training required
           for the selected career.
           NS.21.AP.1 Research and evaluate health science careers using the following criteria: educational
                      requirements; salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.B.    Biology: Molecules and Cells: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of chemistry in life processes.
           MC.1.B.1       Describe the structure and function of the major organic molecules found in living systems:
                          carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, lipids, nucleic acids
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MC.1.B.2       Describe the relationship between an enzyme and its substrate molecule(s)
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MC.1.B.3       Investigate the properties and importance of water and its significance for life: surface
                          tension, adhesion, cohesion, polarity, pH
           MC.1.B.4       Explain the role of energy in chemical reactions of living systems: activation energy,
                          exergonic reactions, endergonic reactions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.2.B.    Biology: Molecules and Cells: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of cells.
           MC.2.B.1       Construct a hierarchy of life from cells to ecosystems
           MC.2.B.2       Compare and contrast prokaryotes and eukaryotes
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MC.2.B.3       Describe the role of sub-cellular structures in the life of a cell: organelles, ribosomes,
                          cytoskeleton
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
          MC.2.B.4       Relate the function of the plasma (cell) membrane to its structure
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          MC.2.B.5       Compare and contrast the structures of an animal cell to a plant cell
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          MC.2.B.6       Compare and contrast the functions of autotrophs and heterotrophs
          MC.2.B.7       Compare and contrast active transport and passive transport mechanisms: diffusion,
                         osmosis, endocytosis, exocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis
          MC.2.B.8       Describe the main events in the cell cycle, including the differences in plant and animal cell
                         division: interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
          MC.2.B.9       List in order and describe the stages of mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.
          MC.2.B.10      Analyze the meiotic maintenance of a constant chromosome number from one generation to
                         the next
          MC.2.B.11      Discuss homeostasis using thermoregulation as an example
AR.3.B.   Biology: Molecules and Cells: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of how cells obtain and use energy (energetics).
          MC.3.B.1       Compare and contrast the structure and function of mitochondria and chloroplasts
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          MC.3.B.2       Describe and model the conversion of stored energy in organic molecules into usable cellular
                         energy (ATP): glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          MC.3.B.3       Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration: lactic acid fermentation, alcoholic
                         fermentation
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          MC.3.B.4       Describe and model the conversion of light energy to chemical energy by photosynthetic
                         organisms: light dependent reactions, light independent reactions
          MC.3.B.5       Compare and contrast cellular respiration and photosynthesis as energy conversion
                         pathways
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.4.B.   Biology: Heredity and Evolution: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of heredity.
          HE.4.B.1       Summarize the outcomes of Gregor Mendel's experimental procedures
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          HE.4.B.2       Differentiate among the laws and principles of inheritance: dominance, segregation,
                         independent assortment
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          HE.4.B.3       Use the laws of probability and Punnett squares to predict genotypic and phenotypic ratios
          HE.4.B.4       Examine different modes of inheritance: sex linkage, codominance, crossing over,
                         incomplete dominance, multiple alleles
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          HE.4.B.5       Analyze the historically significant work of prominent geneticists
          HE.4.B.6       Evaluate karyotypes for abnormalities: monosomy, trisomy
AR.5.B.   Biology: Heredity and Evolution: Students shall investigate the molecular basis of genetics.
          HE.5.B.1       Model the components of a DNA nucleotide and an RNA nucleotide
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          HE.5.B.2       Describe the Watson-Crick double helix model of DNA, using the base-pairing rule (adenine-
                         thymine, cytosine-guanine)
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          HE.5.B.3       Compare and contrast the structure and function of DNA and RNA
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
          HE.5.B.4       Describe and model the processes of replication, transcription, and translation
          HE.5.B.5       Compare and contrast the different types of mutation events, including point mutation,
                         frameshift mutation, deletion, and inversion
          HE.5.B.6       Identify effects of changes brought about by mutations: beneficial, harmful, neutral
AR.6.B.   Biology: Heredity and Evolution: Students shall examine the development of the theory of biological evolution.
          HE.6.B.1       Compare and contrast Lamarck's explanation of evolution with Darwin's theory of evolution
                         by natural selection
          HE.6.B.2       Recognize that evolution involves a change in allele frequencies in a population across
                         successive generations
          HE.6.B.3       Analyze the effects of mutations and the resulting variations within a population in terms of
                         natural selection
          HE.6.B.4       Illustrate mass extinction events using a time line
          HE.6.B.5       Evaluate evolution in terms of evidence as found in the following: fossil record, DNA
                         analysis, artificial selection, morphology, embryology, viral evolution, geographic distribution
                         of related species, antibiotic and pesticide resistance in various organisms
          HE.6.B.6       Compare the processes of relative dating and radioactive dating to determine the age of
                          fossils
           HE.6.B.7       Interpret a Cladogram
AR.7.B.    Biology: Classification and the Diversity of Life: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that organisms are diverse.
           CDL.7.B.1      Differentiate among the different domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
           CDL.7.B.2      Differentiate the characteristics of the six kingdoms: Eubacteria, Archaea, Protista, Fungi,
                          Plantae, Animalia
           CDL.7.B.3      Identify the seven major taxonomic categories: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus,
                          species
           CDL.7.B.4      Classify and name organisms based on their similarities and differences applying taxonomic
                          nomenclature using dichotomous keys
           CDL.7.B.5      Investigate Arkansas' biodiversity using appropriate tools and technology
           CDL.7.B.6      Compare and contrast the structures and characteristics of viruses (lytic and lysogenic
                          cycles) with non-living and living things
           CDL.7.B.7  Evaluate the medical and economic importance of viruses
           CDL.7.B.8  Compare and contrast life cycles of familiar organisms: sexual reproduction, asexual
                      reproduction, metamorphosis, alternation of generations
           CDL.7.B.9 Classify bacteria according to their characteristics and adaptations
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CDL.7.B.10 Evaluate the medical and economic importance of bacteria
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CDL.7.B.11 Describe the characteristics used to classify protists: plant-like, animal-like, fungal-like
           CDL.7.B.12 Evaluate the medical and economic importance of protists
           CDL.7.B.13 Compare and contrast fungi with other eukaryotic organisms
           CDL.7.B.14 Evaluate the medical and economic importance of fungi
           CDL.7.B.15 Differentiate between vascular and nonvascular plants
           CDL.7.B.16 Differentiate among cycads, gymnosperms, and angiosperms
           CDL.7.B.17 Describe the structure and function of the major parts of a plant: roots, stems, leaves, flowers
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CDL.7.B.18 Relate the structure of plant tissue to its function: epidermal, ground, vascular
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           CDL.7.B.19 Evaluate the medical and economic importance of plants
           CDL.7.B.20 Identify the symmetry of organisms: radial, bilateral, asymmetrical
           CDL.7.B.21 Compare and contrast the major invertebrate classes according to their nervous, respiratory,
                      excretory, circulatory, and digestive systems
           CDL.7.B.22 Compare and contrast the major vertebrate classes according to their nervous, respiratory,
                      excretory, circulatory, digestive, reproductive and integumentary systems
AR.8.B.    Biology: Ecology and Behavioral Relationships: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of ecological and behavioral
           relationships among organisms.
           EBR.8.B.1      Cite examples of abiotic and biotic factors of ecosystems
           EBR.8.B.2      Compare and contrast the characteristics of biomes
           EBR.8.B.3      Diagram the carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, and water cycles in an ecosystem
           EBR.8.B.4      Analyze an ecosystem's energy flow through food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids
           EBR.8.B.5      Identify and predict the factors that control population, including predation, competition,
                          crowding, water, nutrients, and shelter
           EBR.8.B.6      Summarize the symbiotic ways in which individuals within a community interact with each
                          other: commensalism, parasitism, mutualism
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           EBR.8.B.7      Compare and contrast primary succession with secondary succession
           EBR.8.B.8      Identify the properties of each of the five levels of ecology: organism, population, community,
                          ecosystem, biosphere
AR.9.B.    Biology: Ecology and Behavioral Relationships: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the ecological impact of global
           issues.
           EBR.9.B.1      Analyze the effects of human population growth and technology on the
                          environment/biosphere
           EBR.9.B.2      Evaluate long range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal in terms of their
                          environmental, economic, and political impact
           EBR.9.B.3      Assess current world issues applying scientific themes (e.g., global changes in climate,
                          epidemics, pandemics, ozone depletion, UV radiation, natural resources, use of technology,
                          and public policy)
AR.10.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.10.B.1      Explain why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.10.B.2      Compare and contrast hypotheses, theories, and laws
           NS.10.B.3      Distinguish between a scientific theory and the term 'theory' used in general conversation
           NS.10.B.4      Summarize the guidelines of science: explanations are based on observations, evidence, and
                          testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change with
                          additional empirical data; scientific knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                          acceptance
AR.11.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall design and safely conduct scientific inquiry.
           NS.11.B.1      Develop and explain the appropriate procedure, controls, and variables (dependent and
                          independent) in scientific experimentation
           NS.11.B.2      Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (refer to ADE Guidelines) when designing
                          and/or conducting scientific investigations
           NS.11.B.3      Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.11.B.4      Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics
           NS.11.B.5      Formulate valid conclusions without bias
           NS.11.B.6      Communicate experimental results using appropriate reports, figures, and tables
AR.12.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of current life science theories.
           NS.12.B.1      Recognize that theories are scientific explanations that require empirical data, verification,
                          and peer review
           NS.12.B.2      Understand that scientific theories may be modified or expanded based on additional
                          empirical data, verification, and peer review
           NS.12.B.3      Summarize biological evolution
           NS.12.B.4      Relate the development of the cell theory to current trends in cellular biology
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.12.B.5      Describe the relationship between the germ theory of disease and our current knowledge of
                          immunology and control of infectious diseases
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.12.B.6      Relate the chromosome theory of heredity to recent findings in genetic research (e.g., Human
                          Genome Project-HGP, chromosome therapy)
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.12.B.7      Research current events and topics in biology
AR.13.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to communicate and
           solve life science problems.
           NS.13.B.1      Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures, and
                          tables
           NS.13.B.2      Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., microscopes,
                          centrifuges, flexible arm cameras, computer software and hardware)
           NS.13.B.3      Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.14.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.14.B.1      Compare and contrast biological concepts in pure science and applied science
           NS.14.B.2      Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.14.B.3      Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                          environmental, economic, and political impact
           NS.14.B.4      Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                          advancements in science and technology
AR.15.B.   Biology: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various life science careers and the training required for the selected career.
           NS.15.B.1      Research and evaluate science careers using the following criteria: educational
                          requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.C.    Chemistry: Atomic Theory: Students shall understand the historical development of the model of the atom.
           AT.1.C.1.      Summarize the discoveries of the subatomic particles: Rutherford's gold foil, Chadwick's
                          discovery of the neutron, Thomson's cathode ray, Millikan's Oil Drop
           AT.1.C.2       Explain the historical events that led to the development of the current atomic theory
AR.2.C.    Chemistry: Atomic Theory: Students shall understand the structure of the atom.
           AT.2.C.1       Analyze an atom's particle position, arrangement, and charge using: proton, neutron,
                          electron
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           AT.2.C.2       Compare the magnitude and range of nuclear forces to magnetic forces and gravitational
                          forces
           AT.2.C.3       Draw and explain nuclear symbols and hyphen notations for isotopes
           AT.2.C.4       Derive an average atomic mass
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           AT.2.C.5       Determine the arrangement of subatomic particles in the ion(s) of an atom
AR.3.C.    Chemistry: Atomic Theory: Students shall understand how the arrangement of electrons in atoms relates to the quantum model.
           AT.3.C.1       Correlate emissions of visible light with the arrangement of electrons in atoms: quantum,
                          frequency, wavelength
           AT.3.C.2       Apply the following rules or principles to model electron arrangement in atoms: Aufbau
                          Principle (diagonal filling order), Hund's Rule, Pauli's Exclusion Principle
           AT.3.C.3       Predict the placement of elements on the Periodic Table and their properties using electron
                          configuration
           AT.3.C.4       Demonstrate electron placement in atoms using the following notations: orbital notations,
                          electron configuration notation, Lewis electron dot structures
AR.4.C.    Chemistry: Periodicity: Students shall understand the significance of the Periodic Table and its historical development.
           P.4.C.1        Compare and contrast the historical events leading to the evolution of the Periodic Table
           P.4.C.2        Describe the arrangement of the Periodic Table based on electron filling orders: Groups,
                          Periods
           P.4.C.3        Interpret periodic trends: atomic radius, ionic radius, ionization energy, electron affinities,
                          electronegativities
AR.5.C.    Chemistry: Periodicity: Students shall name and write formulas for binary and ternary compounds.
           P.5.C.1        Write formulas for binary and ternary compounds: IUPAC system, Greek prefixes, polyatomic
                          ions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.5.C.2        Name binary and ternary compounds
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.5.C.3        Predict the name and symbol for newly discovered elements using the IUPAC system
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.6.C.    Chemistry: Periodicity: Students shall explain the changes of matter using physical properties and chemical properties.
           P.6.C.1        Compare and contrast matter based on uniformity of particles: pure substances, solutions,
                          heterogeneous mixtures
           P.6.C.2        Distinguish between extensive and intensive physical properties of matter
           P.6.C.3        Separate homogeneous mixtures using physical processes: chromatography
           P.6.C.4        Design experiments tracing the energy involved in physical changes and chemical changes
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.6.C.5        Predict the chemical properties of substances based on their electron configuration: active,
                          inactive, inert
AR.7.C.    Chemistry: Periodicity: Students shall use atomic mass or experimental data to calculate relationships between elements and
           compounds.
           P.7.C.1        Demonstrate an understanding of the Law of Multiple Proportions
AR.8.C.    Chemistry: Bonding: Students shall understand the process of ionic bonding.
           B.8.C.1        Determine ion formation tendencies for groups on the Periodic Table: main group elements,
                          transition elements
           B.8.C.2        Derive formula units based on the charges of ions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           B.8.C.3        Use the electronegativitiy chart to predict the bonding type of compounds: ionic, polar
                          covalent, non-polar covalent
AR.9.C.    Chemistry: Bonding: Students shall understand the process of covalent bonding.
           B.9.C.1        Draw Lewis structures to show valence electrons for covalent bonding: lone pairs, shared
                          pairs, hybridization, resonance
           B.9.C.2        Determine the properties of covalent compounds based upon double and triple bonding
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           B.9.C.3        Predict the polarity and geometry of a molecule based upon shared electron pairs and lone
                          electron pairs: VSEPR Model
           B.9.C.4        Identify the strengths and effects of intermolecular forces (van der Waals): hydrogen
                          bonding, dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole, dispersion forces (London)
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.10.C.   Chemistry: Bonding: Students shall understand the process of metallic bonding.
           B.10.C.1       Explain the properties of metals due to delocalized electrons: molecular orbital model
AR.11.C.   Chemistry: Bonding: Students shall relate the physical properties of solids to different types of bonding.
           B.11.C.1       Distinguish between amorphous and crystalline solids
           B.11.C.2       Compare and contrast the properties of crystalline solids: ionic, covalent network, covalent
                          molecular, metallic
AR.12.C.   Chemistry: Stoichiometry: Students shall understand the relationships between balanced chemical equations and mole
           relationships.
           S.12.C.1       Balance chemical equations when all reactants and products are given
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           S.12.C.2       Use balanced reaction equations to obtain information about the amounts of reactants and
                          products
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           S.12.C.3       Distinguish between limiting reactants and excess reactants in balanced reaction equations
           S.12.C.4       Calculate stoichiometric quantities and use these to determine theoretical yields
AR.13.C.   Chemistry: Stoichiometry: Students shall understand the mole concept and Avogadro's number.
           S.13.C.1       Apply the mole concept to calculate the number of particles and the amount of substance:
                          Avogadro's constant = 6.02 x E23
           S.13.C.2       Determine the empirical and molecular formulas using the molar concept: molar mass,
                          average atomic mass, molecular mass, formula mass
AR.14.C.   Chemistry: Stoichiometry: Students shall predict products based upon the type of chemical reaction.
           S.14.C.1       Given the products and reactants predict products for the following types of reactions:
                          synthesis, decomposition, single displacement, double displacement, combustion
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.15.C.   Chemistry: Stoichiometry: Students shall understand the composition of solutions, their formation, and their strengths
           expressed in various units.
           S.15.C.1       Distinguish between the terms solute, solvent, solution and concentration
           S.15.C.2       Give examples for the nine solvent-solute pairs
           S.15.C.3       Calculate the following concentration expressions involving the amount of solute and volume
                          of solution: molarity (M), molality (m), percent composition, normality (N)
           S.15.C.4       Given the quantity of a solution, determine the quantity of another species in the reaction
           S.15.C.5       Define heat of solution
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           S.15.C.6       Identify the physical state for each substance in a reaction equation
AR.16.C.   Chemistry: Gas Laws: Student shall understand the behavior of gas particles as it relates to the kinetic theory.
           GL.16.C.1      Demonstrate the relationship of the kinetic theory as it applies to gas particles: molecular
                          motion, elastic collisions, temperature, pressure, ideal gas
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           GL.16.C.2      Calculate the effects of pressure, temperature, and volume on the number of moles of gas
                          particles in chemical reactions
AR.17.C.   Chemistry: Gas Laws: Students shall understand the relationships between temperature, pressure, volume, and moles of a gas.
           GL.17.C.1      Calculate the effects of pressure, temperature, and volume to gases: Avogadro's Law,
                          Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, Combined Law, Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure, Graham's Law of
                          Effusion, Guy-Lussac, Ideal Gas Law
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.18.C.   Chemistry: Gas Laws: Student shall apply the stoichiometric mass and volume relationships of gases in chemical reactions.
           GL.18.C.1      Calculate volume/mass relationships in balanced chemical reaction equations
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.19.C.   Chemistry: Acids and Bases: Students shall understand the historical development of the acid/base theories.
           AB.19.C.1      Compare and contrast the following acid/base theories: Arrhenius Theory, Bronsted-Lowry
                          Theory, Lewis Theory
AR.20.C.   Chemistry: Acids and Bases: Students shall demonstrate proficiency in acid, base, and salt nomenclature.
           AB.20.C.1      Name and write formulas for acids, bases and salts: binary acids, ternary acids, ionic
                          compounds
AR.21.C.   Chemistry: Acids and Bases: Students shall apply rules of nomenclature to acids, bases, and salts.
           AB.21.C.1      Compare and contrast acid and base properties
           AB.21.C.2      Describe the role that dissociation plays in the determination of strong and weak acids or
                          bases
           AB.21.C.3      Use acid-base equilibrium constants to develop and explain: ionization constants, percent of
                          ionization, common ion effect
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           AB.21.C.4      Explain the role of the pH scale as applied to acids and bases
AR.22.C.   Chemistry: Acids and Bases: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of titration as a laboratory tool.
           AB.22.C.1      Perform a titration to solve for the concentration of an acid or base
           AB.22.C.2      Use indicators in neutralization reactions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           AB.22.C.3      Investigate the role of buffers
AR.23.C.   Chemistry: Kinetics and Energetics: Students shall understand enthalpy, entropy, and free energy and their relationship to
           chemical reactions.
           KE.23.C.1      Define enthalpy and entropy and explain the relationship to exothermic and endothermic
                          reactions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           KE.23.C.2      Define free energy in terms of enthalpy and entropy: spontaneous reaction, increase in
                          disorder, decrease in disorder
           KE.23.C.3      Calculate entropy, enthalpy, and free energy changes in chemical reactions
           KE.23.C.4      Define specific heat capacity and its relationship to calorimetric measurements
           KE.23.C.5      Determine the heat of formation and the heat of reaction using enthalpy values and the Law
                          of Conservation of Energy
           KE.23.C.6      Explain the role of activation energy and collision theory in chemical reactions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.24.C.   Chemistry: Equilibrium: Students shall understand the factors that affect reaction rate and their relationship to quantitative
           chemical equilibrium.
           E.24.C.1       List and explain the factors which affect the rate of a reaction and the relationship of these
                          factors to chemical equilibrium: reversible reactions, reaction rate, nature of reactants,
                          concentration, temperature, catalysis
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           E.24.C.2       Solve problems developing an equilibrium constant or the concentration of a reactant or
                          product
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           E.24.C.3       Explain the relationship of LeChatelier's Principle to equilibrium systems: temperature,
                          pressure, concentration
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           E.24.C.4       Describe the application of equilibrium and kinetic concepts to the Haber Process: high
                          concentration of hydrogen and nitrogen, removal of ammonia, precise temperature control,
                          use of a contact catalyst, high pressure
AR.25.C.   Chemistry: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions: Students shall understand oxidation-reduction reactions to develop skills in
           balancing redox equations.
           ORR.25.C.1 Identify substances that are oxidized and substances that are reduced in a chemical reaction
           ORR.25.C.2 Complete and balance redox reactions: assign oxidation numbers, identify the oxidizing
                      agent and reducing agent, write net ionic equations
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.26.C.   Chemistry: Oxidation-Reduction Reaction: Students shall explain the role of oxidation-reduction reactions in the production of
           electricity in a voltaic cell.
           ORR.26.C.1 Write equations for the reactions occurring at the cathode and anode in electrolytic
                      conduction
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           ORR.26.C.2 Build a voltaic cell and measure cell potential: half-cells, salt bridge
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           ORR.26.C.3 Explain the process of obtaining electricity from a chemical voltaic cell: line notation: anode
                      (oxidation); cathode (reduction)
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           ORR.26.C.4 Calculate electric potential of a cell using redox potentials and predict product
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           ORR.26.C.5 Use redox potentials to predict electrolysis products and the electric potential of a cell
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.27.C.   Chemistry: Organic Chemistry: Students shall differentiate between aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons.
           OC.27.C.1      Examine the bonding and structural differences of organic compounds: alkanes, alkenes,
                          alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OC.27.C.2      Differentiate between the role and importance of aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OC.27.C.3      Compare and contrast isomers
AR.28.C.   Chemistry: Organic Chemistry: Students shall describe the functional groups in organic chemistry.
           OC.28.C.1      Describe the functional groups in organic chemistry: halohydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers,
                          aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amines, amides, amino acids, nitro compounds
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OC.28.C.2      Name and write formulas for aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.29.C.   Chemistry: Organic Chemistry: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of organic compounds in living and
           non-living systems.
           OC.29.C.1      Differentiate among the biochemical functions of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic
                          acids
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           OC.29.C.2      Describe the manufacture of polymers derived from organic compounds: polymerization,
                          crosslinking
AR.30.C.   Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry: Students shall understand the process transformations of nuclear radiation.
           NC.30.C.1      Describe the following radiation emissions: alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays,
                          positron particles
           NC.30.C.2      Write and balance nuclear reactions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NC.30.C.3      Compare and contrast fission and fusion
           NC.30.C.4      Apply the concept of half life to nuclear decay
AR.31.C.   Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry: Students shall understand the current and historical ramifications of nuclear energy.
           NC.31.C.1      Construct models of instruments used to study, control, and utilize radioactive materials and
                          nuclear processes
           NC.31.C.2      Research the role of nuclear reactions in society: transmutation, nuclear power plants,
                          Manhattan Project
AR.32.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.32.C.1      Explain why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.32.C.2      Compare and contrast hypotheses, theories, and laws
           NS.32.C.3      Compare and contrast the criteria for the formation of scientific theory and scientific law
           NS.32.C.4      Distinguish between a scientific theory and the term 'theory' used in general conversation
           NS.32.C.5      Summarize the guidelines of science: explanations are based on observations, evidence, and
                          testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change with
                          additional empirical data; scientific knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                          acceptance
AR.33.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall design and safely conduct scientific inquiry.
           NS.33.C.1      Develop and explain the appropriate procedure, controls, and variables (dependent and
                          independent) in scientific experimentation
           NS.33.C.2      Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (refer to Arkansas Safety Lab Guide)
                          when designing and/or conducting scientific investigations
           NS.33.C.3      Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.33.C.4      Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics
           NS.33.C.5      Formulate valid conclusions without bias
           NS.33.C.6      Communicate experimental results using appropriate reports, figures, and tables
AR.34.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the current theories in chemistry.
           NS.34.C.1      Recognize that theories are scientific explanations that require empirical data, verification,
                          and peer review
           NS.34.C.2      Understand that scientific theories may be modified or expanded based on additional
                          empirical data, verification, and peer review
           NS.34.C.3      Research current events and topics in chemistry
AR.35.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to communicate
           and solve problems in chemistry.
           NS.35.C.1      Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures, and
                          tables
           NS.35.C.2      Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems
           NS.35.C.3      Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.36.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.36.C.1      Compare and contrast chemistry concepts in pure science and applied science
           NS.36.C.2      Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.36.C.3      Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                          environmental, economic, and political impact
           NS.36.C.4      Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                          advancements in science and technology
AR.37.C.   Chemistry: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various careers in chemistry and the training required for the selected
           career
           NS.37.C.1      Research and evaluate science careers using the following criteria: educational
                          requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.ES. Environmental Science: Physical Dynamics: Students shall understand the physical dynamics of Earth
           PD.1.ES.1      Describe the structure, origin, and evolution of the Earth's components: atmosphere,
                          biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           PD.1.ES.2      Relate eras, epochs, and periods of Earth's history to geological development
           PD.1.ES.3      Determine the relative and absolute ages of rock layers
           PD.1.ES.4      Categorize the type and composition of various minerals
           PD.1.ES.5      Explain the processes of the rock cycle
           PD.1.ES.6      Describe the processes of degradation by weathering and erosion
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           PD.1.ES.7      Describe tectonic forces relating to internal energy production and convection currents
           PD.1.ES.8      Describe the relationships of degradation (a general lowering of the earth's surface by
                          erosion or weathering) and tectonic forces: volcanoes, earthquakes
           PD.1.ES.9      Construct and interpret information on topographic maps
           PD.1.ES.10 Describe the characteristics of each of the natural divisions of Arkansas: Ozark Plateau,
                      Arkansas River Valley, Ouachita Mountains, Coastal Plain, Mississippi Alluvial Plain (Delta),
                      Crowley's Ridge
           PD.1.ES.11 Describe the physical and chemical properties of water
           PD.1.ES.12 Compare and contrast characteristics of the oceans: composition, physical features of the
                      ocean floor, life within the ocean, lateral and vertical motion
           PD.1.ES.13 Investigate the evolution of the ocean floor
           PD.1.ES.14 Investigate the stratification of the ocean: colligative properties (depends on the ratio of the
                      number of particles of solute and solvent in the solution, not the identity of the solute);
                      biological zonation (distribution of organisms in biogeographic zones)
           PD.1.ES.15 Predict the effects of ocean currents on climate
           PD.1.ES.16 Explain heat transfer in the atmosphere and its relationship to meteorological processes:
                      pressure, winds, evaporation, precipitation
           PD.1.ES.17 Compare and contrast meteorological processes related to air masses, weather systems, and
                      forecasting
           PD.1.ES.18 Construct and interpret weather maps
           PD.1.ES.19 Describe the cycling of materials and energy: nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, phosphorous,
                      hydrological, sulfur
AR.2.ES. Environmental Science: Biological Dynamics: Students shall understand the biological dynamics of Earth
           BD.2.ES.1     Compare and contrast biomes
           BD.2.ES.2     Describe relationships within a community: predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism,
                         commensalism
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           BD.2.ES.3     Differentiate between primary and secondary succession
           BD.2.ES.4     Construct a trophic-level pyramid (energy level)
           BD.2.ES.5     Construct a food chain
           BD.2.ES.6     Diagram a food web
           BD.2.ES.7     Compare and contrast food webs and food chains
           BD.2.ES.8 Describe biodiversity
           BD.2.ES.9 Explain how limiting factors affect populations and ecosystems
           BD.2.ES.10 Describe the natural selection process in populations
AR.3.ES. Environmental Science: Social Perspectives: Students shall understand the impact of human activities on the environment.
           SP.3.ES.1     Explain the reciprocal relationships between Earth's processes (natural disasters) and
                         human activities
           SP.3.ES.2     Investigate the relationships between human consumption of natural resources and the
                         stewardship responsibility for reclamations including disposal of hazardous and non-
                         hazardous waste
           SP.3.ES.3     Explain common problems related to water quality: conservation, usage, supply, treatment,
                         pollutants (point and non-point sources)
           SP.3.ES.4     Explain problems related to air quality: automobiles, industry, natural emissions
           SP.3.ES.5     Evaluate the impact of different points of view on health, population, resource, and
                         environmental issues: governmental, economic, societal
           SP.3.ES.6     Research how political systems influence environmental decisions
           SP.3.ES.7     Investigate which federal and state agencies have responsibility for environmental
                         monitoring and action
           SP.3.ES.8  Compare and contrast man-made environments and natural environments
           SP.3.ES.9  Evaluate personal and societal benefits when examining health, population, resource, and
                      environmental issues
           SP.3.ES.10 Predict the long-term societal impact of specific health, population, resource, and
                      environmental issues
           SP.3.ES.11 Investigate the effect of public policy decisions on health, population, resource, and
                      environmental issues
           SP.3.ES.12 Explain the impact of factors such as birth rate, death rate, and migration rate on population
                      changes
           SP.3.ES.13 Distinguish between developed and developing countries
AR.4.ES. Environmental Science: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to
           communicate and solve environmental science problems.
           NS.4.ES.1     Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures and
                         tables
           NS.4.ES.2     Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., microscopes,
                         centrifuges, flexible arm cameras, computer software and hardware)
           NS.4.ES.3     Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.5.ES. Environmental Science: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.5.ES.1      Compare and contrast environmental concepts in pure science and applied science
           NS.5.ES.2      Explain why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.5.ES.3      Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                          environmental, economical and political impact
           NS.5.ES.4      Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                          advancements in science and technology
AR.6.ES. Environmental Science: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various environmental science careers and the training
           required for the selected career.
           NS.6.ES.1      Research and evaluate science careers using the following criteria: educational
                          requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.PS. Physical Science: Chemistry: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of matter's composition and structure.
           C.1.PS.1       Compare and contrast chemical and physical properties of matter, including but not limited
                          to flammability, reactivity, density, buoyancy, viscosity, melting point and boiling point
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.2       Compare and contrast chemical and physical changes, including but not limited to rusting,
                          burning, evaporation, boiling and dehydration
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.3       Discuss and model the relative size and placement of sub-atomic particles
           C.1.PS.4       Illustrate the placement of electrons in the first twenty elements using energy levels and
                          orbitals
           C.1.PS.5       Distinguish among atoms, ions, and isotopes
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.6       Model the valence electrons using electron dot structures (Lewis electron dot structures)
           C.1.PS.7       Explain the role of valence electrons in determining chemical properties
           C.1.PS.8       Explain the role of valence electrons in forming chemical bonds
           C.1.PS.9       Model bonding: ionic, covalent, metallic
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.10      Identify commonly used polyatomic ions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.11      Write formulas for ionic and covalent compounds
           C.1.PS.12      Name ionic and covalent compounds
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.13      Identify the mole and amu (atomic mass unit) as units of measurement in chemistry
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.1.PS.14      Calculate the molar mass of compounds based on average atomic mass.
AR.2.PS. Physical Science: Chemistry: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of energy in chemistry.
           C.2.PS.1       Identify the kinetic theory throughout the phases of matter
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.2.PS.2       Create and label heat versus temperature graphs (heating curves): solid, liquid, gas, triple
                          point, heat of fusion, heat of vaporization
           C.2.PS.3       Relate thermal expansion to the kinetic theory
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.2.PS.4       Compare and contrast Boyle's law and Charles' law
           C.2.PS.5       Compare and contrast endothermic and exothermic reactions as energy is transferred
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.2.PS.6       Distinguish between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion
           C.2.PS.7       Compare and contrast the emissions produced by radioactive decay: alpha particles, beta
                          particles, gamma rays
AR.3.PS. Physical Science: Chemistry: Students shall compare and contrast chemical reactions.
           C.3.PS.1       Identify and write balanced chemical equations: decomposition reaction, synthesis reaction,
                          single displacement reaction, double displacement reaction, combustion reaction
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.2       Predict the product(s) of a chemical reaction when given the reactants using chemical
                          symbols and words
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.3       Balance chemical equations using the Law of Conservation of Mass
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.4       Determine mole ratio from a balanced reaction equation
           C.3.PS.5       Compare and contrast the properties of reactants and products of a chemical reaction
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.6       Model the role of activation energy in chemical reactions
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.7      Examine factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions, including but not limited to
                         temperature, light, concentration, catalysts, surface area, pressure
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.8      Identify the observable evidence of a chemical reaction: formation of a precipitate,
                         production of a gas, color change, changes in heat and light
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.3.PS.9      Relate fire safety measures to conditions necessary for combustion
AR.4.PS. Physical Science: Chemistry: Students shall classify organic compounds.
           C.4.PS.1      Summarize carbon bonding: allotropes (diamond, graphite, fullerenes); carbon-carbon
                         (single, double, triple); isomers (branched, straight-chain, ring)
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.4.PS.2      Identify organic compounds by their: formula, structure, properties, functional groups
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.4.PS.3      Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           C.4.PS.4      Describe organic compounds and their functions in the human body: carbohydrates, lipids,
                         proteins, nucleic acids
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.5.PS. Physical Science: Physics: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of energy in physics.
           P.5.PS.1      Distinguish among thermal energy, heat, and temperature
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.5.PS.2      Calculate changes in thermal energy using: q = mcT (Where q=heat energy; m=mass;
                         c=specific heat; T=change in temperature)
AR.6.PS. Physical Science: Physics: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of forces in physics.
           P.6.PS.1      Analyze how force affects motion: one-dimensional (linear), two-dimensional (projectile and
                         rotational)
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.6.PS.2      Explain how motion is relative to a reference point
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.6.PS.3      Compare and contrast among speed, velocity and acceleration
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.6.PS.4      Solve problems using the formulas for speed and acceleration
           P.6.PS.5      Interpret graphs related to motion: distance versus time (d-t); velocity versus time (v-t);
                         acceleration versus time (a-t)
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.6.PS.6      Compare and contrast Newton's three laws of motion
           P.6.PS.7      Design and conduct investigations demonstrating Newton's first law of motion
           P.6.PS.8      Conduct investigations demonstrating Newton's second law of motion
           P.6.PS.9      Design and conduct investigations demonstrating Newton's third law of motion
           P.6.PS.10     Calculate force, mass, and acceleration using Newton's second law of motion: F = ma (Where
                         F=force, m=mass, a=acceleration)
           P.6.PS.11     Relate the Law of Conservation of Momentum to how it affects the movement of objects
           P.6.PS.12     Compare and contrast the effects of forces on fluids: Archimedes' principle, Pascal's
                         principle, Bernoulli's principle
           P.6.PS.13     Design an experiment to show conversion of energy: mechanical (potential and kinetic),
                         chemical, thermal, sound, light, nuclear
           P.6.PS.14     Solve problems by using formulas for gravitational potential and kinetic energy
AR.7.PS. Physical Science: Physics: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of wave and particle motion.
           P.7.PS.1      Compare and contrast a wave's speed through various mediums
           P.7.PS.2      Explain diffraction of waves
           P.7.PS.3      Explain Doppler effect using examples
           P.7.PS.4      Calculate problems relating to wave properties: wavelength, frequency, period, velocity
           P.7.PS.5      Describe how the physical properties of sound waves affect its perception
           P.7.PS.6      Define light in terms of waves and particles
           P.7.PS.7      Explain the formation of color by light and by pigments
           P.7.PS.8      Investigate the separation of white light into colors by diffraction
           P.7.PS.9      Illustrate constructive and destructive interference of light waves
           P.7.PS.10     Differentiate among the reflected images produced by concave, convex, and plane mirrors
           P.7.PS.11     Differentiate between the refracted images produced by concave and convex lenses
           P.7.PS.12     Research current uses of optics and sound
                         (Find correlated lesson activity)
AR.8.PS. Physical Science: Physics: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the role of electricity and magnetism in the physical
           world.
           P.8.PS.1       Calculate voltage, current, and resistance from a schematic diagram
           P.8.PS.2       Calculate electrical power using current and voltage: P = IV (Where P=power, I=current,
                          V=voltage)
           P.8.PS.3       Calculate electrical energy using electrical power and time: E=Pt (Where E=energy, P=power,
                          t=time)
           P.8.PS.4       Explain the use of electromagnets in step-up and step-down transformers
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           P.8.PS.5       Research current uses of electromagnets
AR.9.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.9.PS.1      Explain why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.9.PS.2      Compare and contrast hypotheses, theories, and laws
           NS.9.PS.3      Distinguish between a scientific theory and the term 'theory' used in general conversation
           NS.9.PS.4      Summarize the guidelines of science: explanations are based on observations, evidence, and
                          testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change with
                          additional empirical data; scientific knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                          acceptance
AR.10.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall design and safely conduct a scientific inquiry to solve valid problems.
           NS.10.PS.1 Develop and explain the appropriate procedure, controls, and variables (dependent and
                      independent) in scientific experimentation
           NS.10.PS.2 Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (refer to ADE Guidelines) when designing
                      and/or conducting scientific investigations
           NS.10.PS.3 Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.10.PS.4 Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics
           NS.10.PS.5 Formulate valid conclusions without bias
           NS.10.PS.6 Communicate experimental results using appropriate reports, figures, and tables
AR.11.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of historical trends in physical science.
           NS.11.PS.1 Recognize the factors that constitute a scientific theory
           NS.11.PS.2 Explain why scientific theories may be modified or expanded using additional empirical data,
                      verification, and peer review
           NS.11.PS.3 Summarize the development of the current atomic theory
           NS.11.PS.4 Analyze the development of the periodic table
           NS.11.PS.5 Research historical events in physical science
           NS.11.PS.6 Research current events and topics in physical science
AR.12.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to
           communicate and solve physical science problems.
           NS.12.PS.1 Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., balances,
                      scales, calculators, probes, glassware, burners, computer software and hardware)
           NS.12.PS.2 Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures, and
                      tables
           NS.12.PS.3 Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.13.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.13.PS.1 Compare and contrast physical science concepts in pure science and applied science
           NS.13.PS.2 Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.13.PS.3 Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                      environmental, economic, and political impact
           NS.13.PS.4 Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                      advancements in science and technology
           NS.13.PS.5 Describe in detail the methods used by scientists in their research
AR.14.PS. Physical Science: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various physical science careers and the training required for the
           selected career.
           NS.14.PS.1 Research and evaluate physical science careers using the following criteria: educational
                      requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions
AR.1.P.    Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand one-dimensional motion.
           MF.1.P.1       Compare and contrast scalar and vector quantities
           MF.1.P.2       Solve problems involving constant and average velocity
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MF.1.P.3       Apply kinematic equations to calculate distance, time, or velocity under conditions of
                          constant acceleration
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           MF.1.P.4       Compare graphic representations of motion: d-t, v-t, a-t
          MF.1.P.5      Calculate the components of a free falling object at various points in motion
          MF.1.P.6      Compare and contrast contact force (e.g., friction) and field forces (e.g., gravitational force)
          MF.1.P.7      Draw free body diagrams of all forces acting upon an object
          MF.1.P.8      Calculate the applied forces represented in a free body diagram
          MF.1.P.9      Apply Newton's first law of motion to show balanced and unbalanced forces
          MF.1.P.10     Apply Newton's second law of motion to solve motion problems that involve constant forces:
                        F=ma
          MF.1.P.11     Apply Newton's third law of motion to explain action-reaction pairs
          MF.1.P.12     Calculate frictional forces (i.e., kinetic and static)
          MF.1.P.13     Calculate the magnitude of the force of friction
AR.2.P.   Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand two-dimensional motion.
          MF.2.P.1      Calculate the resultant vector of a moving object
          MF.2.P.2      Resolve two-dimensional vectors into their components
          MF.2.P.3      Calculate the magnitude and direction of a vector from its components
          MF.2.P.4      Solve two-dimensional problems using balanced forces
                        (Find correlated lesson activity)
          MF.2.P.5      Solve two-dimensional problems using the Pythagorean Theorem or the quadratic formula
          MF.2.P.6      Describe the path of a projectile as a parabola
          MF.2.P.7      Apply kinematic equations to solve problems involving projectile motion of an object
                        launched at an angle
          MF.2.P.8      Apply kinematic equations to solve problems involving projectile motion of an object
                        launched with initial horizontal velocity
          MF.2.P.9      Calculate rotational motion with a constant force directed toward the center
          MF.2.P.10     Solve problems in circular motion by using centripetal acceleration
AR.3.P.   Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand the dynamics of rotational equilibrium.
          MF.3.P.1      Relate radians to degrees
          MF.3.P.2      Calculate the magnitude of torque on an object
          MF.3.P.3      Calculate angular speed and angular acceleration
                        (Find correlated lesson activity)
          MF.3.P.4      Solve problems using kinematic equations for angular motion
          MF.3.P.5      Solve problems involving tangential speed
          MF.3.P.6      Solve problems involving tangential acceleration
          MF.3.P.7      Calculate centripetal acceleration
          MF.3.P.8      Apply Newton's universal law of gravitation to find the gravitational force between two
                        masses
AR.4.P.   Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand the relationship between work and energy.
          MF.4.P.1      Calculate net work done by a constant net force
          MF.4.P.2      Solve problems relating kinetic energy and potential energy to the work-energy theorem
          MF.4.P.3      Solve problems through the application of conservation of mechanical energy
          MF.4.P.4      Relate the concepts of time and energy to power
          MF.4.P.5      Prove the relationship of time, energy and power through problem solving
AR.5.P.   Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand the law of conservation of momentum.
          MF.5.P.1      Describe changes in momentum in terms of force and time
          MF.5.P.2      Solve problems using the impulse-momentum theorem
          MF.5.P.3      Compare total momentum of two objects before and after they interact
          MF.5.P.4      Solve problems for perfectly inelastic and elastic collisions
AR.6.P.   Physics: Motion and Forces: Students shall understand the concepts of fluid mechanics.
          MF.6.P.1      Calibrate the applied buoyant force to determine if the object will sink or float
          MF.6.P.2      Apply Pascal's principle to an enclosed fluid system
          MF.6.P.3      Apply Bernoulli's equation to solve fluid-flow problems
          MF.6.P.4      Use the ideal gas law to predict the properties of an ideal gas under different conditions:
                        Physics (PV=NkbT - N=number of gas particles; kb=Boltzmann's constant; T=temperature);
                        Chemistry (PV=nRT - n=number of moles; R=Molar gas constant; T=temperature)
AR.7.P.   Physics: Heat and Thermodynamics: Students shall understand the effects of thermal energy on particles and systems.
          HT.7.P.1      Perform specific heat capacity calculations
          HT.7.P.2      Perform calculations involving latent heat
          HT.7.P.3      Interpret the various sections of a heating curve diagram
          HT.7.P.4      Calculate heat energy of the different phase changes of a substance
AR.8.P.    Physics: Heat and Thermodynamics: Students shall apply the two laws of thermodynamics.
           HT.8.P.1       Describe how the first law of thermodynamics is a statement of energy conversion
           HT.8.P.2       Calculate heat, work, and the change in internal energy by applying the first law of
                          thermodynamics
           HT.8.P.3       Calculate the efficiency of a heat engine by using the second law of thermodynamics
           HT.8.P.4       Distinguish between entropy changes within systems and the entropy change for the
                          universe as a whole
AR.9.P.    Physics: Waves and Optics: Students shall distinguish between simple harmonic motion and waves.
           WO.9.P.1       Explain how force, velocity, and acceleration change as an object vibrates with simple
                          harmonic motion
           WO.9.P.2       Calculate the spring force using Hooke's law: F elastic=-kx (Where -k=spring constant)
           WO.9.P.3       Calculate the period and frequency of an object vibrating with a simple harmonic motion
           WO.9.P.4       Differentiate between pulse and periodic waves
           WO.9.P.5       Relate energy and amplitude
AR.10.P.   Physics: Waves and Optics: Students shall compare and contrast the law of reflection and the law of refraction.
           WO.10.P.1      Calculate the frequency and wavelength of electromagnetic radiation
           WO.10.P.2      Apply the law of reflection for flat mirrors
           WO.10.P.3      Describe the images formed by flat mirrors
           WO.10.P.4      Calculate distances and focal lengths for curved mirrors
           WO.10.P.5      Draw ray diagrams to find the image distance and magnification for curved mirrors
           WO.10.P.6      Solve problems using Snell's law
           WO.10.P.7      Calculate the index of refraction through various media using the following equation: n=c/v
                          (Where n=index of refraction; c=speed of light in vacuum; v=speed of light in medium)
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           WO.10.P.8  Use a ray diagram to find the position of an image produced by a lens
                      (Find correlated lesson activity)
           WO.10.P.9 Solve problems using the thin-lens equation: 1/p + 1/q + 1/f (Where q=image distance;
                      p=object distance; f=focal length)
           WO.10.P.10 Calculate the magnification of lenses: M=h'/h=q/p (Where M=magnification; h'=image height;
                      h=object height; q=image distance; p=object distance)
AR.11.P.   Physics: Electricity and Magnetism: Students shall understand the relationship between electric forces and electric fields.
           EM.11.P.1      Calculate electric force using Coulomb's law
           EM.11.P.2      Calculate electric field strength
           EM.11.P.3      Draw and interpret electric field lines
AR.12.P.   Physics: Electricity and Magnetism: Students shall understand the relationship between electric energy and capacitance.
           EM.12.P.1      Calculate electrical potential energy
           EM.12.P.2      Compute the electric potential for various charge distributions
           EM.12.P.3      Calculate the capacitance of various devices
           EM.12.P.4      Construct a circuit to produce a pre-determined value of an Ohm's law variable
AR.13.P.   Physics: Electricity and Magnetism: Students shall understand how magnetism relates to induced and alternating currents.
           EM.13.P.1      Determine the strength of a magnetic field
           EM.13.P.2      Use the first right-hand rule to find the direction of the force on the charge moving through a
                          magnetic field
           EM.13.P.3      Determine the magnitude and direction of the force on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic
                          field
           EM.13.P.4      Describe how the change in the number of magnetic field lines through a circuit loop affects
                          the magnitude and direction of the induced current
           EM.13.P.5      Calculate the induced electromagnetic field (emf) and current using Faraday's law of
                          induction
AR.14.P.   Physics: Nuclear Physics: Students shall understand the concepts of quantum mechanics as they apply to the atomic spectrum.
           NP.14.P.1      Calculate energy quanta using Planck's equation: E=hf
           NP.14.P.2      Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of matter: wavelength=h/p=h/mv
           NP.14.P.3      Distinguish between classical ideas of measurement and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
           NP.14.P.4      Research emerging theories in physics, such as string theory
AR.15.P.   Physics: Nuclear Physics: Students shall understand the process of nuclear decay.
           NP.15.P.1      Calculate the binding energy of various nuclei
           NP.15.P.2      Predict the products of nuclear decay
           NP.15.P.3      Calculate the decay constant and the half-life of a radioactive substance
AR.16.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding that science is a way of knowing.
           NS.16.P.1      Describe why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
           NS.16.P.2      Compare and contrast the criteria for the formation of hypotheses, theories and laws
           NS.16.P.3      Summarize the guidelines of science: results are based on observations, evidence, and
                          testing; hypotheses must be testable; understandings and/or conclusions may change as
                          new data are generated; empirical knowledge must have peer review and verification before
                          acceptance
AR.17.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall safely design and conduct a scientific inquiry to solve valid problems.
           NS.17.P.1      Develop the appropriate procedures using controls and variables (dependent and
                          independent) in scientific experimentation
           NS.17.P.2      Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (ADE Guidelines) when designing and/or
                          conducting scientific investigations
           NS.17.P.3      Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
           NS.17.P.4      Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics (e.g., percent yield, percent
                          error)
           NS.17.P.5      Formulate valid conclusions without bias
AR.18.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of historical trends in physics.
           NS.18.P.1      Recognize that theories are scientific explanations that require empirical data, verification
                          and peer review
           NS.18.P.2      Research historical and current events in physics
AR.19.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall use mathematics, science equipment, and technology as tools to communicate and
           solve physics problems.
           NS.19.P.1      Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., balances,
                          scales, calculators, probes, glassware, burners, computer software and hardware)
           NS.19.P.2      Manipulate scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, charts, tables, and
                          graphs
                          (Find correlated lesson activity)
           NS.19.P.3      Utilize technology to communicate research findings
AR.20.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall describe the connections between pure and applied science.
           NS.20.P.1      Compare and contrast the connections between pure science and applied science as it
                          relates to physics
           NS.20.P.2      Give examples of scientific bias that affect outcomes of experimental results
           NS.20.P.3      Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
           NS.20.P.4      Evaluate long-range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal for
                          environmental, economic, and political impact.
           NS.20.P.5      Explain how the cyclical relationship between science and technology results in reciprocal
                          advancements in science and technology
AR.21.P.   Physics: Nature of Science: Students shall describe various physics careers and the training required for the selected career.
           NS.21.P.1      Research and evaluate careers in physics using the following criteria: educational
                          requirements, salary, availability of jobs, working conditions

				
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