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PowerPoint - Boy Scout Troop 849

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					 Travel
  and
Weather
  Jim Hawkins
   Dick Rose
                            Agenda

• Hiking
      – Objectives, Preparation and training, Conditioning and
        experience, Guidelines and procedures, Efficient walking


• Terrain and Environment
      – Routes in the wilderness, Altitude


• Campsite Selection


2/21/09                      Travel and Weather                    2
                            Agenda

• Weather and Climate
      – Characteristics, Observation and prediction, Thunder and
        lightning, Wind chill

• Wilderness Customs and Manners
      – Trail manners, Rules and prohibitions, Good practices




2/21/09                      Travel and Weather                    3
          Hiking




2/21/09   Travel and Weather   4
                        Hiking -
                       Objectives
• Establish a specific objective
      – Fun, peak climb, fish, explore, nature study

• Define the limits
      – Distance, load, elevation, equipment, strength of
        group, experience

• Establish itinerary
      – Route, campsites, schedule, dates

2/21/09                   Travel and Weather                5
                   Hiking -
           Preparation and Training
• Develop training and conditioning
  program
      – Start with easy outings, remember beginners
        should know what is planned and expected
      – Proper equipment
      – Develop trail discipline - water use, pace,
        responsibilities
      – Learn group capabilities, interests



2/21/09                 Travel and Weather            6
                    Hiking -
          Conditioning and Experience
• Plan increasingly more challenging
  outings
      –   Vary terrain, elevation, season
      –   Gradual elevation effects
      –   Develop stamina
      –   All must carry own pack
          • Assist with items when problems occur
      – Get in good shape and stay there



2/21/09                      Travel and Weather     7
                    Hiking -
           Guidelines and Procedures
• Prepare profile
      – Evaluate difficulty, compare to group
• Set schedule
      – Length of day, campsites, layover days, compare to group
• Use rule:
      – 2 miles per hour + 1 hour per 1000 ft elevation gain
• Weigh packs
      – 25% body weight ideal, max 33%, watch for unneeded
        extras
• Carry the ten essentials, even on day hikes
2/21/09                      Travel and Weather                    8
                    Hiking -
                 Ten Essentials
 1. Map of area and compass
 2. Rain gear
 3. Flashlight with extra bulb and batteries
 4. Sunglasses
 5. Water bottle & purification
 6. Trail snacks / extra food
 7. Waterproof matches
 8. Candle or fire starter
 9. Pocket knife
10. First aid kit
2/21/09                 Travel and Weather     9
                       Hiking -
                  Efficient Walking
• Tune up with gradual pace
      – Let heart, lungs, muscles adjust
• Don’t overload
      – If you don’t need it, leave it home
• Etiquette
      – Walking is a social sport – allow room in front,
        rear, step aside
      – Watch branches, rocks

2/21/09                   Travel and Weather               10
                      Hiking -
            Efficient Walking [cont’d]
• Pace / speed
      – Function of distance, load, gradient, strength, time
        of day
      – Varies with altitude, vegetation terrain
      – Don’t sweat, but don’t chill
      – Not to fast, enjoy, outing
      – Adjust to conditions, body more efficient when
        paced


2/21/09                   Travel and Weather               11
                       Hiking -
             Efficient Walking [cont’d]
• Rest stops
      – Is rest necessary?
      – Minimal need early, real need shows up later
      – Use “boot check” after first 15 min
          • Re-tie laces, drink water, adjust pack, check for hot spots
      – 30 to 40 minutes between stops
          • 7 to 10 min stops for best progress




2/21/09                       Travel and Weather                      12
                     Hiking -
           Efficient Walking [cont’d]
• Downhill and sidehill
      – Mixed blessing - jarring on knees, pounding on
        feet
      – Tighten laces, bend knees on hard surface
      – Use plunge step on scree




2/21/09                  Travel and Weather              13
                       Hiking -
             Efficient Walking [cont’d]
• Evaluate, know group status
      – Observe individual performance
      – Adjust pace or even goals
      – Two groups if necessary


• Don’t exhaust yourself
      – Maintain water balance
          • Desert travel requires 1 to 2 gallons per day
          • Check urine color, have salt tablets

2/21/09                       Travel and Weather            14
      Terrain and Environment




2/21/09        Travel and Weather   15
            Terrain and Environment -
            Routes in the Wilderness
• Each mountain range or desert area has its
  own geology - know characteristics,
  peculiarities
• Trails are not wilderness – learn origin, signs
  can be wrong:
      – Game trails, trappers / lumbering / mining trails
• Blazes, cairns can disappear – ducks can be
  wrong
• Follow easiest routes, logically related to map

2/21/09                       Travel and Weather            16
        Terrain and Environment -
     Routes in the Wilderness [cont’d]
• Brush
      –   Near running water
      –   Can be hard to penetrate / navigate
      –   Avoid where possible
      –   Avoid where avalanche tracks
      –   Aim for heaviest timber




2/21/09                    Travel and Weather   17
        Terrain and Environment -
     Routes in the Wilderness [cont’d]
• Avoid water courses, valley bottoms

• Talus
      – Large rock rubble from peaks
      – Can be unbalanced, moss indicates stability

• Scree
      – Higher, small rock, gravel size
      – Kicks loose, good for fast descent

2/21/09                  Travel and Weather           18
        Terrain and Environment -
     Routes in the Wilderness [cont’d]
• Snow
      –   Can be help or hindrance
      –   Varies day to day, hour to hour
      –   Hard in shade and in morning
      –   Soft in afternoon, exposed areas
      –   Know preceding weather conditions
      –   Know danger from avalanches, cornices
      –   Know snow travel techniques, tramp walk, plunge
          step, step kicking, cutting steps
2/21/09                   Travel and Weather                19
        Terrain and Environment -
     Routes in the Wilderness [cont’d]
• Stream crossing – time consuming,
  tricky
      – Use logs, rocks, fallen trees
      – Wading - smooth bed, shallow, shoes - no sox,
        keep dry
      – Shin deep - ok, knee deep – dangerous
      – Use 3 point suspension, belay if hazardous
      – Seek wide, shallow – not narrow deep crossings


2/21/09                 Travel and Weather               20
           Terrain and Environment -
                    Altitude
• Affects temperature, oxygen available
      – Temperature changes 3 to 5 degrees F for each
        1000 ft
      – When 90° at sea level, as low as 20° at 14,000 ft
      – Oxygen - 1/3 less at 10,000 ft than at sea level
      – Brain needs blood with 90% saturation
      – 95% at sea level, 90% at 10,000 ft, decreases
        above 10,000 ft

• Off the peak by noon
2/21/09                  Travel and Weather                 21
          Campsite Selection




2/21/09         Travel and Weather   22
           Campsite Selection

• No perfect site – should be safe, comfortable

• Need good drainage – level knoll

• Away from dampness, thick vegetation,
  meadows

• Optimum exposure, mild breeze, some
  shade, trees, early sun
2/21/09            Travel and Weather             23
          Campsite Selection [cont’d]

• Safe surroundings – near water
      – Not under large old trees (widow makers)
      – Avoid tall grass, swampy areas, gullies,
        overhanging cliffs, poison oak, nettles, etc.
      – 100 feet from lakes and streams


• Good water – purify regardless


2/21/09                   Travel and Weather            24
          Campsite Selection [cont’d]

• Wood if available
      – Use conservatively
      – No fires over 11,000 ft


• View – if available, compensates for
  other things



2/21/09                   Travel and Weather   25
          Weather and Climate




2/21/09          Travel and Weather   26
              Weather and Climate -
                 Characteristics
• Air in motion – warm air rises, cool air settles
• Colder by 3 to 5 degrees F per 1000 ft.
  elevation gain
• Clouds form at dew point, condensation, rain
• Wind direction
      – Daytime - uphill, away from water
      – Nighttime - downhill, toward water
      – Change in direction signals weather change


2/21/09                     Travel and Weather       27
           Weather and Climate -
          Observation and Prediction
• Check weather bureau in advance

• Talk to rangers, old time residents
  especially in unfamiliar areas

• Each mountain range has its own
  pattern

• San Gabriels different than Sierras
2/21/09            Travel and Weather   28
        Weather and Climate -
   Observation and Prediction [cont’d]
• Sierra Nevada has specific weather patterns
      –  Good weather with N, W, and SW winds
      –  Bad weather with NE, E, S winds

      – No wind / No wind change = No weather change

      – Cold front - chill wind, short notice, violent, storm over
        quickly
      – Warm front – visible from distance, good warning, less
        violent, storm lasts longer
      – Clear weather - steady barometer (altimeter), gentle winds,
        no clouds

2/21/09                      Travel and Weather                       29
        Weather and Climate -
   Observation and Prediction [cont’d]
• Sierra Nevada [cont’d]
      – Precipitation may occur when:
          • Barometer drops, wind shifts or picks up
          • Successively lower clouds, black in direction of wind,
          • Cumulus – nimbus build up

      – Clearing weather when – barometer rises, S wind shifts to W
        to N
          • Cloud base rises steadily


• Can be very hot during the day, very cold at
  night
2/21/09                         Travel and Weather                   30
             Weather and Climate -
             Thunder and Lightning
• Approach generally obvious
      – Black cumulus, rapid build up of cumulo-nimbus


• Thunder (sound) travels 1000 ft per
  second
      – Approximately 1 mile in 5 seconds
      – Count seconds from flash to sound
      – If count decreases, take care

2/21/09                  Travel and Weather              31
             Weather and Climate -
          Thunder and Lightning [cont’d]
• Discharge follows path of least
  resistance
      –   Peaks, not valleys
      –   Ridges and crests, not sides
      –   Lone trees (or person) standing in meadow
      –   Tall snags or trees, not second growth




2/21/09                   Travel and Weather          32
             Weather and Climate -
          Thunder and Lightning [cont’d]
• Potential discharge sometimes signaled
  by:
      – Buzzing sound, tingling sensation
      – Electricity leaking from metal, St. Elmo’s fire
          • From metal equipment, ore veins, metal boxes
      – Take caution, avoid contact with conductors




2/21/09                      Travel and Weather            33
             Weather and Climate -
          Thunder and Lightning [cont’d]
• Ground current does damage – stay low
      –   Minimize yourself as target or circuit
      –   Stay out of shallow caves, metal buildings
      –   Spread people out
      –   Crouch
• Touch only the ground
      – Feet together, don’t sit


2/21/09                    Travel and Weather          34
             Weather and Climate -
                  Wind Chill
• Serious cooling effect on the body
      – Changes / lowers effective temperature by 5° F for
        each 5 m.p.h. of wind
      – When added to elevation effect, can change
        climate from warm to frigid




2/21/09                  Travel and Weather              35
               Wilderness
          Customs and Manners



2/21/09          Travel and Weather   36
  Wilderness Customs and Manners -
            Trail Manners
• For pleasant relations with others
      – Yield right of way to uphill hikers, pack stock
      – Repair, re-align damaged, misaligned signs
      – Never throw rocks, run or horseplay
      – Wash 200 ft from water, use biodegradable soap
      – Clean / dispose of fish / game away from water
        source
      – Catch only fish / game you can use
      – Don’t destroy animal, reptile, insect habitats
2/21/09                  Travel and Weather               37
  Wilderness Customs and Manners -
        Rules and Prohibitions
• No cutting of living things
• No picking or collecting without
  permission
• No polluting water sources
• No cutting trails or switchbacks
• No burning cans, bottles, garbage or
  trash
• No smoking while driving or hiking
2/21/09          Travel and Weather      38
  Wilderness Customs and Manners -
           Good Practices
• Use established campsites / fire areas
• Camp away from meadows
• Never leave a campfire unattended
      – Chemical stoves best for cooking
• Use only wood you need – downed
  wood
• Drown all campfires
2/21/09                  Travel and Weather   39
    Wilderness Customs and Manners -
         Good Practices [cont’d]
•   Leave gates the way you found them
•   Emulate the cat in toilet practice
•   Carry out all non-burnable trash
•   Sterilize cooking, eating gear
•   Keep self, clothing, utensils clean
•   Turn off noise at bedtime

2/21/09           Travel and Weather      40
           Take only pictures!

          Leave only footprints!




2/21/09          Travel and Weather   41

				
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