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					MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY FEDERAL
POLYTECHNIC EDE.

      MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING
                      ENVIRONMENT

                (A CASE STUDY OF BURSARY DEPARMENT

                 FEDERALPOLYTECHNIC EDE OSUN STATE)

                                 PREPARED BY

                     YUSUFF MUSIBAUDEEN ADETUNJI

                    MATRIC NUMBER: 2007224010254



                    A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED TO

                      DEPARTMENT OF ACOUNTANCY

            FACULTY OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT STUDIES

                   THE POLYTECHNIC IBADAN, IBADAN.



            IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT

           FOIR THE AWAED OF HIGHER NATIONAL DIPLOMA

                              IN ACCONUTANCY



                              NOVEMBER, 2010




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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY FEDERAL
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                              CERTIFICATION

      This is to certify that this research work was carried out by YUSUFF
MUSIBAUDEEN ADETUNJI Matric Number 2007224010254 the department of
Accountancy, Faculty of Financial Management Studies, the Polytechnic Ibadan,
Ibadan Oyo State.




____________________                              _____________________

        (SUPERVISOR)                                            DATE




____________________                              _____________________

         H.O.D.                                          DATE




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                                  DEDICATION

      This research work is dedicated, of course to the glory of Allah (SWT the
fashioner, creator of the whole universe. Who has completed the journey even
before embarking on it.

      And to all that contributed to the life of people positively, and to my
reserved loving parents Mr. & Mrs. Yusuff.




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                            ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

      All praises and adoration are due to Almighty Allah who has
compassionately granted me the favour of completing this project and I thank Him
for His divinely assistance for the successful completion of this programme. I
beseech Him to bestow on me divine guidance in all my endeavours.

        I acknowledge with thanks the direct and indirect contribution of my
supervisor Mrs. Akande for scrutinizing the project, and for her comment and
criticism which make the project to see the light of the day. I say a big thank you.

       My unflinching appreciation goes to my loving and caring parents Mr. &
Mrs. Yusuff for the moral and spiritual upbringing they gave me. I pray Allah to
reward my father with paradise. I am eternally indebted to my reserved loving
mother, Mrs. Yusuff who has been trying tooth and nail to ensure my success I
beseech Allah to grant her sound health and long life and make her reap the fruits
of her labour (Amin). Not forgetting my wife Kuburat for her word of
encouragement and motivation. I say God bless you.

      I cannot but appreciate the efforts of all my respondents especially staffers
of bursary department Federal polytechnic EDE. Thank you all.

      My profound appreciation goes to those that have in one way or the other
contributed to my life. Permit me to mention few names: Mr. Farinde, Mrs.
Owoyemi, Alfa Wale, Daddy Aisha, Mr. Ifede, Allah knows you all. May He
reward you abundantly.

       A friend in need is a friend indeed says an adage, for this I am highly
grateful to the following intimates colleagues, Semiu, Ally, Ismail, Tesleem, Abu
Aminat, Muhydeen Oyeleye, Lanrewaju, Ibrahim, Sulaimon, Abdullahi, Olagbaje,
Femi, Toyin, Kanmi, Taiwo, Mubarak and others for their love perseverance and
tolerance towards humanity and their commitment to reach a greater height.

      I do also thank with dignity, the Muslim Student Society of Nigeria
Polytechnic Ibadan branch, The Muslim Congress,for their spiritual advise I say
Jazakumullah Kaeran.

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      My trhanks will be incomplete if I fail to appreciate the support of my boss
and father and mother in my office, Aunty Bisi, kayode Mr. Otunuga, Mrs.
Olaniran, Mr. Olalere, Mr Akin Amole, Mrs. Oni, Mrs. Opaogun, Iya Ibadan, Mrs
Kolawole, my HOD Mrs. Owoyemi and others too numerous to mention. And the
management of Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria Ibadan for giving me time to
complete my study out of the tight schedule. Thank you.

       Finally, I must not forget to mention my simblings at home for their patient,
tolereance and understanding Asifa, Fatimoh, Amidu, Saheed, sarafa. May God
plead their course. Amin.




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                                  ABSTRACT

      The title of the study is Management Information System in an Accounting
Environment Case Study Federal Polytechnic Ede Osun State.

       The Objective of the study is to examine the process and importance of
management information system in an accounting environment and to examine the
effect of timely information as a basis for decision making towards actualizing
organization objective.

       Primary and secondary data were collected to help achieve the objectives.
The sample size chosen was Bursary department of the federal polytechnic ede
osun state being an academic environment. Questionnaire was used to collect data
and the questionnaire was randomly distributed to the respondents, percentage
comparison method and chi square methods were used in analyzing the data
collected.

      It was revealed in the study that effective decision making and
organizational efficiency relies heavily on the quantum of quality information
made available, hence the need for appropriate management information system.

       Accounting environment just like any other business environment requires
information to enable actualization of the organization objective. Preparation
Financial statement does not come as a single entity but as a direct outcome of the
basic accounting information. In the case of bursary department EDE basic
accounting information includes school fees which form the basic revenue of an
Academic institution, wages of teaching and non teaching staff which also form the
core of expenditure as well as stationeries, medical fee, graduation fee, etc.

       The study concluded that adequate attention must be focused on the need for
an effective and efficient management information system. Management
commitment, skilled Information technology compliance staff, necessary gadgets


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and equipment system review must all exist to attain and derive fully the benefits
of management information system.

      It was recommended that the support of all stakeholders must be sought
before installing management information system; this will help realize the
objective of installation as there will not be need for sabotage.

      This research work is segmented into five chapters, each of which focuses
on the relevant part of the study.

      Chapter one is on the introduction to the study.

      Chapter two addresses review of relevant literature; write up, journals,
which are of interest to the study. This is done with a view to obtain more
information.

       Chapter three shows how the research was carried out with an in-depth in to
the case study.

       Chapter four includes data collection, instruments used, administration and
interpretation.

      Chapter five includes summary of the finding in the research work,
conclusion and recommendation based solely on the research findings. It also
covers areas which may be of interest for further research work.




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TITLE PAGE                                                                 i

CERTIFICATION                                                              ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                            iii

ABSTRACT                                                                  iv-v

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                          vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION                                                           1-2

1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION                                                 2

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM                                               3

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY                                                     4

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESIS                                      4

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY                                                  5

1.6 REASEARCH METHODOLOGY                                                  5

1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY                                          6

1.7.1 SCOPE                                                                6

1.7.2 LIMITATION                                                           6

1.8 PLAN OF STUDY                                                          6

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS                                                    7



CHAPTER TWO

2.0 INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM                          8

2.1 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION
SYSTEM                                             9

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2.2 HISTORY OF BURSARY DEPARMENT POLYTECHNIC, EDE                          9-11

2.3 FUNCTION OF BURSARY DEPARMENT                                          11

2.4 CHALLENGES OF BURSARY DEPARMENT                                        11

2.5 BOOKS MEAINTANIED IN BURSARY DEPARTMENT                                11-12

2.5.1 INFORMATION VERSUS DATA                                              13-14

2.6 VALUE OF INFORMATION                                                   14

2.7 IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION

      SYSTEM                                                               15-16

2.8 DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT

      INFORMATION SYSTEM                                                   16-18

2.9.0 COMPUTER AND INFORMATION NEEDS MANAGEMENT                            18

2.9.1 THE COMPUTER CAPABILITIES                                            19

2.9.2 CO MPONENTS OF COMPUTER                                              20

2.9.3 INFORMATION NEEDSOF MANAGEMENT                                       20-21

2.9.4 CHALENGES OF MIS                                                     21

2.9.5 SYMPTOMS OF INADEQAUTE MANAGEMENT

      INFORMATION SYSTEM

2.9.6 GUIDELINES FOR IMPROVEMENT MANAGEMENT

      INFORMATION SYSTEM

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                                   23

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN                                                        23


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3.2 SAMPLE SIZE                                                            23

3.3 SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION                                              24

3.3.1PRIMARY SOURCE                                                        24

3.3.2 SECONDARY SOURCE                                                     24

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPETATION                          25

4.1 DATA PRESENTATION                                                      25-27

4.2 DATA ANALYSIS                                                          27-33

4.3 FINDINGS                                                               34

4.4 FINDINGS

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 INTRODUCTION                                                           35

5.1 SUMMARY                                                                35-36

5.2 RECOMMENDATION                                                         36-37

5.3 CONCLUSION                                                             37

QUESTIONNAIRE

REFERENCES




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                                 CHAPTER ONE
          INTRODUCTION

      All businesses share one common asset, regardless of the type of business. It
does not matter if they manufacture goods or provide services. It is a vital part of
any business entity, whether a sole proprietorship or a multinational corporation.
That common asset is information.

      Information enables us to determine the need to create new products and
services. Information tells us to move into new markets or to withdraw from other
markets. Without information, the goods do not get made, the orders are not
placed, the materials are not procured, the shipments are not delivered, the
customers are not billed, and the business cannot survive.

       But information has far lesser impact when presented as raw data. In order to
maximize the value of information, it must be captured, analyzed, quantified,
compiled, manipulated, made accessible, and shared. In order to accomplish those
tasks, an information system (IS) must be designed, developed, administered, and
maintained.

       Therefore an information system (IS) is any combination of information
technology and people's activities using that technology to support operations,
management, and decision-making. In a very broad sense, the term information
system is frequently used to refer to the interaction between people, algorithmic
processes, data and technology. In this sense, the term is used to refer not only to
the information and communication technology (ICT) an organization uses, but
also the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business
processes

      Some make a clear distinction between information systems, and computer
systems ICT, and business processes. Information systems are distinct from
information technology in that an information system is typically seen as having an
ICT component. Information systems are also different from business processes.
Information systems help to control the performance of business processes.

     At the start, works in businesses and other organizations, internal reporting
was made manually and only periodically, as a by-product of the accounting
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system and with some additional statistic(s), and gave limited and delayed
information on management performance. Previously, data had to be separated
individually by the people as per the requirement and necessity of the organization.
Later, data was distinguished from information, and so instead of the collection of
mass of data, important and to the point data that is needed by the organization was
stored.

       Early on, business computers were mostly used for relatively simple
operations such as tracking sales or payroll data, often without much detail. Over
time these applications became more complex and began to store increasing
amounts of information while also interlinking with previously separate
information systems. As more and more data was stored and linked, man began to
analyze this information into further detail, creating entire management reports
from the raw, stored data. The term "MIS" arose to describe these kinds of
applications, which were developed to provide managers with information about
sales, inventories, and other data that would help in managing the enterprise.

1.1   BACKGROUND INFORMATION

       A Management Information System (MIS) is a system or process that
provides information needed to manage organizations effectively. Management
information systems are regarded to be a subset of the overall internal controls
procedures in a business, which cover the application of people, documents,
technologies, and procedures used by management accountants to solve business
problems such as costing a product, service or a business-wide strategy.
Management information systems are distinct from regular information systems in
that they are used to analyze other information systems applied in operational
activities in the organization.

      Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the group of
information management methods tied to the automation or support of human
decision making,.

      According to Philip Kotler "A marketing information system consists of
people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate, and distribute
needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers."

      The terms MIS and information system are often confused. Information
systems include systems that are not intended for decision making. The area of
study called MIS is sometimes referred to, in a restrictive sense, as information
technology management.
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       Any successful MIS must support a business‟s Five Year Plan or its
equivalent. It must provide for reports based upon performance analysis in areas
critical to that plan, with feedback loops that allow for titivation of every aspect of
the business, including recruitment and training regimens. In effect, MIS must not
only indicate how things are going, but why they are not going as well as planned
where that is the case. These reports would include performance relative to cost
centers and projects that drive profit or loss, and do so in such a way that identifies
individual accountability, and in virtual real-time.

       Professor Allen S. Lee states that "...research in the information systems
field examines more than the technological system, or just the social system, or
even the two side by side; in addition, it investigates the phenomena that emerge
when the two interact

       Therefore, Management Information System in an Accounting Environment,
the case study of Bursary Department, Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State deals
with the process of disseminating managerial information from the top hierarchy
staff down to the low hierarchy staff in this department, which is depicted in an
organizational chart of this department to be shown in Chapter 3 of this project
work.
1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Numerous studies have been carried out around the world on the introduction and
the use of MIS in organizations. From the finding of these studies, it would appear
that where difficulties have been encountered, it is usually due to the following
factors:
      a. Lack of senior management commitment.
      b. Lack of management or users involvement with the design of the system.
      c. Management(s) lack of computer skills.
      d. Management not being aware of the full facilities available and how they
         can be used.
      e. Communication problems between users, management and designers,
         due to lack of appreciation to relative expertise.
      f. Concentration on using computer for operational or administration tasks
         rather than tactical or strategic tasks.


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        g. Resistance to change




1.3     OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The main objective of this study centers on the need for management information
system in organization.
The necessity of information especially good Management Information System
(MIS) in an Accounting environment of which Bursary Department is our
sampling is not something to be overlooked. The following are the aims of this
research work
a. To assist management to plan the most effective use of resources in generating
information which are needed for effective decision making?
b. To assist management to choose between alternative course of action.
C. To aid management in controlling day-today operation, e.g. comparison
statement between actual results achieved and those planned.
1.4     RESEARCH QUESTION AND HYPOTHESIS
This study intends to test the level of effectiveness and reliance on Management
Information System in an accounting environment.
For this purpose, the research questions and relevant hypothesis will be formulated,
the research questions are:
       What are the impacts of sound MIS in an accounting environment of any
        organization?
       What are the hindering factors on MIS?
The relevant hypothesis base on which the data collected will be analyzed are
propounded below:
Ho: Does the qualification and experience of staff have impact on sound MIS.
Hi: The qualification and experience of staff does not have any impact on sound
MIS.

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1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
Provision of good Management Information System (MIS) which should be
reflected from an organizational structure of any establishment especially
Accounting Environment of such establishment is of relative importance. MIS
which provide direct link between the management committee for the purpose of
running the activities of the organization in and efficient ways and providing
permanent solution to any shortcomings whatsoever that may erupt.
Many systems have been developed and applied in transmitting meaningful
information to produce the desired goals.
Significance of this study is to examine the impact both favorably and unfavorably,
that the application of sound MIS has in an Accounting environment.
Its contribution to the development of organization. This study will be of help to
business oriented in Nigeria on the need to continually assess their information
system to determine its strict application, identify any shortfall and to instantly
correct such deviation.
The study will also undoubtedly be of important to some newly developed firm and
infant industry to be aware of importance of sound MIS in an organization and take
advantage of technological innovation for rapid development.
1.6   RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The study was carried out through a review of relevant literatures. The World
Wide Web (internet), Textbooks, The Polytechnic Ede portal was consulted to get
relevant information on the research topic. In addition, questionnaire and
structured oral interview method were used as data collection techniques in order
to obtain necessary information.
The questionnaires were distributed to the staff of Bursary Department, Federal
Polytechnic, Ede Osun State.




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1.7   SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY
1.7.1 SCOPE
This project focuses on the Management Information System in an Accounting
environment. Since the MIS being employed is different from one organization to
another, due to level of technological advancement and technical know how from
one country organization to another. Therefore, it proves somehow difficult and
impossible to cover all organization with modern MIS in Nigeria. Thus, the sample
frame of BURSARY DEPARTMENT OF FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, EDE,
OSUN STATE, NIGERIA is considered appropriate being an academic
environment of Federal myth.
The findings obtained from this study will then be generalized to the accounting
environment of any establishment in Nigeria.
1.7.2 LIMITATION
It is only a sample that will be selected and findings generalized over all other
accounting environment in any organization. This is due to limited financial
resources, time factor and availability of respondent. However, the limitation will
not in any-way have adverse effects on the study, since any Organization must
have sound MIS, though there may be slight difference in MIS from one
organization to another. Every effort within our efforts is therefore gathered
towards the realization of set objectives.
1.8   PLAN OF STUDY
This research work comprises of five chapters which are logically arranged to suit
the purpose of our study.
Chapter one introduces the topic extensively, chapter two deals with the reviewing
of relevant literatures while chapter three is based on the case study and
instruments of research. Data presentation, analysis and comment are done in
chapter four, while summary, recommendation and conclusion is done in the last
chapter.




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1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. DATA: According to “WIKIPEDIA” Data refers to qualitative or quantitative
attributes of a variable or set of variables. Data (plural of "datum") are typically the
results of measurements and can be the basis of graphs, images, or observations of
a set of variables. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from
which information and then knowledge are derived. Raw data refers to a collection
of numbers, characters, images or other outputs from devices that collect
information to convert physical quantities into symbols, which are unprocessed.

2. INFORMATION: According to “BUSINESS DICTIONARY” information

In general, is raw data that has been verified to be accurate, timely, specific and
organized for a purpose. It is presented within a context that gives it meaning and
relevance, and which leads to increase in understanding and decrease in
uncertainty.




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                                CHAPTER TWO
2.0   INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
       No effective decision can be taken and implemented to solve any problem,
unless the full information relating to the problem and its surroundings is made
available to the management. Not only should this information be made available,
but it must be made available quickly. The right information at the right time
reduces the risk of wrong decisions. The proper collection, handling and providing
the necessary information to the right managers as soon as possible could be a
tremendous boom to the control function.
        Management Information System (MIS) can be defined as “a formal method
of collecting timely information in a presentable form in order to facilitate
effective decision making and implementation in a presentable form in order to
facilitate effective decision making and implementation in order to carry out
organizational operations for the purpose of achieving the organizational goals.
       A little more complete definitions of MIS has been developed by the
Management Information System committee of the Financial Executive Institute
which defined MIS as “a system designed to provide selected decision – oriented
information needed by management to plan, control and evaluate the activities of
the corporation”. It is designed within a framework that emphasizes profit
planning, performance planning and control at all levels. It comprises the ultimate
integration of acquired business information sub-system both financial and non-
financial within the company.
       Due to government regulations and the complexity of business and industrial
operations with their attendant paperwork have created a tremendous amount of
information that must be handled and used. The entire paperwork involved in each
transaction, paperwork required in ordering each item in the inventory from the
manufacturers, filling of all this information for easy access, can give us some
ideal about the information requirements of modern day businesses.




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         2.1   HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF MANAGEMENT
                       INFORMATION SYSTEM
The role of business information system has changed and expanded over the last
four decades.
In the incipient decade (1950‟s and ‟60), “electronic data processing system” could
be afforded by only the largest organizations. They were used to record and store
book keeping data such as journal entries, specialized journals, and ledger
accounts; this was strictly an operations support role.
By the 1960s “Management Information System” were introduced or used to
generate a limited range of predefined report, including income statement (they
were called profit and loss back then), balance sheet and reports. They were trying
to perform a decision making support role, but they were not up to the tasks.
By the 1970s “decision support system role, were introduced. They were
interactive in the sense that they allowed the user to choose between numerous
operation and configuration. Not only was the user allowed to customize outputs,
they also could configured the programs to their specific needs. There was a cost
though. As part of your mainframe leasing agreement, you typically had to pay to
have an IBM system developer permanently on site.
The 1980s also saw the first commercial application of artificial intelligence
techniques in the form “Expert System”
The 1990s saw the introduction of “Strategic information system”. This was
largely because of developments in the subject of strategic management by
scholars M. Porler, T. Peter e.t.c in the 1980s. Competitive advantage becomes a
hot management topic and software developers were happy to provide the tools.
The role of business information system had now expanded to include strategic
support. The latest step was the commercialization of the Internet and the growth
of intranets and extranet at the turn of the century.
2.2 HISTORY OF BUSRARY DEPARTMENT POLYTECHNIC EDE

       The Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun state, Nigeria is a technological
institution engaged in education, research and training targeted at sustainable
development of the nation. The institution was established as a tertiary educational
institution for the provision of courses of instruction, training and research in areas
of science, technology, management and other fields of applied learning relevant to
the human resource needs of the nation.

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       The institution came into existence in February 1992 via Decree No. 33 of
25th July, 1979 as amended by Decree 5 of 1993. The function of the institution as
specified in the decree are as follows.

1. To provide full-time or part-time courses of instruction and training in:

(a)Technology, Applied Science, Commerce and Management; and

(b) Such other fields of applied learning relevant to the need of the Federal
Republic of Nigeria in the areas of industrial and agricultural production,
distribution and for research in the development and adoption of techniques as the
academic Board and the Council may from time to time determine.

2. To arrange Conferences, Seminars and Study Group relative to the field of
learning specified in paragraph one above.

3. To perform such other functions as in the opinion of the Council which may
serve to promote the objectives of the Polytechnic.

The Polytechnic took over the old Baptist Teachers College from the National
Youth Service Corps (N.Y.S.C.) which served as the Orientation Camp for Corps
members. This was achieved with the cooperation of Ede Local Government and
Osun State Ministry of Education.

The responsibility for establishing and planning the take-off of the Polytechnic was
vested in the Task Force Committee constituted by the Federal Ministry of
Education and headed by Engr. Musa Abdullahi.

In October 1992, interview for Senior Staff was conducted at the Industrial
Training Fund (ITF) Office, Ibadan, by the Task Force.

With the arrival of the Pioneer Rector, Chief Jimi Bamgbose from the United
States of America, the Polytechnic took off properly in January, 1993 and this
subsequently paved way for the admission of 847 Students (pioneer students) on
13th April, 1993. Since then, the Institution has grown from strength to strength.

The department took off with the following departments/officers
    Bursary office
    Cash office
    Expenditure control

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         MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY FEDERAL
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              Store
              Main account.
         Early 1994, the bursary expanded which increases the numbers of unit. In addition
         to the above are:
             Student Account
             Loan and advance and
             Final Account.
         However, in December 1993, the number of staff was thirteen (13), the
         composition of seven (7) senior staff and six (6) junior staff but as at to 2010, there
         are over twenty (20) member of staff in the department.
         2.3       FUNCTION OF BUSARY DEPARTMENT
                Provision of statutory account for external auditor
                Provision of information on finance for management uses
                Raising of local purchase order(LPO)
                Custodian of institutional funds.
                Financial advisory service to management in compliance with relevant
                 statute and in reflection of economic reliance.
                Preparation of sturdy financial returns and report to external agencies e.g.
                 Education Trust Fund, Osun State Government, National Board for
                 Technical Education, Tax Authority, e.t.c.

         2.4       CHALENGES OF BURSARY DEPARTMENT
             In the year bursary department tart their function, they encounter the
         following difficulties.
                  Inadequate member of staff
                  Lack of equipment
                  Lack of furniture
                  Personnel problem.


         2.5       BOOKS MAINTAINED IN BURSARY DEPARTMENT
Bursary department operates government accounts, various book and records are maintained for the
purpose of collecting, sorting, analyzing and summarizing relevant accounting data and eventual
preparation of final account. The books and records maintained can be broadly categorized as follows:
          Cash book

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  Abstract book
  Memorandum accounts
  Journal entries
  Ledger accounts
   a. CASH BOOK:- The following cash book are usually maintained;
          I.       Petty cash book
          II.      Main cash book
Primarily, cash book is the record of day to day activities of transactions of the
organization.
b.     Abstract Book: - These are book used to classify expenditures according to
subheads. The expenditure classify can in totals be conveniently used for posting
into the ledger account or for extraction into transcripts or both.
c.     Memorandum Accounts: - These accounts do not form part of double
entry system. As a result of government accounting system which is mainly on
cash basis in recording transactions and events, the book are often used as a
supplement to the system.
d.    Journal Entries: - This is used to enable transfers to be made from one
account to the other.
   e. Ledger Accounts: - They are of three types:
                                  Main
                                  General and
                                  Subsidiary ledger
           Main Ledger contains the following account :
                 Grant
           Release
           Requisitions
           Head Expenditures e.t.c
            General Ledger: - This is also an annual ledger which records the net
          transaction or a particular head of accounts month to month. It is the
          summary of the main ledger.
    Subsidiary Ledger:-This ledger contains account for each sub-head of
expenditure in respect of which the Accounting Officer is required to render
appropriate accounts.




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2.5    INFORMATION VERSUS DATA
Information must be differentiated from data. Data are facts that are not currently
being used for decision making purposes. Typical data may include records about
payroll, account receivables data on personnel in personnel files e.t.c Information,
on the other hand, is processed data which is directly used in the decision making
process. For example; a customer‟s invoice in itself is data. However, if we take
this data from the customer‟s invoice and process it in such a form so that it can be
used in sales analysis and inventory management, then it and control of sales and
inventory.
The transformation from data to information involves six functions. This concept is
displayed as follows:
Source                       Management                   Output
                             Assembly
                             Processing
                             Analysis
                             Storage
Data                         Storage and Retrieval        Information
                             Evaluation
                             Dissemination


Source: Adapted from Keith K. Cox and Ben M. Enis, “The marketing Research
Process,” Good year publishing company, 1972, P.19.
I n the above system:
Assembly means finding and gathering data together into one file.
Processing means that the data has been summarized, edited and processed.
Analysis means that data has been analyzed and treated to yield useful statistics
such as percentages, ratio e.t.c.




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Storage and Retrieval means that such data has been properly indexed, coded for
identification, field and provisions made for its quick relocation and retrieval when
it is necessary.
Evaluation means the determination of the usefulness of such processed data.
Such evaluation and its degree of accuracy would depend upon the needs of the
decision maker.
Dissemination means the sending of such evaluated information to decision
maker.
2.6   VALUE OF INFORMATION
      To be useful, the information must be available, in the desirable quality and
quantity and at the time when needed. Each of these factors is explained further as
follows:
a.    Availability: - All decision is based upon information. The more accurate an
      information is the better the quality of decision. Sometimes, when the
      information is not available, the decision cannot be made, but these
      decisions are highly subjective in nature and the results highly uncertain.
      Information reduces uncertainty. The more relevant information is available
      to the managers for decision making, the more certain are the outcomes of
      such decision.
b.    Quality: - Quality of information describes its compactness and accuracy.
      Inadequate, incomplete or incorrect information should be avoided.
c.    Optimal Quantity: - Too much information is a big burden on management
      and cannot be processes in time and accurately due to “bounded rationality”.
      Bounded rationality the limit of the thinking process which cannot sort out
      and process large amounts of information. On the other hand, too little
      information may leave out some important aspects that are necessary input
      to useful decision making.
d.    Timelines: - Information must be available when needed. Sometimes some
      crucial decision can be delayed because proper and necessary information is
      not available in time resulting in missed opportunities.




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2.7      IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
               It is very important to set up effective management information
         systems for the following reasons.
1.       Most organization have grown in size and complexity: - These results in
         management being removed from the scene of the operation and hence must
         rely on the information provided to them by the line supervisors about any
         operational problems needing attention. The dynamic of the environment
         further adds to the complexity of organizational operations. Some of the
         continuously changing factors affecting the amount and type of information
         handled are:
             Economic: - These include sudden changes in the economic structure
              in any part of the world, sudden energy crisis, world wide inflation
              rate, higher interest rates, unemployment rate, and changes in GNP.
              All or some of these factors may affect a given organization, thus
              requiring the organization to process the information in these areas.
             Technological changes: - These include new technical inventions in
              he area of micro-computers, use of satellites in communications,
              audio visual and world processing developments e.t.c.
             Social changes: - These include shifting of work-force blue collar to
              white collar work-force, higher level of education, computer sue at
              home, population problems, changes in consumer tastes e.t.c.
             Political-Legal changes: - Many new laws affecting the organizations
              system have been initiated. These include privacy laws, liability laws
              anti-monopoly laws, truth in lending, truth in advertising, minimum
              wages, standard laws e.t.c.

      2. The second reason for growth in MIS is the need to control management‟s
         decision: - More and more, the complex organization is decentralizing their
         operations so that more, the information is needed abut the operations of the
         unit managers. The performance is below expectations. This means that
         some new training programs needed to be initiated. MIS can be effectively
         used for measuring performance and bringing about any necessary changer
         in accordance with the organizational goals and plans.


      3. The third reason for the rapid growth in the field of MIS is the widely spread
         use of computer capability: - The computers are becoming less expensive to

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      operate and have more capacities to store and retrieve more information.
      This has made information handling easier.


   4. It supplies complete, accurate and timely data, so that can be used for
      effective planning and decision making. This would result in elimination of
      problems associated with inconsistent, incomplete, and inaccurate data.
   5. It identifies and qualifies the inter-related operational and performance
      variables and develops a relationship of these variables which can projected
      to forecast future trends.
   6. It facilitates control of present cost by merging the financial and production
      data to produce measures of performance which can be closely monitored.
   7. It identifies the separate needs of all units of a decentralized organization in
      a cohesive manner so that these needs can be attended to without duplication
      and waste of effort.
   8. It requires that the data to be presented is presented in a summarized from
      and in a manner so that action can be initiated without further interpretation
      and analysis. This reduces the time as well as the volume on information
      required and only the exceptional issue will receive the attention of top
      management.
   9. It provides flexibility so that the system can be change and adapted to the
      change, when necessary.


2.8  DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT INFORMATION
SYSTEM.

      Stroller and Van Horn indicate that since the purpose of the management
information system is to provide the necessary information for decision making
purposes, the design and development of an effective MIS should start with an
analysis of the types of decision and types of supporting situation in which the
manager generally get involved. These authors further suggest four steps in the
process of MIS development. These are:
    Defining and analyzing various types of decisions that are made, both
     operational and tactical.
    Determine the types of existing policies that influence or put constraints on
     the ways the decision re being made or should be made.
    Identifying and isolating the type of data that is relevant and needed for
     making these decisions.

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    Establishing a mechanism and a set of procedures for gathering such data
     and appropriately processing this data into useful information.


    While there may be different approaches to designing an effective MIS, it is
necessary to have a central location for processing all the information. This is a
kind of Management Information Center. The Center has hardware, software and
all technical help necessary to gather all information at one location and sort it out,
so that the mangers can find facts, and turn these facts into information. With this
information center, the managers themselves sort out the facts in order to formulate
information, as against the information being given to them by their subordinates;
the basic philosophy of MIS remains the same.
      Some key element and some guidelines for an effective MIS may be
considered as follows:
   1. The decision system must be thoroughly analyzed: - This would require
      the study of priorities of the decision maker and the level of the decision
      makers, so that the appropriate information is directed towards the right
      decision maker and in order of needed priority. This would require that the
      operational managers have some input into the designing of MIS, requiring
      the managers to understand the structure of the system so that they can make
      any changes to include any specific activities or measure that they require.
   2. Match the costs to the benefits derived out of the system: - The design of
      the system should be such that the benefits outweigh the cost of collecting
      and presenting information. Thus the information must be relevant, precise
      and to the point. Depending upon the size of organization, alternative means
      of presenting data should also be studied. However, it must note that an
      effective MIS will not only evaluate information for so that unnecessary data
      is eliminated, but it will also summarize and condense information so that it
      can be quickly absorbed and a decision can take.
   3. The system must be pre-tested and operated and operators properly
      trained: - If the system is not pre-tested before operations. Then softly
      problems can arise and changes at that level may prove too expensive. Also,
      the managers should be trained to understand the system, so that they can
      control if it becomes necessary. Only then can the system be most effective.
   4. The information should be disaggregated and the similar decision
      should be aggregated: - All information should be stored in disaggregated
      files. New data is added to the existing data in a given category as it is
      received. Similarly, the different areas of the decision makers should be
      identified with similar informational requirement, so that similarly decision

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      can be grouped together for a single manager. This would avoid duplication
      and waste.
   5. The actual mechanical methods for information processing are designed
      and the controls of the system are developed: - This involves the
      establishment of steps for the purpose of collecting, storing, sorting,
      evaluating, transmitting and retrieving information. Additionally, a system
      of controls must be developed so as to identify and correct any deficiencies
      that might occur in the system.


2.9.0 COMPUTER AND MANAGEMENT INFORMATION
       The amount of data available for processing for decision making would be
impossible to handle by the decision maker without the vast information handling
capability of the present day computers. Computers have the capability of treating
billion of pieces of information in a pre-detected manner; there are three
approaches to the use of computer in MIS. These are:
    The separate application approach;
    The integrated application approach; and
    The data base approach.
    The Separate application approach:
Here the computer was put to use as a piecemeal application, it served as a single
information subsystem, e.g. payroll
    The Integrated application approach:
An integrated application is a system where one set of data is used for more that
one application. It connotes a centralized database and reference data where
various users can access and share from. The greatest benefits of using a computer
arise from the introduction of integrated systems in which the procedures for
several separate applications, which are some way, related, are planned as whole
and developed as a closely-knit group.
    The database approach:
This is a collection of different types of data with a structure that removes the need
for the duplication of files and meets the information needs of large section of an
organization.

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2.9.1   THE COMPUTER CAPABILITIES
        Computer is widely as an aid for management planning, decision making
and control have stemmed from the following specific advantages offered by
computers.
   1. High speed processing: - Computer has the capability of performing
      calculations, processing large amounts of data in a relatively short time. The
      access to such information is also very fast. Some high speed computers can
      perform as many as 6-8 million iteration per second. The information
      retrieval in some computers is almost instantaneous. Some printers, even
      though not very fast can print over 2000 lines per minutes. Just to have some
      idea about computer capability, a computer can process 4000 cheques in a
      second or store 300,000 examination answers sheet at the same time. It can
      be used to process wages of staff of poly EDE.
   2. Handle large volumes of repetitive tasks: - Computers are highly useful in
      handling routine, respective, high volume tasks such as processing payrolls
      or income tax returns. The receptivity tasks are in predetermined and pre-
      assigned categories. For example, in the payroll processing the computer
      must calculate for each person the hours worked, rate per hour, total wages,
      various deductions and net wages.
   3. Computer can be self directing: - Even through a computer cannot think
      for itself, it can be programmed to make limited logical decision based upon
      certain conditional situations. It can follow directions in the form of a „‟
      Computer program‟‟ and continue to perform accordingly without any
      further intervention.
   4. Logical ability: - The computer has a built-in logical ability to distinguish
      between two numbers and decide which one is large. It can also perform
      most of the mathematical functions such as addition subtraction,
      multiplication and decision and also determine if a number is positive or
      negative.
   5. Remote processing: - Through time-sharing and telecommunication, many
      person at different locations can use the same computer at one location for
      information processing facilities. Similarly, through telephone or
      teletypewriters, a manager can obtain information directly from various
      plants and offices around the country or around the world and process it at
      one central location in order to make fast decisions.



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2.9.2     COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER
        Basically, the main elements of the computers are hardware (equipment)
and software (computer programmer). They basically perform the following
functions.
     a) Input: - The input devices receive instruction and for purpose of analyzing
        the data and storing and processing e.t.c.
     b) Storage function: - This function is involved with retaining the material
        after it has been received from the input devices. This material is stored in
        the „‟ „‟memory‟‟ of the computer until it is needed for processing. This
        data may be in the form of historical records forecasters, decision riles,
        model e.t.c
     c) Processing: - This is also known as mathematical/logic unit where most of
        analysis and „‟decision making‟‟ takes place. The data is processed into
        information.
     d) The control function: - This is the ability of the computer to follow the
        instructions and commands that have been programmed into the computer
        and perform the desired functions. These instructions may dictate when and
        how the data is to be analyzed and when it is to be retrieved after storage.
     e) Output: - The output devices enable the results of the analysis of the data be
        transmitted to the decision maker, usually in the form of a printed paper
        tape.
               The most important element of the entire system is the involved with
        designing and operating the computer systems. They are system analysts,
        programmer and operation of the hardware. They design the management
        information systems and they are the final decision makers and the user of
        the information.
2.9.3 INFORMATION NEEDS OF MANAGEMENT
1.      Internal Information Needs:- These needs comprises of:
        a. Activity Information: - This information involves techniques that
             evaluate the activities in the overall operations of the business.
        b. Status Information: - This information is about the status of certain
             activities as they are at given points in time and include for example
             work in process or project completion reports e.t.c.
        c. Resource Information: - This involves the statues of resources such as
             capital, personnel, material e.t.c.



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             d.   Research Allocation Information: - this involves information
                  regarding the allocation of scarce resources to the various competing
                  needs and activities of the business.
             e.   Planning and control Information: - This involves information and
                  techniques required to produce plants, budget forecasts, scheduling
                  e.t.c. These may be generated through mathematical models or
                  computer simulation.


2.                External Information Needs: These involve:
             a.   Polities and government: - This involves information about general
                  political, fiscal policies- whether socialist in nature and legal
                  developments in the form of laws and regulations.
             b.   Social: - These involve demographic movement, social changes, and
                  changes in consumer tastes.
             c.   Economic condition: - Information about GNP, inflation rate, interest
                  rate, currency strength e.t.c.
             d.   Technology:-Information about any development of new products of
                  process, especially of any technological breaks through.
             e.   Competition: - Information regarding the completive techniques in
                  promotion as well as the ability to influence the availability of such
                  scarce resource as labour, energy, capital e.t.c.

     2.9.4           CHALLENGES OF MIS
           MIS and specially the computer based MIS has been hailed as the most
     important contribution to the process of managerial decision making. However, a
     decision is as good as the information it is based upon.
             Some of the common challenges and misconception about MIS are as
                       follows

        1. More information is better for effective decisions: - This is a fallacy, since
           the information to be processed should be relevant and not more. Simply
           more information will overburden the manager (user) as he will not be able
           to absorb and then sort out all the data. This process may be further
           complicated since the manager may not know precisely as to what
           information he wants and hence he may ask for,‟‟ all the available
           information‟‟. This problem must be seriously addressed so that the system
           is designed in such a manner as to assimilate pertinent information from all
           the data.

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   2. Lack of managerial involvement: - some of the companies who have
      successfully utilized MIS have encouraged the manager – (user) to become
      involved in the design of their own system also, the system itself must have
      the full support of top management. Since computer has become one of the
      largest single items of capital budget with utility on all operating systems. It
      is highly desirable that these facilities be used in an optional manner in order
      to save time and effort.
   3. Failure of proper communication: - More communication does not mean
      better performance. Excessive inter-departmental communication dose not
      necessarily established a foundation for mare effective decisions. While the
      managers must be provided with relevant current information, they do not
      always have to know what other managers and their divisions are involved
      with. In the other areas of communication the managers and the system
      design specialist must work together. The manager must be trained to
      recognize the basic future and utility of computers and the computer
      specialist must design the system specifically to provide information for
      decision making and not simply generate data for processing purposes. He
      would become familiar with identifying the information needs of the
      manager- (user) so that the communication between them becomes easy and
      useful.
   4. Computers cannot do everything: - It must be recognized that the
      computer are not the panacea for all ills. Even though computers have
      become highly sophisticated, capable of handling tremendous amount of
      data in a comparatively short time, it does not compensate for managerial
      judgment. Accordingly, computers can only be utilized as tools and
      complement the managerial decision making and action.
   5. Human acceptance: - The success of the MIS program depends upon the
      acceptance and involvement of the personnel. User attitude of the important
      factors affecting the MIS development.
        Organizational behaviorists Christ Argyris suggested that there is a
        potential for conflict between human emotions and personal relations and
        MIS rationality and non-personal mechanization. People, both at high and
        low level, resist the MIS application and try to actually sabotage it or work
        around it or aggressively fright it. This resistance may due to economic
        threat to clerical workers because they fear losing their jobs or changes in
        their job patterns. It may be due to threat to managerial ego and loss of
        autonomy and control because the manager‟s job skills become less
        important and planning and control functions are largely taken over by
        new MIS.


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2.9.5 SYMPTOMS OF INADEQUATE MANAGEMENT INFORMATION
SYSTEM

A list of such symptoms has been developed by Bertram A. Colbert who
divided     these     symptoms   into    three   district  categories.
These categories are:

a. Operational Symptoms: - The operational symptoms relate to the physical

Operations and activities and the results of such activities within the
organization. These symptoms include: capital expenditure overruns.
Unexplainable cost variances, insufficient knowledge about completion.

Inability of executives to explain changes from year to year operating results and
uncertain direction of company growth.

b. Psychological Symptoms: - These symptoms deal with the out-look of the

Management and their attitude towards MIS. These symptoms reflect lack of

Concern on the part of management about the success of MIS program,
possibly due to lack of experience in appreciating the value of MIS. Some of
the symptoms are: surprise at financial results as if they were unexpected, poor
attitudes of executives about the usefulness of information because it may
conflict with their own experienced judgment, executives overburdened by

excessive information to be sorted out, while the system should sort it out

before passing it on to the executive e.t.c.

c. Report content symptoms: - These symptoms relate to the actual content and
format of the information generated by MIS. These symptoms include:




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Inaccurate information, lateness of reports, too little or too much information, lack
of standards for comparison, failure to identify variances by cause and
reasonability, multiple preparation and distribution of identical data e.t.c.

2.9.6 GUIDELINES FOR                IMPROVEMENT            IN    MANAGEMENT
INFORMATION SYSTEM

   1. Involve top management in the design of Management Information System.
      This involvement would mean greater acceptance and commitment resulting
      in overall commitment to the program by all level users.
   2. Building co-operation between designers and the users of the program. This
      cooperation will result in proper feed back on the quality of information
      being received so that any necessary changes in the design can be made.
      This cooperation will result in improvements in the effectiveness of MIS.
3.    Develop a master plan. All planning should be adequate and projected as far
into    the      future   as      feasible.    The      master     plans     should
be developed with careful analysis of the current needs and forecasted needs.

This plan will avoid any uncertainties associated with MIS development and serve
to focus on MIS objective as well as control the progress towards these objectives.
4.     Both designer and users be held responsible and accountable for the success
of MIS on a cost-benefit basis. This accountability consistently reminds them to be
cost conscious such that benefit achieved must exceed the cost incurred.

5.    Consider the social and behavioral aspects of the system design and
Implementation. All efforts should be made to ensure that all people accept it as an
aid rather than a replacement and that they do not resist it in anyway.




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                               CHAPTER THREE


3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
According to „‟oxford dictionary‟‟ Research methodology can be described as
systematic procedures for investigating research problems.

Education.com defines Research Methodology as “Procedures used in making
    systematic observations or otherwise obtaining data, evidence, or information
    as part of a research project or study”

Good and Hait‟ defines it as “the logic of scientific investigation of study and the
system of research procedure and technique.
As defined by Fred N. Kelinger, methodological researches is controlled
investigation of the theoretical and applied aspect of measurement, mathematic,
statistics and ways of obtaining and analyzing data.
3.1    RESEARCH DESIGN
Research design is the plan, structure and strategy of investigation to obtain
answers to the research questions and solution to the research problems. It is the
process of gathering information and analyzing it with a view to tackle the research
problem.
According to DONALD S. TULL AND HAWKINGS (1984), research design can
be defined as the specification of procedures for collecting and analyzing the data
necessary to help in solving the problem at hand.
Therefore, this study employs the descriptive research design to overview the
management information system in place in the Bursary Department of Federal
Polytechnic Ede, Osun State.
3.2 SAMPLE SIZE
Sample size is a collection of sampling units drawn from a population and
examined in details so that valid conclusions about the phenomenon can be
inferred.
In this case our population is the entire business organization, but due to inability
to study the entire population. Bursary department of Federal Polytechnic Ede was
used as our Sample study.

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3.3.   SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION
       Data needed are obtained from observation or experiment carried-out
concerning the phenomenon of interest. There are basically two sources of data
collection namely: Primary source and secondary source, depending on the way it
is collected.
3.3.1 PRIMARY SOURCE
Primary data are those data which are collected for the first time, taking a sample,
representing a population. It is not a published data, it is problem specific data
collected by the researcher, first time. When primary data is published by
researcher, it becomes the secondary data for everybody, other than the researcher.
3.3.2 SECONDARY SOURCE
Secondary data are data collected by someone other than the user. Common
sources of secondary data for social science include censuses, surveys,
organizational records and data collected through qualitative methodologies or
qualitative research.
In our case study „Bursary department, Federal polytechnic Ede, Osun state,
personal interview and questionnaire were used for this purpose.
    PERSONAL INTERVIEW METHOD: - The researcher
    interviewed two (2) top management personnel i.e the Bursar and the Head
    of Accounting section of the department.
    During the interview, varieties of question relating to the subject matter i.e.
    „‟Management information system in an Accounting Environment‟‟ were
    asked.
          QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD: - In this regards, questionnaire were
    distributed at the bursary department with some questions on it to generate
    vital information needed for our data presentation, analysis and
    interpretation. A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series
    of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information
    from respondents. The objective is to illicit response from the respondent
    and interprets the responses to form an inference from wok being carried
    out.




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                                 CHAPER FOUR

4.0   DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

       This chapter focuses attention on presentation, analysis and interpretation of
the various data that were collected from the field. This is with a view of showing
clearly what deductions are made with regard to the questions in the questionnaire.

       In collecting the data, a total number of twenty (20) questionnaires were
distributed and administered to the staff of the department (I.e. Bursary department
Federal polytechnic Ede).

       Out of the questionnaires distributed, only twelve (12) were correctly filled
in. This represents 60% response rate.



4.1   DATA PRESENTAION

      In this section, an attempt is made to explain the social and social and
demographic characteristics of the sample of the staff of Bursary department
federal polytechnic Ede, Osun state, who were interviewed in the course of
carrying out the study.

Question 1: DISCIPLE

  Course of study          Number of Respondents Percentage of
                                                 Respondent

  Accountancy              11                         91.7%




  Other                    1                          8.3%

  TOTAL                    12                         100%




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ANALYSIS: It shows from the table that the department is dominated by those
who study Accountancy as a course in trials institution. It is highly encouraging
since there will not be misplacement of priority.



Question2: LEVEL OF EDUCATION



Level of Education        Number of Respondents Percentage of
                                                Respondent

HND&B.SC.                 9                          75 %

M.SC.& M.B.A              3                          25%

TOTAL                     12                         100%

ANALYSIS:-It can be seen from his table that there are HND/B.SC.holders in this
department of 75% when compared with M.SC. & M.BA holders of 25%. This
indicates the level of skill and quality of job.

Question 3: POST OCCUPIED

Post Occupied             Number of Respondents Percentage of
                                                Respondents

Accountant                3                          25%

Secretaries               3                          25%

Others                    6                          50%

Total                     12                         100%


      ANALYSIS: Here the percentage of Accountants responded to the interview
is 25% while secretaries as well are 25% other is 50%. Other in this table
comprised of staff of supply division, purchasing section, store section etc.


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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY FEDERAL
POLYTECHNIC EDE.

      Some of the question in part “B” in the questionnaire will be tabulated and
evaluated very vividly to show the outcome of the reponse. Only questions for
which boxes have been provided and have been appropriately ticked will be
analyzed.



Structure/composition      Number of Respondents Percentage of
                                                 Respondents

Well Structured            10                         83.3%

Barely structured          1                          8.3%

Not quite Structured       0                          0

Not sure                   1                          8.4%

Total                      12                         100%

       ANALYSIS: From the table above, it is apparent that the number of staff
which agreed that the department is well structured is very high. This is enough for
us to accept that the department is well structured.

4.2     DATA ANALYSIS

      QUESTION: How would you describe the structured/composition of the
department.

        ANSWER: Ho: The department is not well structured.

                    Hi: The department is well structured.

        At significance level of 5%.

        DECISION RULE.

                    1.     Reject x2t>x2c (i.e. if the table value is less than
                           calculated value).

                    2.     Accept H if x2t>x2c (i.e. if the table value is greater than
                           calculated value).

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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY FEDERAL
POLYTECHNIC EDE.

Chi-square (x2) is chosen to evaluate and analyze each of the questions picked.



FORMULAR:



X2c=∑ (Oi-Ei) 2/Ei= (Oi1-E i2)2 / Ei2

Where Oi=Observed frequency/ value under distribution.



Ei = Expected frequency/ value under distribution



From table above



VARIABLE 0i                    Ei       Oi-Ei         (Oi-Ei)2     (Oi-Ei)2/Ei

Well            10             6        4             16           2.667
Structured

Not     Well 2                 6        -4            16           2.667
Structured

TOTAL                                                              5.334


Therefore, expected frequency=12= (10+2)/2=12/2=6

. .x2c= ∑ (Oi-Ei) 2/Ei=5.334

Degree of freedom =K-1= 2-1=1

Confidence level of 95% i.e. 5% level of significance.




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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY FEDERAL
POLYTECHNIC EDE.

Then, x2t=3.841 and

        X2c=5.334.

Decision: Reject null hypothesis and accept alternate hypothesis,

               X2t< x2c (i.e. 3.841)

Conclusion: This means that the department is well structured.

                   Note: x2t means value of chi-square from the table

                        X2c means value of chi-square calculated.

                        Ho mean null hypothesis

                        HI means alternate hypothesis.

Question 5: Do you think the department organizational chart shows well defined
line of authority responsibilities and reporting.



Variables                   Number of Respondents Percentage             of
                                                  Respondents

It shows                    10                        83.3%

It does not show            0                         0

Not                         2                         16.7%

Total                       12                        100%


ANALYSIS: From this table above, the number of respondents that agree that the
department organizational chart shows well defined line of authority,
responsibilities and reporting is higher.

Almost all the questions in part “e” of the questionnaire will be analyzed and
evaluated here extensively to support the conclusion made on the findings.


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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY FEDERAL
POLYTECHNIC EDE.

This part deals with management information system in the department. All the
questions were provided a box in front of suggested answers to choose among
them.

        Therefore the responses are as follows:

Question 6: How can you describe the line of reporting in relation to dissemination
of managerial information?



Variables                  Number of Respondents Percentage                  of
                                                 Respondents

Top level to low level     5                          41.7%

Top level to low level     7                          58.3%

Total                      12                         100


ANALYSIS: This percentage of those who agree that the line of reporting in
relation to low level staff is less than those who said is top level to middle level
staff down to low level staff of 58.3%



Question 14: What is/are the system adopted by the department in dissemination of
managerial information?

Question: can you say there is no break/impediment in information dissemination
system of the department.

Variables                  Number                 Of Percentage         Of
                           respondents               Respondents

MAILING SYSTEM             8                         66.7%

TELEPHONE                  3                         25%
SYSTEM

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     MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY FEDERAL
     POLYTECHNIC EDE.

     ELECTRONIC               1                        8.3%
     SYSTEM

     TOTAL                    12                       100%



ANALYSIS: The above table shows that number and percentage of respondents who
chosen that mailing information dissemination system is being adopted is 8 and 66.7%
while those chosen telephone system is 3 and 25%. A respondent chosen that electronic
system is adopted of 8.3%.



Question 15: Can you say there is no break/impediment in information dissemination
system of the department.

     Variables                Number of Respondents Percentage                of
                                                    Respondents

     There is break           6                         66.7%

     There is no break        4                         33.3%

     Total                    12                        100%


 ANALYSIS: - It is obvious from the table above that we recorded the highest
 percentage of respondents who agree that there is break/impediment in the system of
 information dissemination of the department over those who do not agree.

4.3 HYPOTHESIS TESTING 11

     Question: can you say there are no break/impediments in information
     dissemination system of the department.

     ANSWER: Ho: There is break/impendent in the department information
     dissemination system.

     DECISION RULE: 1. Reject Ho if x2t<x2c

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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY FEDERAL
POLYTECHNIC EDE.

                        2. Accept Hi if x2t>x2c



FORMULAR:

X2c=∑ (oi-Ei) 2/Ei

Then, from table XIV

VARIABLE        Oi           Ei             Oi-Ei    (Oi-EI)2     (Oi-Ei)2/Ei

There       is 8             6              2        4            0.667
break

There is no 4                6              -2       4            0.667
break

TOTAL          12                                                 1.334

Expected frequency/value as usual is the average of observed frequency/ value
which is equal to (8+4)/ 2=6

Therefore, x2c= ∑ (0i-Ei) 2/Ei=1.334

At the degree of freedom =K-1=2-1=1 and

Confidence level of 95% which equals 5% level of significance.

        X2t=1, 0.05=3.841.



Decision: Reject alternate hypothesis (Hi) and accept null hypothesis (Ho)

            Since, x2t <x2c (i.e. 3.41. < 1.334)



Conclusion: This means that there is break/ impediment in the information
disseminates system as a result of organizational activities.



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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY FEDERAL
POLYTECHNIC EDE.

Question 16: What problem(s) do you notice in the Management information
system as a result of organizational activities?



Variables                Numbers               of Percentage             of
                         Respondents              Respondents

Bureaucracy              4                         33.3%

Abuse of Authority       2                         16.7%

Span of control          4                         33.3%

Delegation of Authority 2                          16.7%

TOTAL                    12                        100%

ANALYSIS: From this table, it can be seen that equal percentage (33.3%) of
respondents chosen bureaucracy and span of content as a result of organizational
activities while equal percentage (16.7% as well chosen span of control and
delegation of authority.

Question 17: what problem(s) do you notice in the managetme4nt information
system of the department as a result of technological advancement?

Variables                Number of Respondents Percentage                of
                                               Respondents

Lack of funds            3                         25%

Unawareness of staff     5                         41.7%

Lack of research         4                         33.3%

TOTAL                    12                        100%

ANALYSIS: From table above, while 25% of the respondents noticed lack of
funds as the problem, 41.7% noticed unawareness of some staff as the problem and
lastly 33.3% noticed the problem of management information system as a result of
technological advancement to be lack of research.

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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY FEDERAL
POLYTECHNIC EDE.




4.4   FINDINGS

       From this study and from the data collected, tabulated, analyzed and
interpreted and from the hypothesis tasted, the following findings are revealed:

              That the department is well structured.
              That the department organizational chart shows well defined line
               of authority, responsibilities and reporting.
              That the managerial information is being disseminated from the
               top level staff to middle level staff and down to low level staff.
              That mailing sy0 stem constitute the major information
               dissemination system of the department.
              That there is break/impediment in the information dissemination
               system of the department.
              That major problems of the department in MIS as a result of
               organizational activities are lack of research, of funds and
               unawareness on the part of staff.




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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY FEDERAL
POLYTECHNIC EDE.




                                  CHAPTER FIVE



5.0 INTRODUCTION

       This chapter deals with the summarization of all the information or data
collected during the investigation. It as well entails recommendation for those who
may be concerned to prevent future occurrence of the break in information system
and as well put in place sound and standstill MIS (Managements information
System) in an accounting environment of any organization. This recommendation
is also generalized on all other problems which may be encountered in the process
of investigation. It is rounded off with the conclusion which is the opinion of the
point gathered in the course of study.



5.1      SUMMARY

     In an attempt to determine effective Management information system in an
accounting environment of Bursary Department Federal polytechnic, Ede, we
stumbled on some problems hindering our objectives. They are as follow:

      a. SPAN OF CONTROL:-This is one of the internal problems which explain
         the number of subordinates along in terms of MIS. This as well is coupled
         with shortage of manpower in the department.
      b. ABUSE OF AUTHORITY: - This can also be described as misuse of
         authority or power vested in the hands of some officials. Most of these
         officials usually take law into their hands by not communicating those who
         should be communicated officially to allow for smooth dissemination of
         information. It is as well the internal constraints of the department.

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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY FEDERAL
POLYTECHNIC EDE.

      c. UNWARENESS OF STAFF: - With the trend of things nowadays one
         needs to keep abreast of time in relation to technological advancement. It is
         discovered that most staff are inexperience in the area of use and application
         of computers to disseminate meaningful information from within or outside
         the department. There will be effective information dissemination system if
         computer is strictly applied and used in the day to day activities.
      d. INADEQUACY OF FUNDS: - This is the most active of the problem.
         Better communication equipment or gadget like intercom, mobile phone,
         electronic computer etc. are not properly functioning; some have suffered
         diminishing return and needed to be replaced. All these usually lead to break
         in information dissemination.
      e. OTHERS: - Quite a number of factors like lack of research, lack of good
         communication network, bureaucracy, delegation of authority, lack of well
         defined line of reporting and a host of others are the constraints in
         dissemination of meaningful information.


5.2      RECOMMENDATION

       In relation to all the problems encountered in dissemination, the following is
recommended as remedy to any organization. It is believe to be sitable for
restructuring MIS in an establishment if handled properly.

      a. EMPLOYMENT OF SKILLED MAN POWER: - More newly trained
         experienced and skilled people should be compliment the effort of the
         existing staff and to rectify the problem of MIS from this aspect. It should be
         noted that those to be employed should possess vast knowledge in the area
         of computer application and usage to disseminate.
      b. STIFF CORRECTIVE MEASURE; - Stiff and deterrent should be
         imposed on those who found guilty of abusing power or authority to serve as
         scape goat and let others lean their lesson. Also, staff must be monitor
         adequately to make them loyal and dedicated in the discharged of their
         duties and responsibilities towards the organization.
      c. ORGANISATION OF SIMINARS:- There should be established a kind of
         avenue or forum to teach the staff (existing) on how to use, modern
         communication gadgets to generate and disseminate meaningful information
         for managerial purpose. There newly employed should be oriented on
         Management information System of any organization.
      d. PROVISION OF BETTER COMMUNICATION DEVICES:- There
         should be adequate source of generating funds to acquire better

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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY FEDERAL
POLYTECHNIC EDE.

      communication gadgets, repair and replace existing ones. This is very
      important because information can be disseminated without means of
      disseminating it.
   e. OTHERS: There should be encouragement of research, improved
      communication network, bureaucracy should as well addressed, line of
      report should be well defined, delegated legislature as in those who power is
      being delegated to should be properly monitored, and other ways of
      management information system in any establishment.
   5.3 CONCLUSION

            From the above discussion, it can be adequately concluded that the role
of sound Management information system in any organization is not to be
overlooked. Therefore, every machinery must be put in place to develop good MIS
in order to achieve and attain organizational objectives. These can not be achieve
without giving proper devotion to the recommendation above to reduce or if
possible proffer solution to problem of break in information dissemination.




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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY FEDERAL
POLYTECHNIC EDE.

QUESTIONNAIRE EXTRACT:



“MANAGEMEN INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING
                                ENVIRONMENT”
A case study of Bursary Department Federal polytechnic, Ede.
                         SECTION A
It deals with respondent‟s personal data
    I. DISCIPLINE:…………………………………………………………
    II.     LEVEL OF EDUCATION: …………………………………………...
    III.    POST OCCPIED:……………………………………………………...


                                SECTION B
      It deals with background information about the department. Fill in as
appropriate.


  I. When was the department created?
  :…………………………………………………………………………..
  II. What are the functions of the department (as many as possible)


          a) ……………………….. b)………………………….
          c) ……………………….. d) ………………………….


  III. How would you describe the structure/composition of the dept?


            Well structured                     Barely structured


            Not quit                            Not sure



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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY FEDERAL
POLYTECHNIC EDE.

  IV.       Do you think the department organization chart shows well defined
   line of authority, responsibilities and reporting?


            It shows                             It dosae not show
                                   It dose not show                  Not sure
  V.          What are your observation of provision of information
       a.       ………………………….. b.                    …………………………..
       b.       ………………………….. d. ……………………………


  VI.       Suggest any problem(s) you think is facing the department and as
   well the way out.


       a.         ………………………….. a.                      …………………………...
       b.         ………………………….. b.                      …………………………...
       c.         ………………………….. c.                      …………………………...
       d.         ………………………….. d.                      …………………………...


                                                 SECTION C
       It deals with Management Information System in the department. Here you
       tick as appropriate by putting “ˇ “sign in the box provides.
    I. How can you describe the line of reporting in relation to dissemination of
       managerial information?


            a. From top level staff down to low level staff


            b. form top level staff to middle to low level


            c. others specify


    II.    What is/are the system adopted by the department in dissemination of
      managerial information?
                                            51
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY FEDERAL
POLYTECHNIC EDE.

                                                    b. Telephone System
              a.     Mailing System


               c. Electronic System                 d. Other Specify


    III.    Can you say there is no break/impediment in information
      dissemination system of the department?
                  a. There is                    b. There is not


    c.    Other Specify


    IV.    What problem(s) do you noticed in the management information
     system as a result of organizational activities?


                a.     Bureaucracy             b. Abuse of Authority


               c.     Span of Control          d Delegation of Authority


                e.     Other Specify


    V.     What problem(s) do you notice in the management Information
     System of the department as a result of technological advancement?


          a.        Lack of funds       b. Unawareness on the part of staff


         c.         Lack of research      d. Others specify




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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY FEDERAL
POLYTECHNIC EDE.



REFERENCES

   1. Best J. W (1970) Research in education, first edition prentice Hall Eagle
      Wood Cliff, New Jersey.
   2. “Helping Decision Makers Get a Data,” Business Week, Sept.19, 1982. PP.
      119.
   3. Holmes, Robert W., “Twelve Areas to Investigate for Better MIS”, Financial
      Executive, July 1970,P.24.
   4. Ican Study packs (2005) PE, Management Information System.
   5. Kennevan, Walter S. “Management Information System”, Data
      Management, Vol.8. No 8. No.9 (Sept. 1970), Pg 52-64.
   6. Kennevan, Water J., “Management Information system”. Data Management,
      Vol. 8, No. (Sept. 1970), pp. 62-64
   7. Murdick, Robbers G.”MIS Development procedures,” Journal of Systems
      Management. Vol. 21, (Dec. 1970), PP.22-26.
   8. Neuschel, R.F., “Management System for profit and Growth,” Mchraw Hill,
      1976, P.270.
   9. Research Work Survey 2003.
   10.Scott-Poole, Marshall,” An Information-Task Approach to       organization
      Communication,” Academy of Management Review (July 1978), PP. 498-
      503.
   11.Steller, David S. and Richard L. van Horn. “Design of a Management
      Information System,” The Rand Corporation, 1958.




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