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Highway Asset Maintenance Maintenance Plan

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					 Highway Asset
Maintenance Plan
    GWYNEDD COUNCIL

HIGHWAYS MAINTENANCE AND
  MUNICIPAL DEPARTMENT

HIGHWAY ASSET MAINTENANCE
          PLAN

A STRATEGY AND GUIDELINES
Contents

                                                                            Page
                                                                            No
FOREWORD                                                                     6

PART A: INTRODUCTION TO THE PLAN AND CODE

1.0   SUMMARY
      1.1              Structure of the Plan                                  8
      1.2              Objectives of the Code                                 8
      1.3              Status of the Plan                                     9

2.0   INTRODUCTION
      2.1          Objectives of the Highway Asset Maintenance Plan           10
      2.2          Context of the Highway Asset Maintenance Plan              10
      2.3          10 year Asset Management Plan                              10

3.0   PURPOSE AND SCOPE
      3.1          Objectives of the Code of Practice                         11
      3.2          Purpose of Highway Maintenance – The Strategy              11
      3.3          Scope of the Highway Asset Maintenance Plan                11

4.0   COMPLEMENTARY GUIDANCE
      4.1        Limitations of Highway Asset Maintenance Plan                13
      4.2        Further Advice and Guidance                                  13

PART B : LEGAL FRAMEWORK AND CONTINUOUS
IMPROVEMENT

5.0   POLICY FRAMEWORK
      5.1         Strategic Policy Integration                                15
      5.2         Highway Maintenance in the Wider Context                    15
      5.3         Highway Maintenance and Network Management                  16
      5.4         Highway Asset Management                                    16
      5.5         Publication and Adoption of Guidelines                      17

6.0   BEST VALUE AND CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT
      6.1          Principles of Department Delivery                          17
      6.2          User and Community Focus                                   17
      6.3          Delivering Continuous Improvement                          18
      6.4          Standards for User and Community Response                  18

7.0   LEGAL FRAMEWORK
      7.1         Duty of Care                                                19
      7.2         Risk Management                                             19
      7.3         Management Systems and Records                              20
      7.4         Powers and Duties for Highway Maintenance                   20
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PART C: PRIORITIES AND STANDARDS


8.0   STRATEGY AND HIERARCHY
      8.1          Principles and Objectives of Highway Maintenance             24
                   Strategy
      8.2          Components of Highway Maintenance Strategy                   25
      8.3          Designing for Maintenance                                    26
      8.4          Highway Maintenance Management                               27
      8.5          Network Hierarchy for Maintenance                            28
      8.6          Carriageway Hierarchy                                        29
      8.7          Footway Hierarchy                                            31
      8.8          Cycle Route Hierarchy                                        31
      8.9          Highways subject to work embargo periods                     31
      8.10         Adoption of new residential and commercial estate            32
                   roads
      8.11         Public Rights of Way                                         32
      8.12         Maintenance Types                                            32

9.0   INSPECTION ASSESSMENT AND RECORDING
      9.1           Importance of Inspection, Assessment and                    33
                    Recording Regime
      9.2           Categories of Inspection                                    33
      9.3           Safety Inspections                                          34
      9.4           Defect Risk Assessment                                      36
      9.5           Departmental Inspections                                    38
      9.6           Recording of Information and Competency of
                    Inspections                                                 38
      9.7           Highway Maintenance Condition Surveys                       39
      9.8           Skid Resistance Strategy                                    40

10.0 CONDITION STANDARDS AND INVESTIGATORY LEVELS
     10.1         Setting Standards                                             41
     10.2         Condition of Carriageway                                      41
     10.3         Condition of Footways                                         46
     10.4         Condition of Cycleways                                        48
     10.5         Carriageway, Footway and Cycleway
                  Sweeping and Cleansing – Objectives and
                  Responses                                                     49
     10.6         Condition of Highway Drainage Systems                         50
     10.7         Condition of Embankments and Cuttings                         53
     10.8         Condition of Landscaped Areas, Trees and Verges               53
     10.9         Condition of Fences and Barriers                              58
     10.10        Condition of Traffic Signs and Bollards                       60
     10.11        Condition of Road Markings and Studs                          63
     10.12        Condition of Traffic Signals, Pedestrian and Cycle
                  Crossings                                                     65
     10.13        Condition of Street Lighting                                  65


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11.0 PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
     11.1        Continuous Improvement                                        68
     11.2        Monitoring Performance                                        68

12.0 PROGRAMMING AND PRIORITIES
     12.1       The Importance of Prioritising and Programming                 69

13.0 WINTER SERVICE
     13.1         Winter Service and Weather Emergencies                       71
     13.2         Purpose, Objectives and Statutory Basis                      71
     13.3         Winter Service Strategy                                      72
     13.4         Criteria for Snow Clearance                                  73
     13.5         Footways and Cycleways (not forming part of                  74
                  carriageway)
     13.6         Salt Bins                                                    74
     13.7         Reaction Times                                               74
     13.8         Decision Making Procedure                                    74
     13.9         Post Snow Inspection                                         76

14.0 WEATHER AND OTHER EMERGENCIES
     14.1        Nature of Weather Emergencies                                 77
     14.2        Flooding                                                      77
     14.3        High Winds                                                    78
     14.4        High Temperature                                              78
     14.5        Other Highway Emergencies                                     78

PART D: SUSTAINABILITY, PROCUREMENT AND FINANCIAL
MANAGEMENT

15.0    SUSTAINABLE HIGHWAY MAINTENANCE
       15.1          Management for Quality and Sustainability                 80
       15.2          Environmental Issues                                      80
       15.3          Waste Management and Recycling                            80
       15.4          Management of Pollution and Bio-diversity                 82

16.0    PROCUREMENT AND SERVICE DELIVERY
       16.1        Scope of Procurement and Service Delivery                   83

17.0 FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
     17.1         Financing of Highway Maintenance                             84

18.0 SUMMARY OF HIGHWAY MAINTENANCE STANDARDS                                  85




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PART E - APPENDICIES

   Appendix A   Components of a Highway Maintenance Strategy           90

   Appendix B   Risk Assessment Impact Table                           91

   Appendix C   Risk Assessment Probability Table                      92

   Appendix D   Risk Assessment Defect Rating                          93

   Appendix E   Risk Register for Highway Defects                      94

   Appendix F   Recycling in Highway Maintenance Works                 97

   Appendix G   Skid Resistance Strategy                               103

   Appendix H   Winter Maintenance Policy                              107

   Appendix I   Glossary                                               109




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                                  FOREWORD

The Highway network is vital to the local economy having a major impact on
prosperity and the well being of the community. All members of the public rely on
highways, either directly as road users, indirectly as consumers of goods transported
by road or as users of emergency and other mobile services. Disruption to daily life is
experienced when any part of the highway network is unavailable through affects of
weather or the need for maintenance works and over recent years there has been an
increasing understanding of the serious consequences of failure to invest adequately
and effectively in maintaining the local highway network and in particular the
progressive deterioration of safety, reliability and quality leading to even greater
levels of investment in the future.

The Code of Practice for Highway Maintenance Management – Well Maintained
Highways 2005 has evolved to provide Highway Authorities with principles for
effecting stewardship and asset management for the benefit of highway users and the
community at large and these principles can be adapted to suit local circumstances
and be applied to ensure consistency of standards of maintenance irrespective of
administrative boundaries.

Gwynedd Council’s Highways Maintenance and Municipal Department Business Plan
contains the following statement of intent:
“ to deliver an effective service and of the best quality possible for maintaining and
improving the Council’s Highways and Municipal assets to meet the requirements of
service consumers and protecting the local environment and creating the conditions to
facilitate the economic development”.

This document therefore provides the Highways Maintenance and Municipal
Departments with a policy and strategy to achieve “Well Maintained Highways”.




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PART A




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1.0    SUMMARY

1.1    Structure of the Plan

1.1.1 The Plan is structured to be in line with the Code of Practice for Highway
      Maintenance – Well Maintained Highways 2005 and contains five parts, which
      are in turn sub divided into eighteen sections and appendices.

1.1.2 Part A covers Sections 1 – 4 and provides the Summary Introduction to the Code,
      its scope and purpose with links to complementary advice.
      Part B covers Sections 5 – 7 and provides the basis of the legal framework for
      highway maintenance within the context of best value and performance
      improvement.
      Part C covers Sections 8 – 14 and provides the principles for developing strategy
      and network hierarchy. Standards for inspections and condition surveys,
      investigatory levels, benchmarking and assigning priorities. Guidance on
      planning for Winter Service and emergencies.
      Part D covers Sections 15 – 18 and provides guidance on procurement, financial
      management, sustainability and monitoring all service aspects.
      Part E covers appendices with more detailed information.

1.2    Objectives of the Code

1.2.1 To encourage the adoption of asset management planning as a means of
      demonstrating value for money in the delivery of highway maintenance.

1.2.2 To encourage the development, adoption and regular review of policies for
      highway maintenance, consistent with the wider principles of integrated
      transport, sustainability and best value.

1.2.3 To encourage a focus on the needs of users and the community, and their active
      involvement in the development and review of policies, priorities and
      programmes.

1.2.4 To encourage harmonisation of highway maintenance practices and standards
      where this is consistent with users’ expectations, whilst retaining reasonable
      diversity consistent with local choice.

1.2.5 To encourage the adoption of an efficient and consistent approach in the
      collection, processing and recording of highway inventory, highway condition
      and status information for the purpose of both local and national needs
      assessment, management and performance monitoring.

1.2.6 To encourage the adoption and regular review of a risk management regime in
      the determination of local technical and operational standards, rectification of
      defects arising from safety and serviceability inspections and investment
      priorities.

1.2.7 To encourage continuing innovation in the procurement of highway maintenance
      contracts, whilst complying with high standards of corporate governance.

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1.3    Status of the Plan

1.3.1 The plan, whilst structured on the Code of Practice does recognise that suggested
      recommendations of the Code are explicitly not mandatory on highway authority
      but, any non-compliance with legal obligations and adoption of policies,
      procedures or standards differing from standards suggested by the Code have
      been identified and reasons for such differences given in the context of local
      circumstances and listed on Pages 85 - 88

1.3.2 The Plan is based on having a reasonable flexibility to pursue a regime of
      assessment and rational planning of programmes and policies with available
      funding.




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2.0    INTRODUCTION

2.1    Objectives of the Highway Asset Maintenance Plan
       The Highway Asset Maintenance Plan – A Strategy and Guidlines has been
       developed utilising a framework of guidance and standards recommended in the
       Code of Practice for Highway Maintenance Management – Well Maintained
       Highways 2005 to ensure development of best practice in delivering local
       highway maintenance.

2.2    Context for this Highway Asset Maintenance Plan
       The Code of Practice recognises the importance of highway maintenance and its
       relevance to asset and network management. Significant under investment in
       local road maintenance over the years have resulted in deteriorating roads and
       considerable public concern. Acceptable standards of safety and serviceability
       have been difficult to maintain and perhaps, more importantly, the ability of the
       highway network effectively to fulfil its wider community contribution to quality
       of life has been severely compromised.
       Most Highway Authorities have been required to focus their limited funds on
       short term repairs to carriageway surfaces and footways in order to provide
       defence to claims from third parties seeking to prove failure to maintain as is
       required by the Highways Act 1980.
       Necessary works of resurfacing and reconstruction have been deferred well
       beyond the optimum point for treatment with the result that progressive
       deterioration has continued and costs of repairs increased.
       The Department has through use of condition surveys identified the deterioration
       in the highway network and has made successful bid for capital monies to assist
       in arresting the deterioration.
       The Welsh Assembly Government has also identified a deterioration in the
       condition of Highway Networks in Wales and has included a capital grant for
       local road maintenance in the Assembly Governments Budget for a three year
       initial period. It is hoped that such monies will enable Highway Authorities in
       Wales to address the deterioration in Welsh Local Roads thereby improving their
       condition and reduce the backlog of deteriorated highways.

2.3    10 year Asset Management Plan

2.3.1 The Council has ear-marked £3m of Capital monies over the next ten years to
      arrest the detrioration in the carriageway, whilst accepting that even after
      spending this money there will still be a deterioration in the carriageway. There
      will be means to re-consider after the term of the Plan and consider ways of
      restoring ground lost in the second ten year Asset Management Plan.

2.3.2 In light of the risk faced with safety fences the Council has prepared a Capital
      budget of £1.2m to renew defective safety fences and carry out safety and
      structural inspections, over the term of the plan. This resource was provided to
      met this need.

2.3.3 To mitigate the effect of surface water on the carriageway and and the effect it
      has on the highway structure the Council has prepared a Capital budget of £1m
      to strengethen the Departments ability to carry ouy work in this field over the life
      of the plan.
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3.0    PURPOSE AND SCOPE

3.1    Objectives of the Code of Practice

3.1.1 The objectives of the Code of Practice have been listed in 1.2 of this Plan and
      simply require encouragement of best practice in highway maintenance, within
      the new context of asset management and the new statutory duty of network
      management and thus requiring a more holistic stewardship of the highway
      embracing both the operational and wider roles of community contributions.

3.1.2 The Code recognises the need for local flexibility implied by need to focus on
      the needs of users and the community and encourages Highway Authorities to
      respond enthusiastically and creatively to the challenges posed by sustainability
      and the need for continuous improvement.

3.1.3 The Code has been used as a benchmark against which policies for highway
      maintenance in Gwynedd have been developed.

3.2    Purpose of Highway Maintenance – The Strategy

3.2.1 The main purpose of highway maintenance is to maintain the highway network
      for the safe and convenient movement of people and goods. The care objectives
      of highway maintenance are to deliver a safe, serviceable and sustainable
      network, taking into account the need to contribute to the wider objectives of
      asset management, integrated transport, corporate policy and continuous
      improvement.

3.2.2 In the context of maintenance management the purpose may be defined as
      ensuring:

       a) Network safety
          • complying with statutory obligations
          • meeting users’ needs for safety

       b) Network Serviceability
          • ensuring availability
          • achieving integrity
          • maintaining reliability
          • enhancing condition

       c) Network Sustainability
          • minimising cost over time
          • maximising value to the community
          • maximising environmental contribution

3.3    Scope of Highway Asset Maintenance Plan

3.3.1 This Plan is restricted to the Maintenance Management of the County Highway
      Network and excludes the Trunk Road Network whose maintenance
      management is the responsibility of the Welsh Assembly Government. For the
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purpose of the plan the following are Highway Maintenance Activities:

   •   REACTIVE - Responding to inspections, complaints or emergencies
         - All elements - sign and make safe
         - All elements - provide initial temporary repair
         - All elements - provide permanent repair

   •   ROUTINE – Regular consistent schedules for patching, cleansing and
       landscape maintenance
           - Carriageways, footways and cycleways – cleansing, minor works
              and patching
           - Drainage systems – cleansing and repair
           - Embankments and cuttings – stability, management
           - Landscaped areas and trees – management
           - Fences and barriers – repair
           - Traffic signs and bollards – cleansing and repair
           - Road markings and studs – renewal
           - Lighting installations – cleansing and repair
           - Bridges and structures – cleaning and minor works <1.5m

   •   PROGRAMMED – Planned schemes primarily of resurfacing,
       reconditioning or reconstruction
           - Carriageways – minor works, resurfacing or reconstruction
           - Footways – minor works, resurfacing or reconstruction
           - Cycleways – minor works, resurfacing or reconstruction
           - Drainage – minor works, replacing culverts
           - Fencing – minor works, replacing sections
           - Traffic signs – replacing deteriorated units
           - Lighting – replacing deteriorated units

   •   REGULATORY – Inspecting and regulating the activities of others (a
       role of Streetworks Manager)
           - Highway register
           - Management of Utilities
           - Licences for highway occupation
           - Other regulatory functions – temporary closure, encroachment,
               illegal signs etc.

   •   WINTER SERVICE – Planned salting and clearance of snow and ice.
         - Pre treatment
         - Post treatment
         - Clearance of snow

   •   SEVERE WEATHER AND OTHER EMERGENCIES – planned
       response
           - Flooding
           - High winds
           - High temperatures
           - Other emergencies

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4.0   COMPLEMENTARY GUIDANCE

4.1   Limitations of the Highway Asset Maintenance Plan

      This Plan provides guidance in line with the Code on the strategic planning and
      management of highway maintenance within the context of Best Value and
      performance improvement. It is not intended as a detailed technical reference for
      all aspects of highway maintenance or to repeat technical guidance available
      elsewhere. Areas referred to but not dealt with in detail include:
           • Network Management
           • Highway improvement and new construction
           • Maintenance of bridges and structures >1.5m span
           • Management of utilities
           • Maintenance of public rights of way, off highway cycleways and off
              street car parks.

4.2   Further Advice and Guidance

      Further advice and guidance on those areas not covered in detail can be accessed
      through the list of publications contained in appendices of this plan.




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PART B




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5.0    POLICY FRAMEWORK

5.1    Strategic Policy Integration

5.1.1 The Code identifies the requirement to secure integration of highway
      maintenance policies with policies for securing overall strategic objectives of
      the Authority.

5.1.2 The Authority’s objectives are identified as:

               Objective 1   A sustainable Community

               Objective 2   Improving the Council in order to improve
                             Gwynedd

               Objective 3   Fairness and opportunities for vulnerable
                             people and communities

               Objective 4   A focus on Residents

5.1.3 Highway maintenance has the potential to contribute in many of the above
      objectives but significantly contributes through maintaining and improving the
      County’s highways to meet the requirements of safety of the highway network
      users creating conditions to facilitate the development of the economy.

5.1.4 It is imperative therefore that in order to achieve successful integration of
      transport policies with highway maintenance it is necessary to:

           •     Identify by areas of interaction between highway maintenance and each
                 of the corporate objectives.
           •     Maximise so far as is practicable the contribution towards them.
           •     Ensure that potential areas of conflict are resolved.

5.1.5 Successful Highway Maintenance strategy can improve mobility and access
      through effecting maintenance of the asset in good time and preventing
      deterioration to the point that maintenance is no longer possible. Similarly it is
      essential that maintenance works are not carried out more frequently than
      necessary.

5.1.6 It is essential that in developing long term proposals for a new transport
      infrastructure that future maintenance requirements are paramount in the
      decision process.

5.2    Highway Maintenance in the Wider Context

5.2.1 Highway users expect consistency in regard to policies, standards and level of
      service or similar categories of highways no matter who the Highway
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       Authority is and this policy aims to provide a service standard in line with user
       expectations and considerate to the needs of all road users, particularly
       vulnerable road users such as children, the disabled and cyclists and
       motorcyclists.
5.3    Highway Maintenance and Network Management

5.3.1 Highway Asset Maintenance planning and programming should take into
      account the opportunity to incorporate added value to the safety, priority,
      integrity or quality of:
          • footways and crossing facilities
          • cycleways and crossing facilities
          • motorcyclists
          • horse riders and crossing facilities
          • facilities for public transport and users
          • facilities for freight movement

5.3.2 Wherever possible highway maintenance will take into account and aim to add
      value to elements of local transport strategy such as:
          • Accident reduction and prevention programmes
          • Safe routes to schools
          • Routes to bus stations and rail stations
          • Urban and rural regeneration programmes

5.3.3 Planning and budgeting for highway maintenance must also recognise that
      integrated transport, especially in urban areas, is likely to result in a more
      complex and diverse streetscene. A wider range of more expensive signs, road
      markings, coloured surfacing and other materials may be necessary for
      regulation and management. The overall maintenance cost of keeping this
      more complex arrangement in good order will impact on highway maintenance
      budgets. Traffic Management Improvements need to ensure that signing is
      appropriate and necessary and, to reduce sign ‘clutter’, those signs no longer
      required should be removed as part of highway maintenance.

5.4    Highway Asset Management

5.4.1 The policies and strategies contained within this plan will provide the basis for
      management of the Highway Assets which will give the Authority the means
      to understand the value and liability of their existing asset base and make the
      right strategic decisions to ensure this base is exploited to its full potential and
      its value safeguarded for future generations.

5.4.2 This Highway Asset Maintenance Plan will include Lifecycle Plans which will
      have:
         • A set of objectives and policies linked to business objectives
         • An asset register (inventory)
         • Levels of service
         • Maintenance strategies for the long term based on sustainable use of
             physical resources and whole life costing.
         • Identification of future funding requirements to maintain required level
             of service.
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            • Managing risk of failure or loss of use.
            • Development of coordinated forward programmes for highway
              maintenance, operation and improvement.
          Measurement of performance and continuous improvement.
5.5    Publication and Adoption of Guidelines

5.5.1 The policies and priorities for highway maintenance contained within this plan
      are based on risk assessments for safety, service and condition and are
      designed to be both sustainable and affordable within the context of current
      budgets. The policies, priorities and programmes contained within will be
      those approved by the Executive Board of the Authority through a process,
      which is explicit, transparent and inclusive.

6.0    BEST VALUE AND CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT

6.1    Principles of Service Delivery

6.1.1 Policies, programmes and service delivery arrangements for highway
      maintenance should provide for efficient, effective and economic maintenance
      of the highway asset, giving priority to the needs of the user, and support to the
      wider corporate objectives of the Network Authority safety and statutory
      duties and prime consideration in development of policies, programmes and
      service delivery arrangements.

6.1.2 Gwynedd Council prepares an Annual Improvement Plan which provides an
      overview of the Council’s performance during the preceding year and
      identifies the Council’s main priorities for service improvement and
      operational methods for the following year. This is all in accordance with the
      guidance of the Welsh Assembly Government under the Wales Improvement
      Programme.

6.1.3 The Improvement Plan is an important link between the contents of the first
      Gwynedd Community Strategy published in June 2004 and the Council’s
      annual business plans at various levels, from its Three Year Corporate Plan to
      individual Department Business Plans together with indicators and plans for
      improvement at Department unit level.

6.1.4 The Council has adopted self-assessment arrangements which ensure that each
      business will recognise the issues which require its attention, and that these
      issues are considered in parallel with other strategic priorities.

6.2    User and Community Focus

6.2.1 Development of the Community Strategy, Gwynedd Together brought together
      public, voluntary and community organisations as well as the business sector
      and the wider public with a view to develop an effective plan that will meet
      the needs of the people and communities of Gwynedd and the first document
      sets the vision for improving quality of life in Gwynedd over the next 15 years.
      Reviews every three years to monitor progress of the strategy will be
      conducted and annual action plans detailing work to be effected over a twelve-
      month period will be produced.
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6.2.2 Regular consultation on the strategy together with discussions and annual
      reviews will ensure that views of people and the communities of Gwynedd
      will matter and services offered will reflect this.
6.2.3 Highway maintenance will be provided to consistent standards throughout the
      county of Gwynedd and will be based on the highway network hierarchy,
      which will be reviewed consistently with local need changes and variations.
      Cross boundary liaison in respect of winter maintenance activities will be
      maintained with adjoining Highway Authorities to secure consistent gritting
      actions where possible.

6.2.4 Information in regard to policies, standards and service provision will be
      provided to the community and users and clear guidelines will be provided for
      reporting faults, complaints and seeking service provision. All such calls for
      service and fault reporting will be recorded and performance of the response
      against the set standards will be monitored and recorded.

6.2.5 Network availability will be a priority issue and when such availability is to be
      affected through major roadworks then appropriate advance warning will be
      provided to users and suitable diversionary routes assigned when appropriate.
      When major highway maintenance is likely to affect individual property
      owners then those owners will be individually contacted and so advised by
      letter.

6.3    Delivering Continuous Improvement

6.3.1 Continuous improvement in service provision will be a priority through
      embracing change, encouraging risk and innovation and from learning from
      both successes and failures.

6.3.2 Procurement of goods and services will be a priority matter to be considered
      continuously to ensure an efficient, effective and competitive service when
      compared with others.

6.4    Standards for User and Community Response

6.4.1 Standards of user and community response do not contribute directly to the
      key objectives of safety, serviceability and sustainability in the same way as
      other activities. However, reports of complaints and requests for service need
      to be dealt with effectively and promptly and converted into actions for which
      the direct standards as identified will apply. Prompt provision of information
      and communication will enable users to obtain better serviceability from the
      network.

6.4.2 Receipt of request for service either through correspondence or Contact Centre
      will be accepted by the Department Liaison Officer who will record and
      forward to an appropriate officer for response and appropriate action.
      Standards of response will be in accord and with the standards for maintenance
      and the reply will be sent to accord with Corporate Policy. Records will be
      maintained for performance monitoring.

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7.0    LEGAL FRAMEWORK

7.1    Duty of Care

7.1.1 Much of highway maintenance activity is based upon statutory powers and
      duties contained in legislation and precedents developed over time, as a result
      of claims and legal proceedings.

7.1.2 Risk management has grown in importance during the course of the last few
      years, both in assessing the implications of investment decisions for asset
      management purposes and also in determining appropriate responses to
      highway deficiencies.

7.1.3 It is crucially important that all involved in highway maintenance, including
      Members of the Authority have a clear understanding of their powers and
      duties, their implications, and the procedures used to manage and mitigate risk.

7.1.4 Even in the absence of specific duties and powers, the Authority has a general
      duty of care to users and the community to maintain the highway in a
      condition fit for its purpose. The principle, as far as is reasonably practicable
      will be applied to all decisions affecting policy, priority, programming and
      implementation of highway maintenance works.

7.2    Risk Management

7.2.1 Management of highway maintenance, including the establishing of inspection
      regimes, setting condition standards, determining priorities and programmes
      for effective asset management and procuring the service should be undertaken
      against a clear and comprehensive understanding and assessment of the risks
      and consequences involved.

7.2.2 The most commonly understood risks affecting highway maintenance relate to
      the safety of the highway network and accident, injury or health risks to users
      and employees. This plan is developed to manage these crucially important
      risks.

7.2.3 The risk management process will include risk assessment of all key policies,
      procedures and operations based upon a risk register all as detailed in the Code
      of Practice for Highway Maintenance - Well Maintained Highways – risk
      assessment of the inspection process. Risk assessment is fundamentally the
      structured and systematic expression and recording of collective good
      judgement based on the best available data.

7.2.4 Other risks relating to the key objectives of highway maintenance are:

           •   network loss or serious failure
           •   operational
           •   environmental
           •   financial
           •   contractual
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7.3    Management Systems and Records

7.3.1 The efficiency, accuracy and quality of information and records maintained by
      the Authority are crucial both to the effective management of the service and
      to the defence of claims against the Authority for alleged failure to maintain.
      The systems will need to support compliance with standards of evidence
      provision consistent with the ‘Woolf’ protocols which, in most cases, require
      production of all user contact information such as Members, Community
      Council Officials, records of inspection and condition and records of all
      maintenance activity. They will be coordinated with other record systems as
      part of the asset management regime.

7.3.2 Managing the safety and wide range of other risks associated with the delivery
      of the highway maintenance service will require effective and coordinated
      information systems. These systems will need to be flexible in order to
      respond to changing circumstances and be able to facilitate consistency and
      information exchange with other common systems.

7.4    Powers and Duties for Highway Maintenance

7.4.1 In addition to the general Duty of Care, there are a number of specific pieces
      of legislation which provide the basis for powers and duties relating to
      highway maintenance and some of the very relevant ones are listed below:

           •   Highways Act 1980
                  - Section 41 – imposes a duty to maintain a highway which is
                     maintainable at public expense.
                  - Section 41 (1A) – (Railways and Transport Act 2003 – Section
                     111) – imposes a duty to ensure, so far as is reasonably
                     practicable, that safe passage along a highway is not
                     endangered by snow or ice.
                  - Section 58 – provides for a defence against action relating to
                     alleged failure to maintain on grounds that the Authority has
                     taken such care as in all the circumstances was reasonably
                     required to secure that the part of the highway in question was
                     not dangerous for traffic.

           •   The Local Authorities (Transport Charges) Regulations 1998
                  - provides a power for highway authorities to impose a charge in
                     respect of a number of largely regulatory activities including
                     skip, hoarding or scaffolding licences and the clearance of
                     accident debris.

           •   The New Road and Street Works Act 1991
                  - Section 53 – the highway authority shall keep a streetworks
                     register for each street for which they are responsible showing
                     information about current or proposed works.
                  - Section 56 – the highway authority have the power to give
                     directions as to the timing of undertakers works that are likely
                     to cause serious disruption to traffic.
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       -   Section 59 – the highway authority has a duty to coordinate
           works to minimise inconvenience and disruption, protect the
           structure of the street and integrity of apparatus and ensure
           safety for all users.
       -   Section 66 – the highway authority can issue a notice to an
           undertaker who has failed to complete work within a
           reasonable period requiring him to take such reasonable steps
           as specified to mitigate or discontinue an obstruction that is
           causing unnecessary delay.
       -   Section 74 – as amended by the Transport Act 2000 requires an
           undertaker executing works in a maintainable highway to pay a
           charge where the work is unreasonably prolonged.

•   Road Traffic Act 1998
       - imposes a duty on the highway authority to promote road
          safety, including accident studies, and to take such measures to
          reduce such accidents from occurring. This duty is also a
          requirement to ensure that accidents do not occur when new
          roads come into use.

•   The Traffic Management Act 2004
       - imposes a duty of network management, principally securing
          the expeditions movement of traffic (includes pedestrian) on
          the highway network. This Act changes significantly the
          provisions of the New Roads and Street Works Act 1991 and
          has considerable affect on the Authority’s own works
          programmes.

•   The Transport Act 2000
       - the highway authority may designate any road as a quiet lane or
          home zone.

•   Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 and the Traffic Signs and
    General Directions 2002

•   Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981
       - provides a framework of legislation relating to environmental
           and countryside issues with which highway maintenance
           operations must comply.

•   The Environmental Protection Act 1990
       - provides the statutory basis for other environmental issues, in
          particular waste management, with which highway
          maintenance operations must comply. It also deals with the
          requirement to keep the highway clear of litter and refuse.

•   The Noxious Weeds Act 1959
       - places a responsibility on the highway authority to take action
          to inhibit the growth and spread of injurious weeds growing
          within the highway.
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•   The Clean Neighbourhoods and Environmental Act 2005
       - provides powers for Authorities to tackle poor environmental
          quality and anti-social behaviour to include powers for
          improved waste management control.

•   Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 together with the
    Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1992 and
    Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007
       - provide for a requirement for highway, traffic and street
           authorities to carry out work in a safe manner and establish
           arrangements for the management of construction works.

•   The Disability Discrimination Act 1995
       - requires service providers to take reasonable steps to remove,
           alter or make other provisions for service in the event that a
           disabled person is prevented from attaining that service.

•   Complying with requirements emanating from legislation relative to
    use of The Welsh Language on road signs etc.




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PART C




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  23     HIGHWAY ASSET MAINTENANCE PLAN
8.0     STRATEGY AND HIERARCHY

8.1     Principles and Objectives of Highway Maintenance Strategy

8.1.1   We have previously defined in 3.2 the main purpose of highway maintenance
        but we now need to define how to achieve a regime of highway maintenance
        by means of a systematic logical approach.

8.1.2   The principles of the strategy to achieve this systematic logical approach
        should be

           i.   delivery of the statutory obligations
          ii.   be responsive to the needs of users and the community.
         iii.   provide effective management of the highway network asset.
         iv.    support highway network management strategy and integrated
                transport objectives.
          v.    support and add value where possible to widen policy objectives.
                This strategy should aim to optimise the maintenance contribution to
                the service provided by the networks infrastructure and underpin the
                following core objectives and their respective sub-objectives.

        Network Safety
           • complying with statutory obligations
           • meeting users’ needs for safety

        Network Serviceability
           • ensuring availability
           • achieving integrity
           • maintaining reliability
           • enhancing condition

        Network Sustainability
           • minimising cost over time
           • maximising value to the community
           • maximising environmental contribution

8.1.3   These core objectives supplemented by an overall objective of ‘customer
        service’ for the entire highway service together with risk management, needs
        based budgeting and competition service delivery provide the basis for a
        highway maintenance strategy - Appendix A.

        An assessment regime based on the above will set a basis for establishing the
        outcomes against which performance of both the network and management
        will be measured and development of performance indicators for comparison
        with others.

8.1.4   Each objective can be affected to a different extent by several different
        highway maintenance operations e.g.


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           •   Network Availability – can be affected by winter maintenance
               operations, NRSWA regulatory activity, deficiency of drainage
               systems and by careful planning of maintenance works.
           •   Network Integrity – can be assisted by consistent, joined up and
               effective temporary signing, by ensuring consistent standards of
               maintenance for on road and off road cycle lanes, and providing
               consistent accessibility standards for example through the use of
               dropped kerbs on key pedestrian routes especially those used by
               disabled people, older people or those using prams.
           •   Environmental Contributions – can be made through verge
               management plans, reducing sign clutter, use of recycled products or
               the provision of noise reducing surfacing. Reduction in carbon
               footprint is a requirement that is assessed in work planning.

8.1.5   Every aspect of highway maintenance for each element of the network has
        the potential to contribute to some extent to a number of those objectives.
        For example, the contribution to the safety objective of the carriageway
        surface is affected by:

           •   the actual condition of the surface
           •   the response time for attending to inspections and user concerns
           •   the quality of management and service delivery
           •   the effectiveness of materials and treatments used.

8.2     Components of a Highway Maintenance Strategy

8.2.1   The foundations of a highway maintenance strategy are:

           •   a detailed inventory of all components to be maintained
           •   a defined hierarchy for all elements of the network
           •   a robust framework of guidelines for levels of service linked to the
               core objectives.

8.2.2   These are crucial components on which a highway maintenance strategy
        should be founded and should be subject to regular review and updating in
        the light of any changed circumstances be it new development and to use or
        transport changes and the resultant affect on the Authority’s Maintenance
        Guidelines.

8.2.3   To be operationally effective, the key components need to be supplemented
        by:
            • a comprehensive management system for inspecting, recording,
               analysing, prioritising and programming maintenance works so as to
               optimise their asset management contribution.
            • A risk management strategy clearly identifying and evaluating the
               risks and consequences of investment decisions and measures to
               mitigate them.
            • Arrangements to finance procure and deliver maintenance works in
               accordance with the principles of sustainability.
            • Arrangements to monitor, review and update as necessary, each
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               component of the strategy and the performance of the strategy as a
               whole in delivering the core objectives.



8.2.4   The strategy will have regard to community support strategies such as the
        promotion of walking, cycling and use of public transport and seek to add
        value or advance these strategies. Coordination will also be required to
        ensure integration as previously discussed with the wider corporate agenda
        and ensure interaction between highway maintenance and each corporate
        objective together with coordination with neighbouring authorities to ensure
        continuity of safety and serviceability through discussion and agreement on
        items such as winter maintenance and procurement of services for economies
        of scale.

8.3     Designing for Maintenance

8.3.1   Careful consideration of maintenance implications for the future should be
        given paramount attention at design stage to reduce maintenance
        complications either increasing costs or introducing practical difficulties
        which may compromise the effectiveness of the feature. Examples include:

           •   materials requiring high frequency of maintenance
           •   access difficulties for routine maintenance such as drain clearance and
               cleansing
           •   inappropriate treatments and planting on narrow verges
           •   maintenance requiring disproportionate traffic management costs
           •   traffic calming and safety features with high rates of deterioration

8.3.2   Formal coordination arrangements need to be arranged so that improvement
        projects are developed with whole life costs of schemes optimised. The
        arrangement should involve consultation between the scheme designers and
        the maintenances unit and a maintainability audit check list developed and
        include the following items:

           •   what is the established design life?
           •   is this design life compatible with adjacent infrastructure?
           •   are the design and materials suitable for the predicted traffic use?
           •   can the materials be readily replaced throughout the design life?
           •   can the materials be satisfactorily re-laid after utility works?
           •   are the materials liable to fading or discolouration?
           •   can the surfaces be cleaned
           •   can the infrastructure be easily accessed for maintenance?
           •   could landscaping be re-designed to avoid future obstruction to signs
               or visibility and consequent additional maintenance requirements?

8.3.3   Adoption of highways is a matter where the Authority should have in place a
        stringent inspection regime of the highway during its construction to ensure
        compliance with a standard and specification acceptable to minimise the
        future maintenance requirement. Commuted sums should be sought from
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        developers when it is considered that future maintenance costs are likely to
        be higher than average due to non-standard features.




8.4     Highway Maintenance Management
8.4.1   The Highways and Municipal Department will continually develop and
        operate a management information system that will manage volumes of data
        associated with a typical road network and will model analytically the needs,
        options and priorities for maintenance strategies and programmes.

8.4.2   The Management system will maintain information by way of highway
        inventory, condition of the highway network, performance of different
        highway treatments, cost of procuring, implementing and supervising the
        work, performance monitoring and review and establishing unit cost of
        works.

8.4.3   Currently the Highways Management Database is being developed using
        EXOR software comprising of a core module programme in network
        manager, which manages all highway network information and associated
        data in a single shared database. Modular applications, working with this
        single database, are then available which satisfy the operational requirement
        of a modern highways organisation. These include:

           •   Network Manager *
           •   Spatial Data Manager *
           •   Document Manager *
           •   Public Enquiry Manager*
           •   Maintenance Manager *
           •   Streetworks Manager *
           •   Street lighting Manager
           •   Inspectors Manager *
           •   UKPMS *
           •   Accident Manager *

           * Denotes those modules currently used by the Department.

8.4.4   The County Highway Network has been surveyed and road centre lane
        digitised and constructed to form sections, links and nodes. The Network
        Manager in EXOR together with the Spatial Data Manager link this digital
        centre line with the Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) and allow any
        location on the County Highway Network to be accurately identified and
        historical data set against it.

8.4.5   Data has been collected to form an inventory of County Highways and has
        been fed into Network Manager to form a definitive asset register for the
        highway network, which will be continually updated.


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8.4.6   EXOR software has been upgraded to an Atlas version which will allow
        development of the Maintenance Manager module in conjunction with the
        Network Manager module to achieve management of the maintenance
        functions and provide control for management and operation of routine,
        cyclic and structural maintenance. This development will provide improved
        financial control for maintenance contracts and budgets. The updated system
        will aid implementation of policy standards and facilitates performance
        monitoring against standards to ensure effective and efficient management of
        works.

8.4.7   The Maintenance Manager module allows for the implementation of highway
        inspection regimes to different frequencies dependent on Network Hierarchy.
        This procedure will provide the defence for the Authority against third party
        claims.

8.4.8   The Public Enquiry Manager module provides a public enquiry monitoring
        system for recording and management of service requests, complaints and
        enquiries. This customer management system is required to show the
        effectiveness and efficiency of the service in providing a quality response to
        service requests. Implementation of the Atlas system will allow all of the
        enquiries to be spatially located on the G.I.S. so that trends and patterns can
        be easily identified on the network.

8.4.9   Technical condition surveys will increase in future and accordingly the
        UKPMS module will be more widely utilised. Currently UKPMS processes
        data from SCANNER surveys – processing of the information together with
        implementation of the Atlas upgrade will allow the service to look at options
        for maintenance and identify future spending needs.

8.4.10 The Highway Maintenance Management System improves in the systematic
       approach to decision making within the service and inevitably will lead to an
       improved and consistent management of highway maintenance.

8.5     Network Hierarchy for Maintenance

8.5.1   The network hierarchy, a detailed inventory of the maintained components
        and a robust framework of policies for levels of service forms the base for a
        coherent and consistent maintenance strategy and its implementation. The
        establishment of a network hierarchy for maintenance ensures that the most
        appropriate routes are used for particular purposes and that resources are
        targeted accordingly and assists in:

            •   Determining the appropriate frequency for highway inspections
            •   The allocation of resources and maintenance priorities
            •   Decisions regarding safety issues e.g. winter service




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8.5.2   It is important that the hierarchy adopted reflects the needs, priorities and
        actual use of each road in the network. These may be determined by
        importance – the road in Penrhosgarnedd leading to Ysbyty Gwynedd for
        example. This road whilst only a Class III local road because of its
        importance is included in the network hierarchy as a secondary distributor
        and maintained to this standard.

8.5.3   The Code of Practice for Highways Maintenance defines hierarchy as the link
        between maintenance policy and implementation. Policy priorities and
        standards will be determined on network hierarchy.

8.5.4   Footway priorities may sometimes conflict with carriageway priorities and
        therefore it is necessary to prepare separate carriageway, footway and cycle
        route hierarchies.

8.6     Carriageway Hierarchy

8.6.1   The Carriageway Hierarchy shown in Table 1 has been developed in line
        with the recommendations of the Code of Practice for Highway Maintenance
        and reflects the use made of each road and its associated maintenance
        standards within the Highway Network. These are not necessarily reflected
        by the roads formal classification (A road, B road etc).




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TABLE 1 – CARRIAGEWAY HIERARCHY

CATEGORY          HIERARCHY             TYPE OF ROAD         ROADS IN                      DETAILED
                  DESCRIPTION           – GENERAL            CATEGORY                      DESCRIPTION
                                        DESCRIPTION

2                 Strategic Route       Principal ‘A’        A4244 Llys y Gwynt –          Routes for fast moving
                                        Roads between        Cwm y Glo                     long distance traffic in
                                        primary              A499 Llanwnda –               rural areas where speed
                                        destinations         Pwllheli                      limits are generally in
                                                             A497 Porthmadog –             excess of 40mph
                                                             Pwllheli
                                                             A499 Pwllheli – Abersoch
                                                             A496 Maentwrog –
                                                             Blaenau Ffestiniog
                                                             A4212 Bala –
                                                             Trawsfynydd
                                                             A493 Dyfi Bridge –
                                                             Tywyn
                                                             A496 – Llanelltyd –
                                                             Barmouth
                                                             A4085/A4086 Llanberis

3a                Main Distributor      Major urban          Remainder of Class 1          Routes between
                                        network and inter-   Network.                      strategic routes and
                                        primary links,       B4405 – Bryncrug –            linking urban centres to
                                        short medium         Minffordd.                    the strategic network.
                                        distance travel      B4366 Caernarfon – Ty         In urban areas the speed
                                                             Mawr.                         limits are usually
                                                             B4413 Aberdaron –             40mph or less.
                                                             Llanbedrog.
3b                Secondary             Classified Road (B   Remainder of Class 2          In rural areas these
                  Distributor           and C Class) and     Network.                      roads link the larger
                                        Unclassified urban   4 x Class 3 approaches to     villages and new routes
                                        bus route.           Dolgellau.                    to the strategic and
                                                             Class 3 from Faenol           main distributor
                                                             roundabout to Ysbyty          network. In urban areas
                                                             Gwynedd Roundabout (to        the speed limits are
                                                             include link to Treborth      usually 30mph or less.
                                                             Roundabout).
                                                             Class 3 – 2331 Tyddyn
                                                             Sianel – Ynysheli,
                                                             Rhoslan.

4a                Local Roads           Local                Remainder of Class 3          In rural areas these
                                        Interconnecting      Network and                   roads link the smaller
                                        Roads                U/C Tanyfynwent/Ffordd        villages to the
                                                             Gwynedd Garth Road            distributor roads. In
                                                             Remainder of High Street,     urban areas the speed
                                                             Bangor outside the City       limits are usually
                                                             Centre.                       30mph or less and may
                                                                                           serve residential and
                                                                                           industrial centres.


4b                Local Access          Access Roads to      Remainder of Unclassified     In rural areas these
                  Roads                 limited number of    Road Network which are        roads serve small
                                        properties.          metalled.                     settlements and may be
                                                                                           single lane width and
                                                                                           unsuitable for HGV.
                                                                                           Predominantly
                                                                                           residential in urban
                                                                                           areas with 30mph
                                                                                           restriction.


NOTES: Urban defined as 40mph limit or less.
Unmaintained Roads – inspected on an ad-hoc basis and in response to customer reports.


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8.7     Footway Hierarchy

8.7.1   The Footway Hierarchy shown in Table 2 has been developed in line with the
        recommendations of the Code of Practice for Highway Maintenance and is
        based on function and usage and maintenance standards, and not related to
        road classification. The importance of particular footways may well conflict
        with the road classification and Carriageway Hierarchy.

                      TABLE 2 – FOOTWAY HIERARCHY

CATEGORY     HIERARCHY                       TYPE OF FOOTWAY – GENERAL
             DESCRIPTION                     DESCRIPTION

1            Primary Walking Route           Footways within the urban shopping centre and form
                                             the defined town/village centre. (none identified in
                                             Gwynedd)

2            Secondary Walking Route         Footways feeding in to primary routes and adjoining
                                             carriageway categories 2, 3a and 3b.

3            Local Footway                   Footways adjoining carriageway category 4a.

4            Local Access Footway            Footways on residential estates primarily and
                                             footways adjoining carriageway category 4b.


8.8     Cycle Route Hierarchy

8.8.1   The Cycle Route Hierarchy shown in Table 3 has been developed in line with
        the recommendation of the Code of Practice for Highway Maintenance and is
        based on location.

                   TABLE 3 – CYCLE ROUTE HIERARCHY

CATEGORY       DESCRIPTION

A              Cycle lane-forming part of the carriageway, commonly a 1.5 metre strip adjacent to
               the nearside kerb.

B              Cycle track, a highway route for cyclists not contiguous with the public footway or
               carriageway. Shared cycle/pedestrian paths, either segregated by a white line or
               other physical segregation or unsegregated.

C              Cycle trails, leisure routes through open spaces. These are not necessarily the
               responsibility of the highway authority but may be maintained by an authority under
               other powers.




8.9     Highways subject to work embargo periods

8.9.1   Road works at certain times on certain highways will create an unacceptable
        delay and disruption to users. In order to minimise such delay they are
        allocated embargo periods when routine or planned works are not permitted
        to be carried out. The embargo period does not prevent urgent or emergency
        works from continuing.

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8.9.2   The embargo periods will be those affected by the Welsh Assembly
        Government on Trunk Roads in Wales and conditions appropriate to agreeing
        works during embargo periods will be as contained within the schedule as
        issued by the Welsh Assembly Government.

8.9.3   The relevant categories of County Highways subject to embargo periods are
        2 and 3a together with highways forming the immediate town centres.

8.10    Adoption of new residential and commercial estate roads

8.10.1 In Section 8.3.4 we have defined the need for strict inspection of highways
       during construction to ensure compliance with a standard and specification
       acceptable to the Authority to minimise the future maintenance requirement.

8.10.2 Section 38 and 228 of the Highways Act 1980 enables a new street to be
       adopted by Agreement between a developer and the Council. It must be
       ensured that it is suitable for adoption by considering its function, condition,
       layout and specification for construction. Accordingly strict guidelines must
       be in place by the Authority so that new roads are not adopted in a sub-
       standard condition – see 8.3.3

8.11    Public Rights of Way

8.11.1 This Highway Asset Maintenance Plan does not cover the maintenance of
       public rights of way.

8.11.2 Public Rights of Way, with a metalled surface within or on the fringe of
       urban areas will be incorporated into the footway hierarchy irrespective of
       their designation. This recognises users requirements for consistency in
       highway maintenance and is recommended good practice in the Code of
       Practice for Highway Maintenance.

8.12    Maintenance Types

8.12.1 The scope of the Highway Asset Maintenance Plan has been defined in 3.3.

8.12.2 The main types of highway maintenance are:

            •   reactive – responding to inspections, complaints or emergencies.
            •   routine – regular consistent schedule, generally for patching, cleaning,
                grass cutting and landscape maintenance.
            •   programmed – flexibility planned schemes primarily of resurfacing,
                reconditioning or reconstruction.
            •   regulatory – inspecting and regulating the activities of others. Most
                of this will be undertaken by the Streetworks/Traffic Manager under
                the statutory duty for network management.
            •   winter service
            •   weather and other emergencies




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8.12.3 Each of these maintenance types contributes in varying degrees to the core
       objectives of safety, serviceability and sustainability already defined in 3.2.2.
       In each case therefore, standards and delivery arrangements will be
       established having regard to these objectives.


9.0     INSPECTION ASSESSMENT AND RECORDING

9.1     Importance of Inspection, Assessment and Recording Regime.

9.1.1   The establishment of an effective regime of inspection assessment and
        recording is the most crucial component of highway maintenance. The
        characteristics of the regime, including frequency of inspection, items to be
        recorded and nature of response are developed based on maintenance
        hierarchy and defined usage of the network. This inspection, assessment and
        recording regime provides the basic information for addressing the core
        objectives of highway maintenance namely:

            •   network safety
            •   network serviceability
            •   network sustainability

9.1.2   The information gathered will provide the basic condition data for the
        development of programmes for maintenance as part of The Highway Asset
        Maintenance Plan (HAMP). All the information gathered, including nil
        returns have to be made available for public inspection following
        introduction of the Freedom of Information Act 2000.

9.2     Categories of Inspection

9.2.1   Inspections and assessment surveys can be considered in the following
        categories:

            •   Safety Inspections – designed to identify all defects likely to create
                danger or serious inconvenience to users of the network. The risk of
                danger is assessed on site and the defect identified either as a
                Category 1 or Category 2 with an appropriate priority response.
            •   Service Inspections – more detailed inspections tailored to meet the
                requirements of particular highway elements in proving serviceability
                to meet users needs. Designed to identify deficiencies comprising
                reliability, quality, comfort and ease of use of the network. Service
                Inspections may also identify defects, which should be dealt with in
                the same way as for a safety inspection. Service Inspections includes
                inspections for regulatory purposes and NRSWA intended to maintain
                availability of the network for users.
            •   Condition Surveys – primarily intended to identify deficiencies in the
                highway fabric which, if untreated are likely to adversely affect its
                long-term performance and serviceability.




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9.2.2   There is no statutory requirement for a highway authority to undertake
        inspections of all highway elements under all of the above categories.
        However, it is strongly advised that safety inspections in accordance with the
        principles of the Code of Practice be undertaken to form where necessary a
        defence under Section 58 of the Highways Act against claims for failure to
        maintain. Such inspections for safety under the principles of the Code of
        Practice would prove that the authority had a reasonable system in operations
        to monitor the condition of the highway such that users could use it free of
        danger.

9.2.3   All information obtained from all inspections and condition assessment
        surveys, together with nature of the response by the authority, including nil
        returns are recorded consistently to facilitate analysis and development of
        works programmes.


9.3     Safety Inspections

9.3.1   Safety Inspections are designed to identify all defects likely to create danger
        or serious inconvenience to users of the network or the wider community.
        Such defects should include those that will require urgent attention (within 24
        hours) as well as those where the locations and sizes are such that longer
        periods of response would be acceptable.

9.3.2   A robust safety inspection regime will support a defence under Section 58 of
        the Highways Act 1980 as noted in Section 7 of this Plan.

9.3.3   Carriageway inspections will be undertaken in a slow moving vehicle as a
        two person operation for Categories 2, 3a and 3b. Footway inspections will
        be undertaken on foot or in a slow moving vehicle. Areas of carriageway
        subject to continuous on-street parking in urban centres will be inspected
        during footway inspections. Cycleways that form part of the carriageway
        will be covered by the carriageway inspections and those remote from the
        carriageway will be inspected on foot.

9.3.4   Additional inspections may be necessary in response to users or community
        concern, as a result of incidents of extreme weather conditions or in the light
        of monitoring information.

9.3.5   The parameters which need to be specified for a safety inspection regime are:

            •   frequency of inspection
            •   items for inspection
            •   degree of deficiency
            •   nature of response

9.3.6   The regime has been developed in accordance with the principles of risk
        assessment and provides a practical and reasonable approach to the risks and
        potential consequences identified. The inspection regime takes account of
        potential risks to all highway users and in particular those most vulnerable.

9.3.7   The frequencies of inspection in Table 4 are based upon category within the
        Carriageway, Footway and Cycleway Hierarchy shown in Tables 1, 2 and 3
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           respectively. Other factors considered for frequency of inspection include:

               •    traffic use, characteristics and trends
               •    incident and inspection history
               •    characteristics of adjoining network elements
               •    operational and policy considerations
               •    proximity to schools, colleges




                   TABLE 4 – SAFETY INSPECTIONS FREQUENCIES

   Feature               Category   Hierarchy Description       Frequency               Frequency
                                                                  Urban                   Rural
Carriageway          2              Strategic Route         Monthly driven           Monthly driven
                     3a             Main Distributor        Monthly driven           Monthly driven
                     3b             Secondary Distributor   Monthly driven           Monthly driven
                     4a             Local Road              3 Monthly driven         3 Monthly
                                                                                     driven
                     4b             Local Access Road       6 Monthly driven         6 Monthly
                                                                                     driven
Footways             1              Primary Walking Route   Monthly walked                  __
                     2              Secondary Walking       3 Monthly walked or      3 Monthly
                                    Route                   in a slow moving         driven
                                                            vehicle
                     3              Local Footway           3 Monthly walked or      6 Monthly
                                                            in a slow moving         driven
                                                            vehicle
                     4              Local Access Footway    6 Monthly walked or      6 Monthly
                                                            in a slow moving         driven
                                                            vehicle
Cycle Routes         A              Part of Carriageway     As carriageway           As carriageway
                     B              Shared with Footway     As Footway               As Footway
                     C              Cycle Trails            As determined by
                                                            Regulatory                       __
                                                            Department

           Whenever possible the defined inspection frequencies shall be maintained but
           some flexibility to take into account the affect of adverse weather conditions
           and staff resource availability will be allowed. A flexibility tolerance as
           shown in Table 5 will be utilised.

TABLE 5 - Inspection frequency                      Tolerance

1 Month                                             5 working days
3 Months                                            10 working days
6 Months                                            10 working days
1 year                                              20 working days

           Subsequent inspections shall be calculated from the due date of inspections
           and not the actual date.

9.3.8      The level of response to an identified defect arising from a safety inspection
           will be determined from risk assessment and the degree in deficiency will
           inevitably take into account on site judgement such as the degree of risk from
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        a pothole depends upon not merely its depth but also its surface area and
        location.

9.3.9   The Code of Practice defines defects in two categories
                  - Category 1 – those that require prompt attention because they
                      represent an immediate or imminent hazard or because there
                      is a risk of short term structural deterioration.
                  - Category 2 – all other defects.

9.3.10 Category 1 defects will be corrected or made safe at the time of inspection if
       at all possible. In this context, making safe may constitute displaying
       warning notices, coning off or fencing off to protect the public from the
       defect. If it is not possible to correct or make safe the defect at the time of
       inspection, which will generally be the case, repairs of a permanent or
       temporary nature should be carried out as soon as possible and in any case
       within 24 hours. Permanent repair must be carried out within 28 days.

9.3.11 For particular urgent response to specific circumstances there will be a
       requirement to attend on site within two hours. Such events are as follows:
          • major debris or spillage on carriageway
          • critically unstable wires, trees or structures
          • exposed live electrical wiring
          • carriageway collapse or surface defect likely to cause accident
          • isolated standing water of significant depth
          • missing or seriously defective ironwork
          • footway or cycleway collapse

9.3.12 Category 2 defects are those which are deemed not to present an immediate
       or imminent hazard or risk of short term structural deterioration

 9.4    Defect Risk Assessment

9.4.1   The system adopted for defect risk assessment appropriate to Safety
        Inspections is based on the system recommended as good practice in the
        Code of Practice.

9.4.2   Any inspection item with a defect level which corresponds to or is in excess
        of a stated defect investigatory level adopted by the Authority is assessed for
        likely risk.

9.4.3   The inventory of items identified as defects is as follows. It should be noted
        that this list is not exhaustive and is provided as a check list only.
            • debris, spillage or contamination on running surface
            • displaced road studs lying on running surface
            • damaged or exposed electrical wiring
            • apparently unstable embankments and cuttings
            • apparently unstable trees with loose branches
            • signs, signal or lighting damaged, defective, missing or unstable
            • road markings and studs missing, misleading or badly worn
            • obscured signs and signals
            • sight lines obscured by trees or branches
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           • safety fencing, parapet fencing, handrail missing or defective
           • abrupt difference in level in running surfaces
           • potholes, cracks or gaps in running surfaces
           • crowning, depression and rutting in the running surface
           • edge deterioration of the running surface
           • kerbing, edging or channel defects
           • rocking or otherwise unstable footway or cycleway surfaces
           • apparently slippery running surface
           • broken or missing ironwork
           • blocked or defective drainage channels and traps
           • standing water or flowing water on the carriageway
9.4.4   Classification of the defect and the speed of response will depend on the risk
        posed by:

           •   the depth, surface area or other degree of deficiency of the defect or
               obstruction
           •   the volume, characteristics and speed of traffic
           •   the location of the defect relative to highway features such as
               junctions and bends
           •   the location of the defect relative to the positioning of at risk highway
               users e.g. pelican or pedestrian crossings, bus stops etc.
           •   nature of interaction with other defects
           •   forecast weather conditions, especially potential for freezing of
               surface water

9.4.5   All risks identified through the process have to be evaluated in terms of their
        significance, which means assessing the likely impact should the risk occur
        and the probability of it actually happening. A risk register evolved from the
        defect inventory greatly assists the evaluation process. It is not possible to
        include every conceivable risk but the register identifies a wide range of risks
        likely to be encountered. This enables the vast majority of risks to be
        assessed through comparison, interpolation or extrapolation with the
        identified notes. The risks contained in the register are based upon the
        highest assumed risk attributable to the type of defect, position and assessed
        type of usage coupled with local knowledge.

9.4.6   The impact of a risk is quantified on a scale of 1 to 4 ranging from negligible
        to serious impact. The impact is likely to increase with road type, traffic
        volume and increasing speed (Appendix B)

9.4.7   The probability of a risk is quantified also on a scale of 1 to 4 ranging from
        very low probability to high probability. The probability is likely to increase
        with increased usage and therefore network hierarchy and defect locations are
        the important considerations (Appendix C).

9.4.8   The risk factor is the product of risk impact and risk probability and it is this
        that identifies the overall seriousness of the risk and the level of response to
        remedy the defect and mitigate the risks (Appendix D).




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9.4.9         The Risk Management procedure determines identification of the defect as a
              Category 1 defect or Category 2 defect and the time scale for rectifying the
              defect is determined from the Risk Matrix below (Table 6)

TABLE 6
                                                       Impact
Probability                Very Low (1)      Low (2)       Medium (3)              High (4)

Negligible (1)         1                     2             3                       4

Low (2)                2                     4             6                       8

Noticeable (3)         3                     6             9                       12

High (4)               4                     8             12                      16

Response Category      Planned Maintenance                 Category 2              Category 1
                                                           Response                Response



9.4.10         Where Category 1 defects are temporarily made safe it will be a requirement
               that the temporary arrangement is inspected until the permanent repair is
               carried out within the 28 day period (it may be that in certain circumstances,
               or where specialist service or materials are required permanent repair may
               not be effected for a period not exceeding 6 months but regular inspection
               will be carried out during this non-repaired period.)

9.4.11         The Safety Inspection Regime will identify items or assets that require
               maintenance due to their condition becoming unserviceable and will
               be recorded as Category 2 defects and these will form a planned
               programme of maintenance.

9.4.12         A risk register for highway defects appropriate to Gwynedd is
               included as Appendix E.

9.5            Service Inspections

9.5.1          The Code of Practice identifies that Service Inspections are optional and
               dependant on the Authority’s regime to determine programmes of work and
               if undertaken should be focussed on the network’s ability to meet the levels
               of service.

9.5.2          The frequency of Safety Inspections undertaken in Gwynedd are such that
               independent service inspections are only required for the elements listed in
               Section 10

9.6            Recording of Information and Competency of Inspections

9.6.1          Information from all inspections, together with any immediate or
               programmed action, including nil returns, will be promptly received to
               facilitate analysis.

9.6.2          Each maintained road has been physically measured and the information
               recorded using an unique link/node identifier to form a digitised network.
               This network is reviewed and updated regularly.
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9.6.3   Inspection data for all the roads are kept electronically within the EXOR
        Network Manager Module held centrally and in the handheld tablet personal
        computers, which are used to record the inspections and the data uploaded to
        the EXOR System.

9.6.4   Defects are identified and recorded on the handheld pc where common
        defects are selected from a drop down menu facility. Additional or less
        common information is recorded on dedicated notes windows where
        Highway Inspectors are able to record text as required. All the information
        is uploaded to the central EXOR module.

9.6.5   Category 1 defects are reported immediately to the Works Unit who will
        receive a confirmation EXOR Emergency Order via e-mail. The defect is
        made safe within 24 hours and a permanent repair effected within 28 days.

9.6.6   Details of the completion date and time of making safe the defect will be
        recorded by the Works Service within the EXOR System.

9.6.7   Where no defects have been observed the Inspectors shall record this
        information.

9.6.8   All Inspectors involved in the Safety Inspections regime will be provided
        with appropriate accredited training to enable them to identify defects and
        record the information on the Maintenance Management System. Such
        training will enable the Authority to formulate a defence in accordance with
        the Duty to maintain Highways.

9.7     Highway Maintenance Condition Surveys

9.7.1   Condition surveys identify the current condition of the network and from
        this information both long term and short term maintenance funding
        decisions can be made. Repeatable surveys allow trend analysis to be used
        to confirm the decisions or allow for changes to accommodate changing
        network conditions.

9.7.2   In order to provide clear evidence of value for money from investment in
        maintenance, it is essential to have information on the nature and severity of
        deterioration, so that the most appropriate maintenance treatment can be
        arranged.

9.7.3   The Authority will arrange for the following network surveys to be
        undertaken

           •   SCANNER (Surface Condition Assessment of Natural Network of
               Roads) – machine based surface condition survey collecting data on
               transverse and longitudinal profiles, texture and cracking of
               pavements. Currently SCANNER surveys are carried out with 100%
               cover of Class One Routes, 100% cover of Class Two Routes and
               10% cover of Class Three per annum and undertaken through the
               Welsh Assembly Government.


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           •   MRM 10% Unclassified every year and undertaken through the
               Welsh Assembly Government

           •   Griptester Surveys – measures skid resistance on the carriageway
               surface. At this moment 33% of the Strategic Routes and Main
               Distributors are surveyed annually, together with specific locations
               where skid resistance causes concern.


9.7.4   Other project based surveys may be used to further investigate individual
        sites and these may be

           •   Deflectograph – where the structural condition of the whole
               pavement can be determined to prove residual life.

9.7.5   Currently the Authority is contemplating undertaking footway condition
        surveys but is awaiting further information from the CSS Wales Project
        Group and WLGA on development of footway condition indicators to
        ensure a condition performance monitoring system consistent to Wales.

9.7.6   The highway condition surveys will provide the condition information
        necessary to determine and monitor relevant statutory indicators and support
        assessments of the network to establish and assist in programming highway
        maintenance.

9.7.7   All survey data used for assessment of highway conditions will be processed
        by a pavement management system accredited to UKPMS in accordance
        with the currently approved set of Rules and Parameters and will provide
        condition indices and priority of network selections based on condition
        relative to System Intervention Levels (SIL).

9.8     Skid Resistance Strategy

9.8.1   The Authority will publish within its Highway Asset Maintenance Plan –
        Carriageway Lifecycle Plan a skid resistance strategy which will be
        informed by risk assessment. See Appendix G.

9.8.2   The skid resistance strategy will address issues raised by

           •   provision of slippery road signing
           •   frequency of surveys
           •   setting investigatory levels
           •   priorities for treatments
           •   dealing with early life skid resistance




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10.0     CONDITION STANDARDS AND INVESTIGATORY LEVELS

10.1     Setting Standards

10.1.1   Authorities are expected to define standards for the condition of each element
         of the maintained highway network. This standard is considered necessary to
         meet the requirements of safety, serviceability and sustainability.

10.1.2   Operational standards concerning inspection frequency and response have
         already been defined but standards for ensuring condition of the individual
         elements of highway assets have to be defined to ensure their contribution to
         safety, serviceability and sustainability.

10.1.3   Each element of the network can have different standards of condition, a
         minimum one to satisfy requirements for safety and higher ones, designed to
         meet local requirements for serviceability and sustainability. These different
         higher standards have been defined as Investigatory Levels in the Code as
         failure to reach the defined standards in most cases could give rise to a range of
         responses each of which need to be further investigated prior to undertaking
         any action. The term ‘intervention level’ has been retained for use with
         UKPMS as described in 9.7.7.


10.2     Condition of Carriageway

10.2.1   To ensure the performance of the highway network in terms of safety,
         serviceability and sustainability the operational standards for maintaining the
         condition of carriageway are of paramount importance.

10.2.2   Information from condition surveys, inspections and individual site assessments
         needs to be interrogated to ensure that preventative action is effected before the
         onset of major deterioration.

10.2.3   In Gwynedd, it will be the objective to react and sustain a position of
         preventative rather than reactive maintenance although it is inevitable that there
         will always be a degree of reactive works in response to the safety inspection
         regime.

10.2.4   Early and timely preventative maintenance reduces the cost that would be
         incurred by allowing a road to fail. Savings accrue from the difference in cost
         between the preventative maintenance strategies such as surface dressing and
         overlay and the full depth reconstruction of the carriageway. Such saving can
         be financial and also by way of reducing environmental impact and impairing
         the travel arrangement of the general public.
         The diagram below shows whole life costing strategy for carriageways




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10.2.5   Budgetary allocation defines whether or not a strategy for preventative
         maintenance can be achieved and over the years this has been very difficult to
         achieve and hence a decline in standard of carriageway maintenance has been
         witnessed.

10.2.6   Additional funding from The Council’s Capital Budget recently together with
         Special Grant Funding from the Welsh Assembly Government to arrest the
         Deterioration in Conditions of Highways has enabled substantial works to be
         effected on the highway network in Gwynedd. These works have substantially
         improved road surface condition.

10.2.7   The Welsh Assembly Government published their SCANNER Condition
         Results for 2008/2009 to show the following percentage of Gwynedd Council
         Highway Network contained in the ‘Red’ band –-see definition below.

                    A Class Roads        B Class Roads        C Class Roads        Unclassified
                                                                                     Roads
                          %                    %                    %                  %

                          3.6                  4.0                 13.7                23.0


         The Red band is defined as “lengths of carriageway in poor overall condition
         that are likely to require planned maintenance soon on a worst first basis
         (although there may be justification for postponing major repairs, and only
         carrying out minor repairs to keep the road safe and serviceable, in order to
         minimise whole life costs i.e. economic prioritisation”

10.2.8   SCANNER RCI (Road Condition Indicator) which is established from survey
         data which measures the following six carriageway features:

             •   longitudinal profile 3m variance
             •   longitudinal profile 10m variance
             •   rutting
             •   texture depth
             •   wheel track cracking (classified roads only)
             •   whole carriageway cracking (classified roads only)

         ....and allows the overall condition of a road section to be determined. This
         RCI will vary for different classes of roads and for classified roads will vary
         between 0 and 370; 0 representing a road that is in good condition, and 370, the
         maximum achievable value, indicating that the road is in a very poor condition.
         Values of RCI above 100 indicate some structural repair is probably required.
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         The RCI for unclassified roads, on the other hand will be between 0 and a
         maximum of 280; this is because cracking is not measured and therefore the
         maximum possible RCI value is reduced.

10.2.9   Current SCANNER RCI for the classified network are:

                100 < RED >       370         Plan Maintenance Soon

                 20 < AMBER >     99.99       Plan Investigation Soon

                  0 < GREEN >     19.99       Generally Good Condition

10.2.10 SCANNER RCI for the unclassified roads are:

                140 < RED >       280         Plan Maintenance Soon

                 70 < AMBER >    139.99       Plan Investigation Soon

                  0 < GREEN >      69.99      Generally Good Condition

10.2.11 In 2006 the Welsh Assembly Government commissioned a report to estimate
        the total value of the road pavement maintenance backlog in Wales (i.e. the cost
        of maintenance work required to return those parts of the network in the red
        band to good condition i.e. the green band on the highway network and found it
        to be £225m.

10.2.12 In practice, there will always be a percentage of the highway network requiring
        maintenance and this of course is totally related to the availability of monies to
        effect appropriate a timely carriageway maintenance.

10.2.13 It is suggested that an appropriate starting point for the local road network in
        Wales is 8% (i.e. 92% is an acceptable condition or better). To date Gwynedd
        has not adopted a target for SCANNER Condition on its highway network and
        will consider the matter in association with other Welsh Councils.

10.2.14 The key to managing the highway network successfully is to monitor its
        condition and by applying at the best time the most cost effective structural
        maintenance treatment. This treatment may be:

                     -   Surface Dressing – where the existing carriageway surface is
                         coated with a layer of bituminous emulsion with granite
                         chippings spread and rolled binding them to the existing surface.
                         This process restores the texture to the carriageway surface,
                         seals the surface from ingress of water and arrests the
                         deterioration through crazing and cracking of the carriageway
                         surface. It is used on all roads in Gwynedd with the exception
                         of town centres, heavily stressed and parking areas.

                     -   Thin Slurry Seal – as surface dressing, the purpose is to seal a
                         porous surface through use of primarily a proprietary product of
                         bituminous mixture to agreed national specifications or similar
                         accreditation.



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                    -   High Friction Surfacing – where sections of the carriageway
                        surface are covered by a high friction surfacing material to
                        improve the surface friction. Used primarily at acute corners,
                        approaches to pedestrian crossings and junctions.

                    -   Patching and Minor Repairs - where defective areas of
                        carriageways are repaired to maintain a satisfactory running
                        surface thus maintaining the asset and safety of its users.

                    -   Reconstruction – where the removal of some or all of the
                        structural layers of the carriageway pavement is necessary from
                        structural failure identified from condition surveys and on site
                        investigation.

                    -   Overlay – where the existing carriageway surface is overlayed
                        with another layer of bituminous material to increase or restore
                        the strength of the pavement.

                    -   Resurfacing – where the existing wearing surface is replaced
                        and used primarily where finished road surface levels are
                        critical.

10.2.15 Primarily in Gwynedd wearing course material will be bituminous macadam
        with granite aggregate conforming to current national standards and polished
        stone values of 60 minimum for principal roads and no lower than 55 for other
        roads. Unless specifically agreed thin surfacing shall not be used on the rural
        County Network. Gwynedd will work to the recommendations of it’s own skid
        resistance strategy based on HD28/04 and any site not conforming to the
        required limits on the principal network will be signed to advise road users of
        the fact that its skidding resistance falls below investigatory level. Non
        principal roads will be maintained to the highest possible standards within
        limits of budgets. On completion of resurfacing/overlay works on the principal
        network a site specific Griptester test shall be carried out to ensure its
        conformity with the Council’s own skid resistance strategy and in the case of
        non conformity signs shall be placed on site to advise road users of its non
        conformity.




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10.2.16   Highways and Municipal Dept will aim to present a preventative maintenance
          regime with target frequencies for structural treatment as shown below in line
          with the whole life costing strategy shown in 10.2.4

                   Category    Reconstruction        Resurfacing/Overlay        Surface           Patching
                                                                                Dressing

               2              Condition Based        20 years                7 years            As required

               3a             Condition Based        20 years                7 years            As required

               3b             Condition Based        25 years                7 years            As required

               4a             Condition Based        As required             10 years           As required

               4b             Condition Based        As required             10 years           As required




10.2.17   The Investigatory Levels utilised to determine the need for surface treatment to
          resolve fine crazing, permeable surfaces, surface fretting, loss of chippings and
          fatting up of existing dressings is based on a warning level of 20% of the surface
          area being affected as follows

          Whole Carriageway Deterioration

               Category         Nature of Defect               % of          Recommended Treatment
                                                            Area/Length
               2 to 4                                   5                   Patching and Surface
                                                                            Treatment
               2                                        10                  Patching, overlay or
                              Cracking                                      resurfacing
                                                        25                  Major Strengthening
               3              Coarse Crazing or loss    15                  Patching/Surface Dressing
                              of aggregate.             40                  Major Strengthening
               4              Serious permeability      15                  Patching/Surface Dressing
                              problems                  50                  Major Strengthening


          Edge Deterioration

          Edge Strengthening should be considered when it becomes necessary to repair:
             • Edge deterioration, which causes cracking, fretting, potholing and
                 deformation of the carriageway.

             • Rutting and over-running, which causes potholing of the edge of the verge
                or standing water.




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                            Severity                     % of Area/Length                Treatment

              Cracking, fretting or potholing of         20                   Patching
              the edge of the carriageway is
              present with a need for patching but       50                   Haunch and/or kerbing
              with no over riding of the verge.

              Severe over riding of the verge with       10                   Patch
              or without potholing along edge of
              verge, either alone or with
              carriageway deterioration as above.        30                   Haunch and/or kerbing

              Serious deformation or cracking of         5                    Patch
              the carriageway in the vicinity of the
              edge is present with or without over
              riding the verge.                          20                   Haunch and/or kerb


         Wheel Track Rutting

         Wheel track rutting can be either plastic deformation of the surface or an
         indication of structural failure. Further engineering investigation is normally
         required.

                      Severity                 % of Area/Length                        Treatment

              Depth > 20mm                5                                  Localised overlay or
                                                                             resurfacing
                                          20                                 Overlay/resurface affected
                                                                             lane.

         Adverse Camber

         Where road safety is prejudiced it may be necessary to reshape the offending area.
         Areas of serious consideration for treatment are:

                     -    where camber/adverse amber on bends is a danger to road users.
                     -    where the cross fall is inadequate to provide surface water flow to
                          channels and creating serious ponding on the carriageway.

10.3     Condition of Footways

10.3.1   The Code of Practice for Highway Maintenance Management - Well Maintained
         Highways states that the condition of footways can contribute to the core
         objectives as follows:

                Safety                               -       Nature, extent and location of surface
                                                             defects
                                                     -       Nature and extent of kerb and edging
                                                             defects


                Serviceability                       -       Nature and extent of surface defects
                                                     -       Extent of encroachment and weed

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                                                      growth
                                                -     Slipperiness of the surface
                                                -     Quality of the surface
                                                -     Integrity of the network

                Sustainability                  -     Convenience and ease of use
                                                -     Nature, extent and location of surface
                                                      defects
                                                -     Extent of damage by over running and
                                                      parking

10.3.2   Highways and Municipal Dept will aim to provide a maintenance strategy
         whereby preventative maintenance rather than reactive maintenance is the over
         riding aim although it is inevitable that there will be a degree of reactive works in
         response to a safety inspection regime where defect standards have been
         identified and treatment response developed in line with maintenance hierarchy.

10.3.3   Condition standards for serviceability and sustainability are set such that safety
         inspection frequencies will enable Highway Inspectors to identify areas of
         footways where deterioration will inevitably have an adverse affect on the
         availability of the footways in the short term as replacement for car users in
         promoting walking in the urban environment. The requirements of the Disability
         Discrimination Act 1995 require the Highway Authority to take reasonable steps
         to remove or alter physical features to improve access for disabled people or
         provide an alternative method of making service available.

10.3.4   The investigatory levels are as follows:

         Surfacing
         Structural maintenance should be considered when the percentage of the areas
         described below are exceeded

                                                    Severity                      % of          Treatment
             Footway Category                                                     Area
                    2                  Flexible                Rigid
                                  Trips greater          Trips greater                        Restore
                                  than 20mm              than 20mm                  30        Surface with
                                  but less than          but less than                        appropriate
                                  20mm                   20mm                                 treatment
                                  Coarse cracking        Rocking flags

                     3            Depressions            Depressions                40
                                  more than              more than
                                  10mm, less than        10mm less than
                     4            30mm.                  30mm
                                                         Cracks or gaps.




         Treatment will primarily be flexible surfacing or dressing
         and rigid reconstruction will only be utilised in defined
         urban centres.
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         Kerbing
         Kerbs are provided to protect footway users, to provide channels for surface water
         and to define and support the edge of the carriageway. Defective kerbing should
         generally be replaced in association with other carriageway or footway works
         when the defect criteria in appendix D is exceeded.

10.3.5   As already stated in 9.7.5, the Authority is contemplating undertaking footway
         condition surveys but is awaiting further information from the CSS Wales Project
         Group and WLGA on the development of footway condition indicators to ensure
         a condition performance monitoring system for footways consistent to Wales.

10.4     Condition of Cycleways

10.4.1   The Code of Practice for Highway Maintenance Management - Well Maintained
         Highways states that the condition of cycleways can contribute to the core
         objectives as follows

              Safety                      -   Nature, extent and location of surface
                                              defects
                                          -   Nature and extent of kerb and edging
                                              defects

              Serviceability              -   Nature and extent of surface defects
                                          -   Extent of encroachment and weed growth
                                          -   Slipperiness of the surface
                                          -   Quality of the surface
                                          -   Integrity of the network

              Sustainability              -   Convenience and integrity of the network
                                          -   Nature, extent and location of surface
                                              defects
                                          -   Extent of damage by over running and
                                              parking



10.4.2   The Highways and Municipal Department will aim to provide a maintenance
         strategy where maintenance of cycleways mirrors the standards of maintenance
         for carriageways and footways. Safety inspections will be carriageway
         inspections where the cycleway is integrated within the carriageway and as
         footways where the cycleway forms part of footway or segregated from
         carriageway. Category C cycleways will be inspected by personnel from outside
         the Highways Maintenance and Municipal Department to their defined standards.




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10.4.3   The investigatory levels are as follows:

            Defect                                    Safety                       Investigatory Levels

            Depression and humps                      See Table                    See Table
            Potholes and steps, including                    > 40mm                        > 40mm
            longitudinal steps from trench
            reinstatements and settled gulleys


            Surface deterioration                               -----                     > 25% of area

            Longitudinal crack widths/gaps                     >20mm                          >20mm

            Transverse crack widths                            >40mm                         > 40mm

            Restricted Height                                  < 2.7m                          < 2m

            Restriction in width due to vegetation    > 50% or 1.5m                > 25% or 2.0m
            or temporary works                          whichever is greater       whichever is greater

            Reductions in cycle lane width due to     > 20%or 1.0m                 > 20% or 1.0m
            vegetation or temporary works             whichever is greater         whichever is greater

            Minimum sight line when restricted                 < 15m                          < 20m
            by vegetation or temporary works

            Loss of markings                                   >75%                           > 30%

10.5     Carriageway, Footway and Cycleway
         Sweeping and Cleansing – Objectives and Response

10.5.1   The Code of Practice on Litter and Refuse and Associated Guidance 2007 defines
         the duty under Section 89 (2) of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 as
         keeping a publicly maintained highway clean so far as is reasonably practical.
         However, the removal of detritus is not mandatory but only a recommendation
         within the Code.

10.5.2   This situation inevitably leads to debris, detritus and other materials being a
         danger to road users by accumulating and blocking drainage channels and road
         gullies causing highway flooding; encourage weed growth and become a
         compacted strip which in time reduces the width of available carriageway thus
         impairing the serviceability and sustainability of the highway.


         Highways and Municipal Dept will aim to provide a proactive routine sweeping
10.5.3   and cleansing service of the highway to achieve through conventional cleansing to
         the following frequencies.




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          Category                                Activity                       Frequency

          Defined Urban Centre                    Thorough Cleansing             12 per annum

          Other urban areas                       Thorough Cleansing             6 per annum

          Rural Principal Roads                   Thorough Cleansing             2 per annum

          Class 3 Rural and Unclassified          Thorough Cleansing             1 per annum




10.5.4   The Highways and Municipal Department will also provide a reactive sweeping
         and cleansing service to

            • remove obstructions from the carriageway, footway or cycleway that pose
               potential hazards to users.

            • remove materials from the carriageway, footway or cycleway that pose
               potential hazards to users.

            • remove material that could adversely affect the integrity of the highway.

            • remove leaf fall at locations where a potential highway safety problem
               exists.

            • attend the scene of road traffic accidents to clear accident debris/fuel from
               the highway.

            • clear non-hazardous spillages such as diesel or fuel oil.

            • clear any dung, compost, rubbish or other material (e.g. mud or hedge
              cuttings) on the highway if it adversely affects the road user and seek to
              recover the cost from the transgressor under the relevant section of the
              Highways Act 1980.

10.6     Condition of Highway Drainage System


10.6.1   The Code of Practice for Highway Maintenance Management – Well Maintained
         Highways states that the condition of highway drainage systems can contribute to
         the core objectives as follows:


                Safety        -       Accumulation of water on carriageways, footways and
                                      cycle routes

                Serviceability -      Accumulations of water on carriageways, footways
                                      and cycle routes

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                Sustainability -   Polluted effluent from clearing of highway drainage
                                   should not be directed into watercourses. Authorities
                                   have a duty to prevent nuisance to adjoining
                                   landowners by flooding and should also work with
                                   others in the wider community to minimise the future
                                   risk of flooding. Inadequate drainage of the highway
                                   structure will reduce effective life and increase the
                                   maintenance liability.

10.6.2   Highways and Municipal Dept. will aim to provide a maintenance strategy
         whereby preventative maintenance rather than reactive maintenance is the
         overriding aim although it is inevitable that there will be a degree of reactive
         works in response to a safety inspection regime where defect standards have been
         identified and treatment response developed in line with maintenance hierarchy.
10.6.3   Reactive maintenance activities are by their nature unplanned and occur in
         response to sudden changes in weather, as a result of inspections or complaints.
         The response to reactive maintenance requirements will depend on the location,
         severity of problem and risk to users to the highway and possible risk of third
         party damage.

10.6.4   The objective of drainage systems in terms of safety of users of the network is to
         prevent the accumulation of surface water on carriageway, footways and
         cycleways. Failure to remove the surface water can lead to ponding or more
         substantial flooding which may prejudice the safety of users of the highway,
         adversely affect the structure of the highway and may cause damage to third party
         property.

10.6.5   Displaced, broken and uneven drainage systems covers and frames can also be
         safety hazards and the safety inspections are designed to identify all such defects
         that are likely to create danger or serious inconvenience to users of the highway
         or the wider community. Such defects should include all those that will require
         urgent attention (within 24 hours) as well as those where the locations and sizes
         are such that longer periods for response will be acceptable.

10.6.6   To be in a serviceable condition, drainage systems must prevent the accumulation
         of surface water on the highway.

10.6.7   Highway drainage systems shall be inspected for areas where evidence of
         flooding of the highway exist and when identified, a thorough service
         investigation will be conducted to identify the cause of flooding and prepare a
         solution to alleviate such problems. This may result in renewal of systems or
         significant improvement to an existing provision.

10.6.8   Routine maintenance shall be effected to schedule to clean gullies to pre-
         determined frequencies and carriageways and footways swept in relation to their
         importance in the maintenance hierarchy.




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10.6.9      Where, despite effective maintenance operations, flooding of the highway occurs,
            with implications for safety or serviceability warning signs will be erected as soon
            as possible to cover the area of risk.

10.6.10     The sustainability objective is to prevent pollution from highway drainage
            affecting natural watercourses; prevent nuisance to third party landowners from
            highway flooding; work with other drainage bodies to reduce future risk of
            flooding and reduce future maintenance liability by minimising water damage to
            the structure of the highway asset.

10.6.11     All material arising from emptying and cleansing of highway drainage systems
            must be disposed of in accordance with the requirement imposed by Environment
            Agency (Wales).

10.6.12     Adequacy of highway drainage systems to deal with changes in climate ideally
            should be ensured as failure to deal with overflow from adjoining land etc will
            have a substantial affect on the life cycle of the carriageway assets.

10.6.13     To mitigate the effect of surface water on the carriageway and and the effect it has
            on the highway structure the Council has prepared a Capital budget of £1m in
            their Ten Year Asset Management Plan to strengthen the Departments ability to
            carry ouy work in this field over the life of the plan.

10.6.14     .
Type                     Activity                  Department Standard         2005 Code of Practice

Reactive                 All as required           Clean/Repair to restore
                                                   serviceability
Preventative (Routine)   Cleansing to pre-         Restore to serviceable
                         determined frequency      standard
                         Gully Emptying            Once per year and           Once per year and record kept
                                                   record kept of non-         of non-functioning gullies.
                                                   functioning gullies.        Increase frequency at known
                                                   Increase frequency at       trouble spots.
                                                   known trouble spots.
                         Culverts and Manholes.    Depends on location         In lower risk areas inspect
                         Catch pits                and extent of tree          every 5 years by default and
                                                   cover, rainfall and         clean as required.
                                                   sweeping. Attend to as
                                                   and when required.
                         Piped Drainage            As required when            Clean as required but by
                                                   identified from             default not more than 10 year
                                                   investigations and          intervals.
                                                   inspections.
                         Grips and Ditches         Clean vegetation and        As required with grip clearing
                         (highway)                 dig out when required.      commencing after the last
                                                                               grass cut and before winter.
                         Drainage channels,        Regular inspection of       Risk based approach and
                         grillages to culvert      known trouble spots         combine with road safety
                         inlets and drainage       and regular scheduled       inspection.
                         outlets.                  cyclic maintenance.
                         Surface boxes and iron    Inspection regime for       Risk based approach and
                         work.                     safety in line with         combine with road safety
                                                   hierarchy.                  inspection.


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10.7     Condition of Embankments and Cuttings

10.7.1   The Code of Practice for Highway Maintenance Management – Well Maintained
         Highways states that the condition of embankments and cuttings can contribute to
         the core objectives as follows

          Safety               -   Risk of loose material falling to injure users or damage
                                   facility

          Serviceability       -   Risk of damage or service interruption

          Sustainability       -   Damage or loss of habitat interruption or pollution of
                                   watercourse extent of damage and reduced life.

10.7.2   There is no formal inspection regime for embankments and cuttings and
         informally they will receive cursory inspection during normal highway safety
         inspections.

10.7.3   Self germinating trees will be cut down as required if their growth impair the
         stability of embankments and cuttings or their size affect the legibility of road
         signs or impair visibility through corners.

10.8     Condition of Landscaped Areas, Trees and Verges

10.8.1   The Code of Practice for Highway Maintenance Management – Well Maintained
         Highways states that the condition of landscaped areas, trees and verges can
         contribute to the core objectives as follows:

          Safety               - Obstruction to user visibility and legibility of traffic
                                 signs
                               - Falling branches from trees
                               - Leaf fall from trees creating slippery surfaces
                               - Root growth affecting surfaces regularity

          Serviceability       - Potential for service interruption
                               - Quality of user experience

          Sustainability       -   Landscape conservation
                               -   Mitigation of climate change effects
                               -   Support of habitat and biodiversity
                               -   Problems of root growth for surface, structure and
                               -   Highway drainage

10.8.2   Grass is cut primarily for safety purposes to prevent the obstruction of visibility
         sight lines and traffic signs. In areas where there are no footways a cut verge
         provides safe refuge for pedestrians and restricts falling vegetation from reducing
         carriageway availability on narrow rural lanes. Uncut long grass can conceal
         hazards and debris which prejudice safety in both the urban and rural
         environment.

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10.8.3   To prevent the growth of scrub on the verge and adjoining highway land the area
         of ‘flats’ is annually cut during the Autumn. The area of highway land beyond
         these ‘flats’ may be cut on a three year cycle to restrict any overgrowth of
         shrubbery affecting access to highway drainage systems and forward visibility.
         Cutting around the base of signs and any other highway furniture is effected
         within these areas.

10.8.4   In rural areas the finished cutting level should be about 150mm but in urban
         areas, to satisfy amenity standards the finished cutting level should be about
         25mm.

10.8.5   Single swathe widths of about 1m are cut along most rural verges, increasing in
         width to incorporate visibility splays, junctions, sight lines around bends and
         areas in front of signs and around lay bys. Narrow rural lanes are subject to one
         swathe cut to either side of carriageway and where the adjoining verge is less than
         1m in width the cut is effected to a vertical angle and where necessary in the
         interest of safety up to three vertical cuts may be effected ensuring that no private
         hedge is affected.
10.8.6   Conservation areas exist within some parts of Gwynedd’s roadside verges and are
         currently being assessed for their ecological value with a view to developing
         criteria for their future management.

10.8.7   Generic guidelines have been developed in Gwynedd to establish a management
         of roadside verges in terms of timing and frequency of cuts. This timing and
         frequency of cuts depends on the location of verge and its ecological interest as
         long as safety of road users is not impinged in any manner. Five main ecological
         types of verges have been identified and timing of cutting has been adjusted as far
         as possible to avoid the main flowering periods.

         Roadside Verge Types

          Verge Type              No of Annual       Time of 1st cut              Time of 2nd cut
                                  Cuts

          Summer verge            2                  May/June                     Sept/Oct
          Coastal verge           2                  June                         Mid October
          Woodland verge          2                  Late June                    Sept/Oct
          Upland verge            1                          -                    Mid October
          Conservation verge      To be developed
                                  and according to
                                  individual
                                  requirements




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10.8.8    Works to present a management of grass on highway verges is as shown below:

           Type          Activity            Department Standard                    2005 Code of
                                                                                    Practice

           Preventable   Rural Grass         1st cut
                         Cutting             May – June
                                             1m swathe increasing in width to
                                             incorporate visibility splays,
                                             forward visibility around bends,
                                             lay bys, junctions and in front of
                                             signs. Cut around sign posts and
                                             other street furniture. Some           Cut for visibility up
                                             narrow rural lanes may require         to 2 times per annum.
                                             up to 3 swathe cuts to the vertical
                                             in certain circumstances,
                                             depending on type of growth and
                                             when width of adjoining
                                             horizontal verge is less than 1m.
                                             Ensure that no private hedge is
                                             cut.                                   Areas for access to
                                             2nd cut                                drainage and to
                                             September – October                    maintain highway
                                             As first cut but increase in width     boundaries every 3
                                             to include flat areas of verge.        years.
                                             The area beyond the flats to the
                                             highway boundary may be cut
                                             every 3 years to prevent
                                             overgrowth if practicable.

                                             Embankment and cutting                 Should not normally
                                             slopes                                 be cut.
                                             Embankments and cutting slopes
                                             are not normally cut

                         Urban grass         Arfon – 5 cuts
                         cutting             Dwyfor – 5 cuts                        More than rural
                                             Meirionnydd – 5 cuts

           Condition     Safety Inspection   As carriageway standards               In line with local
           Monitoring                                                               standards
           Reactive      Reactive grass      Extra visibility cuts dependent        In line with local


10.8.9    Trees may become a hazard to highway users if they become unstable, decay or
          their branches encroach onto footways, cycleways, carriageways and obscure
          signs and lighting columns. Tree roots can adversely affect highway surfaces and
          impair the flow in highway drainage systems.


10.8.10   Safety inspections in Gwynedd will identify areas where foliage or root systems
          from trees have an adverse affect on the safety of highway users and these will
          include ensuring a clear and unobstructed corridor of vertical height 5.5m above
          the carriageway surface and a similar corridor of vertical height 2.1m above the
          verges with footways and 2.7m above cycleways incorporated in them. Where
          areas of concern are identified and foliage/branches are from trees growing
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          outside the boundaries of the highway then, the landowner will be identified and
          his cooperation in cutting the overgrowth requested and failure to comply will
          result in Enforcement Action initiated by Officers from the Regulatory
          Department under Section 154 Highways Act 1980. Any cutting shall be carried
          out in late winter and every effort made to protect birds, their nesting season and
          comply with E.C. Nesting Birds Directive and Wildlife Welfare and Countryside
          Act 1981.

10.8.11   Further inspection processes to identify decaying or diseased trees is currently not
          undertaken in Gwynedd and it is proposed to consider a regime where regular
          inspection by arboricultural trained personnel of all highway trees within falling
          distance of the highway is undertaken.

10.8.12   Tree Management in Gwynedd is as shown below:

           Type                 Activity                Department                2005 Code of
                                                                                  Practice

           Preventative         Planned Tree            Not undertaken in         Inspection regime
                                Maintenance             Gwynedd                   required with
                                Warn private owners     Safety inspection         arboricultural advice
                                of danger and give      identifies overgrowth     sought as
                                notice of enforcement   and effect on safety.     appropriate. Ideally
                                                                                  arboricultural
                                                                                  inspection every 5
                                                                                  years.
           Condition            Safety Inspections      Limited to trips and      Highway trees should
           Monitoring                                   visibility                have a safety
                                                        As carriageway            inspection.
                                                        standards

           Reactive             Emergency Works         Arrange for removal
                                                        by suitably trained
                                                        personnel where
                                                        practical.

10.8.13   The majority of hedges in Gwynedd are the responsibility of the private
          landowner to maintain and only in circumstances where the landowner has failed
          to maintain to ensure safety of highway will this service effect any action.

10.8.14   Encroachment of vegetation over highway metalled surface can restrict the clear
          passage and hence present a hazard through concealment of defects and
          deterioration of the surface.

10.8.15   Siding is the cutting back or edging of mainly grass adjacent to the carriageway or
          footway/cycleway. This work is primarily carried out on a needs basis and
          primarily in advance of any surface treatment programmed work such as surface
          dressing or overlay. The material generated for this operation may be re-used
          back to the adjacent verge or hedge bank and used within 5kms of its source to
          repair overriding of verge etc when identified as a problem in respect of highway
          drainage.



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10.8.16   Gwynedd Council must comply with the requirements of the Noxious Weeds Act
          1959 to control any injurious weeds which grow within the highway boundaries
          and prevent them from spreading to adjoining lands. The Wildlife and
          Countryside Act 1981 imposes on the Highway Authority a responsibility to
          prevent the growth of scheduled plants.

10.8.17   Weed growth in footways and cycle routes, hardened verges, central reserves and
          along kerb lines and channels may cause structural damage and the general
          perception of such growth is that it is untidy. In some circumstances, weeds may
          be considered to have implications for pedestrian safety. Weed growth is also a
          source of significant community interest and service requests.

10.8.18   Weed treatment will take the form of physical and chemical treatment where it is
          deemed to be practical or cost effective and where possible will be integrated with
          highway sweeping/cleansing to remove living and treated weeds from
          carriageways, cycleways and footways.

10.8.19   The total, non-residual contact herbicide Glyphosate which conforms with the
          Health and Safety Commission’s Code of Practice and with the Environment
          Agency requirements will be used for highway surface weed killing operation and
          there will be a biannual programme on the highway network.

10.8.20   Noxious weeds will be treated in accord with appropriate specialist advice and
          normally as follows:
                     - Ragwort – aim to physically remove before seeding in late July
                         and removed from site in bags and taken to approved disposal
                         sites.
          Japanese Knotweed – aim to chemically treat during the period April to June
          annually using the non residual contact herbicide Glyphosate.

10.8.21   Weed management in Gwynedd is as shown below

          Noxious/Injurious Weeds
           Type            Activity              Department                  2005 Code of Practice
                                                 Standard
           Preventative    Physical removal or   Aim to remove               Reference to legislation
                           cutting over a        ragwort in late July        and treatment of Ragwort,
                           sustained period      annually and other          Broad leaved Oak, Curled
                                                 cuts dependant on           Dock, Creeping Thistle,
                                                 type.                       Spear Thistle. Reference
                                                                             to Noxious Weeds Act
                                                                             1959 and Wildlife and
                                                                             Countryside Act 1981




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          Normal Weeds
           Type                  Activity             Department               2005 Code of
                                                      Standard                 Practice

           Preventative          Planned Chemical     As required but          According to local
                                 Treatment            normally twice a year    standards

           Condition             Safety Inspections   As carriageway
           Monitoring                                 standards
           Reactive              Spot treatment by    Dependent on weed
                                 hand or chemical     type and extent of
                                                      problem




10.8.22   Highway verges may suffer damage from many and varied reasons but primarily
          through

             i.   Inappropriate parking adjoining designated parking areas
            ii.   Lack of parking facilities
           iii.   Over running due to alignment
           iv.    Over running due to narrow width.

          Repair of damaged sections of verges will be effected only if the safety of road
          users is prejudiced.

10.9      Condition of Fences and Barriers

10.9.1    The Code of Practice for Highway Maintenance Management – Well Maintained
          Highways states that the condition of fences and barriers can contribute to the
          core objectives as follows:


           Safety            -   Integrity and location of safety fencing for vehicles and
                                 pedestrians

           Serviceability    - Risk of livestock disrupting traffic.

           Sustainability -      Appearance and condition of fencing.

10.9.2    Safety in respect of fences and barriers may be prejudiced when safety
          inspections show that as a result of damage occasioned to them they are unable to
          provide the appropriate level of protection that they were designed to afford to
          road users.

10.9.3    Damaged sections of safety fences and barriers will be treated as Category 1
          defects unless damage is clearly superficial with no loss of integrity of the safety
          fence or barrier. Permanent repair if so required will be carried out as soon as
          possible and in any case within 7 days.




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10.9.4    Visual inspection of safety fences and barriers will be carried out at the same time
          as the adjoining carriageway/highway inspection.

10.9.5    Cleaning of safety fences marked with chevrons shall be in accordance with the
          cleaning regime for traffic signs.

10.9.6    All fences and barriers, whether for safety purposes or general use are potentially
          important features and their overall appearance is an environmental consideration.
          They should be cleaned and painted when necessary.

10.9.7    General boundary fencing is normally the responsibility of the adjoining land
          owner to maintain and service but, where it is proved to be the responsibility of
          the highways authority then it shall be maintained to standards appropriate for the
          location i.e. rendered stock proof if so required. Cattle grids will be inspected for
          safety during the routine highway safety inspection and cleansed as deemed
          required.

10.9.8    All high risk situations will therefore require a robust serviceability inspection
          regime to assess the integrity of the VRS and ensure that they are fit for purpose.

10.9.9    Currently the Authority is developing a strategy for inspection and design of
          replacement/new VRS system to cater for local standards. In light of the risk
          faced with safety fences the Council has prepared a Capital budget of £1.2m as
          part of their Ten Year Asset Management Plan to renew defective safety fences
          and carry out safety and structural inspections, over the term of the plan. This
          resource was provided to satisfy this need.

10.9.10   Typical Routine Maintenance Regime for Fences and Barriers is as shown below:

           Activity Type        Activity               Department                2005 Code of
                                                       Standard                  Practice

           Preventative         Cleaning VRS           As required               As sign faces
                                marked with
                                chevrons.
                                Painting

           Condition            Tensioned safety       Good practice every       Good practice every
           Monitoring Service   fences checked for     2 years from 2010 –       2 years
           Inspection           correct torque         2011 funded from
                                                       capital monies as part
                                                       of Ten Year Asset
                                                       Plan.
                                Structural condition   Good practice every       Good practice every
                                and monitoring         5 years from 2010 –       5 years
                                heights                2011 funded from
                                                       capital monies as part
                                                       of Ten Year Asset
                                                       Plan.
                                Adjacent to bridges    Part of bridge            Part of bridge
                                                       inspections               inspection




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           Reactive             Damage to integrity   Make safe and repair     Make safe and repair
                                from visual           within 7 days            within 7 days
                                inspection


10.10     Condition of Traffic Signs and Bollards

10.10.1   The Code of Practice for Highway Maintenance Management – Well Maintained
          Highways states that the condition of signs and bollards can contribute to core
          objectives as follows:

           Safety           -   Identification of risk to users
                                separation of potential traffic conflicts

           Serviceability   - Contributes to ease of use
                            - Contributes to network integrity

           Sustainability - Support of sustainable transport mode
                          - Contribution to local economy
                          - Heavy traffic routing can optimise maintenance.

10.10.2   Traffic signs and bollards represent a highly visible component of the highway
          network and highly valued by users. At best they can significantly affect both
          network efficiency and the convenience of users. At worst they can be intrusive,
          confusing and capable of detracting even more significantly from the local
          environment, if in poor condition.

10.10.3   Safety in respect of Traffic Signs and Bollards may be compromised if there is
          failure of the signing. Failure may take the form of vandalism, illegibility,
          defectiveness or clutter.

10.10.4   The impact of failure will be greater for mandatory signs than for warning signs
          whose impact of failure will be greater than for direction signs.

10.10.5   Highway Safety Inspections will identify whether traffic signs and bollards are
          visible, legible and effective at all times. Stop and Give Way signs at minor roads
          should be included in the inspection of major road to which they control entry.

10.10.6   Cleaning of traffic signs and bollards will be effected as required and any
          graffiti/fly posting removed from sign faces and bollards when it becomes known
          to the Department and within 24 hours of notification. Graffiti/fly posting will be
          removed from rear of signs to comply with the Authority’s Corporate Policy.

10.10.7   Matters affecting the legibility of mandatory and warning signs will be treated as
          Category 1 defects and attended to within 24 hours to make safe. Similarly any
          damage, deterioration or vandalism especially evidence of exposed electrical
          wiring will be treated as Category 1 defects.

10.10.8   Illuminated traffic signs and bollards are routinely inspected for lighting
          effectiveness every 2 weeks at night and non functioning lamps repaired or bulb
          changed as soon as practicable within 5 days.
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10.10.9    Cleaning of traffic sign faces and bollards is effected as required and any foliage
           or vegetation obscuring the traffic signs is cut back as required.

10.10.10 No formal system exists to undertake service/condition surveys of the road sign as
         a structure and any painting or structural repair is effected on a needs basis.

10.10.11 Similarly no formal electrical testing is undertaken and bulk lamp changes has
         now been stopped since new type light bulbs have been operational.

10.10.12 There is certainly room for improving and providing a condition
         inspection/servicing for both road signs, structures and bollards and this servicing
         should incorporate the facility to paint supports and frames when required and
         replace them at fixed intervals in line with life cycle management theories to
         preserve the asset.

10.10.13 Current improvements to reflective surfaces have led to a reduced need for
         illuminated signs but investigations need to be carried out to determine
         effectiveness, costs of implementing such a regime in view of requirement to
         remove any live electrical feed cables if not used.




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10.10.14 Typical Routine Maintenance Regime for Traffic Signs and Bollards is as shown
         below:

           Activity Type          Activity                     Department               2005 Code of
                                                               Standard                 Practice

           Mandatory and Illuminated Signs
           Reactive             Repairs to damage,             Category 1 Defect –      Urgent attention to
                                illegible sign faces,          make safe within 24      mandatory signing
                                exposed electrical wires       hours
                                Illuminated Signs –            2 weekly night time      As required
                                Defective lights               inspection and
                                                               remedial works
                                                               inside 5 days
           Non-Mandatory and Non-illuminated Signs
           Reactive            Repairs to damage,              Category 1 Defect –      Urgent attention to
                               illegible sign faces            make safe within 24      mandatory signs.
                                                               hours
                                                               Category 2 Defect –
                                                               repair or replace
                                                               within 28 days
           Graffiti - Reactive
                                  Clean graffiti/fly posting   Graffiti on              As required.
                                  from signs.                  mandatory sign
                                                               face – clean within
                                                               24 hours.
                                                               Racist graffiti –
                                                               clean within 5 days
                                                               Non racist graffiti –
                                                               clean within 14
                                                               days.
           Signs - Preventative
                                  Cleaning as identified       As required when         As required but at
                                  from inspection              identified from          least annually
                                                               inspection
                                  Bolt/fittings/structural     As required from         Tightened at service
                                  inspection                   defect reporting         inspection 2 years
                                  Painting of supports and     As required from         When required but
                                  frames                       defect reporting         not exceeding 10
                                                                                        years
           Condition Monitoring
                                  Safety Inspection            As carriageway. Cycleway and footway
                                                               standards.
                                                               Stop and Give Way signs on minor roads
                                                               should be included in the inspection of
                                                               major roads to which they control entry.
                                  Degradation, retro           Safety inspection      Inspection at night
                                  reflectivity                 together with          every 2 years
                                  Deterioration                annual night
                                                               inspection




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10.11     Condition of Road Markings and Studs


10.11.1   The Code of Practice for Highway Management – Well Maintained Highways
          states that the condition of Road Markings and Studs can contribute to the core
          objectives as follows

           Safety          -   route delineation in darkness and poor weather, potential for
                               damage and injury if loose.

           Serviceability -    ease of use in darkness and bad weather.


           Sustainability -    support of sustainable transport modes
                               edge delineation to reduce edge damage
                               movement of wheel tracking to reduce localised damage.

10.11.2   Road markings and studs assist in managing the movement of both vehicular and
          pedestrian traffic in the highway by warning of hazardous locations and advising
          in regard to traffic regulations.

10.11.3   Instructions to highway users are conveyed through road markings and road studs
          and they advise in a way that it is a requirement for them to be visible at all times
          in daylight and hours of darkness. It will be the primary aim to ensure their
          legibility, visibility and effectiveness.

10.11.4   Safety inspections will be undertaken as part of the Highway Safety Inspections
          and defects repaired to conform with local standards. There will be a pre-winter
          night time inspection to assess the effectiveness of the provided service.

10.11.5   The maintenance objective will be to keep all road markings and road studs
          legible, visible and in a safe condition as far as possible at all times.

10.11.6    To be serviceable the road markings and road studs need to be effective and
          useable in hours of darkness and poor weather conditions.

10.11.7   Users of the highway will readily evidence any poor standards of maintenance
          with road markings and road studs and in order to ensure an effective service
          provision the following will be maintained:

             • aim to renew road markings when more than 30% of their surface area
               becomes ineffective or worn.
             • aim to replace mandatory stop and give way markings on strategic and
               main distributors within 7 days of completing any carriageway treatment
               works and within 28 days of completing works on other routes. Warning
               signs will be maintained on site until the lining provision is completed on
               the routes.
             • other mandatory markings on strategic and main distributor routes will be
               replaced following carriageway treatments within 28 days and when
               reasonably practicable on other routes. Warning signs will be maintained

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                until lining works are completed.
             • non-mandatory markings shall be replaced as soon as is reasonably
                practicable to do so.
             • missing or defective road studs shall be replaced individually or in bulk as
                needs dictate and any displaced road studs lying on the carriageway, hard
                shoulders or lay bys and any loose studs, if considered to be a hazard will
                be removed and cavities filled. Treated as a Category 1 Defect.

10.11.8   Road markings and road studs are used to give effect to regulatory provision and
          therefore their legal status shall not be impinged through lack of maintenance or
          damage. Traffic calming, cycle route delineation, waiting restrictions all depend
          on the use and maintenance of road markings and road studs and if not kept in
          good order then their efficiency would be compromised as would transport
          integration.

10.11.9   Road markings and road studs aid and support sustainable modes of transport
          through various methods, provide edge delineation to reduce deterioration and the
          movement of wheel tracking to reduce localised carriageway structural damage.

10.11.10 Typical Routine Maintenance Regime for Road Markings and Road Studs is as
         shown below:

           Activity Type   Activity                  Department Standard                  2005 Code of
                                                                                          Practice

           Reactive        Missing/loose road        Remove displaced studs lying         Immediate removal.
                           studs.                    on carriageway, hard shoulders
                                                     or lay bys as soon as possible.
                                                     Fill cavities. Treat as Category
                                                     1. similarly any loose studs
                                                     should be removed as above.
                           Missing/worn              More than 30% worn or                Replaced when
                           sections of road          missing shall be replaced as         30% or more worn
                           markings.                 soon as practicable                  or missing.
           Replace         Stop/Give Way.            Aim to replace within 7 days of      Replace with
           following                                 completion on strategic and          temporary marks
           carriageway                               main distributors and within 28      and permanent
           treatments                                days on others. Maintain             replacement in 7
                                                     temporary signs advising road        days.
                                                     users of missing road works.
                           Mandatory Road            Replace as soon as practicable       Consider temporary
                           Markings and Road         but within 28 days on strategic      markings at sites of
                           Studs.                    and main distributor routes.         danger and replace
                                                                                          road markings
                                                                                          within 14 days and
                                                                                          road studs within
                                                                                          28 days.
                           Non-mandatory             Replace as soon as reasonably        As soon as possible.
                           road markings.            practicable to do so.
           Preventative    Reflectivity of           Annual night time pre-winter         Pre-winter
                           markings and road         inspection.                          inspection 90%
                           studs.                                                         efficiency.




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10.12     Condition of Traffic Signals, Pedestrian and Cycle Crossings

10.12.1   The Code of Practice for Highway Maintenance Management – Well Maintained
          Highways states that the condition of traffic signals, pedestrian and cycle
          crossings can contribute to the core objectives as follows:

           Safety          - Separation of potential traffic conflicts.
                           - Key safety contributor for vulnerable road users.

           Serviceability - Contributes to ease of use and efficiency
                          - Contributes to network integrity

           Sustainability - Support of sustainable transport modes
                          - Support for local economy



10.12.2   Traffic signals, pedestrian and cycle crossings are the key points of interaction
          between vehicles and the most vulnerable road users. Maintenance must
          therefore be of a high standard.

10.12.3   The primary objective is to keep traffic signals, pedestrian and cycle crossings
          legible, visible and effective as far as possible at all times in relation to the road
          use and traffic speeds.

10.13     Condition of Street Lighting
10.13.1   The Code of Practice for Well Lit Highways – Code of Practice for Highway
          Lighting Maintenance states that the condition of street lighting can contribute to
          the core objectives as follows:

           Safety          -   Increase night visibility for all highway users
                           -   Contribute to crime prevention and reduce fear of crime
                           -   Column deterioration can compromise safety
                           -   Reduce night time accidents

           Serviceability - Ease of use at night for all users.

           Sustainability - Energy consumption is a sustainability issue
                          - Long term financial implications from column deterioration
                          - Assistance with regeneration and commerce

10.13.2   Maintenance of street lighting in Gwynedd works to standards based on local
          needs identified from service provision and service requests over the years.

10.13.3   The safety objectives associated with street lighting service requires that an
          inspection system is operated to identify defective lights and ensures their repair
          within acceptable time constraints. In Gwynedd, the system will include :

              • programmed night patrols to identify defects

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             • response to reported immediate or imminent hazards (Category 1 defects –
                column, failure, exposed live electrical equipment, component failure
                resulting in high risk).
             • Lighting failures, reports from third parties inspection
             • Lamp cleaning and bulk lamp changes

10.13.4   The serviceability objectives of the street lighting service will be met through
          programmes of routine maintenance to ensure the effective operation of the asset.
          Works included in the programme may be as a result of reports from visual
          surveys or technical condition surveys in accordance with the strategy for
          maintenance. Maintenance works included may be:

             •   electrical tests and inspection
             •   electrical components and wiring to base compartment
             •   column painting
             •   removal of obscuring foliage and vegetation
             •   structural testing of columns

10.13.5   The sustainability objectives are met through seeking to procure and manage
          energy consumption, materials and consumable components in a sustainable
          manner complying and being aware of carbon footprint and pollution issues.

10.13.6   Typical Routine Maintenance Regime for street lighting is as shown below:

           Activity Type   Activity                  Department Standard          Code of Practice
                                                                                  Standard

           Reactive        Response time for         Make safe and repair at      1 working day for
                           repairing Category 1      Category 1 Defect –          emergency. 5 working
                           faults, damage to units   attention when               days for non-
                           from wind or impact       emergency within 2           emergency.
                           damage and exposed        hours when possible.
                           wiring.

           Preventative    Lamp changing             Bulk change.                 Burn to extinction
                                                     Individual change on         replace lamps to
                                                     failure. Cycle of bulk       failures. Group lamp
                                                     change is being              replacement subject to
                                                     reviewed on extended         type of lamp.
                                                     warranty of modern
                                                     SON/PL-
                                                     T/electronic gear.

                           Lantern-internal and      Inspections at intervals     To comply with group
                           external                  of bulk lamp change.         lamp replacement.

                           Column Painting           Steel galvanised at 7        When required but not
                                                     year intervals.              exceeding 10 years.

                           Structural Testing        Dynamic testing of           Visually inspect at
                                                     columns to determine         each repair visit and as
                                                     priorities for               ILE Report No 22.
                                                     replacement in accord
                                                     with risk strategy.

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Conditioning   Failed lighting or       Night scouting patrols      Patrols every 14
Monitoring     obstruction from         every 2 weeks.              calendar days and
               foliage, vegetation or   Response to 3rd party       which may be longer in
               fly posting.             reports.                    summer.

               Electrical inspection    Scheduled in sequence       At intervals of not
               and testing.             of cyclic maintenance       exceeding 6 years.
                                        at 6 year intervals or
                                        repair visit.




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11.0     PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

11.1     Continuous Improvement
         The Highways and Municipal Department will aim to secure continuous
         improvement in exercising the Highway Maintenance functions and the measure
         of such continuous improvement will be through statutory performance
         indicators, core indicators and local standards of performance which will be
         measured to pre-determined times.

11.2     Monitoring performance
         All information in regard to performance and improvement plans will be inputted
         into a Corporate Performance Management System at quarterly, six monthly or
         yearly intervals as required.

11.2.1   Regular and Structured monitoring is a key requirement of a management regime
         and a fundamental principle of continuous improvement. In highway
         maintenance it is especially important for the following reason’s:

            •   constant change to the use of highway networks
            •   legal interpretations of statutory responsibilities for safety
            •   policy and performance monitoring systems
            •   condition assessment through technical processes
            •   sustainability issues and whole life assessment
            •   service delivery through partnership and innovative procurement methods

11.2.2   The Department has therefore to make sure that it has the capability to interrogate
         the information that is gathered so that efficient and effective decisions are taken
         promoting safety, serviceability and sustainability.




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12.0     PROGRAMMING AND PRIORITIES


12.1     The importance of Prioritising and Programming

12.1.1   Developing and implementing effective systems for programming and prioritising
         highway maintenance activity is a key requirement of service delivery and will
         involve an iterative process working down through the strategic transport and
         maintenance levels then reviewing the draft programme against the higher level
         demands and repeating the process until a programme of priority is achieved.


12.1.2   The broad priorities for the respective types of highway maintenance will largely
         be determined by the outcome of safety and serviceability inspections, structural
         condition surveys assessed against local risks.

            •   Reactive Maintenance – attending to Category 1 defects and other urgent
                safety matters arising from inspections or information
            •   Routine Maintenance – providing defined standards of serviceability
            •   Programmed Maintenance – providing co-ordinated sustainable schemes
                and projects
            •   Regulatory – regulating occupation, interference or obstruction of the
                network
            •   Winter Service – providing defined service standards of salting and
                clearance of ice and snow
            •   Weather and Other Emergencies – planning for emergency response

12.1.3   The determination of priorities and programmes for items within the categories of
         Regulation, Winter Service and Weather and Other Emergencies will not require
         special consideration and will arise out of the defined service provision.

12.1.4   Prioritising of Reactive Maintenance involves risk assessing to determine which
         matters require urgent attention due to more serious consequences although all
         Category 1 defects have elements requiring early and sometimes urgent attention.
         Determination of effecting temporary or permanent repair will depend on the
         programme for more comprehensive treatment which may have evolved from
         Serviceability Inspections or Condition Survey Assessment.

12.1.5   The integrated service provision of street management service will be further
         examined to determine the extent of their service delivery to possibly provide
         temporary repair from Safety Inspections.

12.1.6   The Priorities for Routine Maintenance evolve from assessment of Serviceability
         Inspections and Safety Inspections not requiring urgent attention. Routine
         maintenance may be undertaken separately for each element of the service but it
         is more efficient to combine a number of activities into a co-ordinated
         programme. In the urban area such co-ordination will be effected to develop the
         integrated street scene activities. In the rural areas, a similar approach will be
         effected to ensure the undertaking of the widest possible range of activities and to
         inform the local Community Council in advance.
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12.1.7   The Priorities for Programmed Maintenance will evolve primarily in the interests
         of providing a sustainable outcome, seeking to minimise cost over time, to add
         community value to the network or to the environment. It can also, however, be
         for safety purposes, by for example, improving skidding resistance, or contribute
         to serviceability by, for example, improving ride quality.




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13.0   WINTER SERVICE


13.1   Winter Service and Weather Emergencies

       Management requirements for the network during the winter period are not
       “maintenance” but specialist operational services. Winter Service should be
       subject to the same regime of planning and review as other aspects of the highway
       maintenance regime. Although a very specialised area, the Winter Service is a
       significant aspect of network management both financially and in terms of its
       perceived importance to users.

       The Statutory Basis following recent legal judgement has concluded that there is
       no legal duty upon Authorities to remove ice from highways under the general
       responsibility to “maintain the highway” in Section 41 of the Highways Act 1980.
       However, the judgement does not remove liability where ice has formed from
       water standing on the carriageway as a result of defective or poorly maintained
       drainage. Section 150 of the Highways Act 1980 also places a duty on the
       authority to remove any obstruction of the highway resulting from “accumulation
       of snow or from the falling down of banks on the side of the highway or from any
       other cause”. Section 111 of the Railways and Transport Safety Act 2003
       modifies the Highways Act 1980, Section 41 (1,1a) in that it imposes “in
       particular, a highway authority are under a duty to ensure, so far as is reasonably
       practicable, that safe passage along a highway is not endangered by snow and
       ice”.

       The strategic aim of the Highways and Municipal Dept is to provide a Winter
       Maintenance Service that gives value for money in accordance with priorities that
       have regard to the character of the highway, this is outlined in the Winter
       Maintenance Policy Appendix H.

13.2   Purpose, Objectives and Statutory Basis

       The Winter Service can contribute to each of the highway maintenance objectives
       as follows:

        Safety         -   Detailed statutory obligations and users needs vary but
                           safety is a prime considerations of the winter service

        Serviceability - Maintaining availability and reliability of the highway
                         network is a key objective for the Winter Service and where
                         user judgements of performance are immediate rather than
                         longer term

        Sustainability -   Low temperatures and the formation of ice can cause serious
                           damage to the fabric of carriageway surfaces and the Winter
                           Service contributes to whole life costs




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13.3   Winter Service Strategy

       The scale of financial and other resources involved in delivering the Winter
       Service and the obvious difficulties in maintaining high levels of plant utilisation
       for specialist equipment make it practically impossible to either:


          •    Provide the service consistently on all parts of the network, or
          •    Ensure running surfaces are kept free of ice and snow at all times, even on
               the treated parts of the network

       In these circumstances it is essential to have a clearly defined Winter Service
       Operational Plan developed in consultation with key stakeholder and users, and
       reviewed annually to take account of changing circumstances. The Winter
       Service Strategy will be based on the following:

          •    Treatment of facilities for walking and cycling
          •    Treatment of facilities for public transport users
          •    Treatment of transport interchanges
          •    Extent of priority for emergency and other key facilities
          •    Extent of priority for potentially vulnerable users
          •    Public transport bus routes
          •    School bus routes
          •    Main industrial and business centres

          and will consider the fundamental components of Winter Service being:

                       - Pre-treatment         - salting prior to the formation
                                               of ice.

                       - post-treatment        - salting following formation of
                                               ice or lying snow

                       - snow clearance

        Carriageways
        Criteria for Determination of Pre Treatment of Priority Routes
        Criteria                      Detail
        Strategic Routes              Principal Roads and Strategic B Routes
        Traffic Flow                  Connecting Roads with high flows
        Settlement                    B or C roads which provide at least one access to towns and
                                      villages
        Emergency Premises            Main access to 24 hour emergency services premises
        Adjoining Highway Authority   Agreement to ensure consistency of action cross boundaries
        Salting Networks

       The decision to pre salt will be taken by the staff of Highways and Municipal
       Department who will base the decision on receipt of specialised weather forecasts
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       and national severe weather warnings supplied to them. The specialised weather
       forecast will be site specific to weather stations located locally to Gwynedd. The
       Winter Service will be provided 24 hours a day from 1st October to the end of
       April every year.

        Criteria for Determination of Post Treatment

        Criteria                                  Detail

        Second Priority Routes                    Other roads which provide one access to schools and
        (Other roads not included for pre-        industrial centres.
        treatment)
                                                  Other roads identified as requiring gritting due to
                                                  gradients or altitude.


       The above will only be effected in hours of daylight and when Pre Treatment has
       been completed on the Priority Routes and when adverse conditions persist or are
       expected to persist at noon and the routes have not been treated within the
       preceding 36 hours.

13.4   Criteria for Snow Clearance

       The maximum salt spreading rate for melting up to 40 mm of fresh snow at 0oC is
       40 gms/m2. Repeated applications of salt can remove a heavy accumulation of
       snow and this can be a useful method of operation in urban areas where
       conditions make the use of snow ploughs difficult and snow removal a problem.
       This approach is not otherwise recommended. Where conditions allow,
       ploughing shall be undertaken as soon as snow depths exceed 30 mm to 40 mm.
       Each pass of the plough may be supplemented by salt spread at the rate of 10
       gms/m2 and this will prevent snow from compacting and so ease the clearance by
       ploughs

       Should the temperature drop and the need for ploughing continue, it is important
       to monitor the air temperature so that spread rates can be increased if necessary
       up to 40 gms/m2. Decision of the rate of spread of salt will be a matter for the
       Responsible Officer to determine from information received from Weather
       Forecasts and practical feed back from operations in the field. Lighter falls may
       call for ploughing where local drifting has occurred and ploughing may be
       required to remove snow not dispersed by traffic during night periods.

       During prolonged falls of snow it will be useful to plough continuously from the
       onset to prevent build-up and compaction by traffic. Such ploughing can be
       combined with simultaneous salting at 20-40 gms/m2. However, once snow
       depths of 120 mm have been reached, when tackling snowdrifts or where vehicles
       are operating on gradients, it may be desirable to continue ploughing without
       salting as the weight of salt will aid vehicle traction.

       Treatment of hard packed snow and ice will rarely be required if the above
       recommendations are followed on the main routes as defined in the Pre Treatment
       scenario. However, if such conditions form at temperatures down to minus 5oC
       and provided they are no more than 20 mm thick, removal is possible by using
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       successive salt spreads at 20-40 gms/m2. At temperatures below minus 5oC and
       where the hard packed snow or ice is more than 20 mm thick the use of salt alone
       will result in an uneven and slippery surface. In these exceptional circumstances
       and on secondary routes only a single sized abrasive aggregate of particle size
       6mm or a 5mm sand having a low fine content, can be added to the salt
       Snow clearance will first be carried out on the routes scheduled for pre treatment
       salting and on completion of these there will be effected clearance of the other
       less important routes in accordance with the operational plan utilising specialist
       equipment and hired equipment from local partners in the farming community
       who will be provided with items such as tractor ploughs.

13.5   Footways and Cycleways (not forming part of carriageway)

       There shall be no pre treatment of footways and cycleways but winter service
       shall be confined to providing treatment when circumstances and resources allow.

13.6   Salt Bins

       To supplement the service, salt bins are provided and maintained at specific
       locations in the urban areas to cater for use in an emergency in Winter.

       There will be similar arrangements in rural areas at known trouble spots on non-
       priority routes, which include steep gradients and sharp corners. Where bins are
       provided, they will be maintained and filled when required, to ensure that they do
       not fall into disrepair and used as rubbish bins.

13.7   Reaction Times

       The reaction time, which is the time from making the decision to starting work on
       site, will be one hour.
       The treatment times for Priority Routes will be a maximum of three hours,
       however every effort will be made to lower this time by improving capacity and
       quality of the vehicles, location of depots and salt, together with reducing free
       travel on routes.

13.8   Decision Making Procedure

          Decisions on Treatment will be circulated to adjoining authorities so that
          cross boundary consistency can be assessed.

          Comprehensive and accurate records will be kept of all Winter Maintenance
          Activity including the timing and nature of all decisions, information on
          which they were based and the nature and timing of all treatments. The use of
          data loggers will assist in this process.

          The provision of the Winter Service on the County Highway network will be
          integrated with similar provision as Agents on the Trunk Road Network for
          the Welsh Assembly Government.



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                       Salt is the prime material for dealing with ice and snow on the highway but it
                       has some undoubted environmental consequences. It can adversely affect
                       vegetation and pollute water courses. It can also damage the highway
                       structure, bridges and structures, utility apparatus and vehicles. In the
                       interests of sustainability therefore it will be ensured that the minimum of salt
                       is used to deal with prevailing conditions as details in the rates of spread for
                       pre treatment and post treatment above.

                       The Department will aim to produce leaflets summarising the Winter Service
                       Operational Plan showing routes treated, contact information and advise on
                       safe network use. The leaflets will be made available through libraries,
                       information centres, schools and other outlets.
                       The decision matrix is show in the following table and the notes that follow it
                       refer to the letters in the table.



                                                                      Expected to fall below freezing – See Note E
Predicted         Road              May fall
                  Surface           Below
Road              Temperature       Freezing


Condition         Precipitation     No Rain           No Rain        Expected        Expected        Expected        Possible
                  Etc.              No Hoar Frost     No Hoar        Hoar Frost      Rain            Rain            Rain
                                    No Fog            Frost          Expected        Before          During          Possible
                                                      No Fog         Fog             Freezing        Freezing        Hoar Frost
                                                                                                                     Possible Fog



                                               1            1              1              3               1                1
   Wet                                                                                See Note C      See Note D




                                             2            2               2               3               1                1
   Wet Patches                           See Note A   See Note A      See Note B      See Note C      See Note D




                                             6            6               1               3             1 or 5             5
   Dry                                   See Note A   See Note A      See Note B      See Note C      See Note D




   Pre Salted Within                         6            6               4               3             1 or 5             5
   Last 24 Hours and No                  See Note A   See Note A      See Note A      See Note C      See Note D
   Rain Since

                                                          Action


1. Salt Before Frost                                            4. Inspection
2. Salt Wet Patches Before Frost                                5. Inspection with Crews on Standby at Depot
3. Salt After Rain Stops                                        6. No Action




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       A. Particular attention should be given to the possibility of water running across
          carriageways, and other running surfaces eg off adjacent fields after heavy
          rains, washing off salt previously deposited. Such locations should be closely
          monitored and may require treating in the evening and morning and possible
          other occasions.
       B. When a weather warning contains reference to expected hoar frost
          considerable deposits of frost are likely to occur. Hoar frost usually occurs in
          the early morning and is difficult to cater for because of the probability that
          any salt deposited on a dry road too soon before onset of frost may be
          dispersed before it becomes effective. Close monitoring is required so that
          treatment may be effected as the hoar frost is forming. Such action is usually
          not practicable and dry salt will have to be deposited on a dry road prior to
          and as close as possible to the expected time of the condition. Hoar frost may
          be forecast at other times in which case the timing of salting operations
          should be adjusted accordingly
       C. If, under these conditions, rain has not ceased by early morning, crews should
          be called out and action initiated as rain ceases.
       D. Under these circumstances, rain will freeze on contact with running surfaces
          and full pre treatment should be provided even on dry roads. This is a most
          serious condition and should be monitored closely and continuously
          throughout the danger period.
       E. Weather warnings are often qualified by altitudes in which case differing
          action may be required from each depot.

13.9          Post Snow Inspection

              Following the completion of major snow clearance operations, it is good
              practice to inspect both plant and equipment used in the operation, and the
              highway network to ensure that any damage is dealt with either as a Category
              1 defect, or as programmed maintenance as appropriate. This inspection will
              address the following:

                  •   Inspection for frost effects and any damage caused by Winter Service
                      equipment
                  •   Check and replenish salt stocks in Depots and grit bins
                  •   Clean, lubricate, check and repair all vehicles and plant




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14.0   WEATHER AND OTHER EMERGENCIES

14.1   Nature of Weather Emergencies

       Contingency arrangements will be maintained for dealing with a wide range of
       extreme weather conditions and these involve:

          •   Flooding
          •   High Winds
          •   High Temperature

       In consultation with others, including emergency services and relevant agencies
       such as Environment Agency (Wales) operational plans will be maintained to
       enable procedures to be effected to enable timely an effective action by the
       Highway Maintenance Department to mitigate the effects of weather
       emergencies. Within the operational plans will be contained Health and Safety
       plans, risk assessment plans of working in inclement weather and emergency
       situations.

14.2   Flooding

       Recent experiences and consequences of flooding have greatly increased the
       importance placed by local communities on flood protection and effective action
       by authorities in responding to extreme weather conditions.

       The Environment Agency (Wales) will be the key agency in respect of flood
       emergencies and the Department will work with them in accord with Flood
       Warning Procedures to:

          •   Accept flood warning and be prepared to react
          •   Accept severe flood warning and turn out to agree reactions
          •   Accept all clear messages

       The Departments’ reaction will include:

          •   Signing and maintaining diversions
          •   Inspection, clearance and maintenance of drainage systems
          •   Assist in the provision of transport
          •   Provide sandbags and other protection as required and as resources permit.
          •   General support to emergency services




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14.3   High Winds

       Weather warnings for high winds will provide advice on circumstances and likely
       damage. Such advice will be considered by the Department in order to safeguard
       the health and safety of employees in reacting to situations relative to affect of high
       winds on the highway network. It may be that any direct assistance would have to
       be limited until the 70 mph or over gusts have eased. Department’s service
       provision may include:

          •   Signing and maintaining temporary closures and diversions
          •   Clearance of fallen and potentially dangerous tees
          •   Clearance and removal of debris
          •   General support to emergency services

       Should storms or highway flooding result in fallen trees, branches, earth slips and
       other debris on carriageways, cycle ways and footways and such obstruction has
       originated from land outside the highway boundary then on minor roads the
       adjacent landowner/occupier will be given the opportunity to undertake clearance
       work. Where it is necessary, the Department may seek to recover the cost for
       effecting the clearance work from the landowner.

14.4   High Temperature

       The affect of high temperatures on running surfaces is likely to be the main
       consideration for the highway maintenance service and one that often needs
       attention. High temperatures can damage bituminous surfaces both by reducing
       skidding resistance and increase the susceptibility to rutting.

14.5   Other Highway Emergencies

       There will often be a need to make the highway safe following road accidents and
       accidental spillages of non-hazardous materials. The Department will be reviewing
       their response to these emergencies in the near future.




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PART D




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15.0   SUSTAINABLE HIGHWAY MAINTENANCE

15.1   Management for Quality and Sustainability

       In order to meet the key objectives of Safety, Serviceability and Sustainability it
       will be necessary to ensure that materials, treatments and processes meet consistent
       standards of quality. The Department will ensure that the specifications for
       materials, treatments and design standards are appropriate for the intended use and
       site location and will not preclude the use of locally sourced material if more
       appropriate for environmental reasons. The monitoring of quality, and performance
       of materials will be effected by the Works Unit and comprehensive records on
       quality and sustainability will be maintained for procurement records. This system
       will provide a quality assurance regime, based on the principle of ISO 9001 2000.
       Quality management systems to ISO 14001 and 18001 will be developed to
       encourage consistent management and organisational process.
       The Highways and Municipal Dept on Environmental, Waste Management,
       Recycling, Pollution and Bio-Diversity issues, will conform to Gwynedd Councils
       relevant Policies.

15.2   Environmental Issues

       In pursuing the objective of Network Sustainability, one of the key issues will be
       maximising the environmental contribution made by highway maintenance policy
       and practice. We will therefore aim to consider:

                  -   Maintaining for Noise Reduction – mitigate the effects of traffic
                      noise.
                  -   Materials Utilisation – materials purchasing and utilisation can
                      make a contribution to network sustainability and every effort made
                      to use local materials subject to not reducing technical standards
                      unduly.


15.3   Waste Management and Recycling

       The Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) in their strategy “Towards Zero Waste”
       require recycling of materials from the construction industry and works for Local
       Authorities in particular.

       WAG is currently in consultation on A Construction and Demolition Sector Plan
       and aims for 70% recycling target for construction and demolition generated waste
       by 2025.

       The introduction of, and subsequent increases in, the Landfill Tax have encouraged
       the adoption of sustainable waste management policies and practices by the
       Authority and it is important that these are vigorously applied to all highway
       maintenance operations.


       Use of recycled or secondary material will provide the following benefits:

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               •   Reduce demand on finite primary sources of natural aggregates
               •   Extended engineering options
               •   Efficient reuse of existing materials
               •   Effective use of secondary aggregates
               •   Reduce waste
               •   Fewer heavy vehicle movements
               •   Possible energy saving
               •   Possible reductions in traffic delays.
               •   Reduction in carbon footprint

The Department will aim to produce specific Site Waste Management Plans for major
maintenance schemes with the aim to reuse recycled material.

The Department will seek to re-use inert materials such as concrete kerbs and flagstones,
chippings and road planings and it will be beneficial to deliver these direct to the site
where they are to be recycled and this will be done whenever possible.

Highway materials suitable for recycling include the following and the table below
shows how they could be re-used.


             POSSIBLE USES OF RECYCLED MATERIAL

Material     Embankment Capping         Sub-base    Bituminous Gabion              Drainage
             and Fill   Layer                       Bound      Fill                Pipe
                                                    Layers                         Bedding
Bituminous
Planings                                                                x                 x

Crushed
Concrete                                                 x              x                 x

Demolition
Waste                           x           x            x              x                 x

Secondary
Aggregates                                                              x                 x

Kerb and
Precast                         x           x            x                                x
Products

Surface
Dressing           x            x           x            x              x
Chippings




Recommendations for recycling in highway maintenance is included as Appendix F



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15.4     Management of Pollution and Bio-diversity

15.4.1   Environmental Intrustion - the Department will operate to ensure that Depots and
         areas for material storage are managed effectively and lay-bys used for chipping
         storage during surface dressing operations will be cleared and restored as soon as
         practicable so as not to be adopted as illegal waste dumps and be contrary to the key
         objective of sustainability of the highway network. Aim to conform to ISO 14001.

15.4.2   Roadside Verges - highway verges and the wider soft estate will be managed to the
         standards as stated in 10.8 Condition of Landscaped areas, trees and verges.

15.4.3   Noxious Weed Treatment - Section 10.8.20 of this Plan states how the service will
         deal with noxious weeds and needs its Statutory Responsibility under the Weeds
         Act 1959 and the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981.




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16.0     PROCUREMENT AND SERVICE DELIVERY

16.1     Scope of Procurement and Service Delivery

16.1.1   The Highways and Municipal Department is totally committed to providing a high
         quality Highway Maintenance Service and acknowledges that the procurement
         process is an essential element in ensuring a cost effective and efficient service.

16.1.2   The Gwynedd Council, Procurement Strategy 2008-2011 provides a framework
         within which all procurement activities within Gwynedd are undertaken, ensuring a
         common and consistent approach in support of the overall corporate strategy.

16.1.3   The procurement Strategy framework allows:

                    -   identification of the overall position on procurement practices
                    -   presents a clear procurement policy and principles
                    -   identifies, structures and develops procurement staff
                    -   measures, monitors and improves procurement performance
                    -   identifies key procurement activities
                    -   ensures that procurement supports Gwynedd’s corporate objectives

         Value for money if defined as having the lowest evaluated whole life cost and not
         necessarily the lowest submitted bid.

16.1.4   Currently the Department provides works, goods and service through its own in-
         house Contractor, annual tenders, and Framework Agreements. There is an intention
         to develop partnership with the North Wales Trunk Road Agency to maintain
         framework agreement for the provision of carriageway treatment works.

16.1.5   The Department will work to the Highway Asset Maintenance Plan and produce
         management information to enable work programmes and priorities to evolve based
         on the principles of the Code of Practice of Maintenance Management – Well
         Maintained Highways and local conditions.




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17.0     FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

17.1     Financing of Highway Maintenance

17.1.1   The revenue budget for Highway Maintenance is allocated on an Area Basis in
         Gwynedd and is based on the mileage of routes. The budget is allocated as a single
         sum and allocation between Principal, Non-principal and Unclassified Routes is a
         matter for the individual Area Engineer, who reports to the Area Committee,
         depending on the assessment of needs and determination of priorities.


17.1.2   The budgetary allocation is split into four categories as shown below:


                  Structural Capital           52% +/- 5% (listed carriageway
                  Maintenance -                treatment and new provision)

                  Structural Current           13% +/- 2% (programmed
                  Maintenance -                service maintenance)

                  Routine Current              20% +/- 3% (cyclical
                  Maintenance -                maintenance, reactive
                                               maintenance)

                  Current Winter               15%
                  Maintenance –


         The Area Engineer is charged with the duty to spend the allocation in accordance
         with the Department’s guidelines, strategies, policies, standards and meeting the
         objectives published in the Department Business Plan.

17.1.3   Financial management is through work sheets entered in accordance to work types
         onto a commitment system. Work is packaged in measured units from the
         Highways Term Maintenance Contract (HTMC) for in-house service or Term
         Service Contract (TSC) for external providers of service.

17.1.4   In-house works are self measured and final claims self certified and input onto the
         commitment system as completed works.

17.1.5   External Service Providers submit invoices and the Officer from the Department
         certify the works before they are input on the computer system and passed for
         payment.

17.1.6   Any invoices for works passed for payments at either below or above the original
         committed value is automatically updated to give the expenditure at any given time.

17.1.7   The commitment system and the corporate financial ledger are periodically
         reconciled to ensure consistency.


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18.0
Summary of Highway Maintenance Standards that differ from the Code of practice
for Highway Maintenance Management – Well Maintained Highways
Number               Department Standard                                              2005 Code of Practice

1                    Lifecycle plans based on the standards of the                    Develop an Asset Management Plan in line with
                     Department together with identifying essential                   the policy, standards and maintenance strategy.
                     improvements, these plans to be reviewed annually.
2                    Improve and update the information on the present asset          Maintain an asset inventory to cover all highway
                     inventory.                                                       assets.

3                    Safety Inspections to be two manned on Category 2 and   Safety Inspections – to be carried out in a slow
                     3 and signle manned on Category 4. Urban footway        moving vehicle by a team of two. Urban footways
                     inspetions to be walked.                                to be walked.
       Feature            Category               Hierarchy           Frequency           Frequency           2005 Code of
                                                Description            Urban                Rural            Practice

Carriageway              2                   Strategic Route            Monthly driven        Monthly driven             Every Month

                         3a                  Main Distributor           Monthly driven        Monthly driven             Every Month

                         3b                  Secondary                  Monthly driven        Monthly driven             Every Month
                                             Distributor
                         4a                  Local Road                 3 Monthly driven      6 Monthly driven           Every 3 months

                         4b                  Local Access Road          6 Monthly driven      6 Monthly driven           Every year

Footways                 1                   Primary Walking            Monthly walked                   __              Every month
                                             Route
                         2                   Secondary                  3 Monthly walked      3 Monthly driven           Every 3 months
                                             Walking Route              or in a slow
                                                                        moving vehicle
                         3                   Local Footway              3 Monthly walked      6 Monthly driven           Every 6 months
                                                                        or in a slow
                                                                        moving vehicle
                         4                   Local Access               6 Monthly walked      6 Monthly driven           Every 12 months
                                             Footway                    or in a slow
                                                                        moving vehicle
Cycle Routes             A                   Part of                    As carriageway        As carriageway             Same as
                                             Carriageway                                                                 carriageway.
                         B                   Shared with                As Footway            As Footway                 Every 6 months
                                             Footway
                         C                   Cycle Trails               As determined by Regulatory Department           Every 12 months
                                                                                                                                 __
4                    Only relevant to certain assets as listed below.                 Department Inspections – degree and scope of
                                                                                      inspections is a mater for the individual authority..
a) Drainage
Type                             Activity                               Department Standard                   2005 Code of Practice

Reactive                         All as required                        Clean/Repair to restore
                                                                        serviceability
Preventative (Routine)           Cleansing to pre-determined            Restore to serviceable
                                 frequency                              standard
                                 Gully Emptying                         Once per year and record kept         Once per year and record kept
                                                                        of non-functioning gullies.           of non-functioning gullies.
                                                                        Increase frequency at known           Increase frequency at known
                                                                        trouble spots.                        trouble spots.
                                 Culverts and Manholes. Catch           Depends on location and               In lower risk areas inspect
                                 pits                                   extent of tree cover, rainfall        every 5 years by default and
                                                                        and sweeping. Attend to as            clean as required.
                                                                        and when required.
                                 Piped Drainage                         As required when identified           Clean as required but by
                                                                        from investigations and               default not more than 10 year
                                                                        inspections.                          intervals.
                                 Grips and Ditches (highway)            Clean vegetation and dig out          As required with grip clearing
                                                                        when required.                        commencing after the last
                                                                                                              grass cut and before winter.
                                 Drainage channels, grillages to        Regular inspection of known           Risk based approach and

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                               culvert inlets.                 trouble spots and regular            combine with road safety
                                                               scheduled cyclic maintenance.        inspection.
                               Surface boxes and iron work.    Inspection regime for safety in      Risk based approach and
                                                               line with hierarchy.                 combine with road safety
                                                                                                    inspection.
       b) Verge Maintenance

Type                           Activity                        Department Standard                  2005 Code of Practice

Noxious weeds - Preventative   Physical removal or cutting     Ragwort removal in late July         Reference to legislation and
                               over a sustained period         annually and other cuts              treatment of Ragwort, Broad
                                                               dependant on type.                   leaved Oak, Curled Dock,
                                                                                                    Creeping Thistle, Spear
                                                                                                    Thistle. Reference to Noxious
                                                                                                    Weeds Act 1959 and Wildlife
                                                                                                    and Countryside Act 1981
Normal weeds - Preventative    Planned Chemical Treatment      As required but normally 2 x
                                                               year

Normal weeds - Condition       Safety Inspections              As carriageway standards
Monitoring                                                                                          According to local standards
Normal Weeds - Reactive        Spot treatment by hand or       Dependent on weed type and
                               chemical                        extent of problem
Preventable                    Rural Grass Cutting             1st cut
                                                               May – June
                                                               1m swathe increasing in width
                                                               to incorporate visibility splays,
                                                               forward visibility around
                                                               bends, lay bys, junctions and
                                                               in front of signs. Cut around
                                                               sign posts and other street          Cut for visibility up to 2 times
                                                               furniture. Narrow rural lanes        per annum.
                                                               require up to 3 swathe cuts to
                                                               the vertical when width of
                                                               adjoining horizontal verge is
                                                               less than 1m. Ensure that no
                                                               private hedge is cut.

                                                               2nd cut
                                                               September – October
                                                               As first cut but increase in
                                                               width to include flat areas of
                                                               verge. The area beyond the           Areas for access to drainage
                                                               flats to the highway boundary        and to maintain highway
                                                               may be cut every 3 years to          boundaries every 3 years.
                                                               prevent overgrowth if
                                                               practicable.
                                                               Embankment and cutting               Should not normally be cut.
                                                               slopes are not normally cut
                               Urban grass cutting
                                                               Arfon – 5 annual cuts
                                                               Dwyfor – 5 cuts                      More than rural
                                                               Meirionnydd – 5 cuts

Condition Monitoring           Safety Inspection               As carriageway standards
Reactive                       Reactive grass cutting          Extra visibility cuts dependent      In line with local standards.
                                                               on need
Preventative                   Planned Tree Maintenance        Not undertaken in Gwynedd            Inspection regime required
                               Warn private owners of          Safety inspection identifies         with Arboricultural Advice
                               danger and give notice of       overgrowth and affect or             sought as appropriate. Ideally
                               enforcement                     safety.                              arboricultural inspection every
                                                                                                    5 years.
Condition Monitoring           Safety Inspections              limited to trips and visibility      Highway trees should have a
                                                               As carriageway standards             safety inspection.


Reactive                       Emergency Works                 Arrange for renewal by
                                                               suitably trained personnel
                                                               where practical.
       c) Safety fencing

Type                           Activity                        Department Standard                  2005 Code of Practice



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Preventative                     Cleaning VRS marked with           As required                         As sign faces
                                 chevrons.
                                 Painting

Condition Monitoring Service     Tensioned safety fences            Good practice every 2 years         Good practice every 2 years
Inspection                       checked for correct torque         from 2010 – 2011 funded
                                                                    from capital monies as part of
                                                                    Ten Year Asset Plan.
                                 Structural condition and           Good practice every 5 years         Good practice every 5 years
                                 monitoring heights                 from 2010 – 2011 funded
                                                                    from capital monies as part of
                                                                    Ten Year Asset Plan.
                                 Adjacent to bridges                Part of bridge                      Part of bridge inspection
                                                                    inspections
Reactive                         Damage to integrity                Make safe and repair                Make safe and repair
                                 from visual inspection             within 7 days                       within 7 days
d) Traffic Signs
Mandatory and Illuminated Signs
Reactive                        Repairs to damage, illegible        Category 1 Defect – make safe       Urgent attention to mandatory
                                sign faces, exposed electrical      within 24 hours                     signing
                                wires
                                Illuminated Signs – Defective       2 weekly night time inspection      As required
                                lights                              and remedial works inside 5
                                                                    days
Non-Mandatory and Non-illuminated Signs
Reactive                      Repairs to damage, illegible          Category 1 Defect – make safe       Urgent attention to mandatory
                              sign faces                            within 24 hours                     signing
                                                                    Category 2 Defect – repair or
                                                                    replace within 28 days
Signs - Preventative
                                 Cleaning as identified from        As required when identified         As required but at least
                                 inspection                         from inspection                     annually
                                 Bolt/fittings/structural           As required from defect             Tightened at service
                                 inspection                         reporting                           inspection 2 years
                                 Painting of supports and           As required from defect             When required but not
                                 frames                             reporting                           exceeding 10 years
Condition Monitoring             Bolt/fittings/structural           As required from defect
                                 inspection                         reporting
                                 Safety Inspection                  As carriageway. Cycleway
                                                                    and footway standards.
                                                                    Stop and Give Way signs on
                                                                    minor roads should be
                                                                    included in the inspection of
                                                                    major roads to which they
                                                                    control entry.
                                 Degradation, retro reflectivity    Safety inspection together          Inspection at night every 2
                                 Deterioration                      with annual night inspection        years
f) Roadmarkings and Roadstuds
Type                             Activity                           Department Standard                 2005 Code of Practice

Reactive                         Missing/loose road studs.          Remove displaced studs lying        Immediate removal.
                                                                    on carriageway, hard
                                                                    shoulders or lay bys as soon as
                                                                    possible. Fill cavities. Treat
                                                                    as Category 1. similarly any
                                                                    loose studs should be removed
                                                                    as above.
                                 Missing/worn sections of road      More than 30% worn or               Replaced when 30% or more
                                 markings.                          missing shall be replaced as        worn or missing.
                                                                    soon as practicable
Replace following                Stop/Give Way.                     Aim to replace within 7 days        Replace with temporary marks
carriageway treatments                                              of completion on strategic and      and permanent replacement in
                                                                    main distributors and within        7 days.
                                                                    28 days on others. Maintain
                                                                    temporary signs advising road
                                                                    users of missing road works.
e) Street Lighting
Type                             Activity                           Department Standard                 2005 Code of Practice

Reactive                         Response time for repairing        Make safe and repair as             1 working day for emergency.
                                 Category 1 faults, damage to       Category 1 Defect – attention       5 working days for non-

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                               units from wind or impact          when emergency within 2            emergency.
                               damage and exposed wiring.         hours when possible.
Preventative                   Lamp changing                      Bulk change. Individual            Burn to extinction - replace
                                                                  change on failure. Cycle of        lamps to failures. Group lamp
                                                                  bulk change is being reviewed      replacement subject to type of
                                                                  on extended warranty of            lamp.
                                                                  modern SON/PL-
                                                                  T/electronic gear.
                               Lantern-internal and external      Inspections at intervals of bulk   To comply with group lamp
                                                                  lamp change.                       replacement.
                               Column Painting                    Steel galvanised at 7 year         When required but not
                                                                  intervals.                         exceeding 10 years.
                               Structural Testing                 Dynamic testing of columns to      Visually inspect at each repair
                                                                  determine priorities for           visit and as ILE Report No 22.
                                                                  replacement in accord with
                                                                  risk strategy.
Conditioning Monitoring        Failed lighting or obstruction     Night scouting patrols every 2     Patrols every 14 calendar days
                               from foliage, vegetation or fly    weeks. Response to 3rd party       and which may be longer in
                               posting.                           reports.                           summer.

                               Electrical inspection and          Scheduled in sequence of           At intervals of not exceeding 6
                               testing.                           cyclic maintenance at 6 year       years.
                                                                  intervals or repair visit.



5 Skid Resistance   Strategy developed and based on Code of Practice but         Skid Resistance Strategy – “should be published
Strategy            adapted for Gwynedd on the basis of traffic flow, road       as part of Highway Asset Management Plan
                    characteristics and accident risk.                           (HAMP).
                          Gwynedd Department Standard
                                      Code of Practice




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  PART E
(Appendicies)




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      89    HIGHWAY ASSET MAINTENANCE PLAN
Appendix A


                                                                                                                      STRUCTURES

                    HIGHWAY ASSET
                   MANAGEMENT PLAN                                                                                      LIGHTING


                                                                                                                   OTHER TRANSPORT
                                                                                                                    RELATED ASSETS


                                                                                                       SAFETY AND




                                                                      HIGHWAY ASSET MAINTENANCE
                                                                                                         SERVICE
                                            NETWORK MANAGEMENT PLAN
             HIGHWAY IMPROVEMENT PLAN




                                                                                                       INSPECTIONS


                                                                                PLAN




                                                                                                                                  RISK
                                                                                                                               ASSESSMENT
                                                                                                       CONDITION
                                                                                                        SURVEYS




                                                                                                         UKPMS




             VALUE MANAGEMENT

                                                                                                         LIST OF
                                                                                                        SCHEMES

                                        PROGRAMMED
                                        MAINTENANCE




                                        PERFORMANCE
                                        MANAGEMENT




        COMPONENTS OF A HIGHWAY MAINTENANCE STRATEGY



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Impact Table                   Location Relative to Road/Footway Category & Traffic Speeds
APPENDIX B                           Roads           Roads           Roads              Roads           Roads             Footways         Footways        Footways        Footways      Footways Category 4b
                                   Category 2      Category 3a     Category 3b        Category 4a     Category 4b         Category 2      Category 3a     Category 3b     Category 4a

Defect & Magnitude             Urban      Rural   Urban   Rural   Urban   Rural   Urban      Rural   Urban   Rural       Urban   Rural   Urban   Rural   Urban   Rural   Urban   Rural     Urban           Rural

Pothole >20mm                      4        4      3        3      3        3         2        2      2        2          4        4      4        4      3        3      2        2         2               2
Potholes >20mm affecting
vulnerable users e g
                                   4               4               4                  4               4
Pelican crossings, bus stops
etc
Pothole >40mm                      4        4      4        4      4        4         4        3      3        3          4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4        4                4
Pothole >60mm                      4        4      4        4      4        4         4        4      4        4          4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4         4               4
Trip or other abrupt level
difference >20mm                   4        4      3        3      3        3         2        2      2        2          4        4      4        4      3        3      2        2         2               2

Gap wider and deeper than
                                                                                                                          4        4      4        4      3        3      2        2         2               2
20mm
Trip or other abrupt level
difference >40mm                   4        4      4        4      4        4         4        3      3        3          4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4         4               4

Gap wider and deeper than
                                                                                                                          4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4         4               4
40mm
Trip or other abrupt level
                                   4        4      4        4      4        4         4        4      4        4          4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4         4               4
difference >60mm
Gap wider and deeper than
                                                                                                                          4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4         4               4
60mm
Slippery surface                   4        4      4        4      4        4         4        4      4        4          4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4         4               4
Standing water >20mm
deep covering >20% of              4        4      3        4      4        4     3            4      2        2          4        4      4        2      2        2      2        2         2               2
lane
Mandatory signs/white
lines which are missing            4        4      4        4      4        4         4        4      4        4
broken/eroded/faded
Warning signs completely
                                   4        4      4        4      4        4         4        4      4        4
unserviceable
Information signs
                                   2        2      2        2      2        2         2        2      2        2
completely unserviceable
Major debris or spillage
                                   4        4      4        4      4        4         4        4      4        4          4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4         4               4
Serious leaf fall                  4        4      4        4      4        4         3        3      3        3          4        4      3        3      3        3      2        2         2               2
Damaged/exposed
                                   4        4      4        4      4        4         4        4      4        4          4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4         4               4
electrical wiring
Missing/defective barrier          4        4      4        4      4        4         4        4      4        4          4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4         4               4
Unstable embankments or
                                   4        4      4        4      4        3         3        3      3        3          4        4      4        4      4        4      9        9         8               8
cuttings
Unstable trees/ broken
                                   4        4      4        4      4        4         4        4      4        4          4        4      4        4      4        4      3        3         3               3
branches
Sight-lines obscured by
                                   4        3      4        3      4        3         2        2      2        2
trees/shrubs
Broken missing ironwork            4        4      4        4      4        4         4        4      4        4          4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4         4               4
Damaged or loose
                                   4        4      4        4      4        4         4        4      4        4
roadstuds
Missing
                               3            3      3        3      3        3         3        3      3        3
roadstuds/whitelines
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Probability Table              Location Relative to Road/Footway Category & Traffic Speeds
APPENDIX C                        Roads              Roads             Roads               Roads           Roads         Footways         Footways        Footways        Footways        Footways Category 4b
                                 Category 2        Category 3a       Category 3b         Category 4a     Category 4b     Category 2      Category 3a     Category 3b     Category 4a

Defect & Magnitude             Urban    Rural    Urban    Rural    Urban    Rural    Urban      Rural   Urban   Rural   Urban   Rural   Urban   Rural   Urban   Rural   Urban   Rural    Urban          Rural

Pothole >20mm                    3        3        3        3        3        3          2        2      1        1      4        4      3        3      3        3      2        2        2              2
Potholes >20mm affecting
vulnerable users e g Pelican     4                 4                 4                   4               4
crossings, bus stops etc
Pothole >40mm                    4        4        4        4        4        4          4        3      3        3      4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4        4              4
Pothole >60mm                    4        4        4        4        4        4          4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4        4              4
Trip or other abrupt level
difference >20mm                 3        3        3        3        3        3          2        2      1        1      4        4      3        3      3        3      2        2        2              2

Gap wider and deeper than
                                                                                                                         4        4      3        3      3        3      2        2        2              2
20mm
Trip or other abrupt level
difference >40mm                 4        4        4        4        4        4          4        3      3        3      4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4        4              4

Gap wider and deeper than
                                                                                                                         4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4        4              4
40mm
Trip or other abrupt level
                                 4        4        4        4        4        4          4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4        4              4
difference >60mm
Gap wider and deeper than
60mm                                                                                                                     4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4        4              4

Slippery surface
                                 4        4        4        4        4        4          4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4        4              4
Standing water >20mm deep
covering >20% of lane            3        4        3        4        2        4      2            4      2        2      3        3      2        2      2        2      1        1        1              1

Mandatory signs/white lines
which are missing                4        4        4        4        4        4          4        4      4        4
broken/eroded/faded
Warning signs completely
                                 4        4        4        4        4        4          4        4      4        4
unserviceable
Information signs completely
                                 2        2        2        2        1        1          1        1      1        1
unserviceable
Major debris or spillage         4        4        4        4        4        4          4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4        4              4
Serious leaf fall                3        4        3        4        3        3          3        3      2        2      3        3      3        3      2        2      2        2        1              1
Damaged/exposed electrical
                                 4        4        4        4        4        4          4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4        4              4
wiring
Missing/defective barrier        4        4        4        4        4        4          4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4        4              4
Unstable embankments or
                                 4        3        4        3        4        3          3        2      2        2      4        4      4        4      4        4      3        3        2              2
cuttings
Unstable trees/ broken
                                 4        4        4        4        4        4          4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4        4              4
branches
Sight-lines obscured by
                                 4        3        4        3        4        3          2        2      2        2
trees/shrubs
Broken missing ironwork          4        4        4        4        4        4          4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4      4        4        4              4

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Damaged or loose roadstuds           4         4         4         4         4         4            4         4         4         4
Missing roadstuds/whitelines
                                     3         3         3         3         3         3            3         3         3         3



Risk Assessment – Defect Rating                                                                                                                                                                Appendix D
                                  Roads               Roads              Roads                   Roads                Roads             Footways         Footways        Footways        Footways          Footways Category 4b
                                Category 2          Category 3a        Category 3b             Category 4a          Category 4b         Category 2      Category 3a     Category 3b     Category 4a

Defect & Magnitude             Urban     Rural     Urban     Rural     Urban     Rural     Urban        Rural     Urban     Rural     Urban    Rural   Urban   Rural   Urban   Rural   Urban    Rural      Urban          Rural
Pothole >20mm                   12        12         9         9         6         6            4         4         2         2        16       16      12       12      9       9       4        4           4              4
Potholes >20mm affecting
vulnerable users e g Pelican    16                  16                  16                     16                  16
crossings, bus stops etc
Pothole >40mm                   16        16        16        16        16        16           16        9          9         9        16       16      16       16     16       16     16        16          16            16
Pothole >60mm                   16        16        16        16        16        16           16        16        16        16        16       16      16       16     16       16     16        16          16            16
Trip or other abrupt level
                                12        12         9         9         9         6            4         4         2         2        16       16      12       12      9       9       4        4           4              4
difference >20mm
Gap wider and deeper than
                                                                                                                                       16       16      12       12      9       9       4        4           4              4
20mm
Trip or other abrupt level
difference >40mm                16        16        16        16        16        16           16         9         9         9        16       16      16       16     16       16     16        16          16            16

Gap wider and deeper than
                                                                                                                                       16       16      16       16     16       16     16        16          16            16
40mm
Trip or other abrupt level
difference >60mm                16        16        16        16        16        16           16        16        16        16        16       16      16       16     16       16     16        16          16            16

Gap wider and deeper than
                                                                                                                                       16       16      16       16     16       16     16        16          16            16
60mm
Slippery surface                16        16        16        16        16        16           16        16        16        16        16       16      16       16     16       16     16        16          16            16
Standing water >20mm deep
covering >20% of lane           12        16         9        16         8        16       6             16         4         4        12       12       4       4       4       4       2        2           2              2

Mandatory signs/white lines
which are missing               16        16        16        16        16        16           16        16        16        16
broken/eroded/faded
Warning signs completely
                                16        16        16        16        16        16           16        16        16        16
unserviceable
Information signs completely
                                 4         4         4         4         2         2            2         2         2         2
unserviceable
Major debris or spillage        16        16        16        16        16        16           16        16        16        16        16       16      16       16     16       16     16        16          16            16
Serious leaf fall               12        16        12        16        12        12            9         9         6         6        12       12       9       9       6       6       4        4           2              2
Damaged/exposed electrical
                                16        16        16        16        16        16           16        16        16        16        16       16      16       16     16       16     16        16          16            16
wiring
Missing/defective barrier       16        16        16        16        16        16           16        16        16        16        16       16      16       16     16       16     16        16          16            16
Unstable embankments or
cuttings                        16        12        16        12        16         9            9         6         6         6        16       16      16       16     16       16      9        9           6              6
Unstable trees/ broken
                                16        16        16        16        16        16           16        16        16        16        16       16      16       16     16       16     16        16          16            16
branches
Sight-lines obscured by
                                16         9        16         9        16         9            4         4         4         4
trees/shrubs
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Broken missing ironwork            16        16         16         16        16     16     16       16           16          16            16   16            16       16        16          16          16            16          16            16
Damaged or loose roadstuds         16        16         16         16        16     16     16       16           16          16
Missing roadstuds/whitelines        9        9           9         9          9     9       9       9             9           9
 Make safe within 24 hours and permanent repair within 28 days (Dangerous Defect)                        Defect to be repaired within 28 days                               Defect to be included in the planned works programme


                                                                                                     APPENDIX E
                                                                                         RISK REGISTER FOR HIGHWAY DEFECTS
Ref      Item                       Defect                           Position                   Extent           Detail/Information                  Impact        Probability          Risk Factor              Priority Response
01       Carriageway                Pothole/spalling                 Cycle use                  >40mm            Link or access                      3             3                    9                        2
02                                  Ridge/hump                       Cycle use                  >60mm                                                4             4                    16                       1
03                                  Depression                       Cycle use                  >40mm            Secondary Distributor               4             4                    16                       1
04                                  Sunken covers                    Cycle use                  >60mm                                                4             4                    16                       1
05                                  Gap/crack                        Cycle use                  >40mm            Main Distributor                    4             4                    16                       1
06                                                                   Cycle use                  >60mm                                                4             4                    16                       1
07                                                                   Parking use                >40mm            All roads                           4             4                    16                       1
08                                                                   Parking use                >60mm                                                4             4                    16                       1
09                                                                   Wheel track                >40mm            Link or access                      3             3                    9                        2
10                                                                   Wheel track                >60mm                                                3             3                    9                        2
11                                                                   Wheel track                >40mm            Secondary Distributor               4             4                    16                       1
12                                                                   Wheel track                >60mm                                                4             4                    16                       1
13                                                                   Wheel track                >40mm            Main Distributor                    4             4                    16                       1
14                                                                   Wheel track                >60mm                                                4             4                    16                       1
15                                                                   Centre Line                >40mm            Link or access                      3             3                    9                        2
16                                                                   Centre Line                >60mm                                                3             3                    9                        2
17                                                                   Centre Line                >40mm            Secondary Distributor               4             4                    16                       1
18                                                                   Centre Line                >60mm                                                4             4                    16                       1
19                                                                   Centre Line                >40mm            Main Distributor                    4             4                    16                       1
20                                                                   Centre Line                >60mm                                                4             4                    16                       1
21                                                                   Pedestrian Crossing        >20mm            All roads                           4             4                    16                       1
22       Footway/Footpath           Trip                             Category 2                 >20mm            All roads                           4             4                    16                       1
23                                  Pothole                          Category 3                 >40mm            All roads                           4             4                    16                       1
24                                  Sunken                           Category 4                 >40mm            All roads                           4             4                    16                       1
                                    Rocking slab/block
                                    Open joint

25       Cycleway                   Pothole                                                     >40mm            Combination F/way or                3             3                    9                        2
26                                  Ridge/hump                                                  >60mm            F/path                              4             4                    16                       1
27                                  Depression                                                  >40mm            Independent cycleway                3             3                    9                        2
28                                  Sunken covers                                               >60mm                                                4             4                    16                       1
                                    Gap/crack
29       Kerbs                      Misaligned                                                  20mm             Link or access                      2             2                    4                        3
30                                                                                              20mm             Secondary Distributor               3             4                    12                       2
31                                                                                              20mm             Main Distributor                    4             4                    16                       1
32                                                                                              40mm             Link or access                      4             4                    16                       1
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33                                                                      40mm     Secondary Distributor        4   4   16   1
34                                                                      40mm     Main Distributor             4   4   16   1
                                                                        60mm     Link or access               4   4   16   1
                                                                        60mm     Secondary Distributor        4   4   16   1
                                                                        60mm     Main Distributor             4   4   16   1



35   Iron Works      Missing cover             Carriageway              Yes                                   4   4   16   1
36                                             Footway                  Yes                                   4   4   16   1
37                   Cracked cover             Carriageway              Yes                                   4   4   16   1
38                                             Footway                  Yes                                   4   4   16   1
39                   Polished cover            Carriageway              Yes                                   4   4   16   1
40                                             Footway                  Yes                                   4   4   16   1
41                   Level difference within   Carriageway              40mm     Link or access               3   3   9    2
42                   Framework                                          40mm     Secondary Distributor        4   4   16   1
43                                                                      40mm     Main Distributor Primary     4   4   16   1
44                                             Footway                  20mm     Walking route                4   4   16   1
45                                                                      20mm     Other walking route          3   4   12   2
46                                                                      20mm     Vulnerable user location     4   4   16   1
47                   Sunken cover              Carriageway              60mm     Refer to carriageway risks   -   -   -    1
48                                             Footway                  20mm     Refer to footway risks       -   -   -    1-2
49                                             Cycleway                 20mm     Refer to cycleway risks      -   -   -    1-3
50   Verges          Sunken area               Adjacent to c/w or f/w   >50mm    Urban area                   3   3   9    2
51                                             Adjacent to f/w          >150mm   Rural area                   2   2   4    3
52                                             Adjacent to c/w          >200mm   Rural area                   4   3   12   2
53                   Obstruction                                        Yes                                   -   -   -    N/A

54   Flooding        Substantial               Carriageway              Yes      Link or access               2   4   8    2
55                   Running water                                      Yes      Secondary Distributor        3   4   12   2
56                                                                      Yes      Main Distributor Primary     4   4   16   1
57                                             Footway                  Yes                                   1   5   5    3

58   Drainage        Substantial standing      Carriageway              Yes      Link or access               2   2   4    3
                     >20mm deep covering
                     >20% of lane
59                   Water                                              Yes      Secondary Distributor        3   3   9    2
60                                                                      Yes      Main Distributor Primary     4   4   16   1
61                                             Footway, Foot            Yes      All                          2   2   4    3
                                               Path or cycleway
62   Road markings   30% loss of marking       Carriageway              Yes      Stop/give way or solid       4   3   12   2
                                                                                 Centre line
63                                                                      Yes      Other                        2   2   4    3

64                   70% loss of marking       Carriageway              Yes      Stop/give way or solid       4   4   16   1
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65                                                               Yes        Other                             4   3       12        2
66   Road studs           Displaced                Carriageway   Yes        Individual                        4   4       16        1
67                        Defective                              Yes        Individual                        3   4       12        2
68   Signs                Missing sign                           Yes        No entry or stop sign             4   4       16        1
69                                                               Yes        Other warning or regulatory       4   3       12        2
                                                                            sign
70                                                               Yes        Other sign                        3   3       9         2
71                        Dirty obscured faded                   Yes        No entry sign                     4   4       16        1
72                        Damaged or                                        Warning sign                      4   3       12        2
                          misaligned sign
73                                                                          Other sign                        4   3       12        2
74   Signals             Red lamp failure                        Yes        Lighting contract             -           -        -        N/A
75   Lights              Exposed wiring                          Yes                                      4           4        16       1
76   Bollards            Missing illuminated                     Yes                                      4           4        16       1
                         Bollard
                         Missing non-illuminated                 Yes                                      3           3        9        2
                         Bollard

77   Safety fences and   Damaged safety fence                    Yes        Speed limit<50mph             4           3        12       2
     barriers
78                       Damaged pedestrian                      Yes                                      3           3        9        2
                         guard rail

79   Hedges and trees    Dangerously unstable                    Yes                                      4           4        16       1
                         tree
80                       Overhanging hedge or      Footway       Yes        <2.1m height clearance        3           3        9        2
81                       Tree                      Carriageway   Yes        <5.1m height clearance        3           3        9        2

82   Highway general     Oil spillage/debris       Carriageway   300mm                                    4           4        16       1
                                                                 Diameter
83                       Skip hazard                             Yes        Refer as appropriate          -           -        -        N/A
84                       Scaffolding hazard                      Yes        Refer as appropriate          -           -        -        N/A
85                       Street furniture hazard                 Yes        Refer as appropriate          -           -        -        N/A
86                       Hazard                                  Yes        Refer as appropriate          -           -        -        N/A
87                       Illegal sign hazard                     Yes        Refer as appropriate          -           -        -        N/A




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APPENDIX F

RECYCLING IN HIGHWAY MAINTENANCE WORKS

Gwynedd Council’s own environmental guideline objectives state that
since the authority uses vast amounts of materials it must ensure that the
minimum is used, resources are re-used and that the waste is recycled or
disposed of with the minimum impact on the environment.

Highway maintenance activity utilises vast quantities of materials and in
order to maximise the environmental contribution the use of products
made from recycled materials should be actively encouraged in order to
develop and support local markets for these products and every effort
made to reduce carbon footprint.

 The Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) in their strategy “Towards Zero Waste”
 require recycling of materials from the construction industry and works for Local
 Authorities in particular.
 Wag is currently in consultation on their A Construction and Demolition Sector Plan
 which aims for 70% recycling target for construction and demolition generated waste
 by 2025.

Waste is defined as any substance or object that you discard, intend to
discard, or are required to discard is deemed as waste, and as such is
subject to a number of regulatory requirements.

The term ‘discard’ has a special legal meaning even if a material is sent
for recycling or undergoes treatment in-house it can still be waste. We
must aim to reduce and recycle waste, some disposal will still be
necessary; the relevant materials, quantities cost and financial savings of
all disciplines need to be identified.

The government funded Waste and Resources Action Programme actively
encourages and promotes that authorities should wherever practicable:

i)     Retain and re-use materials on site; in order to avoid
       environmental implication of
       transport and disposal.
ii)    Maximise the value of the re-used material rather than utilise for
       low grade fill.
iii)   Make use of ‘recycle in place’ processes in appropriate places.
iv)    Support the recycled market development through the purchase of
       recycled products wherever possible.
v)     Ensure that any material that cannot be re-used or recycled is
       disposed of at licensed sites in accordance with statutory
       requirements.

Materials for recycling or disposal are deemed as waste and will be
subject for the waste management regime and the Duty of Care which
stipulates that all waste is handled, recovered and disposed of responsibly

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by authorised business and individuals and recorded on Waste Transfer
Notes.

Some waste destined for recycling is deemed exempt of the Waste
Management Regulations and should be registered as such.

The waste generated from road maintenance works vary greatly in scale
from trench reinstatement to full reconstruction and surfacing works and
all waste need to be identified.

It should be this authority’s objective to develop techniques to ensure that
the road network is managed and maintained in the most sustained manner
and to generate less waste and reduce and remove barriers that prevent
and inhibit the use of recycled waste materials.

Possible sources where waste materials are generated:

Site Clearance
        i)     Granite Kerbs
        ii)    Concrete Kerbs
        iii)   Paviours
        iv)    Flags
        v)     Vehicle Restraint Systems
        vi)    Hedge and Trees
        vii)   Ironworks, Gullies, Manhole and Valve Covers
        viii) Road studs
        ix)    Signs and Street Furniture

Fencing

Safety Barriers
       i)      Concrete Footings
       ii)     Excavated material

Drainage

       i)      Excavated Material – Suitable Material
       ii)     – Rock
       iii)    – Bituminous Material
       iv)     – Concrete
       v)      – Renew Filter Media

Earthworks – as above
      i)      Ditching Spoil

       Pavements
       i)    Milling and Planing of Carriageway




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Kerbs
        i)     Excavation for Kerb Footing
        ii)    Excavation of Existing Kerb Footing


Gully Cleansing
      i)     Debris, Silt and Sludge

Surface Dressing
       i)     Post Sweep Chippings

Other Works
       i)   Sweep Leaves
       ii)  Siding


Each individual type of waste generated is to be further identified as
suitable for a recycling process or processes.

Good Practice Guidelines

Granite, kerbs, concrete kerbs, paviours and flags can be crushed by
purpose built mobile crusher which can produce Type 1 sub-base,
alternatively the crushed material can be in the production of concrete.

The requirement for small quantities of concrete is common in highway
maintenance work resulting in part load charges; the alternative is ex-
works collection, this also can be financially prohibitive because of the
hourly costs involved and also the increased downtime and low
productivity.

Hedges and trees can be cut the length and passed through wood chippers
resulting in an even sized woodchip which could be further used in
horticulture and ground maintenance to restrict weed growth in parks,
gardens and along urban footways; it could also be sold and used in the
agriculture and equine industry as animal bedding material.

Ironwork removed during site clearance work and highway maintenance
works and deemed redundant due to its type or position is at present sold
on as scrap metal.

Excavated material and raisings as a consequence of safety barrier work;
drainage work and excavation work can all be treated in a similar manner
and failure to re-use and recycle has a huge financial cost on works
undertaken by this authority.

The introduction of an aggregate levy in April 2002 further supports the
need for policies for sustainable utilisation of materials. It should be


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borne in mind that recycled and secondary use of aggregates is not subject
to this tax.

Similarly the introduction and subsequent increase in the landfill tax
should encourage the adoption of sustainable waste management policies.
The landfill tax was introduced in 1996 as a tax on waste disposal at
landfill sites. There are currently two rates of tax.

With the purchasing of primary aggregates becoming more expensive and
further increases in the aggregate levy, the incentive to make efficient use
of available resources is apparent.

In highway maintenance works there are a range of established practices
for improving material resource efficiency. These include the use of
recycled and secondary aggregates in fills, capping layers, sub base pipe
bedding, asphalt and concrete – all meeting the relevant specification.
The most obvious forms of using recycled materials in highway
applications are in and under bituminous roads, footways and cycle paths.
However, beyond these obvious uses there are further opportunities to be
taken advantage of in the use of recycled materials. The government
funded Waste and Resource Action Plan- WRAP has a section devoted to
promoting sustainable aggregate usage called AggRegain which identifies
which recycled secondary aggregate – RSA can be used for specific
applications and is supported by technical notes on each product.

There is an expansive range of equipment type which can be utilised in an
aggregate recycling facility ranging from small tracked crushers and
screens to larger permanent items of plant.

Apart from the crushing and screening of excavated material and its
subsequent re-use, consideration should also be given for using excavated
material in highway supporting structures in the form of reinforced earth
technology, which dependant on site location, excavated material type and
design constraints could result in the recycling of all materials within the
designated site.

Arisings from the rejuvenation and renewal of filter drains could similarly
be completely re-used following a process of passing the filter media
through mobile screens.

Pavements and the milling and planing of the carriageway surface also
lends itself to various recycling processes. All arisings from the highway
maintenance work would have to be transported to a designated recycling
centre, central to each area, or central to the country.

Here any soil would be taken out for re-use, some of the crushed material
becomes recycled sub-base, the remainder of the planings could then be
mixed with foamed bitumen to produce cold lay base course material
ready for re-use.


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Carriageway surfaces can also be re-used by utilising the Repave process
which involves heating the existing 30mm of existing asphalt to 150ºC,
scarifying the existing material to re-work it, levelling this and then
immediately adding 25mm of hot thin surfacing, following rolling the
carriageway is re-opened for traffic – disruption kept to a minimum. The
road, following treatment has 55mm approximately of high quality
surfacing bonded naturally to the layers below. The road is sealed, cracks
and reinstatement erased and waste is kept to a minimum.

The use of secondary and recycled aggregates should in principle be
maximised and they should be utilised in preference to primary
aggregates.

It should be noted that under the European Waste directive, materials
designated as ‘waste’ have to be treated at specific sites and by methods
which comply with regulations. This process can inhibit the re-use of
such materials for construction aggregates. The controlling body the
Environment Agency working with the Waste Resource Action
Programme (WRAP), has now established protocols to facilitate are more
straightforward means of using such materials for construction purposes.

Specifying requirements for the use of recycled content in a highways
contract helps to meet corporate objective such as sustainability,
procurement good practice, best value and recycling of waste.

It has been shown that whilst around half of local authorities allow and
use recycled materials in highway projects, only some 10% set
requirements that actively encourage contractors to maximise recycling
and the associated cost savings. There is clearly potential for this
Authority to encourage change through the procurement process.

This could be further enforced by adopting the following:

   i)      when inviting tenders specify objectives and quantitive
           requirements for recycled contents.

   ii)     evaluating tenders, consideration should be given to credit
           those that offer higher recycled contents and associated
           benefits.

This is further confirmed in the European Commission handbook on
environmental public procurement (2004). “As a contracting authority,
you have the right to demand a minimum percentage of recycled or re-use
content where possible”.

It must be borne in mind on the outset that tarmac planning arising from
work can be considered a waste if it is to be discarded or it is intended to
discard the material. Once discarded, waste must be transported in
accordance with the Duty of Care.


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Today the most popular forms of using recycled materials in highways
applications are in and under bituminous pavements and footways.
Various options exist from recycling the planings into a formed
bituminous bound base course ready for re-use to recycling the existing
wearing course into a new running surface.

Throughout the County approximately 600,000 m² of surface dressing is
undertaken each year and following numerous post sweeps large volumes
of surface dressing chippings are collected. The Department will be
exploring various options for recycling materials since there is scope for
worthwhile environmental and economic benefits.




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APPENDIX G

SKID RESISTANCE STRATEGY

To undertake preventative maintenance work – particularly in respect of accident sites
and areas of low skidding resistance.

This policy defines:

   •   The networks to which the policy applies
   •   The equipment to be used, method of survey and procedures to be followed for
       data collection.
   •   The frequency of surveys
   •   The approach to setting investigatory levels and the frequency of reassessment
   •   The approach to be followed in site investigation to determine whether
       treatment should be prioritised
   •   The documentation required to be retained to enable implementation of
       strategy to be demonstrated

In order to meet our objective, Gwynedd Council measures the skidding resistance of
its network regularly. The Council Strategy for measuring skidding resistance is to
survey all Strategic Routes, Main Distributor and Secondary Distributor roads every
three years. (As defined in the Council’s Highway Asset Maintenance Plan). No other
roads are surveyed; all other skid testing will be on a site-specific basis as required.

Survey Methods

Griptester is the main method used for measuring skidding resistance of the road
surface.

General

The maintenance of adequate levels of skidding resistance on running surfaces is an
important aspect of highway maintenance, and one that contributes significantly to
safety. However, whilst the frequency of accidents is expected to increase as skidding
resistance falls, this effect will be more pronounced for "difficult" sites and there is no
skidding resistance boundary at which a surfacing passes from being "safe" to
"dangerous". Difficult sites are those where the geometry, for example, bends,
junctions, pedestrian crossings and traffic signals increase the risks of skidding
accidents.

Works Programming

As well as preventative maintenance requirements, this skid resistance strategy
identifies the need for every structural maintenance scheme undertaken to provide:

A skidding resistance appropriate to the road and traffic at the site in question, this
will be assessed by Gwynedd Consultancy in accordance with HD28/04.



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This is achieved through a design process that selects the appropriate surface material
for the site concerned. Wearing course material will be bituminous macadam with
granite aggregate conforming to current national standards and polished stone values
of 60 minimum for Strategic Routes, Main Distributor and Secondary Distributor
roads and no lower than 55 for all other roads.

Survey Restrictions and Frequencies

Changes in traffic flow, seasonal variation and temperature all have an effect on
surface skidding resistance and survey measurements are therefore confined to the
period 1 May to 30 September, when the lowest skidding resistance is generally
observed. In Gwynedd single run surveys will be carried out. The single run will be
augmented by the surveying of a test site on two other occasions. This will enable a
seasonal variation factor to be established and applied to the rest of the Griptester
data.

Roads carrying high traffic levels, particularly those with large numbers of heavy
vehicles, are most prone to loss of skidding resistance. Our strategy is to survey all
Strategic Routes, Main Distributor roads every three years, as these roads carry the
most HGVs. All other roads will be surveyed only as required.

Early Life Skid Resistance

For any maintenance scheme that results in a new wearing course being laid, the need
for warning signs must be assessed prior to treatment. The result of the assessment
will be recorded on the Pre Contract Monitoring Form W. Exceptional cases must be
referred to the Area Engineer for approval, at least four weeks prior to maintenance
treatment occurring.

On completion of maintenance, the skid resistance will be checked and a record of the
treatment will kept on the Post Contract Monitoring Form W3. This is to ensure that
the age and location of new surfacings is known if further research was to
demonstrate that signs are needed for a longer period.

This procedure will be implemented retrospectively for surfacings that are less than
two months old at the time of going into operation.

For any scheme where warning signs are required, their correct placement and
adequate visibility must be checked on or before the day the surfacing is opened to
traffic and this fact recorded. If warning signs were erected subsequently, because the
need was established as a result of low texture depth, the placement and visibility
must be checked as soon as possible after they are erected.

After the skid resistance has reached the required levels and confirmed by Gwynedd
Consultancy, arrangements will be made for removal of the warning signs. After
removal, a visual inspection will be made to check that all signs have been properly
removed and this fact recorded.




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Site Investigatory Levels

The maintenance objective is therefore to provide skidding resistance levels
appropriate to the risk of skidding accidents at a given site. This is achieved by setting
an Investigatory Level for each site, at or below which an investigation will be carried
out to determine whether maintenance treatment is required. Investigatory levels are
determined based on the category of each site which can be determined as part of the
survey process.

Investigatory Levels are based on factors such as road hierarchy, traffic counts, road
geometry, the likelihood and nature of potential conflicts between road users and the
known accident history. Investigatory Levels are determined before testing is carried
out and act as a benchmark against which the measured values are compared.

Investigatory Levels are reviewed on a regular basis as part of the survey process to
ensure that they provide appropriate benchmarks for the amount, type and speed of
traffic using the roads.

This is carried out and investigatory levels set by Gwynedd Consultancy on behalf of
the Highways and Municipal Department. They are UKAS accredited for texture
depth measurement and site sampling

Remedial Scheme Programming

When the skidding resistance at a given site is determined as being considerably
below the Investigatory Level and there are clear indications that improving the
condition of the surfacing is likely to significantly reduce the risk of accidents
occurring, then remedial treatment will be prioritised as a relatively urgent task.

In most situations where the skidding resistance is measured as being at or below the
Investigatory Level, the site investigations will result in remedial works being
included in a programme of works for completion within a reasonable period of time
and taking into account other maintenance requirements. Until the remedial works are
completed warning signs shall be erected on site and a sign maintenance procedure of
weekly monitoring implemented.

In other situations, the site investigations may indicate that there would be little or no
benefit in undertaking any skidding resistance improvement works. Such a situation
could arise at, for example, a site exhibiting a skidding resistance of at or just below
the Investigatory Level that also exhibits a zero wet-skid accident record and where
the site investigation has not brought to light any other notable problem. Where the
investigations do result in such a conclusion being reached, it would be inappropriate
to undertake any remedial measures and the Investigatory Level for that site could be
reduced for subsequent skidding resistance tests.

Sites with a speed limit of 30mph or more, with very low surface texture, combined
with low skidding resistance, will be given particular attention when considering the
necessity and priority for remedial works.

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Another consideration that will be taken in to account when determining which
schemes, within the same category, require treatment, is where the road layout and/or
traffic congestion leads to relatively low traffic speeds as the corresponding risk of
injury accidents may be lower than a similar site where traffic is moving faster. An
appropriate Investigatory Level is therefore crucial to providing appropriate skidding
resistance without triggering premature or expensive treatment.

Site Investigations and Recording

All sites exhibiting a measured skidding resistance at or below the Investigatory Level
will be recorded and investigated. The Design Manual for Roads and Bridges,
Volume 7, Section 3 gives factors to consider and a methodology for accident
analysis. The objectives are to confirm whether the Investigatory Level is appropriate
and if the skidding resistance falls more than a certain level below the Investigatory
Level (20% below is considered an appropriate level for all Strategic Routes, Main
Distributor and Secondary Distributor roads. For all other roads it could be
substantially lower than 20% depending on road hierarchy, traffic counts, road
geometry etc. ) then the site will be prioritised for early treatment. Otherwise, the site
will be added to a programme for general improvements.

The result of any investigation and actions arising will be recorded. If treatment is
necessary, consideration will be given to whether surface treatment or other measures
are appropriate. Surface treatment may not always be a necessary response and other
measures may have to be utilised.

Summary

Our policy is to take regular measurements of skidding resistance followed up by
investigation where the skidding resistance at a site has fallen to, or is lower than, the
pre-determined Investigatory Level for that site. Treatment will be prioritised if the
skidding resistance is significantly below this level, or if the number of accidents or
proportion of accidents in wet conditions, or that involving skidding, is greater than
normal. Otherwise, treatment will be carried out over a longer term to bring about an
overall high standard of skidding resistance throughout the County.

"Slippery Road" signs will be erected as soon as practicable at all sites where
remedial measures have been determined as being necessary. These signs will only be
removed when the remedial action has been taken and maintenance engineers are
satisfied that skidding resistance levels have been returned to an appropriate level.




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Appendix H
WINTER MAINTENACE POLICY

The STRATEGIC AIM is to undertake WINTER MAINTENANCE in a manner that
gives value for money in accordance with priorities that have regard to the character
of the highway and the nature and amount of the traffic by which it is ordinarily used,
taking account of the nature and extent of the obstruction and the resources of
manpower vehicles and equipment for the time being available to the Authority for
work on highways and the extent to which those resources are being, or need to be
employed elsewhere by the Authority.

THE WORK

There are two aspects to the work. First is that preparatory work which it is
practicable to undertake with the resources available to the Authority, that is pre-
gritting prior to severe weather of ice or snow. Second is that work to deal with the
situation, as far as is possible, once severe weather has arrived.

PREPARATORY WORK

On receiving a weather forecast that predicts that ice will form or snow fall and lie, an
authorised officer in each Area Office will decide how to treat First and Second
Priority carriageways. This may include pre-gritting/patrolling with the proviso that
second priority carriageways will receive no pre-gritting if the forecast suggests that
the effects of the severe weather will have gone before noon the following day or the
carriageway has already been gritted within the previous 36 hours. It is the
Authority’s view that to make the best use of available resources other carriageways;
footways or pedestrianised areas will not be pre-gritted.

RESPONSIVE WORK

After ice forms or snow falls and lies it is to be sought to undertake the work of
bringing the affected carriageways and footways into as reasonable a condition as is
possible under the prevailing conditions following the order listed in the order of
priorities. Priority will however be given to keeping First Priority carriageways open
before considering work on treating and clearing those of Second Priority and the
same will be true of Second Priority carriageways and the rest of the County roads
and between priorities on the case of footways.

It will not always be practicable to follow the arrangements in detail when there is
variation in the weather from hour to hour and between one part of the Area and
another. To deal with these varying conditions, an Officer will be authorised in each
Area who, whilst following the spirit of the priorities, may direct the resources as
appropriate in his/her opinion in the light of information available at the time,
including weather forecasts, complaints from the Public or other bodies and staff
inspections and the need to husband resources for other periods of severe weather.




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THE ORDER OF PRIORITIES

CARRIAGEWAYS

The carriageways which will have FIRST PRIORITY are:

   1. Trunk Roads
   2. County Class 1 Roads
   3. Other County Roads which are through routes with much traffic or important
      connecting routes in towns which also have steep gradients or are at high
      altitude.

   4. Other County Roads which provide for one access (from the network formed
      by the roads in the three clauses above) to:

   -   a town or village
       or
   -   a centre which responds to emergencies or receives emergency admissions

The carriageways which have the SECOND PRIORITY are:

   1. County Class 2 Roads which are not included in the first priority
   2. Other County Roads which provide for one access to the network
       (compromised by first priority and the remainder of the second priority routes)
       to:
             -   A school
             -   A training centre
             -   An industrial estate
             -   A hospital or day centre
             -   The Central Business District of a town

   3. Main Roads in the Central Business district of a town
   4. Roads selected because of their gradient or high altitude
FOOTWAYS

In the case of footways, including pedetrianised areas, no work of any sort will be
contemplated until resources are available from keeping first and second priority
carriageways in an acceptable condition. It will also be a consideration if the adjacent
carriageway forms a reasonable alternative for pedestrians under the prevailing
circumstances.

When giving consideration to footways including pedestrianised areas FIRST priority
will be given to those in the main shopping areas. SECOND priority will be given to
those in other busy urban areas. The remainder in their turn will be given attention as
needed in the judgement of the authorised officer.


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Appendix I
GLOSSARY

GIS          Geographical Information System
Griptester   Machine for measuring skid resistance
HGV          Heavy Goods Vehicle
ILE          Institute of Lighting Engineers
ISO          International Organisation for Standardisation
MRM          Multifunction Road Monitor
NRSWA        New Roads and Streetworks Act
PL           Minature Fluorescent Sign Lighting
RCI          Road Condition Indicator
SCANNER      Surface Condition Assessment of the National
             Network of Roads
SON          High Pressure Sodium
UKAS         United Kingdom Accrediation Department
UKPMS        United Kingdom Pavement Management System
VRS          Vehicle Restraint System




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