LEARNER GUIDE

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					LEARNER
                            BRITISH
                            COUNCIL
                            ROMA




GUIDE




British CounCil
Via San Sebastianello, 16
00187 Roma
(Piazza di Spagna)




www.britishcouncil.it
This section is designed to help you get the most out of your studies.
It contains advice and suggestions for use both in and out of the class.




things to do immediately
• Organise your free time to allow an hour each day for practising English. Do this now. Don’t put this off until next week.

• Decide how you will get contact with the English language outside the class.
        • Look at the list of useful websites below.
        • Watch TV and listen to the radio in English.
        • Go to a bookshop and look at the range of simplified readers (with audio), magazines and newspapers.
        • Check notice boards in your university or in bookshops for English speakers looking for conversation exchange.
        • Consider using sites such as http://www.tandemcity.com

• Discover your personal learning style and why it is important to know this.
        • Do the “Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire” online at http://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html
        • Keep your feedback in this folder for constant reference.

• If you have difficulty with the level of English in the questions and feedback, ask your teacher for a translation.



things to do over the Course
• Keep a record of all your English Language studies both during your lesson and outside the British Council – we recommend
    that you use the “Study Record Sheet”. Make copies of the master sheet.

• Read the information on vocabulary and keep your records up-to-date.


useful weBsites for extra study
We recommend that you look at the following websites. They include a wide range of exercise types to give you practice in all areas of
English.

www.britishcouncil.org/learnenglish

www.bbc.co.uk/learningenglish


Specifically for students preparing to take one of the Cambridge ESOL exams.

www.flo-joe.co.uk


Please also note that most of the course books also have a website with extra learning resources. For example,

www.oup.com/elt/englishfile/pre-intermediate


2
StUDy REcoRD ShEEt

Date                                                 Total time




 which of the following skills did you practise today?
speaking                                reading                           writing                    listening

  Working in groups                       Skim reading                       Sentences                  Gist listening

  Pronunciation exercises                 Scan reading                       Full Text                  Intensive listening

                                                                             Notes

                                                                             Email



 which of the following did you study?

   grammar               Pronunciation               vocabulary              spelling




 which of the following did you use today?

  Books                                 Computers                            magazines etc.

  Course books                          Internet                             Newspaper

  Exam practice books                   Language program                     Magazine

  Monolingual Dictionary                Emails
                                                                             other
  Bilingual Dictionary                  CD ROM

  Skills book                           English chat                         specify

  Listening
                                        television
  Grammar

  Pronunciation                         BBC World

  Vocabulary                            Video

  Writing                               Documentary

  Specialised English                   Language learning

  English for Business
                                        audio (Cds, podcasts)
  English for Law
                                        Course book
  Easy reader
                                        Speak up

                                        Exam practice

                                        Easy reader CD

                                        Other




After each study session look back over your previous study record sheets to check that you are getting some variety.



       3
PhoNEmIc chARt

Learn these symbols. They will help you to know the pronunciation of a word from a dictionary without needing a teacher.




       I             i:              ʊ             u:              Iǝ             eI
     sit            see            put             too           near           page

      e              ǝ              ɜ:              ɔ:            ʊǝ              ɔI             ǝʊ
     ten            ago             fur           saw            pure            join          home

     æ               ʌ              ɑ:              ɒ             eǝ              aI             aʊ
     hat            cup            arm             got            hair           five           now

      p              b               t              d              ʧ              ʤ               k               g
    pen             bad            tea             did           chin           June             cat            got

      f              v               ɵ              ð               s              z               ʃ              Ʒ
     fall         voice            thin           then             so            zoo             she          vision

     m               n               ŋ              h               l              r              w               j
    main             no            sing           how             leg            red             wet            yes




4
INtENSIvE LIStENING

What exactly did you do today?
materials

Title:

         (book/CDROM/audio CD/TV)



exerCise/s

No                                  Page



how long did you spend doing exercise/s?



what did you learn/practise?




what did you find easy?




what did you find difficult?




was the work you did today useful for you?       1      2        3   4      5
(1 minimum 5 maximum)


do you need to do more work in this area?        yes        no



did you do a type of activity which corresponds to your learning style/s?




         5
GISt LIStENING
listening to understand the general sense

(E.g. listen to a woman talking about her holiday. Did she enjoy her holiday? Did she go alone?)




GENERAL ADvIcE
recognise your limits.
• Do not expect to understand every word on the CD, podcast etc. It is not necessary in order to complete the task
  and nor are you a native speaker.


you make more progress with short, frequent listening practice.
• It is better to listen for 15 minutes every day rather than 1 hour at the weekend.



    stage 1 • PrePare yourself
    WhAt                                     Why / hoW Etc
    • Get comfortable                        • Extraneous noise? Enough light? Bags and jackets away from the work area?

    • Organise your materials                • Pens, books, CD etc ready to use.

    • Relax                                  • This is not a visit to the dentist

    • Find the passage on CD etc.            • Pause the CD etc at the correct point until you have done stage 2.




    stage 2 • PrePare your materials
    WhAt                                     Why / hoW Etc
    • If the material is from                • There are some or all of these in a typical gist listening exercise
      an English Course book
                                                   • a heading - “gist” or “intensive” listening activity
                                                   • some photographs connected with the theme
                                                   • an introductory passage - basic information about the contents
                                                   • some pre-listening questions to help you think about the subject
                                                     before you listen. They could
                                                     1. be questions about your own knowledge and experience etc.
                                                     2. ask you to guess or hypothesise about situations etc.


    • If the material is from                • Apply similar principles to those above, where possible.
     a podcast or TV news etc
                                             • Are there any visual images?
                                             • Can you predict some of the content from the title, your own knowledge
                                               and experience etc.?


                   It is important to do these activities - they help to focus on the listening activity.




6
 stage 3 • do the aCtivities
 WhAt                                        Why / hoW Etc
 • Listen to the CD etc once.                • To get the general idea (the gist)

 • Compare your ideas                        • Remember, often there are no right or wrong answers. If you can identify
   on the pre-listening questions              similarities and differences between your ideas and those in the passage,
   with what is in the passage.                you have already begun to understand the passage.


 • Read the comprehension questions          • You may already know the answer to some questions.

 • Listen to the CD etc again                • Answer the remaining questions.
   (2 or 3 times)                            • Generally it is not a good idea to listen too many times.
                                               2 or 3 times is enough.




 stage 4 • Post listening worK
 WhAt                                        Why / hoW Etc
 • Reflect                                   • Did you listen successfully? Is your listening improving?

 • Extend                                    • Would you like to:
                                                  • know more about the same subject (use the internet, books etc)?
                                                  • learn new words from the passage (read the tapescript,
                                                    read the pages on vocabulary in this guide)?



 • Consolidate                               • Use your new knowledge
                                                  • Write about it to your penfriends, talk about it with your conversation
                                                    exchange partner etc.
                                                  • Try to use the new grammar structures/vocabulary etc in your work.
                                                  • Record your progress on the study record sheet.




Although in this Learner Guide we talk about gist listening and intensive listening on different pages, they are often mixed
together in one listening activity. In English Language course books gist listening questions usually come before intensive
listening questions.




     7
LIStENING to SomEthING foR SPEcIfIc DEtAILS
(e.g. an announcement in the railway station for times and platform numbers)




GENERAL ADvIcE
recognise your limits.
• Do not expect to understand every word on the CD, podcast etc. It is not necessary in order to complete the task
  and nor are you a native speaker.


you make more progress with short, frequent listening practice.
• It is better to listen for 15 minutes every day rather than 1 hour at the weekend.



    stage 1 • PrePare yourself
    WhAt                                     Why / hoW Etc
    • Get comfortable                        • Extraneous noise? Enough light? Bags and jackets away from the work area?

    • Organise your materials                • Pens, books, CD etc ready to use.

    • Relax                                  • This is not a visit to the dentist

    • Find the passage on CD etc.            • Pause the CD etc at the correct point until you have done stage 2.




    stage 2 • PrePare your materials
    WhAt                                     Why / hoW Etc
    • Know the materials                     • Some or all of these are found in a typical intensive listening exercise
      and understand                             • a heading which gives the context
      what you have to do                        • possibly some photographs connected with the theme
                                                 • an introductory passage
                                                 • pre-listening questions - the information you need to find.
                                                   They are usually in the following formats

                                             It is important to read these questions before you listen.
                                             They help to focus on the listening activity.
                                                  1. True/false questions e.g. “The train leaves at 10.30”
                                                     True/false
                                                  2. Multiple choice questions e.g.
                                                     “How many trains are there for London a day?
                                                     [3] [7] [9] [13]
                                                  3. Transfer information to a table or a diagram.




8
 stage 3 • do the aCtivities
 WhAt                                         Why / hoW Etc
 • Listen to the CD etc one time              • To get as much information as possible.

 • Listen to the CD etc again                 • Now you can
                                                 • Double-check any answers you are not certain about.
                                                 • Concentrate on the answers you didn’t find the first time.

 • Listen to the CD etc a final time          • You probably don’t need to listen to all the CD etc again.
                                                Having listened already, localise the area which contains
                                                the information you need.

                                              Generally it is not a good idea to listen too many times.
                                              2 or 3 times is enough.




 stage 4 • Post listening worK
 WhAt                                         Why / hoW Etc
 • Reflect                                    • Did you listen successfully? Is your listening improving?
                                              • How did you do the activity?
                                              • What was easy/difficult for you? Why? Pay particular attention
                                                to pronunciation of words and sentences here!

 • Extend                                     • Learn new words from the passage (read the tapescript,
                                                read the pages on vocabulary in this guide)

 • Consolidate                                • Use your new skill/knowledge
                                                • Use the new grammar structures/vocabulary etc in your work
                                                  with good pronunciation.
                                                • Try to use the new language in real life e.g. where appropriate,
                                                  telephone a UK company / institution etc to ask them
                                                  for similar information to that in your listening exercise.
                                                • Record your progress in on your study record sheet.



Although in this Learner Guide we talk about gist listening and intensive listening on different sheets, they are often mixed
together in one listening activity. In English Language course books gist listening questions usually come before intensive
listening questions.




     9
SomE SUGGEStIoNS foR ImPRovING yoUR LIStENING

1. Change your approach
• think positive - don’t be disillusioned if it is difficult in the beginning.
• think long-term - improvement in listening is difficult to measure but you will find it becomes easier so persist.
• Be realistic in your aims - you don’t need to understand every word.


2. Change your habits
• listen to english in connection with things you enjoy (cinema etc).
• regular listening will produce improvement.
• organise your life to leave some free time to listen at least 3 times a week.
• get into a routine. Try to organise your listening time at the same time and days every week.
• Choose an optimum time for listening - some are “morning” people and others are “evening” people,
  work in harmony with your nature.


3. try some or all of the following:

 listen to english radio/tv/podcasts

 • e.g. BBC Radio can be listened to online www.bbc.co.uk/radio/

 • Listen to the news in Italian then in English. You will have an idea what to expect.
   Use an MP3 player while jogging, travelling to work on the Metro etc.



 switch on the radio/tv while you are working in the house

 • Don’t listen to every word. Let English subliminally enter your brain.
   If you hear something interesting, listen for 2-3 minutes, then continue
   with your housework etc.


 watch films with subtitles in english

 • Watch the first 10-15 mins with subtitles. Turn off the subtitles for 5 mins.
   Watch with subtitles for the next 10 mins. Can you follow the story?
   Good - you have understood enough of the 5mins without subtitles.


 do you have a pen-friend/tandem partner?

 • First, exchange letters. Then exchange recordings of yourselves.
   Recording 45 min is not advisable. Record 5 min each day - a “spoken diary”.
   Exchange sound files (you get speaking practice too     )



 Join the British Council Conversation club

 • Find details on the class notice board.




10
telephone a uK organisation

  (! Can be expensive, but can also be a challenge)
• Ask a museum, cinema, theatre etc for details of their programme.
  Then go to the internet and check if you have understood well.



latin lovers to the spanish steps!

• Speak with tourists. Join guided tours in English.




english cinema/theatre in rome

• There are lots of opportunities to see English Language films in Rome.
  Try Nuova Sacher, Nuovo Olimpia, Metropolitan cinemas.
  Organise to go with other students in your class or with your friends.
  if they are students of English.


english/irish/scottish Pubs (are there any welsh Pubs?)

• Initiate conversation(or at least eavesdrop) with English speakers
  “The Fiddlers Elbow”, “The Druids Den” “Finnegan’s” - all near the British Council
  (ask any British Council Teacher for the addresses)
  More central, you’ll find “The Drunken Ship” and “Sloppy Sam’s” (Campo di Fiori).



friendly matches with friendly foreigners

• Form a football team.
  Contact organisations like FAO, The British Council and other English schools,
  The British Embassy and American Universities in Rome (John Cabot etc) and arrange
  football matches with a pizza afterwards.



english songs

• Live concerts / Form a music group to sing songs together.

                                                                                       �
  Download lyrics from the internet (legally!)
  Join a Karaoke club - sing and listen to English songs.
  Go to second-hand/CD exchange shops for cheap music.



hobbies

• Could you be studying these in English?
  Using the internet, or buying magazines with CDs and / or DVDs.




British Council workshops

• Find details on the class notice board.
  And don’t forget http://romelfblog.blogspot.com/




    11
READING -SkImmING
Many reading activities in your English language course books require you to skim read. It is an important skill to learn.
Your course books and teachers place a lot of emphasis on this skill because it will facilitate not only general understanding
of a text but also the acquisition of new vocabulary.




 What it is                  • Reading from the beginning to the end of a text
                               at moderately fast speed without stopping.




 Why we do it                • To get the general sense of a text.
                             • In exams, to make the best use of the limited time
                               you have to do the activity.




 how we do it                Don’t stop at new words.
                             • Focus on the things you know to get the general sense.
                               You can return to new words later, if necessary.
                             • Psychologically it is better to arrive at the end of the
                               text with the focus on the 95% of the words you have
                               understand not with the focus on the 5% which are new
                               for you.
                             Don’t use a pen or finger to follow the words.
                             This slows you down.
                             • This gives equal importance to all words when your
                               attention should be on content words, not articles,
                               prepositions etc.
                             • When you have finished skim reading the text quickly try
                               to remember the main points of what you have read.
                             • Before you use a dictionary for the new words
                               remember the advice on the “Vocabulary:
                               New Words in a Text” page.




Activities in a course book often begin with a skim (gist) reading exercise and then
pass to a scan reading exercise. See the “Reading-Scanning” page in this Learner
Guide.




12
READING - ScANNING
Many reading activities in your English language course books require you to scan read. It is an important skill to learn.
Your course books and teachers place a lot of emphasis on this skill because it will help you learn to find relevant informa-
tion quickly and reject irrelevant information. In real life you do this when reading a newspaper as you are choosing which
article/s to read in detail.




 What it is                    • Moving your eyes across a page in a non-linear way.



 Why we do it                  • To find specific information in text without reading all
                                 the words For example, when you want to find a train
                                 to Naples in the evening, you don’t read every word
                                 of the “Trenitalia” timetable until you come
                                 to the relevant information.
                               • To make the best use of the limited time you have to do
                                 the activity both in exams and in life.
                                 That train to Naples is leaving in 5 min - but from
                                 which platform?!



 how we do it                  • Don’t start at the beginning of the text.
                               • Move your eye over the page looking for:
                                   • Headings.
                                   • First sentences of paragraphs.
                                   • If the text is in a table, column headings.
                                   • Words connected with the information you want
                                     to find e.g. if you want to find information
                                     connected with “time”, scan for numbers
                                     or sequence adverbs (before, after, etc).
                                     Check for adverbial time phrases
                                     (the day before, next Christmas, etc).
                               • Before you use a dictionary for the new words
                                 remember the advice on the “Vocabulary:
                                 New Words in a Text” page.




Activities in a course book often begin with a skim (gist) reading exercise and then
pass to a scan reading exercise. See the “Reading-Skimming” page in this Learner
Guide. If you have skim read a passage previously, it will probably be easy to remember
which paragraphs contain the information you require and so you won’t need to read
the whole passage again.




     13
vocAbULARy - NEcESSARy INfoRmAtIoN

 WhAt                                       Why / hoW Etc

 To use a word in your own                  1 The meaning
 writing and speaking it is                 2 The use
 essential to know more than
                                            3 The pronunciation
 the meaning of the word.
                                            4 The spelling
                                            5 The grammar




 1. the meaning



 2. the use
Often confused with “meaning” this is one of the most important elements and contains several subdivisions.


 WhAt                                       Why / hoW Etc

 Collocation                                A wavy line

 “wavy”.                                    Wavy hair
 This means something
 which rises and falls                      but not...
 in regular curves.                         Wavy sea


                                            Collocation between words is not always logical!
                                            • Which prepositions, articles are associated with the word?

                                            • Is there a fixed sequence of words
                                              (e.g. “black and white” not “white and black”)?
                                            • Does it collocate regularly with another noun or verb?

 Register                                   Is it formal, informal, colloquial, slang etc? Is it polite or impolite?




 3. the PronunCiation

 WhAt                                       Why / hoW Etc

 • Be familiar with                         • Copy the phonemic symbols to your vocabulary file.
   the phonemic symbols


 • Use them regularly                       • You will learn to understand them in your course at the British Council.
                                              When you return to your vocabulary file in the future you will be able
                                              to understand them.




14
 4. the sPelling

 WhAt                                       Why / hoW Etc


 • how can you spell an english             Imagine you heard the word /mǝʊ/
   word which you have only heard?          (rhymes with “so”)
   A little difficult but...
                                            e.g.
                                            “I planned to /mǝʊ/ the grass but it rained so I had to wait until later”

                                            • First, think of as many other words you can with the same sound,
                                              /mǝʊ/ and write them down.
                                               e.g.
                                               go       /gǝʊ/
                                               slow     /slǝʊ/
                                               though   /ðǝʊ/
                                               toe      /tǝʊ/
                                               note     /nǝʊt/
                                               boat     /bǝʊt/

                                            So, we can hypothesise that /mǝʊ /is spelt “mo”, “mow”, “moe” or mough”
                                            (“oa” is improbable as there is no final consonant1)
                                            rememBer double consonants. sometimes:
                                            • both consonants are pronounced unless they are the same consonant
                                              e.g. double “p” is pronounced the same as one “p”.
                                            • two consonants can produce one sound e.g. “sh” / ʃ /.
                                            • the same two consonants can produce different sounds.
                                              e.g. “ch” / ʧ / or / k /.
                                            • one of two or more consonants can be silent e.g. “kn” / n / (know / nǝʊ /).



Vocabulary-new words in a text
1Try to listen to the word several times to be certain that there isn’t a final consonant.

Final consonants are often not clearly pronounced or sometimes “move” to the beginning of the next word if it begins with a
vowel sound.




 5. the grammar

 WhAt                                       Why / hoW Etc


 • you need to know the part                Know this before you go to your dictionary
   of speech of a new word
                                            NOUNS
 • some categories of parts
                                            • Regular/irregular
   of speech require more
                                            • Countable/uncountable
   information

                                            VERBS
                                            • Regular/irregular
                                            • Transitive/intransitive




     15
vocAbULARy - NEW WoRDS IN A tExt


                                                     first
 WhAt                                   Why / hoW Etc

 read the whole text                    When you understand the general sense of a new passage,
                                        new vocabulary is easier to understand




                                                     next
 WhAt                                   Why / hoW Etc

 identify new vocabulary in the text,   e.g.
 e.g. “blappet”                         “She is a beautiful woman but she has a very big blappet “




                                                     next
 WhAt                                   Why / hoW Etc

 what part of speech                    • Which words often end in “et” …nouns, verbs, adverbs etc?
 (noun, verb etc) is it?
                                        • Which words often follow adjectives?

                                        • Why is “a” before the adjective?
                                          Answer
                                          It is a countable noun




                                                     next
 WhAt                                   Why / hoW Etc

 what could the word mean               • e.g.
 first ideas…?                            Does it refer to something physical or about character etc?
                                          Is it positive or negative?

                                          Answer
                                          We can not say if it is physical or about character..

                                          It is probably something negative - “but” + “beautiful.




                                                     next
 WhAt                                   Why / hoW Etc

 you need more information!             Always read before and after the new word.
                                        Now we know that a “blappet” is something physical.

 “she was a very beautiful woman but    You probably thought of something big and black,
 she had a big blappet on the end of    maybe with hairs on it, too!
 her nose.”

16
ImPoRtANt

“Blappet” does not exist!
(We wanted to choose a word that nobody would know)
The real word is “mole”.
“She was a very beautiful woman but she had a big mole on the end of her nose.”

summary
• Read the whole passage to get as much contextual information as possible
• Skim read the passage - do not stop at new words. See advice the Reading - Skimming page
• Analyse the sentence to help you understand the part of speech.
   This is important because in English many words have the same spelling but very different meanings.
• Speculate about the meaning of the new word in its particular context.
   Use the other words in the sentence and in the same paragraph to help you to hypothesise.
• Now go to the dictionary to check your hypothesis.

Be sure you are looking up the correct part of speech in your dictionary. For example,
1. “I like still water but my girlfriend prefers sparkling.”
2. “It started raining at six o’clock this morning and it’s still raining now.”
What part of speech is “still” in examples 1 and 2?
• In example 1 it is an adjective (“adj” in many dictionaries) but in example 2 it is an adverb (“adv” in many dictionaries).
   You can waste a lot of time with a dictionary looking up the wrong word if you are not sure what part of speech
   it is before you open it up.




    17
hoW to REcoRD vocAbULARy



 WhAt                                        Why / hoW Etc

 Keep a vocabulary file                      • It is a record of your studies.

                                             • It contains words which you have previously used so they are easier
                                                to use again than words which are completely new to you.

                                             • The act of copying new vocabulary into your book
                                                helps to memorise them.




 WhAt                                        Why / hoW Etc

     don’t organise new words                • If you can’t remember the word,
     alphabetically.                           you won’t be able to remember the first letter!
     don’t organise new words                • If you don’t remember which lesson,
     according to the date of the              you will not be able to find the word!
     lesson.

     organise your vocabulary                • E.g. “physical movements”, parts of the body”, “emotions” etc.
     according to the subject
     use a file, not a book.                 • You can add new pages - you will have your vocabulary file
                                               for the rest of your life. DON’T LOSE IT!




you can use a variety of layouts for your pages.
E.g. a page entitled “Housework” could
• be in tabular form with similar words ( add a diagram if possible/appropriate)



 Spelling                 Pronunciation            Grammar                   meaning                 Use

 Mow                      /mǝʊ/                    • Transitive verb         To cut grass            In the summer I
                                                                             using a machine         mow the lawn
                                                   • Regular
                                                                             called a “mower”        every weekend.
                                                                                                     Collocates with
                                                                                                     grass, lawn. Not
                                                                                                     sheep! C.f. Italian


 Dust                     /dʌst/                   • Transitive or           To clean wooden         Int: Yesterday I dusted
                                                     intransitive verb       furniture and TVs etc   and then…
                                                                             using a dry cloth to    Tran: Yesterday I
                                                   • Regular
                                                                             remove the “dust”       dusted the table/
                                                                             which collects.         living room.




18
USE A coLLocAtIoNS GRID




                                                                                                                the washing up




                                                                                                                                                                                        the shopping
                                                                                                  the windows




                                                                                                                                     the washing




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   the cooking
                                                        the clothes




                                                                                                                                                                          the ironing
                                                                                   the dishes
                                                                      the floor




                                                                                                                                                   the beds
                                           the lawn




                                                                                                                                                                                                         the car
                                                                                                                                                              the cat
vERb

mow/mǝʊ/ V trans reg                         x
iron                                                       x
do                                           x            x             x            x              x              x                   x            x                       x             x               x          x
make                                                                                                                                                 x
wash                                                       x            x            x               x                                                                                                    x
wash up                                                                              x
feed                                                                                                                                                           x

• USE A sPider diagram
                                      lawn                                                                                                                                grass

                                                                                                   mow
                                                                                                   /mǝʊ/
                                                                                                V trans reg
                                      sheep                                                                                                                                   garden
                                                      NO!                                                                                                                                              NO!



• USE A voCaBulary tree, especially for noun sets. Translations can be useful with concrete nouns but less useful
  with other parts of speech.
                                                                                  Boat
                        commercial boats
                                                                                                                                                                        military boats
                                                                                                pleasure/sporting boats
       fishing                                        passenger
                              cargo

        trawler                                       ocean liner
                           tanker ferry                                                                                          (add your own words in these categories)
        / trɔ:lǝ/                                     / ǝʊʃǝn laInǝ/
                          / tæŋkǝ/ / ferI/
 motopeschereccio                                     transatlantico
 con reti a strascico      nave cisterna



• LABEL A diagram


                    petal /petǝl/
                     leaf /li:f /
                                                                                                                                                   flower /flaʊǝ/
                                                                                                                                                   plant /plɑ:nt/
         stalk / stem
         /stɔ:k/ / stem /




       19
mARkING coDE
your teacher will correct your written work using the following code.

try to correct it and give your composition back to your teacher.




 SP            spelling                                        ???            confusion

 G             Grammar                                         V              vocabulary

 Coll          collocation                                     P              punctuation
               (arrows to connect the words
               which don’t collocate)                          S              Style

 Prep          preposition                                     //             paragraph

 WO            word order                                      ^              missing word

 R             register




Can you correct the following text following the teacher’s suggestions? (the solution is on the next page.)


                      P                                              P
John looked at his swiss watch. It was never wrong. Could he be late.
G              G                                  SP
Her girlfriend wait him and she would be very hangry! He quickly bought a
coll                       ^ Prep                          G
pack of flowers and went at the cinema where she is waiting. He knew she
        Wo                                       G
liked very much flowers! // When he arrived she didn’t there! He waited and


waited but she didn’t come and she didn’t answer her mobile phone. He looked at


his watch. The film was about to start but he thought seeing it by himself would be
v                                   ???
annoying. He stopped to wait and get up for home worried go.


Then he saw his girlfriend in the distance. She smiled at him and waved.
                                                                v
She noticed his face. “Why are you so angry?” she asked. He said her that


she was late and showed her his watch. “John” she said “The clocks changed


last night”. You’ve forgotten to put your watch back an hour!” He felt very stupid.
                             R
“Look” she said “I hurt my digit today”. He smiled as he gave her the flowers and
                                                                     S
said “these will make you feel better.”. Her smile changed to a horror look as she


realised he had bought her …Chrysanthemums!


20
John looked at his Swiss watch. It was never wrong. Could he be late? His girlfriend was waiting for him and she

would be very angry! He quickly bought a bunch of flowers and went to the cinema where she was waiting. He

knew she liked flowers a lot.



When he arrived she wasn’t there! He waited and waited but she didn’t come and she didn’t answer her mobile

phone. He looked at his watch. The film was about to start but he thought seeing it by himself would be boring.

He stopped waiting and stood up to go home feeling very worried.



Then he saw his girlfriend in the distance. She smiled at him and waved. She noticed his face. “Why are you

so angry?” she asked. He told her that she was late and showed her his watch. “John” she said “The clocks

changed last night. You’ve forgotten to put your watch back an hour!” He felt very stupid.



“Look” she said “I hurt my finger today”. He smiled as he gave her the flowers and said “these will make you feel

better.” Her smile changed to a look of horror as she realised he had bought her …Chrysanthemums!




     21
ENGLISh vERb foRmS

 English verb: kISS

 Full Infinitive      to kiss                Past                   kissed
 Bare Infinitive      kiss                   Present participle     kissing
 Present              kiss                   Past participle        kissed
                      kisses



 ActIvE voIcE

 tense-form                Positive                           negative                     interrogative

 Present simPle       • I/you/we/they kiss             • I/you/we/they do not kiss    • Do I/you/we/they kiss?
                      • He/she/ it kisses              • He/she/ it does not kiss     • Does he/she/it kiss?

 Present              • I am kissing                    • I am not kissing            • Am I kissing
 Progressive          • You/we/they are kissing         • You/we/they are not kissing • Are you/we/they kissing?
 (continuous)         • He/she/it is kissing            • He/she/it is not kissing    • Is he/she/it kissing?

 Present PerfeCt      • I/you/we/they have kissed       • I/you/we/they have not      • have I/you/we/they kissed?
 simPle               • He/she/ it has kissed             kissed                      • has he/she/ it kissed?
                                                        • He/she/ it has not kissed

 Present PerfeCt      • I/you/we/they have been         • I/you/we/they have not      • have I/you/we/they been
 Progressive            kissing                           been kissing                  kissing?
 (continuous)                                           • He/she/it has not been
                      • He/she/ it has been kissing                                   • has he/she/ it been
                                                          kissing                       kissing?

 Past simPle          • I/you/he/she/it/we/             • I/you/he/she/it/we/they     • Did I/you/he/she/it/ we/
                        they kissed                       did not kiss                  they kiss?

 Past Progressive     • I/he/she/ it was kissing        • I/he/she/ it was not kissing • Was I/he/she/ it kissing?
 (continuous)         • You/we/they were kissing        • You/we/they were not         • Were you/we/they kissing?
                                                           kissing

 Past PerfeCt         • I/you/he/she/it/we/             • I/you/he/she/it/we/         • had I/you/he/she/
 simPle                 they had kissed                   they had not kissed           it/we/they kissed?

 Past PerfeCt         • I/you/he/she/it/we/             • I/you/he/she/it/we/         • had I/you/he/she/it/
 Progressive            they had been kissing             they had not been             we/ they been kissing?
 (continuous)                                             kissing

 future simPle        • I/you/he/she/it/we/             • I/you/he/she/it/we/         • Will I/you/he/she/it/we/
                        they will kiss                    they will not kiss            they kiss?


 future               • I/you/he/she/it/we/             • I/you/he/she/it/we/         • Will I/you/he/she/it/we/
 Progressive            they will be kissing              they will not be kissing      they be kissing?
 (continuous)

 future PerfeCt       • I/you/he/she/it/we/             • I/you/he/she/it/we/         • Will I/you/he/she/it/we/
 simPle                 they will have kissed             they will not have kissed     they have kissed?

 future PerfeCt       • I/you/he/she/it/we/             • I/you/he/she/it/we/         • Will I/you/he/she/it/we/
 Progressive            they will have been               they will not have been       they have been kissing?
 (continuous)                                             kissing
                        kissing




22
 PASSIvE voIcE

 tense-form                    Positive                           negative                        interrogative

 Present simPle          • I am kissed                      • I am not kissed            • Am I kissed?
                         • You/we/they are kissed           • You/we/they are not kissed • Are you/we/they kissed?
                         • He/she/it is kissed              • He/she/it is not kissed    • Is he/she/it kissed?

 Present                 • I am being kissed                • I am not being kissed          • Am I being kissed?
 Progressive             • You/we/they are being            • You/we/they are not being      • Are you/we/they being
 (continuous)              kissed                             kissed                           kissed?
                         • He/she/it is being kissed        • He/she/it is not being         • Is he/she/it being kissed?
                                                              kissed

 Present PerfeCt         • I/you/we/they have been          • I/you/we/they have not         • have I/you/we/they been
 simPle                    kissed                             been kissed                      kissed?
                         • He/she/it has been kissed        • He/she/it has not been         • has he/she/it been kissed?
                                                              kissed

 Present PerfeCt         • I/you/we/they *have been         • I/you/we/they *have not        • *have I/you/we/they been
 Progressive               being kissed                       been being kissed                being kissed?
 (continuous)                                               • He/she/it *has not been
                         • He/she/it *has been being                                         • *has he/she/it been being
                           kissed                             being kissed                     kissed?

 Past simPle             • I/he/she/it was kissed           • I/he/she/it was not kissed     • Was I/he/she/it kissed?
                         • You/we/they were kissed          • You/we/they were not           • Were you/we/they kissed?
                                                              kissed

 Past Progressive        • I/he/she/it was being            • I/he/she/it was not being      • Was I/he/she/it being
 (continuous)              kissed                             kissed                           kissed?
                         • You/we/they were being           • You/we/they were not           • Were you/we/they being
                           kissed                             being kissed                     kissed?
 Past PerfeCt            • I/you/he/she/it/we/              • I/you/he/she/it/we/            • had I/you/he/she/it/
 simPle                    they had been kissed               they had not been kissed         we/they been kissed?

 Past PerfeCt            • I/you/he/she/it/we/              • I/you/he/she/it/we/            • *had I/you/he/she/it/
 Progressive               they *had been being               they *had not been being         we/they been being
 (continuous)              kissed                             kissed                           kissed?

 future simPle           • I/you/he/she/it/we/              • I/you/he/she/it/we/            • Will I/you/he/she/it/
                           they will be kissed                they will not be kissed          we/they be kissed?
 future                  • I/you/he/she/it/we/              • I/you/he/she/it/we/            • Will I/you/he/she/it/
 Progressive               they *will be being kissed         they *will not be being          we/they be being kissed?
 (continuous)                                                 kissed

 future PerfeCt          • I/you/he/she/it/we/              • I/you/he/she/it/we/            • Will I/you/he/she/it/
 simPle                    they will have been kissed         they will not have been          we/they have been kissed?
                                                              kissed

 future PerfeCt          • I/you/he/she/it/we/              • I/you/he/she/it/we/            • *Will I/you/he/she/it/
 Progressive               they *will have been               they *will have been             we/they have been being
 (continuous)                                                 being kissed?
                           being kissed                                                        kissed?

* You will never need to use these forms!

All progressive forms use a combination of the verb “to be” + the present participle of the relevant verb
E.g. Present progressive        =  combination of the present of the verb “to be”
                                   + present participle of the relevant verb
      Past perfect progressive       =      Combination of the past perfect of the verb “to be”
                                            + present participle of the relevant verb

All passive forms use a combination of the verb “to be” + the past participle of the relevant verb
E.g. Present progressive passive =  combination of the present progressive of the verb “to be”
                                    + the past participle of the relevant verb
      Past simple passive            =      combination of the past simple of the verb “to be”
                                            + the past participle of the relevant verb
     23

				
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