Intro by suchenfz


									Chapter 1: Fitness Professionals,
Coaches, and the Sports Medicine
     Team: Defining Roles

• Growing demand for well-educated,
  professionally trained personnel to
  supervise and oversee recreational sport and
  physical activity
  –   Coaches
  –   Fitness professionals
  –   Recreation specialists
  –   Athletic administrators
  –   Others interested in various aspects of exercise
      and sports science

• Injury is a part of athletics
   – Athletes have a right to expect that those that
     are overseeing their particular view their health
     and safety as a priority
   – Critical to have individuals that are aware of
     both treatment and prevention
      • Should be able to recognize injury, provide basic
        medical assistance and refer injured individual to
        appropriate medical personnel
      • Well-trained professionals are not always healthcare
        professionals and may be in violation if they attempt
        to provide treatment and care

What Is Sports Medicine ?

• Sports medicine refers to a broad field of medical
  practices related to physical activity and sport
   – Defined by American College of Sports Medicine
     (ACSM) as multidisciplinary
   – Includes physiological, biomechanical, psychological
     and pathological phenomena associated with exercise
     and sport
   – Clinical application in these areas is aimed at improving
     and maintaining functional capacities for physical labor
     and support
• Sports medicines generally focuses on areas of
  performance enhancement, injury care and

        Human          Injury
      Performance     Management

Exercise Physiology    Practice of Medicine

Biomechanics           Sports Physical Therapy

Sport Psychology       Athletic Training

Sports Nutrition

Sports Massage

The Players on the Sports
     Medicine Team

• Provision of healthcare requires a group
  effort to be most effective
• Involves a number of individuals
• Each member of the team must perform
  specific functions relative to caring for the
  injured athlete

      How does the Fitness
    Professional Relate to the
     Sports Medicine Team?
• Focus of the group is on improving
• Argument can be made that by an athlete
  achieving a higher level of fitness, injuries
  are less likely to occur
• The relationship between performance
  enhancement and injury prevention is
• Personal Fitness Trainer
  – Responsible for designing a comprehensive
    exercise program to meet an individuals needs
    and goals while also considering a person’s
    health history
  – Field emerged in the 1970’s and expanded
    tremendously in the 1980’s
     • Become an incredibly fast growing and expansive
     • Work with all types of individuals
  – No single standard qualification for a person to
    practice as a fitness trainer

– Four primary organizations
   • American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)
   • National Academy of Sports Medicine (NASM)
   • National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA)
   • American Council on Exercise (ACE)
   • These organizations have specific requirements,
     mandatory testing/retesting, renewal periods, and
     continuing education
   • Some even require a formal educational degree in
     exercise science or another related field
– All personal fitness trainers should be certified in
  CPR and in basic First Aid (Red Cross, National
  Safety Council or American Heart Association)

– Strongest growth segment of the fitness
– Providing increasing services in post-
  rehabilitation training, sports conditioning,
  special medical needs, and weight management
– Working with a variety of client populations

• Strength & Conditioning Coaches
  – Oversee fitness of an athlete
  – Often employed at the collegiate level for both
    team and individual training sessions
  – Typically certified by the NSCA
  – All strength & conditioning coaches should be
    certified in CPR and in basic First Aid (Red
    Cross, National Safety Council or American
    Heart Association)
  – Must work with the athletic trainer when it
    comes to modifying a strength training program
    relative to injury

– Strength & conditioning coaches are typically
  not available at the high school level
   • The athletic trainer or team coach typically assume
     this roles in these situations
   • Will require both program development and
     overseeing the weight room

    How does a Recreation
 Specialist Relate to the Sports
       Medicine Team?
• A recreation specialist plans, organizes, and
  oversees leisure activities and athletic
  programs in local recreation camp and park
  areas; in playground; in health clubs and
  fitness centers; in the workplace; and in
  theme parks
• Required to ensure that the environment is
• Should an injury occur to a participant, they
  should be able to provide immediate and
  correct first aid and then refer for additional
  medical assistance
• All recreation specialist should be certified
  in CPR and in basic First Aid (Red Cross,
  National Safety Council or American Heart

• Recreation and Parks Directors
  – Serve as an advisor to local and state recreation
    and park commissions to manage
    comprehensive recreation programs in a variety
    of setting
  – Develop budgets for recreation programs
• Recreation supervisors
  – Serve as liaisons between parks director and
    recreation leaders
  – Plan, organize and manage various activities;
    may also direct special activities or events
• Recreation leaders
  – Responsible for daily operations of the
    recreation program                                  .
• Activity specialist
  – Provide instruction and coach groups in specialties
    (i.e. swimming or tennis)
• Camp counselor
  – Lead and instruct campers in outdoor-oriented
    forms of recreation
• Recreational therapist
  – Work in acute healthcare settings; working to treat
    and rehabilitate individuals with specific health
  – Utilize leisure activities to improve and maintain
    client’s general health and well-being
  – May also provide interventions that help to prevent
    further medical problems                              .
   The Role of the Athletic
  Administrator in the Sports
      Medicine Team
• Has a significant impact on the sports
  medicine team
• Responsible for hiring personnel
  (i.e. coaches, ATCs, strength coaches,
  nutritionists, team physician)
  – Must be sure that all individuals have the
    necessary credentials and are willing to work as
    a team
• Must also oversee and develop policies &
  procedures, risk management plan, and
  emergency action plans
• Responsible for the budget and for funding
  all aspects of an athletic healthcare program
  – Salaries, supplies, equipment, insurance
• Commitment of the administrator can have
  a tremendous impact on the success of the
  athletic program

Role of the Coach in the Sports
        Medicine Team
• Coach must be aware of the responsibilities
  of each individual associated with the team
  – If there is no athletic trainer, this becomes even
    more critical
• Coach must understand limits of their
  ability to function as a health care provider
  in the state in which they are employed
• All coaches should be certified in CPR and
  in basic First Aid (Red Cross, National
  Safety Council or American Heart
  Association)                                           .
          Role of the Coach cont.
• Construct injury prevention      • Possess appropriate coaching
  conditioning programs              licenses and certifications
• Must provide high quality and    • Have understanding of skill
  properly fit protective            techniques and environmental
  equipment                          factors associated with sport
• Apply proper first aid if        • Continuing education
  necessary                        • Function as a coach
• Be CPR and First Aid certified

   Roles and Responsibilities of
       the Athletic Trainer
• Work with athletes from time of injury to
• Directly responsible for all phases of health
  care in an athletic environment
• May be employed in a variety of settings
  –   Colleges/Universities/Secondary schools
  –   Sports medicine clinics / Corporate settings
  –   Amateur/Professional athletics
  –   Military/NASA
  –   Equipments sales/marketing
• Must have extensive background in formal
  academic preparation and supervised
  practical experience
• Guidelines are set Board of Certification
  – Both in academic coursework and clinical
• Upon meeting the educational guidelines
  applicants are eligible to sit for the
• Upon passing the certification examination
  = BOC certification as an athletic trainer
  – Credential of ATC
• Injury prevention            • Treatment, rehabilitation
   – Ensure appropriate          and reconditioning
     training, monitor            – Knowledge of equipment,
     environment, nutrition,        manual therapy, therapeutic
     maintain & fitting             modalities
     equipment, appropriate    • Organization &
     use of medication           administration
• Recognition, evaluation,        – Budgeting, inventory, injury
                                    records, supervision of
  assessment of injuries            assistants and students,
• Immediate care of                 dealing with insurance
  injuries and illnesses
   – (Minimum of CPR and       • Professional responsibility
     First Aid)                   – Educating the public
                                    through seminars, research
                                    & providing good care

  Responsibilities of the Team
• Athletic trainer works under direct
  supervision of physician
• Physician assumes a number of roles
  – Serves to advise and supervise ATC
• Physician and ATC must be able to work

• Compiling medical histories and conducting
  physical exams
  – Pre-participation screening
• Diagnosing injury
• Deciding on disqualifications
  – Physician must have the final say on when the
    athlete should return to activity
• Attending practice and games
• It is imperative that the team physician
  promote and maintain consistently high
  quality care
    Relationship Between the
   Sports Medicine Team and
• Primary concern should be that of the
  – All individuals must work cooperatively in the
    best interest of the athlete
  – Coach should differ to the medical staff and
    support decisions regarding athlete health care
• Close communication between all parties
  involved is critical

• All parties must work to develop solid
  working relationship
• Each member will have to gain trust and
  confidence in the skills and abilities of each
• Imperative that the athlete is kept well-
  – Coach and ATC must make a point of
    educating the student-athlete

 Family and the Sports Medicine
• Parents will also be involved at the high school
  and junior high school level
  – Parent’s decision must be of a primary
• Athletic trainer must be prepared to deal with
  multiple healthcare providers at parents request
  – May be dictated via parent’s insurance plan
• Must also be sure that athlete and family are
  familiar with Health Insurance Portability and
  Accountability Act (HIPAA)
    Other Members of the Sports
          Medicine Team
• Physicians              • Exercise Physiologist
• Dentist                 • Biomechanist
• Podiatrist              • Nutritionist
• Nurse                   • Sport Psychologist
• Physicians Assistant    • Emergency Medical
• Sports Chiropractors    Specialists
• Physical Therapist      • Strength & Conditioning
• Massage Therapist       Coach
• Orthotist/prosthetist   • Referees
• Equipment Personnel

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