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					Chapter 1: Fitness Professionals,
Coaches, and the Sports Medicine
     Team: Defining Roles




                                    .
• Growing demand for well-educated,
  professionally trained personnel to
  supervise and oversee recreational sport and
  physical activity
  –   Coaches
  –   Fitness professionals
  –   Recreation specialists
  –   Athletic administrators
  –   Others interested in various aspects of exercise
      and sports science



                                                         .
• Injury is a part of athletics
   – Athletes have a right to expect that those that
     are overseeing their particular view their health
     and safety as a priority
   – Critical to have individuals that are aware of
     both treatment and prevention
      • Should be able to recognize injury, provide basic
        medical assistance and refer injured individual to
        appropriate medical personnel
      • Well-trained professionals are not always healthcare
        professionals and may be in violation if they attempt
        to provide treatment and care



                                                                .
What Is Sports Medicine ?




                            .
• Sports medicine refers to a broad field of medical
  practices related to physical activity and sport
   – Defined by American College of Sports Medicine
     (ACSM) as multidisciplinary
   – Includes physiological, biomechanical, psychological
     and pathological phenomena associated with exercise
     and sport
   – Clinical application in these areas is aimed at improving
     and maintaining functional capacities for physical labor
     and support
• Sports medicines generally focuses on areas of
  performance enhancement, injury care and
  prevention,

                                                                 .
        Human          Injury
      Performance     Management

Exercise Physiology    Practice of Medicine

Biomechanics           Sports Physical Therapy

Sport Psychology       Athletic Training

Sports Nutrition

Sports Massage

                                                 .
The Players on the Sports
     Medicine Team




                            .
• Provision of healthcare requires a group
  effort to be most effective
• Involves a number of individuals
• Each member of the team must perform
  specific functions relative to caring for the
  injured athlete




                                                  .
      How does the Fitness
    Professional Relate to the
     Sports Medicine Team?
• Focus of the group is on improving
  performance
• Argument can be made that by an athlete
  achieving a higher level of fitness, injuries
  are less likely to occur
• The relationship between performance
  enhancement and injury prevention is
  critical
                                                  .
• Personal Fitness Trainer
  – Responsible for designing a comprehensive
    exercise program to meet an individuals needs
    and goals while also considering a person’s
    health history
  – Field emerged in the 1970’s and expanded
    tremendously in the 1980’s
     • Become an incredibly fast growing and expansive
       field
     • Work with all types of individuals
  – No single standard qualification for a person to
    practice as a fitness trainer

                                                         .
– Four primary organizations
   • American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)
   • National Academy of Sports Medicine (NASM)
   • National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA)
   • American Council on Exercise (ACE)
   • These organizations have specific requirements,
     mandatory testing/retesting, renewal periods, and
     continuing education
   • Some even require a formal educational degree in
     exercise science or another related field
– All personal fitness trainers should be certified in
  CPR and in basic First Aid (Red Cross, National
  Safety Council or American Heart Association)

                                                             .
– Strongest growth segment of the fitness
  industry
– Providing increasing services in post-
  rehabilitation training, sports conditioning,
  special medical needs, and weight management
– Working with a variety of client populations




                                                  .
• Strength & Conditioning Coaches
  – Oversee fitness of an athlete
  – Often employed at the collegiate level for both
    team and individual training sessions
  – Typically certified by the NSCA
  – All strength & conditioning coaches should be
    certified in CPR and in basic First Aid (Red
    Cross, National Safety Council or American
    Heart Association)
  – Must work with the athletic trainer when it
    comes to modifying a strength training program
    relative to injury

                                                      .
– Strength & conditioning coaches are typically
  not available at the high school level
   • The athletic trainer or team coach typically assume
     this roles in these situations
   • Will require both program development and
     overseeing the weight room




                                                           .
    How does a Recreation
 Specialist Relate to the Sports
       Medicine Team?
• A recreation specialist plans, organizes, and
  oversees leisure activities and athletic
  programs in local recreation camp and park
  areas; in playground; in health clubs and
  fitness centers; in the workplace; and in
  theme parks
• Required to ensure that the environment is
  safe.
                                                  .
• Should an injury occur to a participant, they
  should be able to provide immediate and
  correct first aid and then refer for additional
  medical assistance
• All recreation specialist should be certified
  in CPR and in basic First Aid (Red Cross,
  National Safety Council or American Heart
  Association)




                                                    .
• Recreation and Parks Directors
  – Serve as an advisor to local and state recreation
    and park commissions to manage
    comprehensive recreation programs in a variety
    of setting
  – Develop budgets for recreation programs
• Recreation supervisors
  – Serve as liaisons between parks director and
    recreation leaders
  – Plan, organize and manage various activities;
    may also direct special activities or events
• Recreation leaders
  – Responsible for daily operations of the
    recreation program                                  .
• Activity specialist
  – Provide instruction and coach groups in specialties
    (i.e. swimming or tennis)
• Camp counselor
  – Lead and instruct campers in outdoor-oriented
    forms of recreation
• Recreational therapist
  – Work in acute healthcare settings; working to treat
    and rehabilitate individuals with specific health
    conditions
  – Utilize leisure activities to improve and maintain
    client’s general health and well-being
  – May also provide interventions that help to prevent
    further medical problems                              .
   The Role of the Athletic
  Administrator in the Sports
      Medicine Team
• Has a significant impact on the sports
  medicine team
• Responsible for hiring personnel
  (i.e. coaches, ATCs, strength coaches,
  nutritionists, team physician)
  – Must be sure that all individuals have the
    necessary credentials and are willing to work as
    a team
                                                       .
• Must also oversee and develop policies &
  procedures, risk management plan, and
  emergency action plans
• Responsible for the budget and for funding
  all aspects of an athletic healthcare program
  – Salaries, supplies, equipment, insurance
• Commitment of the administrator can have
  a tremendous impact on the success of the
  athletic program

                                                  .
Role of the Coach in the Sports
        Medicine Team
• Coach must be aware of the responsibilities
  of each individual associated with the team
  – If there is no athletic trainer, this becomes even
    more critical
• Coach must understand limits of their
  ability to function as a health care provider
  in the state in which they are employed
• All coaches should be certified in CPR and
  in basic First Aid (Red Cross, National
  Safety Council or American Heart
  Association)                                           .
          Role of the Coach cont.
• Construct injury prevention      • Possess appropriate coaching
  conditioning programs              licenses and certifications
• Must provide high quality and    • Have understanding of skill
  properly fit protective            techniques and environmental
  equipment                          factors associated with sport
• Apply proper first aid if        • Continuing education
  necessary                        • Function as a coach
• Be CPR and First Aid certified




                                                                     .
   Roles and Responsibilities of
       the Athletic Trainer
• Work with athletes from time of injury to
  resolution
• Directly responsible for all phases of health
  care in an athletic environment
• May be employed in a variety of settings
  –   Colleges/Universities/Secondary schools
  –   Sports medicine clinics / Corporate settings
  –   Amateur/Professional athletics
  –   Military/NASA
  –   Equipments sales/marketing
                                                     .
• Must have extensive background in formal
  academic preparation and supervised
  practical experience
• Guidelines are set Board of Certification
  – Both in academic coursework and clinical
    experience
• Upon meeting the educational guidelines
  applicants are eligible to sit for the
  examination
• Upon passing the certification examination
  = BOC certification as an athletic trainer
  – Credential of ATC
                                               .
• Injury prevention            • Treatment, rehabilitation
   – Ensure appropriate          and reconditioning
     training, monitor            – Knowledge of equipment,
     environment, nutrition,        manual therapy, therapeutic
     maintain & fitting             modalities
     equipment, appropriate    • Organization &
     use of medication           administration
• Recognition, evaluation,        – Budgeting, inventory, injury
                                    records, supervision of
  assessment of injuries            assistants and students,
• Immediate care of                 dealing with insurance
                                    matters
  injuries and illnesses
   – (Minimum of CPR and       • Professional responsibility
     First Aid)                   – Educating the public
                                    through seminars, research
                                    & providing good care

                                                                 .
  Responsibilities of the Team
          Physician
• Athletic trainer works under direct
  supervision of physician
• Physician assumes a number of roles
  – Serves to advise and supervise ATC
• Physician and ATC must be able to work
  together



                                           .
• Compiling medical histories and conducting
  physical exams
  – Pre-participation screening
• Diagnosing injury
• Deciding on disqualifications
  – Physician must have the final say on when the
    athlete should return to activity
• Attending practice and games
• It is imperative that the team physician
  promote and maintain consistently high
  quality care
                                                    .
    Relationship Between the
   Sports Medicine Team and
             Athlete
• Primary concern should be that of the
  athlete
  – All individuals must work cooperatively in the
    best interest of the athlete
  – Coach should differ to the medical staff and
    support decisions regarding athlete health care
• Close communication between all parties
  involved is critical

                                                      .
• All parties must work to develop solid
  working relationship
• Each member will have to gain trust and
  confidence in the skills and abilities of each
  other
• Imperative that the athlete is kept well-
  informed
  – Coach and ATC must make a point of
    educating the student-athlete


                                                   .
 Family and the Sports Medicine
             Team
• Parents will also be involved at the high school
  and junior high school level
  – Parent’s decision must be of a primary
    consideration
• Athletic trainer must be prepared to deal with
  multiple healthcare providers at parents request
  – May be dictated via parent’s insurance plan
• Must also be sure that athlete and family are
  familiar with Health Insurance Portability and
  Accountability Act (HIPAA)
                                                     .
    Other Members of the Sports
          Medicine Team
• Physicians              • Exercise Physiologist
• Dentist                 • Biomechanist
• Podiatrist              • Nutritionist
• Nurse                   • Sport Psychologist
• Physicians Assistant    • Emergency Medical
• Sports Chiropractors    Specialists
• Physical Therapist      • Strength & Conditioning
• Massage Therapist       Coach
• Orthotist/prosthetist   • Referees
• Equipment Personnel
                                                  .

				
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posted:6/9/2011
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