Chapter 1: Fitness Professionals, Coaches, and the Sports Medicine Team: Defining Roles . • Growing demand for well-educated, professionally trained personnel to supervise and oversee recreational sport and physical activity – Coaches – Fitness professionals – Recreation specialists – Athletic administrators – Others interested in various aspects of exercise and sports science . • Injury is a part of athletics – Athletes have a right to expect that those that are overseeing their particular view their health and safety as a priority – Critical to have individuals that are aware of both treatment and prevention • Should be able to recognize injury, provide basic medical assistance and refer injured individual to appropriate medical personnel • Well-trained professionals are not always healthcare professionals and may be in violation if they attempt to provide treatment and care . What Is Sports Medicine ? . • Sports medicine refers to a broad field of medical practices related to physical activity and sport – Defined by American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) as multidisciplinary – Includes physiological, biomechanical, psychological and pathological phenomena associated with exercise and sport – Clinical application in these areas is aimed at improving and maintaining functional capacities for physical labor and support • Sports medicines generally focuses on areas of performance enhancement, injury care and prevention, . Human Injury Performance Management Exercise Physiology Practice of Medicine Biomechanics Sports Physical Therapy Sport Psychology Athletic Training Sports Nutrition Sports Massage . The Players on the Sports Medicine Team . • Provision of healthcare requires a group effort to be most effective • Involves a number of individuals • Each member of the team must perform specific functions relative to caring for the injured athlete . How does the Fitness Professional Relate to the Sports Medicine Team? • Focus of the group is on improving performance • Argument can be made that by an athlete achieving a higher level of fitness, injuries are less likely to occur • The relationship between performance enhancement and injury prevention is critical . • Personal Fitness Trainer – Responsible for designing a comprehensive exercise program to meet an individuals needs and goals while also considering a person’s health history – Field emerged in the 1970’s and expanded tremendously in the 1980’s • Become an incredibly fast growing and expansive field • Work with all types of individuals – No single standard qualification for a person to practice as a fitness trainer . – Four primary organizations • American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) • National Academy of Sports Medicine (NASM) • National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) • American Council on Exercise (ACE) • These organizations have specific requirements, mandatory testing/retesting, renewal periods, and continuing education • Some even require a formal educational degree in exercise science or another related field – All personal fitness trainers should be certified in CPR and in basic First Aid (Red Cross, National Safety Council or American Heart Association) . – Strongest growth segment of the fitness industry – Providing increasing services in post- rehabilitation training, sports conditioning, special medical needs, and weight management – Working with a variety of client populations . • Strength & Conditioning Coaches – Oversee fitness of an athlete – Often employed at the collegiate level for both team and individual training sessions – Typically certified by the NSCA – All strength & conditioning coaches should be certified in CPR and in basic First Aid (Red Cross, National Safety Council or American Heart Association) – Must work with the athletic trainer when it comes to modifying a strength training program relative to injury . – Strength & conditioning coaches are typically not available at the high school level • The athletic trainer or team coach typically assume this roles in these situations • Will require both program development and overseeing the weight room . How does a Recreation Specialist Relate to the Sports Medicine Team? • A recreation specialist plans, organizes, and oversees leisure activities and athletic programs in local recreation camp and park areas; in playground; in health clubs and fitness centers; in the workplace; and in theme parks • Required to ensure that the environment is safe. . • Should an injury occur to a participant, they should be able to provide immediate and correct first aid and then refer for additional medical assistance • All recreation specialist should be certified in CPR and in basic First Aid (Red Cross, National Safety Council or American Heart Association) . • Recreation and Parks Directors – Serve as an advisor to local and state recreation and park commissions to manage comprehensive recreation programs in a variety of setting – Develop budgets for recreation programs • Recreation supervisors – Serve as liaisons between parks director and recreation leaders – Plan, organize and manage various activities; may also direct special activities or events • Recreation leaders – Responsible for daily operations of the recreation program . • Activity specialist – Provide instruction and coach groups in specialties (i.e. swimming or tennis) • Camp counselor – Lead and instruct campers in outdoor-oriented forms of recreation • Recreational therapist – Work in acute healthcare settings; working to treat and rehabilitate individuals with specific health conditions – Utilize leisure activities to improve and maintain client’s general health and well-being – May also provide interventions that help to prevent further medical problems . The Role of the Athletic Administrator in the Sports Medicine Team • Has a significant impact on the sports medicine team • Responsible for hiring personnel (i.e. coaches, ATCs, strength coaches, nutritionists, team physician) – Must be sure that all individuals have the necessary credentials and are willing to work as a team . • Must also oversee and develop policies & procedures, risk management plan, and emergency action plans • Responsible for the budget and for funding all aspects of an athletic healthcare program – Salaries, supplies, equipment, insurance • Commitment of the administrator can have a tremendous impact on the success of the athletic program . Role of the Coach in the Sports Medicine Team • Coach must be aware of the responsibilities of each individual associated with the team – If there is no athletic trainer, this becomes even more critical • Coach must understand limits of their ability to function as a health care provider in the state in which they are employed • All coaches should be certified in CPR and in basic First Aid (Red Cross, National Safety Council or American Heart Association) . Role of the Coach cont. • Construct injury prevention • Possess appropriate coaching conditioning programs licenses and certifications • Must provide high quality and • Have understanding of skill properly fit protective techniques and environmental equipment factors associated with sport • Apply proper first aid if • Continuing education necessary • Function as a coach • Be CPR and First Aid certified . Roles and Responsibilities of the Athletic Trainer • Work with athletes from time of injury to resolution • Directly responsible for all phases of health care in an athletic environment • May be employed in a variety of settings – Colleges/Universities/Secondary schools – Sports medicine clinics / Corporate settings – Amateur/Professional athletics – Military/NASA – Equipments sales/marketing . • Must have extensive background in formal academic preparation and supervised practical experience • Guidelines are set Board of Certification – Both in academic coursework and clinical experience • Upon meeting the educational guidelines applicants are eligible to sit for the examination • Upon passing the certification examination = BOC certification as an athletic trainer – Credential of ATC . • Injury prevention • Treatment, rehabilitation – Ensure appropriate and reconditioning training, monitor – Knowledge of equipment, environment, nutrition, manual therapy, therapeutic maintain & fitting modalities equipment, appropriate • Organization & use of medication administration • Recognition, evaluation, – Budgeting, inventory, injury records, supervision of assessment of injuries assistants and students, • Immediate care of dealing with insurance matters injuries and illnesses – (Minimum of CPR and • Professional responsibility First Aid) – Educating the public through seminars, research & providing good care . Responsibilities of the Team Physician • Athletic trainer works under direct supervision of physician • Physician assumes a number of roles – Serves to advise and supervise ATC • Physician and ATC must be able to work together . • Compiling medical histories and conducting physical exams – Pre-participation screening • Diagnosing injury • Deciding on disqualifications – Physician must have the final say on when the athlete should return to activity • Attending practice and games • It is imperative that the team physician promote and maintain consistently high quality care . Relationship Between the Sports Medicine Team and Athlete • Primary concern should be that of the athlete – All individuals must work cooperatively in the best interest of the athlete – Coach should differ to the medical staff and support decisions regarding athlete health care • Close communication between all parties involved is critical . • All parties must work to develop solid working relationship • Each member will have to gain trust and confidence in the skills and abilities of each other • Imperative that the athlete is kept well- informed – Coach and ATC must make a point of educating the student-athlete . Family and the Sports Medicine Team • Parents will also be involved at the high school and junior high school level – Parent’s decision must be of a primary consideration • Athletic trainer must be prepared to deal with multiple healthcare providers at parents request – May be dictated via parent’s insurance plan • Must also be sure that athlete and family are familiar with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) . Other Members of the Sports Medicine Team • Physicians • Exercise Physiologist • Dentist • Biomechanist • Podiatrist • Nutritionist • Nurse • Sport Psychologist • Physicians Assistant • Emergency Medical • Sports Chiropractors Specialists • Physical Therapist • Strength & Conditioning • Massage Therapist Coach • Orthotist/prosthetist • Referees • Equipment Personnel .