Video Modeling

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					                  Catherine Taylor
Caldwell College Graduate Programs in Applied Behavior Analysis
What is Video Modeling?
“The occurrence of a behavior by an
 observer that is similar to the
 behavior shown by a model on a
                  -Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004, p. 93
“A behavioral technique that uses
 videotapes…target behaviors in order
 to expand the learner’s capability to
 memorize, imitate, and generalize or
 adapt targeted behaviors”
                       -McCoy, & Hermansen,2007, p. 183
Effects of Video Modeling on Social
Initiations by Children with Autism
       (Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004)

   Nikopoulos                Keenan
Effects of Video Modeling on Social
Initiations by Children with Autism
               (Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004)

 Children with autism make or accept fewer social initiations
  and spend more time playing alone compared to their
  typically developing peers (Koegel, et al., 2001)
 Video modeling is a method for promoting social skills
  (LeBlanc, et al., 2003)

 Examine effects of video modeling on social initiation and
  reciprocal play
             (Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004)

 3 boys diagnosed with autism, 7-9 yrs old

 Video model one room
 Social initiations and play measured in another room
               (Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004)

                     Stimulus Materials
 4 toys
     Ball, trampoline, tambourines and a game
     All familiar with the toys
 Video tape
     Typically developing peer (model) enters room with the
     Experimenter sits in chair opposite the toys
     Child takes experimenter by hand and says “Lets play”
     Both play with toy closest to the experimenter’s chair for about
      15 seconds
                (Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004)
                    Response Measurements
 Social Initiation
     Child approaching the experimenter
     Emitting a vocal (“Let’s play”) or gestural (taking hand) behavior
     Leading experimenter to the toy
 Reciprocal Play
   Child engaged in appropriate reciprocal toy play with the
   Session terminated by the participants (i.e. walk away, say “all done”)
    or 5 min maximum

 Latency to social initiation and total duration of reciprocal
                       play were recorded
                  Multiple baseline across subjects
 Baseline
    Child and experimenter enter room
    Experimenter sits in seat across from toys
    All toys present
    Rotation of toys located by the experimenter’s seat
 Video modeling
    Condition B1: View of video before entering room
        If social initiation occur within 25sec 3 consecutive sessions during
         each condition  Condition C
        If not Condition B2
    Condition B2: Simplified video. No play model
    Condition C (generalization):
      Removal of toy depicted in video and 2 other toys.
      See if respond with different toy then in video.

 Follow up 1 and 3 months after final measurements
 Baseline:
    No social initiation or reciprocal play
 Condition B1:
    1 child engaged in social initiation and reciprocal play
 Condition B2:
    Other 2 children engaged in social initiation and reciprocal
 Condition C:
    1 child engaged in social initiation and play (generalized)
    Other 2 children social initiation only to play with modeled
 Duration of reciprocal play increased for all
    More so in 3-month then 1-month follow up
 Latencies to social initiation were low in follow-up
 Social initiations as well as reciprocal play skills can be
  taught to children with autism using video modeling.

 These skills appear to maintain for at least 3 months
  following teaching.
Possible Stimulus Control Issues
Reinforcer Preference Assessment Not Conducted
  How were items chosen?
  Trained on one item, expected to generalize skills to
  other 3 toys

   How Well do the Participants Play with the Toys?

  Jumping on a trampoline vs. game
  Ability could reflect on EO to initiate and play
 Possible Stimulus Control Issues
What Possibly Contributed to the Ability of SDs to Gain
                Control Over Behavior?
 Item’s proximity to the chair
    Video model always chose one closest to experimenter
    Positional prompt
 Placement of Toys
    Always in similar places
 Experimenter
   No mention of generalization to other individuals
 Room
    No other room used
 Possible Stimulus Control Issues
  Removal of Toys During Condition-C May have
    Contributed to the Increase in Play Results
 Perhaps create EO for the non-removed toy
   No other toys to play with
 Tweak-out: During initial baseline contains removal of
 all but one of the toys.
            Other Considerations
      Influences on the Effects of Video Modeling
 Participants’ Imitation Skills
   Previous study by Nikopoulos and Keenan (2003), state
    that social initiation was “dependent on imitation skills”
    (p. 102)
 Preference of watching videos
 Many different ways to conduct
   When/how reinforced?
          Other Considerations
 What is ‘Reinforcement’ for Desired Behaviors?
 Toys?
 Social interaction?
 Is access to toys blocked with out social interaction?
 What would you want the stimulus control to be for
 child initiating and then playing with you?
 Keogel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Frea, W. D., & Fredeen, R. M. (2001).
    Identifying early intervention target for children with autism in
    inclusive school settings. Behavior Modification, 25, 754-761.
   LeBlanc, L. A., Coates, A. M., Daneshvar, S., Charlop-Christy, M.
    H., Morris, C., & Lancaster, B. M. (2003). Using video modeling
    and reinforcement to teach perspective-taking skills to children
    with autism. Journal of applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 253-257.
   McCoy, K. & Hermansen, E. (2007). Video modeling for
    individuals with autism: A review of model types and effects.
    Education and Treatment of Children, 30, 183-213.
   Nikopoulos, C. K., & Keenan, M. (2003). Promoting social
    initiation in children with autism using video modeling.
    Behavioral Interventions, 18, 87-108.
   Nikopoulos, C. K., & Keenan, M. (2004). Effects of video
    modeling on social initiations by children with Autism. Journal
    of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 93-96.
    Other Interesting Articles About Video Modeling
 Buggey, T. (2005). Video self-modeling applications with students with
    autism spectrum disorders in a small private school. Focus on Autism and
    Other Developmental Disabilities, 20, 52-63.
   Charlop, M. H., & Milstein, J. P. (1989). Teaching autistic children
    conversational speech using video modeling. Journal of Applied Behavior
    Analysis, 22, 275-285.
   Charlop-Christy, & M. H., Daneshvar, S. (2003). Using video modeling to
    teach perspective taking to children with autism. Journal of Positive
    Behavior Interventions, 5, 12-21.
   D’Ateno, P., Mangiapanello, K., & Taylor, B. A. (2003). Using video
    modeling to teach complex play sequences to a preschooler with autism.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5, 5-11.
   Reeve, S. A., Reeve, K. F., & Townsend, D. B. (2007). Establishing a
    generalized repertoire of helping behavior in children with autism. Journal
    of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 123-126.
   Taylor, B. A. Levin, L., & Jasper, S. (1999). Increasing play-related
    statements in children with autism toward their siblings: Effects of video
    modeling. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 11, 253-264.