Catherine Taylor Caldwell College Graduate Programs in Applied Behavior Analysis What is Video Modeling? “The occurrence of a behavior by an observer that is similar to the behavior shown by a model on a videotape” -Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004, p. 93 “A behavioral technique that uses videotapes…target behaviors in order to expand the learner’s capability to memorize, imitate, and generalize or adapt targeted behaviors” -McCoy, & Hermansen,2007, p. 183 Effects of Video Modeling on Social Initiations by Children with Autism (Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004) Nikopoulos Keenan Effects of Video Modeling on Social Initiations by Children with Autism (Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004) Background Children with autism make or accept fewer social initiations and spend more time playing alone compared to their typically developing peers (Koegel, et al., 2001) Video modeling is a method for promoting social skills (LeBlanc, et al., 2003) Purpose Examine effects of video modeling on social initiation and reciprocal play Method (Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004) Participants 3 boys diagnosed with autism, 7-9 yrs old Setting Video model one room Social initiations and play measured in another room Method (Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004) Stimulus Materials 4 toys Ball, trampoline, tambourines and a game All familiar with the toys Video tape Typically developing peer (model) enters room with the experimenter Experimenter sits in chair opposite the toys Child takes experimenter by hand and says “Lets play” Both play with toy closest to the experimenter’s chair for about 15 seconds Method (Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004) Response Measurements Social Initiation Child approaching the experimenter Emitting a vocal (“Let’s play”) or gestural (taking hand) behavior Leading experimenter to the toy Reciprocal Play Child engaged in appropriate reciprocal toy play with the experimenter Session terminated by the participants (i.e. walk away, say “all done”) or 5 min maximum Latency to social initiation and total duration of reciprocal play were recorded Procedure Multiple baseline across subjects Baseline Child and experimenter enter room Experimenter sits in seat across from toys All toys present Rotation of toys located by the experimenter’s seat Video modeling Condition B1: View of video before entering room If social initiation occur within 25sec 3 consecutive sessions during each condition Condition C If not Condition B2 Condition B2: Simplified video. No play model Condition C (generalization): Removal of toy depicted in video and 2 other toys. See if respond with different toy then in video. Follow up 1 and 3 months after final measurements Results Baseline: No social initiation or reciprocal play Condition B1: 1 child engaged in social initiation and reciprocal play Condition B2: Other 2 children engaged in social initiation and reciprocal play Condition C: 1 child engaged in social initiation and play (generalized) Other 2 children social initiation only to play with modeled toy Duration of reciprocal play increased for all More so in 3-month then 1-month follow up Latencies to social initiation were low in follow-up Implications Social initiations as well as reciprocal play skills can be taught to children with autism using video modeling. These skills appear to maintain for at least 3 months following teaching. Possible Stimulus Control Issues Reinforcer Preference Assessment Not Conducted How were items chosen? Trained on one item, expected to generalize skills to other 3 toys How Well do the Participants Play with the Toys? Jumping on a trampoline vs. game Ability could reflect on EO to initiate and play Possible Stimulus Control Issues What Possibly Contributed to the Ability of SDs to Gain Control Over Behavior? Item’s proximity to the chair Video model always chose one closest to experimenter Positional prompt Placement of Toys Always in similar places Experimenter No mention of generalization to other individuals Room No other room used Possible Stimulus Control Issues Removal of Toys During Condition-C May have Contributed to the Increase in Play Results Perhaps create EO for the non-removed toy No other toys to play with Tweak-out: During initial baseline contains removal of all but one of the toys. Other Considerations Influences on the Effects of Video Modeling Participants’ Imitation Skills Previous study by Nikopoulos and Keenan (2003), state that social initiation was “dependent on imitation skills” (p. 102) Preference of watching videos Many different ways to conduct When/how reinforced? Other Considerations What is ‘Reinforcement’ for Desired Behaviors? Toys? Social interaction? Is access to toys blocked with out social interaction? What would you want the stimulus control to be for child initiating and then playing with you? References Keogel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Frea, W. D., & Fredeen, R. M. (2001). Identifying early intervention target for children with autism in inclusive school settings. Behavior Modification, 25, 754-761. LeBlanc, L. A., Coates, A. M., Daneshvar, S., Charlop-Christy, M. H., Morris, C., & Lancaster, B. M. (2003). Using video modeling and reinforcement to teach perspective-taking skills to children with autism. Journal of applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 253-257. McCoy, K. & Hermansen, E. (2007). Video modeling for individuals with autism: A review of model types and effects. Education and Treatment of Children, 30, 183-213. Nikopoulos, C. K., & Keenan, M. (2003). Promoting social initiation in children with autism using video modeling. Behavioral Interventions, 18, 87-108. Nikopoulos, C. K., & Keenan, M. (2004). Effects of video modeling on social initiations by children with Autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 93-96. Other Interesting Articles About Video Modeling Buggey, T. (2005). Video self-modeling applications with students with autism spectrum disorders in a small private school. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20, 52-63. Charlop, M. H., & Milstein, J. P. (1989). Teaching autistic children conversational speech using video modeling. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22, 275-285. Charlop-Christy, & M. H., Daneshvar, S. (2003). Using video modeling to teach perspective taking to children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5, 12-21. D’Ateno, P., Mangiapanello, K., & Taylor, B. A. (2003). Using video modeling to teach complex play sequences to a preschooler with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5, 5-11. Reeve, S. A., Reeve, K. F., & Townsend, D. B. (2007). Establishing a generalized repertoire of helping behavior in children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 123-126. Taylor, B. A. Levin, L., & Jasper, S. (1999). Increasing play-related statements in children with autism toward their siblings: Effects of video modeling. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 11, 253-264. Questions?