# lighting

Document Sample

```					                                Sports
Lighting

Mei, Danny, Jonathan, Karen, and Mike
MA721 Final Project
Outline

• Sports Lighting Basics - Mike
• Uniformity Optimization Model - Danny
• Model Results - Jonathan
Basics

•   Terminology
•   Lighting Geometry Issues
•   Photometric Data
•   Aiming Diagrams
Definitions

• CANDELA, CD: the SI unit of luminous
intensity. One candela is one lumen per
• Luminaire: A general term for a complete
lighting unit. It includes the housing, the
reflector, lens and lamps. (Colloquial terms
include light, lantern, fixture, unit,
instrument, fitting.)
Definitions
• Lumen: An amount of light energy within an area.
The lumen is the unit of 'luminous flux' and is
defined as the amount of light which falls on one
square metre of a surface at a constant distance of
one metre from a source of one candela.
• LUMEN,LM: SI unit of luminous flux.
power. Photometrically, it is the luminous flux
emitted within a unit solid angle (one steradian) by
a point source having a uniform luminous
intensity of one candela.
Definitions

• LUX,LX: the SI unit of illuminance. One
lux is one lumen per square meter (lm/m2 ).
• NADIR: when used in lighting, the point
directly below the center of the luminaire.
• POINT METHOD: a lighting design
procedure for predetermining the
illuminance at various locations in lighting
installations, by use of luminaire
photometric data.
Definitions

• FOOTCANDLE, FC: the unit of
illuminance when the foot is taken as the
unit of length. It is the illuminance on a
surface one square foot in area on which
there is uniformly distributed flux of one
lumen, or the illuminance produced on a
surface all points of which are at a distance
of one foot from a directionally uniform
point source of one candela.
Glare
Mounting Height, Glare, and
Ceilings
Football
Football

• Combination of aerial and ground play --
requires „adequate‟ lighting to 50 feet above
ground
Acceptable Uniformity

• “…the ratio of maximum to minimum
illumination does not exceed 3 to 1…”
• Because: Flying balls appear to accelerate
on passing from light to dark space --
player‟s judgement of trajectories distorted
Photometric Data
0   0   0   0   0    0     0     0     0      0   0   0      0        0   0        0   0        0   0        0   0

0   0   0   0   0    0     0     0     0      0   0   0      0        0   0        0   0        0   0        0   0

80    0   0   0   0   0    0     0     0     0      0   0   0      0        0   0        0   0        0   0        0   0

0   0   0   0   0    0     0     0     1      0   0   0      0        0   0        0   0        0   0        0   0

60    0   0   0   0   0    0     2     5     6      7   7   6      3        1   1        0   0        0   0        0   0

0   0   0   0   0    2    21    61     96    107 101 88     33        8   3        0   0        0   0        0   0

40    0   0   0   0   0    9    90    264   380    310 249 209    76    24      8        2   0        0   0        0   0

0   0   0   0   2   24    172   439   662    555 472 401    156   44      13       4   0        0   0        0   0

20    0   0   0   0   4   64    206   529   967    976 965 821    283   69      19       6   0        0   0        0   0

0   0   0   0   6   120   208   552   1205   161918321496   420   90      22       6   0        0   0        0   0

0   0   0   0   6   133   214   558   1255   183221471710   448   96      23       6   0        0   0        0   0

0    0   0   0   0   6   120   208   552   1205   161918321496   420   90      22       6   0        0   0        0   0

0   0   0   0   4   64    206   529   967    976 965 821    283   69      19       6   0        0   0        0   0

-20   0   0   0   0   2   24    172   439   662    555 472 401    156   44      13       4   0        0   0        0   0

0   0   0   0   0    9    90    264   380    310 249 209    76    24      8        2   0        0   0        0   0

-40   0   0   0   0   0    2    21    61     96    107 101 88     33        8   3        0   0        0   0        0   0

0   0   0   0   0    0     2     5     6      7   7   6      3        1   1        0   0        0   0        0   0

-60   0   0   0   0   0    0     0     0     1      0   0   0      0        0   0        0   0        0   0        0   0

0   0   0   0   0    0     0     0     0      0   0   0      0        0   0        0   0        0   0        0   0

-80   0   0   0   0   0    0     0     0     0      0   0   0      0        0   0        0   0        0   0        0   0

0   0   0   0   0    0     0     0     0      0   0   0      0        0   0        0   0        0   0        0   0

-80     -60      -40         -20              0              20           40           60           80
Aiming Diagram
Aiming in the Field
View from the Top
IES, 1969

• “Calculation methods make it possible to
pre-determine the foot candle (lux)
distribution provided by any given aiming
pattern. However, because such calculations
are long and tedious, it is general practice to
base spotting or aiming diagrams … on
scale plots of the beam spread and the area
to be lighted, previous calculations, and
practical experience…”
Uniformity Optimization Model

• Mathematical Approach
• Diagrams
Mathematical Approach

2
                  
NumLights       NumLights

Min       I ij ( t ,t )   I kl ( t ,t ) 
1s NumLights( i , j )( k ,l )                   
 s ,s
t 1                 t 1

I 0 ( ij ( ),  ij ( ))
where I ij ( ,  )                        2
Dij
and Dij  ( xij  x0 )  ( yij  y0 )  z0      2               2   2

where the mast is at (x0,y0,z0).
Definition Diagram for Angles

light




base of mast

where the light                             
is pointing

arbitrary point
on the field
Definition Diagram for Angles
and Coordinates
yij  y0
Let q                .
xij  x0
If q  0 then  ij ( )    tan 1 (q).
If q  0 then  ij ( )  180  tan 1 (q)   .
1        ( xij  x0 ) 2  ( yij  y0 ) 2   
 ij ( )  tan                                             .

                                         
z0
Results

•   Virtual Field
•   Effects of Grid Density
•   Least Squares Reduction
•   Effects of Luminare Density
Virtual Field
Virtual Field
Effects of Grid Density

Before                                        After

70                                            70

60                                            60

50                                            50

40                                            40

30                                            30

20
20

10
10

0
0

-10
-10
-20
-20                                                 0   20   40    60     80   100   120
0   20   40     60     80   100   120
Least Squares Reduction

2.70E+01

2.50E+01

2.30E+01

2.10E+01                                       Series1

1.90E+01

1.70E+01

1.50E+01
0    2   4   6   8   10   12   14
Effects of Luminare Density

```
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
 views: 22 posted: 6/8/2011 language: English pages: 32