improve the human resources (HR) by avvank


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									CHAPTER I


A. Background

   In an effort to improve the human resources (HR) quality and competitive (competitive power) in the
era of globalization, the Open University as one of the colleges that carry out distance education system
and open (open and distance education) is always caring and proactive through sector education. This
can be evidenced, among others, the convening of the course Bachelor of Education Elementary School
Teacher (S1 PGSD) as a continuation of the program Diploma 2 PGSD. It is intended also for primary
teachers in Indonesia will have higher educational qualifications and more competent (professional) in
the field. (Soewondo, 2004:2).
    As mentioned above, in the curriculum PGSD S1-UT has been allocated subject English Education
with PDGK code 4304 as a scientific subject and skill (MKK). With this course also prospective graduate
students Elementary School Teacher Education will have the knowledge and skills basic level of English
(Basic Level Of Home) as listed in the description of courses (Open University, 2004:111).
     In the process of tutorial education in English subjects S1 PGSD Open University student, often
emerge from many problems, just as happens in the process of learning and teaching English in other
places that are conventional. This, according to Naiman (in Skehan, 1989:3), could have been
considering in the process
 English teaching and learning involved multiple factors (variables) that influence the learning
outcomes, one of them is student motivation factor. The problem of motivation is regarded as
independent variables (independent variables) that can affect learning outcomes. Therefore, through
this paper the author tries to describe the motivation variables, including the sources are in the process
of face-to-face tutorials English Language Education subjects in some groups beljar (pokjar) Open
University student, whether it is motivation that comes from within the individual (internal motivational
sources ) or motivation that comes from outside the individual (external motivational sources).

B. Problem Formulation
     In general permasalahaan in this study is on student learning motivation PGSD S1 Open University in
the process of face-to-face tutorials English Language Education subjects. Specifically the problem is
formulated in the following research questions:
1. To what extent is the intensity of S1 students' learning motivation in a tutorial PGSD UT
   face to face English Education?
2. Are there factors within the individual student (internal motivational-sour
   ce) that affect motivation to learn them?
3. Are there factors outside the individual student (external motivational source)
   that affect their motivation to learn?.
C. Research Coverage
       This research includes the motivation to learn, including the intensity and the factors that
influence motivation in face-to-face tutorials S1 PGSD UT students in various study groups in the region
Distance Learning Program Unit (UPBJJ) Makassar. The term means a high intensity - low or strong -
weak motivation to which every student is learning through distance education system. While the term
factors or sources of bias means that all matters affecting the intensity of motivation itself, whether
sourced from within the students or who come from outside himself.

D. Research Objectives
       Based on the research questions formulated above, research objectives can be determined as
1. To know the intensity of students' learning motivation in a tutorial S1 PGSD UT
   face to face English Language Education subjects at some study groups
   available in the area UPBJJ Makassar;
2. To determine the factors that exist within the individual student can
   affect the intensity of motivation of learning;
3. To determine the factors that are outside the individual self to student
   Affect the intensity of motivation of learning.

E. Benefits Research
        The results of this study are expected to have a direct benefit to:
1. Improvement process and results of face-to-face tutorials English Language Education subjects
   S1 students PGSD Open University;
2. Improvement of service facilities (teaching materials) in face-to-face tutorials students;
3. Improved administration and testing services for students S1 PGSD UT
   spread over several areas in South Sulawesi (Makassar UPBJJ UT).


A. Motivation in Foreign Language Learning
        According to Brown (1980: 112), motivation is generally defined as an inner urge, impulse,
emotion, or desire to mengerakkan or encourage someone to do a certain act. More specifically, that
human beings universally have the needs or desires that are hidden, but the intensity itself is
conditioned by the environment. Furthermore, Brown has identified six human desires or needs as living
beings that form the motivation itself: (1) the need for exploration, namely a need for exploration to see
the other side of a mountain or to explore an ignorance, (2) the need for manipulation, namely the need
to manage environmental manipulation that causes a change, (3) the need for activity, is the need to
move or exercise, both physically and mentally, (4) the need for stimulation, a need to be stimulated by
environment, by others, or thoughts and feelings, (5) the need for knowledge, a need to process the
results of an exploration, manipulation, activity and stimulation, resolve conflicts, find solutions to
system problems and self-consistency of a knowledge , (6) the need for ego enhancement, is a need to
be recognized, accepted, or recognized by others. Furthermore, in relation to motivation, A. H. Maslow
in Brown (1980: 113) proposed a hierarchy of human needs, ranging from basic physical needs (air,
water, food) to the higher needs such as safety, dignity, and
fulfillment of self-actualization.
        In relation to foreign language learning, a study of motivation has been conducted by Robert
Gardner and Wallace Lambert. Gardner and Lambert in the McKay and Hornberger (1996:7) describes
two factors that shape motivation in learning languages, namely integrative motivation and
instrumental motivation. Integrative motivation (integrative motivation) is the impulse or desire to
become or interact with speakers of foreign languages. A learner with integrative motivation has hopes
to integrate themselves into the culture of foreign language groups, or be part of that community. While
the instrumental motivation (instrumental motivation) refers to the desire to learn a language to
achieve several objectives such as the success of the work or academic success. The result of Gardner
and Lambert's research on foreign language learners in Canada showed that integrative motivation tend
to be stronger in keberhasialn learning a second language. However, other studies such as that done by
Lukmani (1972), Kachru (1977), and Oller, et al (1977) showed that the relative contribution of one or
another type of motivation will vary by site and level of the learners under study. For adults who are
interested in success on the job or for students in Third World countries where English has become the
international language of the instrumental motivation may be, or even more powerful than integrative
motivation. Based on the findings - the findings, it can be concluded that the motivation of any kind is
not so important but the intensity of motivation itself, which can distinguish a good result or
achievement in learning a foreign language.
      The role of motivation in learning English as a foreign language (EFL)
or as a second language (ESL) is very important and influential. According to Naiman in Skehan (1989:3),
motivation can influence the process and results of learning a language. Naiman introduce a language
learning model in which there are several variables. In the model presented three independent variables
(independent or causative variables) and two dependent variables (dependent or the caused variables).
Three independent variables are Teaching (Teaching), Learner (Learner), and Context (Context). While
the two dependent variable is Learning (Learning) and Result (Outcome). Each variable has several
elements (elements). Especially for motivation is one element of the independent variable "Learners"
which can affect the process and language learning outcomes.

B. Factors - factors that Affect Learning Motivation
        The description of the factors that can increase or decrease the intensity of motivation to learn
can be observed through several theories presented by some psychologists. Nelson and Jakobovits in
Brown (1980:113), for example, states that there are several factors that may be highly relevant to the
role of motivation in learning a second language. Teaching activities, individual learners, and
sociocultural factors are considered to raise or lower levels of motivation to learn. Another description
of the motivating factors given by Peter Skehan (1989:49). Skehan explained that there are four sources
(factors), namely learning motivation: material / teaching; constraint / awards; results achieved; and
objectives (goals) learners. Materials / teaching and the constraints / awards clearly beyond the
individual self-learners who are potential manipulated to motivation to learn. While success and
purpose are the factors within the individual.
       Furthermore, Udin Sarifudin (1993:81) suggested that several factors beyond the individual self-
motivation can affect learning, such as: the value obtained, study facilities, test / test, materials /
learning materials, and others. Therefore these factors must be considered in an effort to improve or
reinforce students' learning motivation.

C. Measurement of Learning Motivation
        Measuring the intensity of motivation to learn is not so easy throughout the learning motivation
itself can not be seen with the eye within individuals (Ali, 1993:77). Further, Ali explained that the
existence of motivation can be recognized through a number of factors such as frequency, persistence,
and duration of one's own learner in doing various activities (especially learning) to achieve desired
goals. The frequency, persistence, and duration (in a learning activity) can be measured using a scale
instrument rating, which indicates the intensity of motivation with the continuum such as: very weak,
weak, strong, and very strong (Ali, 1993:78).
       In addition, in Gardner McKay and Hornberger (1996:5) states that motivation refers to the
combination of desire (desire) and effort (effort) done to achieve a goal; connecting the individual
consciousness in an activity such as learning the language with some behaviors and efforts taken to
achieve the goal. Based on these definitions, it can be concluded that the components - components (as
descriptors) consists of the desire of motivation coupled with the efforts of someone in an activity so
that he can reach the goal successfully. So to know or measure the motivation of a person (learner) can
be done by providing some questions to him which stated the desire and effort in learning.
        As one example of several instruments measuring learning motivation, Gardner and Lambert
(1972: p.. 152-154) has developed a scale of intensity of motivation (motivational intensity scale). The
scale is given to Canadian students who are learning French. In this scale several questions (in the form
of the questionnaire) should be answered with a put a check mark in front of the statement (answer)
the most appropriate with feelings of their conscience. Before answering questions, they are convinced
that any answer given will be kept confidential and the answers (the questionnaire) will not be disclosed
to her classmates and to anyone who is not concerned with the response. Here is an example of the
motivation scale in the form of a questionnaire prepared by Gardner and Lambert:
1. Compared with my classmates (in French) I think that I:
______ A. learning more than they are.
______ B. little / less learned than they.
         ______ C. learn as much as them.
2. I think about words and ideas I learned in my department:
______ A. occasionally
______ B. almost never
         ______ C. very often
     3. Had the French language is not taught at this school, maybe I:
______ A. does not matter at all to learn French.
______ B. France tried to take language classes anywhere.
______ C. French picked up from everyday situations (such as reading
books and French-language newspaper, tried to speak French if possible, and watch a French film).
        ______ D. there are no correct answers (specify) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
     4. The average time that I use to learn or complete tasks
        French at home:
        ______ A. four hours per week
        ______ B. one hour per-mingggu
        ______ C. seven hours per week
        ______ D. there are no correct answers. Give a number: ... ... hours per week.
     5. After I graduate, I probably will:
        ______ A. try to speak French as much as possible
        ______ B. do not try to recall my French
        ______ C. continue to improve my French language (exercise every day or
                  taking a course dinner)
        ______ D. there are no correct answers (specify) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..
The desire (desire) to learn the French language

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