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4G WIRELESS NETWORKS 4G WIRELESS NETWORKS MOBILITY MANAGEMENT AND ARCHITECTURES FOR 4G NETWORKS Abstract This paper explains, fundamentals of The Third-Generation (3G) wireless 4G and their various proposed architectures. technologies offer wireless web, SMS, In India it can be used to network rural and MMS, EDGE, WCDMA, GPRS etc. 4G is a urban areas, reduce cost of communication, packet switched technology, uses bandwidth flourish educational activities, facilitate much more efficiently, allowing each user's research and development, faster internet packets to compete for available bandwidth. connectivity, more cellular options, real time It solves the non-standardization problems information systems, crisis management, associated with 3G. Data transfer rate will Tele-medicines and many more. The present be 20 to 100 Mbps, which is 10 to 50 times 3G networks need not to be discarded, and than 3G and 10-20 times faster than ADSL. can be used in conjunction with 4G Operating frequency range will be 3 to 10 technology. There are various architectures GHz and the IPv6 protocol will be used. www.smartersworld.com 4G WIRELESS NETWORKS 1. Introduction The fourth-generation wireless (4G) technology implements designs that will It will deliver superior quality video take the wireless telecommunication and data, in addition to voice. It also solves industry beyond 2010. The infrastructure of the non-standardization problems associated the 4G will function on top of the current with 3G networks for voice, video and data existing CDMA, GSM and TDMA. It transmission. The data transfer rate is 20 to extends the 3G capabilities These technical 100 Mbps, which will be 10 to 50 times opportunities strengthen the user mobility those offered by 3G links and 10-20 times and encourage the deployment of the mobile faster than standard ADSL (Asymmetric technologies for the development of various Digital Subscriber Line) services. The (mobile) applications providing information, operating frequency ranges between 3 to 10 orientation (routing) and other helpful GHz and the IPV6 protocol used will be services. used. High-definition television programming through wireless broadband connections, Internet-based multi-channel video and higher mobile Internet will 4G : 0.15 become a reality. The Defense Advanced 3G : bits/sec/H 2G : 0.30bit z Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in the 0.15 s/sec/H Adaptive 1G : US originally conceived of 4G. bits/sec z modulati Analo /Hz CDM on g Digital A, MIMO modu 2. Need of 4G: modula Turbo Adaptive lation tion coding, Modulati 3G performances insufficient to meet wider on bandw high performance future needs. OFDMA idth MC- Multiple incompatible standards. CDMA Global mobility and service portability required. Need for hybrid networks for both Fig1. INCREMENTAL PROGRESS OF WLAN and cellular network design. WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY www.smartersworld.com 4G WIRELESS NETWORKS Technology to utilize newly found modulation methods. 4. Significance of 4G Need for All IP network with In 4G networks, users joining the converged voice and data capability. network add mobile routers to the network Wider bandwidth. infrastructure. Network capacity and coverage is dynamically shifted to accommodate changing user patterns. 3. Characteristics Wherever the concentration of people is 3.1 End-to-End Internet Protocol (IP):. It more in one area, additional routes are will provide access through a collection of created, thus enabling additional access to radio interfaces, seamless roaming/handover network capacity. Users will automatically and the best-connected service, combining hop away from congested routes to less multiple radio access interfaces (such as congested routes. This permits the network WLAN, Bluetooth and GPRS) into a single to dynamically and automatically balance network that subscribers may use. It allows capacity and increase network utilization. As any mobile device to seamlessly roam over number of users increases, the service different wireless technologies improves for all users. automatically, using the best connection available for the intended use. Users will 5. Features of 4G have access to different services, increased High speed: 100 Mbps in stationary mode coverage, the convenience of a single with an average of 20 Mbps when traveling. device, one bill with reduced total access High network capacity: Should be at least cost, and more reliable wireless access even 10 times that of 3G systems. with the failure or loss of one or more Fast/seamless handover across multiple networks. networks: 4G wireless networks should support global roaming across multiple 3.2 Peer-to-Peer networks: In this system, wireless and mobile networks, every device is both a transceiver and a Next-generation multimedia support: fast router/repeater for other devices in the speed and large volume data transmission at network, elimination of a single node does a lower cost than today. not disable the network. 4G can be defined as "wireless ad hoc peer-to-peer MIMO techniques : The benefit of array or networking." multiple antennas for spatial diversity has www.smartersworld.com 4G WIRELESS NETWORKS long been realized. Yet only recently were line network fails.7. Possible Architectures they combined with advanced coding on 4G techniques to from extremely efficient One of the most challenging MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) problems facing deployment of 4G systems. technology is how to access several Wireless access technologies: OFDMA different. (Orthogonal Frequency – Division Multiple 7.1 Multimode devices (Fig2): Access ) and MC-CDMA (Multiple Carrier A single physical terminal with multiple CDMA) are the main contender for the interfaces to access services on different future system. wireless networks. The multimode device architecture may improve call that a Another more radical access scheme for completion and expand effective coverage the downlink, yet better in terms of area. It should also provide reliable wireless throughput, is a single queue packet based coverage in case of network, link, or switch system failure. The device itself incorporates most of the additional complexity without 6. Future applications requiring wireless network modification or Sensors on public vehicles Cameras in employing inter-working devices. Each traffic lights network can deploy a database that keeps Tele-medicine: a paramedic assisting a track of user location, device capabilities, victim of a traffic accident in a remote network conditions, and user preferences. location could access medical records (e.g., The handling of quality-of-service (QoS) x-rays) and establish a videoconference so issues remains an open research question. that a remotely-based surgeon could provide "on-scene" assistance. Crisis-management applications: In case D D B B of any natural disasters where the entire INTE RNET communications infrastructure has collapsed, restoring communications quickly is essential. With 4G networks it can be set Satellite up in a matter of hours. In comparison, it network may take days or even weeks to re-establish Wireless communications capabilities when a wire LAN www.smartersworld.com 4G WIRELESS NETWORKS mobile and wireless networks. Three universal access points. These UAPs in turn possible architectures: using a multi-mode select a wireless network based on device, an overlay network, or a common availability, QoS specifications, and user- access protocol. defined choices. A UAP performs protocol and frequency translation, content adaptation, and QoS negotiation- Fig 2 A multimode device lets the renegotiation on behalf of users. The overlay user, rs modification or interworking network, rather than the user or device, devices. device, or network initiate handoff performs handoffs as the user moves from between networks without the need for one UAP to another. A UAP stores user, network modification or interworking network, and device information, devices. capabilities, and preferences. Because UAPs can keep track of the various resources a 7.2 Overlay mode (Fig 3) : caller uses, this architecture supports single In this architecture, a user accesses billing and subscription. Satellite network an overlay network consisting of several Fixed wireless network. INTERNET Fig 3. An overlay network—consisting Satellite network of several universal access points (UAPs) that store user, network, and device Wireless information—performs a handoff as the user LAN moves from one UAP to another. www.smartersworld.com 4G WIRELESS NETWORKS 7.3 Common access protocol (Fig4): This protocol becomes viable if wireless networks can support one or two standard access protocols. One possible solution, which will require interworking between different networks, uses wireless Fig 4. A device capable of automatically asynchronous transfer mode. To implement switching between networks is possible if wireless ATM, every wireless network must wireless networks can support a common allow transmission of ATM cells with protocol to access a satellite-based network additional headers or wireless ATM cells and another protocol for terrestrial networks. requiring changes in the wireless networks. Fig 5 shows the real scenario of how 4G can really mingle with the present technology and scale upward to give more bandwidth and lower the cost. Security will One or more types of satellite-based be a major issue when several networks will networks might use one protocol while one be connected together. or more terrestrial wireless networks use another protocol. Wireless LAN Cellular 7.4 Generation of Wireless Technology: network The first generation of wireless mobile communications was based on analog signalling. Analog systems, DB DB implemented in North America, were known INTERNET as Analog Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS), while systems implemented in Europe and the rest of the world were typically identified as a variation of Total Access Satellite Wireless network Communication Systems (TACS). Analog LAN systems were primarily based on circuit- switched technology and designed for voice, not data. Tunable adapter www.smartersworld.com 4G WIRELESS NETWORKS The second generation (2G) of the technologies. HSCSD is one step towards wireless mobile network was based on low- 3G wideband mobile data networks. band digital data signalling. The most Figure 2 shows the protocols used in popular 2G wireless technology is known as BTS, BSC, SGSN, GGSN, and mobile Global Systems for Mobile Communications handsets: Figure 1 shows a GPRS network. Today, GSM systems operate in the 900MHz and 1.8 GHz bands throughout the world with the exception of the Americas 3G wireless technology represents the where they operate in the 1.9 GHz band. convergence of various 2G wireless 2G+ technology that is packet-based and telecommunications systems into a single increases the data communication speeds to global system that includes both terrestrial as high as 384kbps. and satellite components. One of the most Another one is 2G+ systems are based important aspects of 3G wireless technology on the following technologies: High Speed is its ability to unify existing cellular Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD), General standards, such as CDMA, GSM, and Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced TDMA, under one umbrella. Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) Figure 3 shows the 3G wireless network architecture. www.smartersworld.com 4G WIRELESS NETWORKS The existing core technology used in mobile networks is based on traditional circuit-switched technology for delivery of voice services. However, this traditional technology is inefficient for the delivery of multimedia services. The core switches for next-generation of mobile networks will be based on packet-switched technology which is better suited for data and multimedia services. Televison satellite Telescopic/ educational \tellite satellite INTERNET 4G www.smartersworld.com 4G RAILWAYS GOVERNMENT DB CO NN OP 4G WIRELESS NETWORKS 7.5 The proposed Architecture for 4G: Legend used in the diagram: Fig 6. Several networks can be converged with the 4G networks providing Bi-directional block arrow all kinds of services to the users. A legal subscriber can view various Antenna television networks in his/her handset, browse through to the internet at a very high speed connectivity, send e-mails remotely, Rectangle reserve train or air tickets from any part of the country, stay connected with their professors and many more things at a very Cylinder reduced cost. Repeaters will give mobile Internet at a speed of 20mbps; optical cables can also contribute to the data transmissions. www.smartersworld.com 4G WIRELESS NETWORKS Different organizations can stay connected general public. Equally as important, with each other and their customers, industry must ensure that expectations are realistic and that services meet and exceed those expectations. If all goes according to what the industry envisions, it may be 8.Conclusion sooner, rather than later that we will see 4G is the next upcoming wireless wireless communications evolve. This technology. It holds a lot of promises in evolution will give the general public as solving today’s problems and tomorrows well as the public safety community needs. 4G will also make worldwide amazing functionality from the convenience roaming using a single handheld device. 4G of a single handheld device. networks may eventually deliver on all the promises. At times, it seems that technological advances are being made on a daily basis. These advances will make high- speed data/voice-over-Internet-protocol (VoIP) networks a reality. In the meantime, it is important for industry to develop a strong 3G offering that is palatable for the References: International forums on 4G mobile, By : Lucant technologies, bell labs innovations Fraunhofer Institute for Secure Telecooperation (SIT) August 02. [bayarou|rohr]@sit.fraunhofer.de Information Raining for Mobile Hotspots in 4G Wireless Networks : Shahrokh Valaee , Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ,University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Email: email@example.com www.smartersworld.com
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