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									                Unit 6
Scientific Principles of Exercise and
            Performance
   • 1 from 2 Exercise & Energy
   • 1 from 2 or Ignore Mechanics
   • 1 from 2 Sports Psychology

   • 1 from 4 Synoptic Scientific essays
         Unit 6b Sports Psychology

        •   Learning Theories,
        •   Personality,
        •   The Performer in Action
        •   The Sporting Environment,
        •   Anxiety

Exam Tip There are 5 key areas to revise – these will also be
            examined over the two Psych exam questions
    Revision Essentials
A2 exam 15th June
Plan your Revision Timetable
Revision environment
30 minute chunks
Vary how you revise
  Revision Strategies
Read your Notes
Notes on Notes
Chunk cards
Keywords
Question Practice
Top up reading
Writing Practice
 Revision Strategy – Sports Psychology


  •   Definitions
  •   Theories - who has researched this area?
  •   Measurement & Research
  •   Practical Application (ESSENTIAL!!!!!)
  •   Reformative strategies

For each area you ned to revise the information
above
For each area you will also need to
revise the Psychological effect on:-

  • Individual performance
  • Team or Group performance
  • Mental preparation for future
    performances
  • Practice V Competitive effects
REVISION STRATEGIES

 Use your knowledge
       Ltm V Stm
         7+/- 2

•30 Minute Chunks
•3 x 3 x 30 blocs
    Chunk 1
        Learning Theories
Sports activities are based in a social
situation – interaction with others is
               inevitable

The key is understanding Socialisation

         Can you define this term?
         Definition on next slide
       Socialisation
The process through which children
acquire the many behaviours they need
to have as adult members of their
culture.
Socialisation is the process of adopting
the norms of values of a culture.
Children learn many important
responses through exposure to
significant others
           Learning Theories
            – Revision Checklist
• Associationists
  – Give examples/definition
• Cognnitivists
  – Give examples/definition
• Structure of Personality
  – Name the 3 levels
• Theories of Personality
  – Name 3 theories
16 traits   4 stages
          Personality Check list
        Trait Theories

        Eysenck‟s Dimensions of Personality

        Limitations in personality assessment

Personality cannot be used effectively in selection
but can give an insight into motivation and stress
levels of an individual
Too many ifs and buts
Chunk 2

The Performer in Action
 Theories & Application
• Achievement motivation
   – NAFF V NACH
• Attribution Theory

• Bandura‟s Self Efficacy Theory

• Learned Helplessness

• Self Motivation

• Observation Learning
Attributions and their effect on
          performance
 A premiership player misses an open
   goal:
 • Should he blame the pitch?
 • Blame the referee?
 • Blame his boots
 • Blame his agent?
 • Blame his aftershave?
 • (All external uncontrollable factors)
Attributions and their effect on
          performance
Or should he mix some of these with
 other external attributions:
Unlucky this time
Good goalkeeping
Defending was good
 Aggression - Checklist
• Definitions

• Channelled Aggression

• Aggression V Assertion

• Instinct theory

• Social Learning Theory

• Frustration/ aggression hypotheses
     Key to aggression
         questions
Causes and ways of eliminating
aggressive tendencies in
a performer

         Need to give
         practical application
         & examples
ASSERTIVE PLAY
• no intent to harm
• legitimate force within the rules
• unusual effort /unusual energy
• sometimes called channelled
  aggression

                   HOSTILE AGGRESSION
       V           • intent to harm
                   • goal is to harm
                   • arousal and anger
                     involved
AGGRESSION IN SPORT
        IS IT or IS IT NOT ?

 Look at the following pictures and decide if you
 consider there to be any evidence of aggression.
  •FREUD 1950             •DOLLARD 1939               •BANDURA
 •LORENZ 1996          •Frustration - Aggression    •Social Learning
                              Hypothesis                 theory
     •Innate
                      •When our drive to achieve     •Watch - learn -
    •Inherited
                          a goal is blocked              copy
     •Instinct
                      •Modified by BERKOWITZ        •Significant others
•Personality traits              - 1969
                                                    •Reinforcement of
•Cathartic release    •Frustration heightens our       behaviour
                       potential - but not cause!
 •Displacement
                       •Frustration-arousal-cues
•Self preservation
                         present?-aggression?
          Aggression – coping strategies
         •   Stress management
         •   Avoid aggressive situations – change position
         •   Remove aggressive player completely
         •   Reinforce non- aggressive acts
         •   Show non-aggressive role models
         •   Punish persistent offenders
         •   Highlight players level of responsibility

Exam Tip Coping strategies are the practical part of sports psychology what can
             you do to change the behaviour of a performer – work on these as it an
             area that students score badly on in the exam
Chunk 3

The Sporting Environment
Environment - Checklist
• Social facilitation

• Drive Theory (Zajonc)

• Co-action effect

• Evaluation apprehension

• Home advantage/disadvantage

• Leadership models
         LEADERSHIP
Make a list of all the qualities
you would associate with a
good team Captain.

 How would you describe this
     type of leadership?
                         Exam practice

       Outline the positive and negative
        effects on performance when
        competing in front of a home
        crowd
                            (3 marks)

Exam Tip First ‘dissect’ the question work out what it is asking you to
         do and how you need to structure your answer
Outline the positive and negative effects on
 performance when competing in front of a
 home crowd                     (3 marks)
   Answer Structure – there are two parts to the question ensure
   you get full marks by giving at least tow points to each part
     Positive effects
     -
     -
     Negative effects
     -
     -
                                          Mark scheme
                   Mark Scheme
Total of 3 max of 2 for each section
Positive
1.   Away team may be put off by hostile crowd
2.   Support/encouragement from home crowd
3.   Knowledge of surroundings/equipment
4.   Away team may lay more aggressively and give way more fouls


Negative
1.   Increase feeling of pressure to do well may lead to an decrease in
     performance
2.   Increase in arousal may lead to inverted U hypothesis/catastrophe
     theory
3.   May lose support of own crowd if mistakes are made/evaluation
     apprehension
       Use Examples

Should make it easier to get
points down
Always get credit for examples
in Exams
Many questions will state “No
examples - no marks” in the
mark scheme
        Qualities of effective
             leadership
• What qualities did you identify?

• Did they include: good communication skills;
  high motivation; enthusiasm; clear
  goals/vision; empathy; being good at sport or
  have knowledge of sport; charisma

• Some of these qualities can be learnt some
  may be seen as innate - how does this link
  with other psychological theories?
The Great Psychological
       debate

Nature V Nurture
         LEADERSHIP

The ‘great man’ theory

         V
The Social learning theory
        LEADERSHIP
The ‘great man’ theory
• NATURE
• leaders are born not made
• leaders have relevant innate
   personality qualities
             LEADERSHIP
• The social learning theory
• NURTURE
• leaders learn their skills through watching
  and imitating models
• leaders are formed throughout life
   – by social or environmental influences
   – observation of a model
   – high status of a model
   – imitation or copying of behaviour
          Early Research
• Suggestions that „leaders are born not
  made‟ i.e personality traits that suit
  leadership
• Now thought that certain traits may be
  useful in particular situations
• Modern leaders match their behavior to
  the situation - this can be learnt
       Intro - summary
A LEADER
• can influence the behaviour of others
  towards required goals
• will influence effective team cohesion
• will help fulfil expectations of a team
• develops an environment in which a group
  is motivated rewarded and helped
  towards its common goals
  Prescribed and Emergent
           Leaders
Carron 1981 suggested that:

Leaders tend to come forward in
 one of two ways :-
LEADERSHIP - Intro Summary

Emergent leaders come from within a
 group
  – because of their skill and abilities
  – or through nomination / election

Prescribed leaders
  – are appointed by a governing body
  – or agency outside the group
LEADERSHIP - Intro Summary

Emergent leader




                  Prescribed
                    leader
Characteristics of Leadership
 3 main factors interact:-


 • Leader Characteristics
 • The Situation
 • Member‟s Characteristics
Chunk 4

    Anxiety in Sport
    Anxiety - Checklist
• Definitions activation/stress

• State/Trait anxiety

• Link between arousal,stress & anxiety

• Multi-Dimensional Anxiety Theory

• Somatic and cognitive anxiety
         Anxiety - checklist
• Make sure you can debate :-

  - Positive effect on performance

  - Negative effect on performance

Again be able to give and explain coping
  strategies
Coping with anxiety
         Coping with Anxiety
•   Imagery
•   Self talk
•   Cue utilisation
•   Relaxation techniques
  Survival of the Strongest?

When physical skills are evenly
matched it is often the
competitors with the stronger
mental approach, who can control
his or her mind before and during
events who wins
Can You train for Mental Preparation???

                   Many athletes wrongly
                   assume that mental
                   aspects of performance
                   are innate and
                   unchangeable when, in
                   reality, systematic mental
                   training can have a
                   similar impact on
                   performance as physical
                   workouts.
 Emotional Triggers

Definition – emotions are brief
positive or negative feelings that
occur in response to meaningful
or important situations which can
influence mood states
         Emotional Triggers
• POSTIVE EMOTIONS
  can help motivate
  and let approach
  events with
  enthusiasm and
  energy
                      • NEGATIVE
                        EMOTIONS are
                        linked to avoidance
                        behaviour,
                        withdrawal and
                        often failure
Emotions in sport can be
triggered by a number of
factors often personal to
the individual athlete
 Include:
 -Memories
 -Conversations
 -Seeing the venue
 -Weighing up the opposition
  Short Term Preparation for Sport


The body starts to prepare the body for the
demands to come by releasing hormones such as
epinephrine into the blood.


The release of these hormones sets in motion the
physiological changes that are associated with
increased activity
    Physiological changes
           – what are they???







  Short Term Preparation for Sport


In addition changes also occur in the athlete’s
attentional system.
Athletes become more focused and alert


This overall increase in arousal can be an
athletes’ best friend or worst nightmare
           Dealing with arousal

• Many elite athletes use the onset of increased
  arousal as a cue to focus on pre-planned
  routines
• Less experienced athletes often interpret
  these physiological changes as the onset of
  anxiety worry and apprehension

                             =
The key is that it is not the
physiological changes that affect
performance
               But




         The athlete‟s interpretation
         of these changes that can
         affect performance
Coping strategies??
• Alter the focus of attention

• When you feel the physiological changes go into the
  following routine

• Tell yourself
   – “ This is my body preparing me to play at my very
     best”
   – Recall an image of yourself winning or performing
     well and connect this with how you are feeling.
Need to practice this routine –
in order to establish an
habitual response
            If negative images jump in
            your head – visualise the most
            successful athlete in your spor
            – how they run/move
            then visualise yourself with
            similar positive attributes
Every one gets nervous – some
     stress is productive




The elite have learnt to cope with this
stress better than others
      Stevens & Lane 2001
• Looked at strategies used by elite
  athletes to help control their attention
  prior to competition

  – Listening to music
  – Visualisation/positive thinking
  – Doing crosswords
Coping strategies
• Need to be an individual strategy
• Need to become automated and can be
  consistently applied to changing circumstances
• Biggest problem is uncertainty
      – so its important to control the things
             you can and not waste energy
             trying to control the things you can‟t.
Coping strategies allow you to prepare and cope with the unexpected
Simons 1992 – Quick Set Routine




For last 20 –30 seconds before competition

3 phase routine designed to help refocus quickly
following a distraction
         Simons 1992 – Quick Set Routine

1. Close eyes, clear your mind and maintain deep
   rhythmical breathing, in through your nose and out
   through your mouth                    (physical cue)


2. Imagine a previous race win, see your self crossing
    the line first and recreate those feelings
                                            (emotional cue)


3. Return your focus to the sprint start, thinking of
   blasting off on the ‘B’ of bang
                                               (focus cue)
            Psych Key words
•   Mental Preparation   •   Coping strategy
•   Emotional triggers   •   Habitual response
•   Positive emotions
                         •   Visualisation
•   Negative emotions
•   Stress
                         •   Positive thinking
•   Anxiety              •   Quick Set Routine
•   Apprehension         •   Physical cue
•   Arousal              •   Emotional cue
•   Choking              •   Focus cue

     Check that you understand each one
  Good Luck in June

www.pe4u.co.uk

								
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