UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group -1- Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Ecotourism Opportunities on the Saddle Road, Big Island of Hawaii. (1993). The Directions of Ecotourism Development in Japan. This is a report from the 1992 Research Project, “Study of Measures to promote the Experience of Nature.” This project was directed at finding ways to promote the effective use of national parks by expanding the opportunities for people to experience the country’s rich natural resources and make their visits more worthwhile through such activities related to ecotourism such as, animal-watching tours and guided nature tours. The result of these studies promotes sustainable nature experience and encourages input from local communities. This study explores ecotourism conditions, criteria, and directions for the development of ecotourism in Japan. (1997). "Tourism in Independent Hawaii." Contours 7(11-12). (1997). The Hana Plan is Flawed- Let's Face it, Let's Fix it. This article criticizes the current community plan for Hana. The author asserts that the plan fails to address long-term concerns raised by East Maui residents – particularly questions pertaining to zoning and commercialization in the region. Residents argue that without giving consideration to local input and environmental and cultural considerations, comprehensive zoning will only further undermine Hana’s needs and desires. Some council members and residents support the creation of a limited “economic zone” – a zone in which residents can net monetary gain from passing tourists. Others want to see a certified kitchen for agricultural processing, or the construction of a series of resident-operated roadside stands along the Hana Highway. Residents also state the need for improved phone service and increased water allowances on the part of the East Maui Irrigation Company (EMI). (1999). AHEM Forum to Look at Future of East Maui. The Haleakala Times: 1. This article addresses AHEM’s summer 1999 conference. This one-day gathering in Hana brought state and national preservation experts together with residents of East Maui. The forum, entitled “East Maui – The Road Ahead: People Working Together to Honor the Past and Shape the Future”, focused on strategies to preserve the landscape and cultural heritage of the region. Speakers from the Alliance of National Heritage Areas, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and the Alliance of National Heritage Areas spoke on the positive and negative benefits of Scenic Byway and Heritage Area designation. Afterwards, residents and officials discussed planning scenarios for the region. (2001). A Na Pali Eco Adventure wins environment award. The Garden Island. (2002). Tourism impacts study moving. The Garden Island. (2002). Group to Conduct National Heritage Study in East Maui. The Maui news. This piece from the Maui News describes initial preparations for an East Maui Heritage Area feasibility study. This study was initiated, in part, by the Alliance for the Heritage of East Maui (AHEM). Under the first stages of the plan, a task force of community UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group -2- Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 volunteers will gather information on community attitudes and expectations regarding heritage area designation and status. When AHEM concludes the study, a recommendation will be made to determine whether the community wants to continue forward in the designation process, and apply for national heritage area status from the United States Congress. National heritage areas are recognized as locations where cultural, historic, and natural resources blend to create a nationally distinctive landscape. “The heritage area concept offers a way for a community, including government and nonprofit agencies and private sector interests, to develop plans [for] conserving the special qualities of both the environmental and cultural landscape.” Twenty-three national heritage areas are in existence in the United States. Of these, most are located east of the Rocky Mountains. If East Maui applies and is successful in its bid, it would become the first national heritage area in the state, and open new doors for conservation, preservation, and education funding. (2002). "Mo' Bettah" Program Benefits Four Groups. The Maui News. The “’Mo’ Bettah Together” Program is a social capital grant-making program created to support groups and organizations that are “working to build social capital by helping each other and working together for a common purpose.” In 2002, the organization awarded an excess of $670,000 to approximately 33 community groups statewide. Of these selected projects, four were based in Maui County. Maui groups that received grants in 2002 included the following: the Tri-Isle Resource Conservation and Development Council ($15,000), the Maui Aloha House “Calling All Heroes” project ($27,100), “Giving Back”, a Brain Gym Intl. Mentoring Program ($5,000), and Hui Malama Learning Center – Project TEAM ($30,000). (2003). Sustainable Tourism Study meeting set for Tuesday. The Garden Island. (2003). Working Group on East Maui Heritage Area to Hold Meeting. The Maui News. This short article announces the first task force working group’s “study session” on the topic of East Maui heritage area designation. The working group will explore the needs of the region by prioritizing values, issues, and concerns as stated by East Maui residents. Later study sessions will address preservation tools, state agencies, regulations and policies, and other potential management and preservation strategies. The working group includes 22 representatives from throughout East Maui’s communities. (2004). 3.3.1: Facilitating community-based tourism in protected areas. The purpose of this research is to compile good practices of community-based tourism in protected areas of Asia into Good Policy Inventory and also to create Strategic Plan Options to get communities actively involved in protective area management. 12 sites selected from Japan, Indonesia, and Thailand submitted their GPI’s in 2002 to develop SPO’s in 2003 to preserve ecosystem biodiversity and forest conservation. Through this process, coordination and communication of interests between stakeholders increased, therefore decreasing redundancy. (2006). National Trust staff on Kauai for retreat. The Garden Island. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group -3- Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 (2007). Sea Life Park cuts 18% of staff. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. 12. (2007). Hike with the Kipahulu 'Ohana. The Maui Weekly. (2007). Visitor industry goes green at conference. The Garden Island. (2008). Growing Together. Honolulu Star Bulletin. Honolulu. 13. (2008). HTA grants funds to Kaua‘i cultural enrichment programs. The Garden Island. (Strategic Plan for Haleakala National Park, Fiscal Year 2005-2008). This report is a series of future goals projected for Haleakala National Park to preserve the life of the region. The Park has implemented natural resources monitoring of key vital sign parameters. Vital parameters: physical, biological, chemical elements provide a yardstick for judging the overall health of the park’s ecosystems. Haleakala Park is visited by approximately 1.5 million visitors each year. In years 1998-2004, 88% of the visitors were satisfied with appropriate facilities, services, and recreational opportunities. The park averaged 24 visitor accidents in years 2000-2003. Many of these baseline accidents were associated with commercial bike tours. All commercial bike companies will have improved safety plans. Ranger patrols will enforce safety violations. More warning signs alerting visitors to the hazards have been installed. According to visitor surveys 1998-2004, on average 69% of park visitors understand and appreciate the significance of Haleakala National Park. The park plans to increase this percent by attempting to reach visitors through better wayside exhibits and improved visitor contact with park personnel and revision of park information handouts. Agrawal, A. and K. Redford (2006). Poverty, Development and Biodiversity Conervation: Shooting in the Dark?, Wildlife Conservation Society. The Working Paper aims to examine the relationship between poverty and biodiversity and to determine the opportunities and conditions under which poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation can be addressed simultaneously. The paper studies the conceptual complexities of poverty and conservation including methods of definitions and measure. The report finds it possible to connect poverty alleviation with biodiversity conservation through specific programmatic interventions, and focuses on three such interventions: community-based wildlife management, ecotourism, and extractive reserves. Aguiar, L. L. M., Tomic, Patricia, and Ricardo Trumper (2005). "Work hard, play hard: selling Kelowna, BC, as year-round playground." The Canadian Geographer 49(2): 123-139. The study attempts to study the particularities of place making in contemporary smaller more isolated communities. The work analyses the city of Kelowna, in British Columbia, Canada. AHEM Alliance for the Heritage of East Maui (AHEM). This pamphlet addresses the what, why, and hows of AHEM (the Alliance for the Heritage of East Maui). AHEM is a group of individuals working together to preserve the UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group -4- Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 cultural, historic, and scenic resources of East Maui. AHEM’s participants are volunteers - farmers, conservationists, businessmen, and interested individuals united by a common cause. In addition to advocacy, AHEM seeks to create learning opportunities for locals and visitors, enabling them to understand and enjoy the region’s unique landscape. Three of AHEM’s primary goals are achieving Scenic Byway designation for the Hana Highway, obtaining Heritage Area designation for the East Maui region, and assuring design standards for East Maui’s bridges, roads, and visual infrastructure. Alliance, C. R. (2006). Maui Voluntary Code of Conduct and CORAL Reef Leadership Network: A Model for Sustainable Marine Recreation in Hawaii. Anderson, R. (1995). "Hawaii: discovering a new sense of place." Delegates 45: 48-50. The opening section of this article describes how Hawaii has embraced all the positive aspects of ecotourism and provided a balance between a flourishing visitor industry and environmental/cultural protection. It suggests that Hawaii must capitalize on its charasmatic history and culture and the breathtaking natural diversity which gives all of the islands such a distinctive sense of place. The remainder of the paper examines some of the recent developments in Hawaii's tourism infrastructure, for example, the Hawai'i Convention Centre, the refurbishment of several hotels including the Halekulani Hotel on Waikiki Beach, and attractions such as the Aloha Tower Marketplace and the Royal Kunia Golf Course. The paper shows how Hawaii is embracing itself for an assault on the conventions and incentive travel markets. Association, H. E. (1996). Hawaii ecotravel report - Protecting Hawaii’s unique environment and culture through responsible travel. Honolulu, Hawaii Ecotourism Association. Association, H. E. (1996). Hawaii ecotravel report - Protecting Hawaii’s unique environment and culture through responsible travel. Honolulu, Hawaii Ecotourism Association. The newsletter of the Hawai‘I Ecotourism Association contains information about local events, trends, books, people, and news items. The report is published bi-annually. Association, H. E. (2005). Hawaii Ecotourism Association Membership Directory. HEA is a non profit organization whose mission is to "protect Hawaii's unique environment and culture through the promotion of responsible travel and education programs aimed at the public and visitor industry relating to ecotourism issues." Atta, G. I. (1995). Preserving the Cultural Landscape. Honolulu Advertiser: B1. In this piece from the Honolulu Advertiser, George Atta elaborates on a cultural landscape study conducted on Keanae-Wailuanui, a rural community located in the Hana District. Cultural landscape studies involve multi-disciplinary reviews of how land is affected by its inhabitants, and conversely, how inhabitants affect the land. Cultural landscape projects also provide a more sensitive framework for state and regional land use planning. According to Atta, “The preservation of cultural landscapes such as Keanae-Wailuanui help us to remember our heritage and give continuity, texture, and context to our identity. They anchor our spirit, our destiny and the spirit and destiny of UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group -5- Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 our progeny.” Attix, S., Ed. (1992). Ecotourism: a directory of marketing resources. Pearl City, Visitor Industry Program, Leeward Community College. This document is a reference guide for ecotourism publications, organizations, media and public relations, references, guidebooks, and specific Hawai‘i related sources. It provides a directory of marketing resources for ecotourism with a focus on the Hawaiian Islands in marketing to potential participants (visitors) with and interest in ecotourism. Authority, H. T. Ke kumu: strategic directions for Hawaii's visitor industry. Authority, H. T. (2001). Ke kumu: strategic directions for Hawaii's visitor industry. Honolulu, Hawaii Tourism Authority. Authority, H. T. (2004). Ecotourism in Hawaii- White Paper. Honolulu, Hawaii Tourism Authority. The HTA and other groups met to come up with a definition for ecotourism. The proposed definition is “Ecotourism in Hawai‘i is an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable activity that responsibly and authentically connects visitors with Hawai‘i’s natural and cultural landscapes resulting in beneficial exchanges among these landscapes, the host community, and the visitor.” Policy issues and other definitions are also discussed. Authority, H. T. (2005). Hawai’i Tourism Strategic Plan: 2005-2015. Honolulu, Hawaii Tourism Authority. The Hawai‘i Tourism Strategic Plan (TSP) is a guideline for all stakeholders in the tourism industry with the purpose of having one common state vision. Primarily a the literature review of other research included in the 2004 Sustainable Tourism in Hawai‘i Study, most of the data was obtained from comments, suggestions, and concerns from the local community and industry. Hawaii has experienced a number of changes in the industry owing to changing travel preferences, a saturated airline industry, and advancement in technology. The authors identify problems from continued growth and development of the visitor industry that may impact natural and cultural resources. The plan calls for a move towards sustainable and responsible tourism and suggests stakeholders take the initiative to ensure that their primary mission and resources are in line with the TSP goals and objectives. Success of the TSP will be evaluated by collecting data and information from resident sentiment surveys, report on tax receipts, visitor expenditure studies, and visitor satisfaction surveys. Bacchilega, C. (2007). Legendary Hawaii and the politics of place: tradition, translation, and tourism. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press. Backhaus, N. (2003). "Non-Place Jungle: The construction of authenticity in national parks of Malaysia." Indonesia and the Malay World 31(89). Several ideas are intorduced in the research such as the concept of tourism, ideas of ontological security, critical situations and how they apply to the context of travelling. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group -6- Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Ideas of how parks can be more readable for visitors to enable them to have both a satisfying experience and to help protect narure as well as local culture. Bajracharya, S. B., Furley, Peter A., and Adrian C. Newton (2005). "Effectiveness of Community Involvement in Delivering Conservation Benefits to the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal." Environmental Conservation 32(3): 239-247. Community-based approaches to decision making in the management of protected areas are increasingly being implemented in many areas. However information on the outcome of these approaches for conservation is often lacking. In this study, the effectiveness of community-based approaches for conservation of biodiversity was examined in Annapurna Conservation Area through a combination of ecological assessments. Barrus, J. (1995). Law of the jungle. Hawaii Business. Honolulu. 41: 12. The article contends that Kauai's growing ecotourism industry is encroaching on established tourism businesses. There is much controversy regarding boat tours on Wailua River and the increase in the number of requirements for tour operators. Environmentalists are raising the question if these practices are sound. The question being asked in this article is: Is ecotourism eco-friendly? Barrus, J. (1995). Is Ecotourism Eco-friendly? Hawaii Business. Honolulu. 41. Baukham, W. K. (2005). Putting Traffic Lights on the Road Less Traveled: ecotourism certification and it's potential for Hawaii. Geography. Honolulu, University of Hawaii at Manoa. MA. This thesis serves to determine the opportunities and rise of an ecotourism certification program in Hawaii. A determination of level of support and amount of agreement for the Hawaii ecotourism industry to justify the concept of ecotourism and ecotourism certification is also a topic discussed. The role of the Hawaii Ecotourism Association and the length and degree to which they plan to enforce , manage, and participate and to the degree to the certification program will have on the island of Hawaii is also covered. Bayes, R. (2007). Pacific paradise. Travel Weekly Australia: 14-15. The article features Hawaii, an ultimate destination for families who wanted to spend an island holiday. Helen Williams, country manager of Hawaii Tourism states that the six islands of the state offers many interesting options for family holidays and a range of activities to provide for children of all ages. She claims that the islands offer educational experiences such as learning about the Hawaiian culture at the Polynesian Cultural Canter on Oahu. Beck, W. (2006). "Narratives of world Heritage in Travel Guidebooks." International Journal of Heritage Studies 12(6): 521-53. The article examines the portrayal of these sites in travel guidebooks, which are an acknowledged source of important influence on travellers. A study of travel guidebooks for various European nations showed that surprisingly few places are labelled as World Heritage even in the most comprehensive books. There is infact a gap between the ideals and what happens on the ground. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group -7- Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Beletsky, L. (2000). Hawaii: the ecotraveller's wildlife guide. London, Academic Press. The content includes information about Hawai‘i's natural history, geography, climate, and natural features. The author describes the importance of ecotourism in Hawai‘i and possible positive gains Hawai‘i can get from environmental tourism. The book is a guide for tourists, which also explains possible environmental threats to the islands and native species extinctions. Beletsky, L. (2006). Hawaii. Northampton, Interlink Books. Belsky, J. M. (1999). "Misrepresenting Communities: The Politics of Community-based Rural Ecotourism in Gales Point Manatee, Belize." Rural Sociology 64(4): 641-666. This community-based rural ecotourism research project examines the mis-representation of rural communities, in particular Gales Point Mantee, Belize. Researchers and students, both Belizean and American, carried out participant observation from 1992 to 1998. The conclusion suggests that attention to multiple interests and identities within rural communities and their relationships to broader actors and institutions are critical in meeting the formidable challenges facing community-based conservation efforts in Belize and elsewhere. Benson, S. (2002). Maui. Australia, Loney Planet Publications Ltd. This guidebook like Maui Revealed discloses the location of Blue Pool. The author advises the visitors to park their car off the side of the road and walk the last mile to the pool. Berle, P. A. (1991). Nature Tourism, managing for the environment, Island Press. The first book to explore the potential benefits and pitfalls of nature tourism, an innovative concept that links natural resource conservation with local economic development, providing a viable economic alternative to environmental exploitation. Berry, S., and Adele Ladkin (1997). "Sustainable Tourism: a egional perspective." Tourism Management 18(7): 433-440. The aim of this research is to gain an insight into the perception of sustainable tourism, and to examine the ways in which it is implemented at the regional level. The study uses a case study of East Sussex in the Uk. Bianchi, R. and P. Boniface (2002). "Editorial: The Politics of World Heritage." International Journal of Heritage Studies 8(2): 79-80. Thirty years after the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) brought the concept of World Heritage into official existence, this collection of papers offers a timely set of reflections upon meaning, purpose and outcomes of circumstances related to the World Heritage project. Bianchi, R. V. (2002). "The contested Landscapes of World Heritage on a Tourist Island: the Case of Garajonay National Park, La Gomera." International Journal of Heritage Studies 8(2): 81-97. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group -8- Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 The research project from 1999-2000 focused on the inclusion of Garajonay National Park as a World Heritage Site, particularly the significance to tourism as well as the local population. Prior to the WHS title, the national park title had come along with regulations for conservation. Due to political upheaval and rapid socio-economic change, large-scale tourism has become an issue. The public land that makes up the park has historically been the site of traditional gomero farmers, but the depletion of their populations has resulted. The laurel forest of the park is the most salient feature of the island’s ecosystem and the raison d’etre for the park itself. This work focuses on the WHS title as a marker of authenticity and quality, making it an instrument of tourism promotion more than a conservation tool. In addition, the author examines centralized control and local custodianship, noting that the apparent betrayal of local knowledge has led to occasional acts of reprisal against the forest, such as the starting of fires. Bien, A. (2006). A Simple User’s Guide To Certification For Sustainable Tourism and Ecotourism. 3. This guide to certification is designed for those who have heard about certifying sustainable tourism and ecotourism and want to understand how it works or how to begin the process. Offers definitions of key concepts of sustainability and the certification process as well as the different types and how to classify your business. Blackford, M. (2001). Fragile Paradise: The Impact of Tourism on Maui. Lawrence, University Press of Kansas. Blackford, M. G. (2004). "Environmental Justice, Native Rights, Tourism, and Opposition to Military Control: The Case of Kaho'olawe." Journal of American History 91(2): 544-571. The article discusses environmental movements made by Hawaiians against the use of the Kaho'olawe island in Hawaii as a bombing target range by the U.S. Navy and their struggles to restore the island from the 1960s to 1970s. Establishment of a postcolonial variant of the U.S. environmental justice campaign by native Hawaiians; Description of the island; Importance of the island as a spiritual center and navigation marker to native Hawaiians; Efforts of Elmer Cravalho in leading an initial charge against the navy; Changes in navy policies regarding the use of the island. Blay, C. (2000). State on right track for improving trails. The Garden Island. Boniface, P. (2001). "Touring World Heritage in AD 2000." Tourism Recreation Research 26(1): 73-79. This paper looks at entities of World Heritage and tourism in background and then as they are interacting and having an impact upon another, at the time of the millennium. World Heritage will be evaluated as it appears to be being conceived, and through the philosophy and ideas which are govening proposals and choices of World Heritage sites. Bottrill, C., and Douglas G. Pearce (1995). "Ecotourism: Towards a Key Elements Approach to Operationalising the Concept." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 3(1). The paper presents a new approach to operationalising the concept, one based on classification using a set of measurable key elements covering the participant, operator UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group -9- Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 and resource management perspectives. Boynton, D. (2000). Many residents oppose new rules axing commercial use of Hanalei Bay. The Garden Island. Brock, R. E. (1994). "Beyond fisheries enhancement: artificial reefs and ecotourism." Bulletin of Marine Science 55(2/3): p.1181-1188. Artificial reefs used as submarine and dive tour sites receive less fishing pressure from the public because the high use patterns by dive tour firms preclude much of the fishing activity. Such reefs when used as part of a non-destructive 'eco-tourism' dive package provide significantly greater economic return than when used for commercial fishery purposes. Annual gross revenue from the commercial fishery of one open-access dive tour artificial reef analysed in this study is 4% of the annual pre-tax profit of dive tours operating on this same reef. Moreover, the daily estimated catch from this reef is equivalent to the estimated annual sustainable yield, suggesting that the fishery is capitalizing on fishes aggregating to the reef rather than in situ production. If the rationale for artificial reef development is economic gain and a viable tourist industry presently exists, reefs deployed for non-consumptive purposes may provide the best use, especially when fishery resources are in a state of decline. Bushnell, S. M. (1994). The Ecotourism Planning Kit- A Business Planning Guide for Ecotourism Operators in the Pacific Islands Honolulu, Pacific Business Center Program, University of Hawaii. Bushnell, S. M. (1994). The Ecotourism Planning Kit- A Business Planning Guide for Ecotourism Operators in the Pacific Islands Honolulu, Pacific Business Center Program, University of Hawaii. This planning kit was developed to assist in the establishment of ecotourism enterprises. The kit includes a number of steps that are deemed important to establish and run a successful ecotourism business. Included within the nine sections, the planning guide also includes a number of challenges and obstacles that people attempting to develop and grow eco-type enterprises may face in ensuring success. A number of case studies and other examples are utilized in the Pacific region in order to illustrate the various approaches and tactics. Butcher, J. (2006). "Natural Capital and the Advocacy of Ecotourism as Sustainable Development." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 14(6). The paper critically considers the role of the concept of natural capital in the advocacy of ecotourism as sustainable tourism in the rural developing world. The paper draws upon five case studies featuring NGOs that have been at the forefront of developing and commenting upon ecotourism as a strategy for integrating conservation and development. Butler, R. W., and Stephen W. Boyd (2000). Tourism and National Parks. West Sussex, England, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. National Parks have played a significant role as tourist attraction in many countries since their establishment in the nineteenth century. In some countries they are the major set of UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 10 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 tourist attractions and the foundation of small but often important tourism industries. Despite this, the relationship between tourism and national parks is not always a satisfactory one, and there is often considerable and vocal opposition to the continuance and particularly expansion of tourism in many national parks. The key focus of this book is the relationship between national parks and tourism- how national park systems relate to tourism in a variety of contexts, from the historical development through to the role that they play today. C.R. Twidale, J. B. (2003). "Commentary: practices, problems, and principles fro ecotourism- a case study." 482-492. Begins with a disclaimer stating that their are false claims and unethical conclusions in the paper. practices The article discusses the problems and principles for ecotourism through case studies in South Australia, and interviews with public figures. Candy, S., J. Dator, et al. (2006). Four Futures For Hawaii 2050. Honolulu, Hawaii Research Center for Futures Studies, Department of Political Science, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Candy, S., J. Dator, et al. (2006). Four Futures For Hawaii 2050. Honolulu, Hawaii Research Center for Futures Studies, Department of Political Science, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Carlton, J. (1999). Reeling Hawaii Tries to Get Tourists Back. The Wall Street Journal. New York, N.Y.: 1. Reports that tourism officials in Hawaii have decided to enliven the state's image to attract tourists. Information on an advertising aimed at the Japanese market; Economic condition of the state in 1998; Number of Japanese and other Asian visitors in Hawaii in 1998; Drop in the percentage of hotel rooms occupied over the same period. Carter and Burgess, I. (2002). Planning for Sustainable Tourism in Hawaii. Part 1: Infrastructure and Environmental Overview Study. Honolulu, Prepared for the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism. Catsadorakis, G. (2007). "The conservation of Natural and Cultural heritage in Europe and the Mediterranean: A Gordian Knot?" International Journal of Heritage Studies 13(4&5): 308-320. Discussion pertaining to the effective conservation of the European natural heritage. Addresses the difficulties to defining 'conservation' and 'natural heritage'. Suggests effective ways to assist with the European conservation of both natural and cultural heritage through moderated practices in agriculture, farming, and foresting Chambers, E. (2000). Native Tours: the anthropology of travel and tourism. Prospect Heights, Illinois, Waveland Press, Inc. The author shares of his own travel experiences and research on cultural and environmental consequences of our own travels. He offers case studies of tourism in the American Southwest, the Tirolean Alps, and the Caribbean nation of Belize, as well as the development of Japanese tourism. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 11 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Cheng, J. (2007). "The Blue Pool (Heleleikeoha Falls or Helele’ike’oha Falls). ." Retrieved April 29, 2008, from http://www.world-of-waterfalls.com/hawaii-blue-pool.html. This web pages accounts for the author’s experience at Blue Pool. The author added an update on the situation at Blue Pool and draws attention to the fact that the attraction is kapu. He goes on by stating his opinion: “I think many problems can be solved (regarding traffic, litter, etc.) by having residents run a paying tour”. He also added a link to tripadvisor.com, which is filled with comments by recent visitors. Link: http://www.tripadvisor.com/Attraction_Review-g29220-d103067-Reviews-Blue_Pool- Maui_Hawaii.html Chirgwin, S. (2005). "Can Sites Formerly Subjected to Development Provide Satisfying Nature Tourism Experiences? Two Case Studies From the Top End of Australia's Northern Territory." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 13(1): 50-62. The paper describes two destinations in Australia's Northern Territory-Aquascene and Fogg Dam- which are previously subjected to development, but now provide nature based experiences. It examines what needs they are fulfilling and why, and reviews what this means for the use of other previously developed sites in nature tourism ventures. City Clerk, C. a. C. o. H. (1993). Proceedings of Impacts and opportunities: shaping tourism’s future, December 16, 1993, Sheraton-Waikiki Hotel. Honolulu. Commission, M. P. (1993). Community Plan Update Proposed Hana Community Plan: 42. This Community Plan Update is an addition to the Maui County General Plan, and the Hana Community Plan (first adopted in 1982). According to the Maui Planning Commission, “The Hana Community Plan provides specific recommendations to address the goals, objectives and policies contained in the General Plan, while recognizing the values and unique attributes of Hana in order to enhance the region’s overall living environment.” HCP implementing actions that are mentioned include zoning, capital improvements, and county budgeting. Policy recommendations, implementation measures, and planning standards first addressed in the 1982 Hana Community Plan are expanded upon in this update. These include land use, environmental, cultural, and economic points of concern. Committee, A. S. "Your Town" Workshop Summary. This article addresses the results of a “Your Town” workshop organized by AHEM, and funded by the National Trust for Historic Preservation and the National Endowment for the Arts. During this three-day workshop, local participants explored preservation strategies and analyzed East Maui’s perceived threats and opportunities. Several concerns and suggestions appeared often in the community input process. Many of the perceived threats to the region fall under one of three categories – quality of life concerns, environmental / cultural issues, and governmental / institutional concerns. The community also addresses what it believes are the biggest impacts of regional tourism – declining quality of life, increasing demand for large infrastructure, and the suppression of economic alternatives. The “Your Town” process also enabled residents to offer suggestions on solving the current issues. Ideas given for expanding the economic base UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 12 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 include a “Made in Hana / “Grown in Hana” program for local goods, creation of high- tech and vocational education programs for youth, and controlled tourism on Hana’s terms (as opposed to accidental tourism). Hana residents also provided substantial input on Hana Road improvements. Potential measures discussed include controlling vehicle flow, the addition of more pull-offs, controlled trip timing, and the introduction of tolls. Participants in this study also asked AHEM’s Steering Committee to seek funding for a National Heritage Area feasibility study. With the help of “Your Town”. Conrow, J. (1997). Ecotourism: Public lands, private business. Honolulu Star Bulletin. Honolulu. Conrow, J. (1997). The New Midway. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Constantina Skanavis, Y. M. a. V. P. (2004). "Environmental Education Potential for Greek Ecotourism." 61(6): 735-744. Focuses on total number of small ecotourism enterprises in Greece. Objective is to explore eco awareness and environmental educational programs. Main areas explored cooperation with environmental organizations, intention for involvement, the degree of environmental activism, assessment of environmental needs, financial realities and the influence the environmental activism is having on an educational level. Asses the needs and characteristics of the ecotourism operations in Greece. Environmental Consultants, C. (2007). "Report to the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources: Recommended Strategies for Addressing Ocean Recreation User Conflicts." Retrieved April 3, 2008, from http://hawaii.gov/dlnr/dbor/pdf/userconflictsrpt/FinalReport.pdf. Ocean recreational user conflicts have been increasing with increasing of population and tourism in Hawai‘i. The key recommendations that allow the Department of Land and Natural Resources to manage ocean recreation activities better so that user conflicts are resolved and prevented are developed by CSV Consultants. Proactive management of ocean recreation activities will not only reduce the user conflicts but also protect seabird sanctuaries, coral reefs, fish, federally protected marine species as well as cultural sites. Council, K. H. P. (1999). Kona Heritage Corridor Feasibility Report. Captain Cook, Pulama ia Kona Heritage Preservation Council. Council, K. H. P. (1999). Kona Heritage Corridor Feasibility Report. Captain Cook, Pulama ia Kona Heritage Preservation Council. Courbis, S. S. (2004). Behavior of Hawai'ian spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) in response to vessels/swimmers, San Francisco State University. Crandell, C., J. Curtis, et al. (1997). "Ecotourism- Is it Really Worth It?" Retrieved 4/7/2008, from http://www.users.muohio.edu/shermarc/p412/team397.shtml. Mass tourism and “ecotourism” in Hawai‘i are both harmful to the environment. Genuine ecotourism needs to be advocated and practiced to provide environmental and economic benefits to the state. Without this further harm will continue from the industry. Recommendations are made about the direction that the state should go in planning and UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 13 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 development regarding ecotourism. Creamer, B. (1992). Eco-tourists ignored. Sunder Star Bulletin and Advertiser: B4. Culliney, J. L. (1997). Ka Iwi could evolve into larger park of wonder. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Currie, R. R. (2006). "The International Conference on Environmental, Cultural, Economic, and Social Sustainability." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 14(1): 102-104. The conference was held on Oahu, Hawaii on February 25-27, 2005. Tourism was a recurring topic of discussion at this conference. The purpose of this conference was to “create a forum for discussion and a place for the publication of innovative theories and practices of sustainability.” The conference included natural and social scientists. Pre- contact culture needs to be considered in areas with high levels of tourism. Curtis, P. C. (2001). AOL's Steve Case buys Amfac's Lihu'e acreage. The Garden Island. Curtis, P. C. (2002). Kaua'i projects request $2.2 million, but county has only $600,000 to give. The Garden Island. Curtis, P. C. (2002). Tourism consultant says Kaua'i parks should be privatized. The Garden Island. Curtis, P. C. (2002). Matsunaga leading Democrat's primary race for lt. gov. The Garden Island. Curtis, P. C. (2002). UH's Dobelle: For the first time, state has more imported teachers. The Garden Island. Curtis, P. C. (2003). Federal official: Kaua'i high-tech has bright future. The Garden Island. Dankyi, S. (1996). Discord in Paradise: Tourism Development and Public Controversy in Maui, Hawaii. Sociology and Anthropology, Simon Fraser University. MA. Deloitte, H. S. (1998). The community journal on tourism. Honolulu, Department of Business and Economic Development. Deloitte, H. S. (1998). The community journal on tourism. Honolulu, Department of Business and Economic Development. Denman, R. (2001). Guidelines for community-based ecotourism development. Guidelines are used to identify some general principles, and highlight some practical considerations for community-based ecotourism. They seek to provide a reference point for field project staff, and to encourage a consistent approach. However, prevailing conditions and levels of knowledge about ecotourism vary considerably between countries and projects, and this will dictate how the guidelines are interpreted and used at a local level. In total, twelve guidelines are presented. These have been grouped into UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 14 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 four sections that relate to different stages of community-based ecotourism initiatives: (1) Considering whether ecotourism is an appropriate option; (2) Planning ecotourism with communities and other stakeholders; (3) Developing viable community-based ecotourism projects; (4) Strengthening benefits to the community and the environment. Derrick, J. and N. Derrick (2006). Maui - Mile by Mile. This guidebook reveals the road to Hana, and the Haleakala Highway drive to the summit of Haleakala. On page 39, the authors address the issue on Ulaino road and suggest visitors to skip the place. “In our opinion, the waterfall isn’t that great and isn’t worth the risk of being charged with trespassing by angry landowners. And who can blame them?” Desmond, J. C. (1999). "Picturing Hawai'i: "Ideal" Native and the Origins of Tourism, 1880- 1915." Positions 7(2): 460-501. The article is a historical account of the beginnings of tourism and the effects that the industry has had on the Hawaiian Culture. In 1901 the Merchants Association in Honolulu began discussing tourism possibilities, and by 1903 the Hawaiian Promotion Committee was created. Hawaiian land quickly transformed into shopping centers and strips of Hotels. The Hawaiin culture became stereotyped by the things written in advertisements and pictures of a culture that was taken from the people decades ago. Development, C. o. E. a. S. (2006). Cruise Tourism in Belize:perceptions of Economic, Social, and Environmental Impact. Stanford, California, Stanford University. Over the last several decades, Belize has built an international reputation for small-scale, nature and cultural tourism. As this industry continues to grow, the Belize government is faced with choices about how best to use resources in the service of the country's tourism development. The study was intended to provide data analysis to assist the government, the tourists industry, NGO's, and local communities in preparing a new plan for ecotourism. The study examines the terrestrial, economic, social, and environmental impacts of cruise impacts as they are viewed today. Dingeman, R. (2007). International Visitor Arrivals in Hawaii Rise. Honolulu Advertiser. Honolulu. Tourism Officials hoped to build new businesses from developing international markets from Australia/New Zealand, and Asia excluding Japan. Arrivals from Australia increased 15% bringing in 66,000 total visitors each year. Asia markets outside Japan increased 7.3% (Korea) and 1.6% (China), bringing in 21,000 visitors each year. Australia and Europe have a strong currency against the U.S. dollar so Hawaii is a good bargain for them. This hints that hotels need to increase international markets over a broader range of visitors to accommodate as many possible growing markets as possible. Dingeman, R. (2007). Hawaii group keeps ecotourism on track. Honolulu Advertiser. Honolulu. DLNR (1998). Na Ala Hele Trail and Access Program - DLNR Commercial trail tour activity. The Environmental Notice. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 15 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Domestic Technologies, I. (2002). Ramona Reservation Renewable Energy Housing and Ecotourism Power System Project. This final report presents information developed under the DOE-funded project by Domestic Technologies (DTI), the Ramona Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians (Tribe) and some its contractors during the period from September 30, 1999 to September 30, 2002. This project was assigned to DTI to give technical support to the Tribe for reservation hybrid system design, system performance monitoring, cultural impact analysis, and training of Tribal members in the operations and maintenance of hybrid energy systems. The Master Development Plan and its objectives is to base the reservation cultural and economic development strategy on the use of renewable energy technologies which would supply 90% of the electrical/thermal energy needed to meet the demands of the tribal housing complex and the Ramona ecotourism and training business. Doughty, A. (2005). Maui Revealed: The Ultimate Guidebook. Lihue, Wizard Publications Inc. This book reveals every single beach, hike, and waterfall there is on the road to Hana. The author gives tips and advice on how to find every location, which can sometimes be off limits. Dowling, R. and D. Newsome (2006). Geotourism, Butterworth-Heinemann. dyer, A. (2007). "Inspiration, Enchantment and a Sense of Wonder...Can a New Paradigm in Education Bring Nature and Culture Together Again?" International Journal of Heritage Studies 13(4&5): 393-404. Explores the possibility that a paradigm shift in education could aide the environment, ecological stability, and biodiversity. suggests that an integrated shift in education could help society operate on more sustainable terms. Encourages increasing ecological 'literacy', a more holistic approach to education. Eager, H. (1991). Landowners, Steward, County, Sign Agreement to Protect Watershed. This article is one of several that documents the signing of the East Maui Watershed Partnership. The region in question (extending from Kipahulu to Makawao) receives an excess of 60 billion gallons of rain per year and is arguably one of the most important resources in the state of Hawaii. Surface runoff in the watershed can be captured at a rate of approximately 200 million gallons a day, a figure that surpasses that of Oahu’s largest freshwater source (the Pearl Harbor Aquifer) at 125 million gallons per day. Under the agreement, signees pledge to protect not only the water resources, but the region’s native plants and animals as well. Also described, is the Natural Area Partnership Act, and the Forest Stewardship Act – two acts passed by the legislature in 1990. These acts create state-backed incentives for private owners to conserve and sensitively manage their land holdings. Edgardo Tongson, M. D. (2004). "User Fee System for Marine Ecotourism: The Tubbataha Reef Experience." 17-23. A collaboration between Tubbataha National Park and the scuba community. A fee collection and permit system was created to help pay for the cost to maintain the park and protect the reef. The threats of illegal fishing, pollution, and changing weather are taking UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 16 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 their toll on the health of the coral. A TRNMP management team was installed to protect the reef, the wildlife and preserve the beauty of the reef. After a willingness to pay survey the park started charging on a per visit basis or a permit admittance. The money generated is being held in a fund to build until it is sufficient enough to help restore the park. Editorial (2005). "Sustainable Tourism Research and the Importance of Societal and Social Science Trends." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 13(1). Many research papers on sustainable tourism focus on specific issues or case studies. However, more papers need to be written and published that consider the broader ideological and societal trends. Theoretical frameworks need to be considered because this area of research is very important to the advancement of the field. Edwards, S. N., W. J. McLaughlin, et al. (1988). Comparative Study of Ecotourism Policy in the Americas. Edwards, S. N., W. J. McLaughlin, et al. (1988). Comparative Study of Ecotourism Policy in the Americas, Department of Resource Recreation and Tourism College of Forestry, Wildlife and Range Resources, University of Idaho, Inter-Sectoral Unit for Tourism, Organization of American States. This study presents the results of a number of interviews with numerous people with responsibilities or with knowledge of ecotourism, particularly in government agencies within the Americas. Various geographic areas are covered including Hawai‘i as an area of focus. The discussion of Hawai‘i is rather brief, however it provides a comparison in the context of other geographic regions within the Americas. The comparative study covers regions such as Mexico, a number of Central American countries, Greenland, thirteen countries in South America, the Caribbean and within the Atlantic coasts. The studies covers the states and provinces within the US and Canada. The purpose of the study was to develop a database of national and regional government agencies, the extent of ecotourism policy and planning within various agencies, understand further conceptual differences and similarities of ecotourism and to further understand ecotourism policy development across the Americas. Engle, E. (2003). Windward businesses get new plug in Koolauloa brochures. Honolulu Star- Bulletin. Honolulu. Engledow, J. (1992). Man of the Earth. The Maui News: D1. Engledow’s article “Man of the Earth” discusses David Brower’s 1992 visit to Hana. Before his death in 2000, Brower spent over fifty years fighting for environmental causes. Brower founded Friends of the Earth, and the Earth Island Institute, and was the first executive director of the Sierra Club. During his visit to Hana, he suggested that Hana become the first biosphere reserve – his newest concept for increasing environmental awareness and conservation. He also advocates the creation of a “cultural conservancy” similar to that formed by Kalani English in Hana. Brower states, “Island studies are important for a world that needs to learn the island-ness of things . . . There’s nowhere else to go.” UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 17 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Engledow, J. (1992). Group Acts as Coordinator, Bringing Resources to Bear on Environmental Projects. The Maui News: D1, D2. The Friends of the Hana Coast (FOHC) are a group of individuals united in the common goal of preserving East Maui’s natural and cultural resources. FOHC seeks to accomplish this by networking with other related organizations at a local, state, and national level. The group also seeks to ensure the participation of Native Hawaiian groups in decision- making processes and planning forums. Since its founding in 1989, Friends of the Hana Coast has established the Hana 2000 Fund, presented scholarships to Hana’s graduating seniors, and has acted as an advocate for the Hana community. In 1991, the group brought a suit against DOT for attempting to expand the Hana airport without appropriate environmental assessments. Engledow, J. (1992). Cultural Conservancy Preached by Group That Collects Various Land Rights. The Maui News: D1, D2. Hui’aina o Hana is a local organization (formed in 1991), with a mission of protecting traditional land use (hunting, water rights, worship sites, and etc.). Hui’aina partnered with the national Cultural Conservancy in 1991 to form the first “cultural conservatory” in Hana. These organizations hope to protect traditional land use in the region by acquiring certain land rights from landowners, be it the right to access, or the right to develop. Hui’aina’s Executive Director, Kalani English, gives several examples of situations where users and landowners would benefit from such an agreement. English hopes that by providing landowners with incentives such as decreased liability and tax rate assurances, they will be able to open more land for community use and access. Engledow, J. (2006). Kipahulu Kitchen: A recipe for community. In the Spring of 2006, the Kipahulu community finally gained a long-sought after resource – a community-operated commercial kitchen. This agricultural processing facility has been in the works since 1996, when the first funds were obtained. Since then, the community has conducted fundraisers, and received monies from the County, and the Office of Hawaiian Affairs. Residents have also pooled their talents – students from Hana High School aided in the construction process, as did Kipahulu locals. When fully operational, it is expected that the facility will primarily process taro and fruits, enabling residents to legally sell their products (by law, food must be processed in a certified kitchen meeting Department of Health standards). Kipahulu residents hope that the kitchen will function as a uniting element in the community for years to come, allowing newcomers and long-time residents to unite over shared resources. Farrell, B. (1992). Tourism Alternatives: potentials and problems in the development of tourism. V. L. Smith, and William R. Eadington. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania: 112-134. This source contains several case studies that call attention to the many alternative styles of tourism which can be historically and temporally linked to a given society. They discuss the theoretical component rooted in fieldwork which serves as a foundation for the knowledge based platform in the study of tourism. Farrell, B. (1992). Tourism as an element in sustainable development: Hana, Maui. Tourism UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 18 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 alternatives: potentials and problems in the development of tourism. V. L. Smith and W. R. Eadington. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press: 115-134. The main focus of the essay is on the possibilities of management change as a response to a philosophy arising from worldwide consideration of sustainable development. In this case study the effect of new, outside, and (most recently) foreign management of an expensive resort is examined. This resort is situated in the quiet community of Hana, for a long time an isolated enclave of “old Hawaii,” where seclusion and tradition prevailed. The conclusion was that corporate owner of the resort, Rosewood, had done many admirable things, which probably would to some degree meet the test in all elements of sustainability, however even though they were masters of the tourism industry they were relative neophytes at sustainable development. Fennell, D. A. and K. Ebert (2004). "Tourism and the Precautionary Principle." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 12(6). The precautionary principle is predicated as a viable tourism development tool and planning mechanism that safeguards environmental and human health by anticipating and controlling for future impacts of tourism. Ferrell, B. (1982). Hawaii, The Legend that Sells. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press. Figart, F. (2005). "Goodness Sells: A Modest Proposal for the Rebranding of Ecotourism in the United States." Global Journal of Practical Ecotourism, from Planeta.com. This article is about changing the image of ecotourism for the general public. Media and travel agency professionals must present ecotourism for what it actually is. This is necessary for the growth of the industry and giving non-specialists the right impression of ecotourism. Several interviews with people from different sides of the industry are presented. Flannery, M. C. (1995). "European history in Hawaii." American Biology Teacher 57(6): p.371 (4pgs). The article discusses the author's experiences while taking a vacation in Hawaii. Author's husband's participation in a seminar on science in 19th century Europe; Attractions in Hawaii; History of Hawaii; Books on Hawaii; Hawaii's biological richness; Extinction of some species; Effect of the growth of the tourism on Hawaii's natural resources. Fleetham, J. W. (2003). Landowers Agree to Restoration Parnership for Leeward Haleakala. The Haleakala Times: 1-7. Fleetham’s article celebrates the 2003 creation of the Leeward Haleakala Watershed Restoration Partnership. The partnership is the result of an agreement between ten landholders – Haleakala National Park, the James Campbell Estate, Kaonoulu Ranch, Haleakala Ranch, Living Indigenous Forest Ecosystems, State of Hawaii Department of Hawaiian Homelands, Nu’u Mauka Ranch, State of Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife, the U.S. Geological Survey, ‘Ulupalakua Ranch, and John Zwaanstra. This is the eleventh such water partnership in the state, and comprises a total of 43,175 acres of land. The Leeward Restoration Partnership will work towards the restoration of native ecosystems (particularly koa) from Ulupalakua to Kaupo above the 3,500 foot level. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 19 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Restoration of the region’s native koa forests present several substantial benefits. These benefits include the recharging of local aquifers, increased habitat for native plants and animals, and diversification of Maui’s economy. Fleetham, J. W. (2003). The East Maui Watershed Partnership. The Haleakala Times. Author Jan Fleetham details the formation of the East Maui Watershed Partnership – a voluntary commitment among private, state, and federal landholders to preserve the East Maui Watershed. Formed in 1991, the partnership is comprised of the following stakeholders: The Nature Conservancy, DLNR, Hana Ranch Co., Haleakala Ranch Co., Haleakala National Park, East Maui Irrigation, and the County of Maui. The primary purpose of the partnership is to protect local ecosystems from feral animals and invasive flora. Particularly harmful, are feral pigs and axis deer – species that cause damage to native plants, and speed erosion. In 2002 (the date of publication), EMWP staff members concentrated their efforts on building a fence above 3,500 feet on Haleakala’s windward side. When completed, the fence is projected to enclose over 10,000 acres, allowing native plants to regenerate and thrive. Managing Coordinator Alex Michailidis praises the landowners involved, citing their high level of motivation and full cooperation. Michailidis also mentions the need for additional support – in the form of funding, manpower, and technical infrastructure. Fleetham, J. W. (2004). Kipahulu 'Ohana's Kapahu Farm. The Haleakala Times. In this piece from the Haleakala Times, the author visits Kapahu Valley, exploring the history of the area, and Kipahulu ‘Ohana’s unique mission. Kipahulu ‘Ohana is a non- profit organization founded by a group of Native Hawaiians with ancestral links to the region. In 1995 (the year of it’s origin), the organization entered into an agreement with the National Park Service to “preserve, maintain, restore and interpret the Kipahulu ‘ahupua’a for public use and enjoyment”. Under this arrangement, ‘Ohana also performs economic and resource management activities. In 1969, the coastal area of O’heo (encapsulating Kapahu Farm) was added to Haleakala National Park. Eleven years later, the UN designated the upper portion of the valley as an International Biosphere Reserve. Today, the organization focuses on visitor and local education, and also maintains a system of taro lo’i (irrigated terraces). Students from local and international institutions visit Kapahu Valley to work in the lo’i and learn about their associated traditions. Forestell, P. H. (1993). "If Leviathan Has a Face, Does Gaia Have a Soul?: Incorporating Environmental Education in Marine Eco-tourism Programs." Ocean and Coastal Management 20: 267-282. Foster, C. (2007). Hawaii: A Look Ahead. TRAVEL AGENT. 328: 34-36. The article reports on the condition of the tourism industry in Hawaii. The state's government has allocated serious budget for the improvement and promotion of the location to the rest of the U.S. According to "Travel Agent," Hawaii has been focusing on strategic goals of drawing in travelers who are inclined to pay what is needed for a vacation. Foundation, A. (1993). Cultural tourism: promoting sustainable development for preserving UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 20 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 human, cultural, and natural resources in the Pacific Islands. Pacific Islands Area Seminar, Honolulu, ACT Foundation. Foundation, A. (1995). Ocean resources: development of marine tourism, fisheries and coastal management in the Pacific Islands area. Pacific Islands Area Seminar, Honolulu, ACT Foundation. France, L., Ed. (1997). The Earthscan Reader in Sustainable Tourism. London, Earthscan Publications Limited. Fujimoto, L. (1991). Golf Course Talk Driving Hana Apart. Honolulu Advertiser: A1, A8. Fujimoto details the controversy over the creation of an eighteen-hole golf course on land owned by Keola Maui Inc. (owners of the Hotel Hana-Maui) in Hana. Libert Landgraf (COO of KHMI) asserts that without the golf course, the hotel cannot compete with other resorts in the state. Many community members question the economic viability of the project, as well as the potential impacts upon underground water reserves, and the community’s quiet lifestyle. Landgraf claims that if the company is mandated to complete an EIS, they may have to sell some of their land, or turn part of the hotel into condo units. Some Hana residents see Landgraf’s statement as a threat, and an attempt to “railroad” the project through to completion. Between 1978 and 1989, the Hotel Hana dropped from 78% occupancy to 55% occupancy. An economic study commissioned by the company, claims that with a golf course used by 32% of guests, occupancy will eventually rise to 75%. Fujimoto, L. (2008). 'Blue Pool' dispute ends with assault conviction. Maui News. This article reports the confrontation between a tourist couple driving to Blue Pool, and Frank James Oliveira resident on Ulaino road. Both testimonies differ a bit, so Oliveira was charged with a third-degree assault for this incident. But, the jury couldn’t reach a verdict on a charge of first-degree unauthorized entry into a motor vehicle. Garden, K. (2007). Home of Pi’ilani Heiau. Maui, Kahanu Garden Staff and the NTBG Administration. This brochure describes the history of Kahanu Garden, as well as its purpose and mission. It has an extensive account of the different plants that can be found in the garden. Also, it recounts the story of Maui chief Pi’ilani and the cultural importance of the Pi’ilani heiau, which was registered as a National Historic Landmark in 1964 Garrod, B. and A. Fyall (1998). "Beyond the Rhetoric of Sustainable Tourism?" Tourism Management 19(3): 199-212. The article argues that the time has now come to move from defining sustainable tourism, to begin to consider how it may best be implemented in practice. An approach baesd on the methodology of environmental economics is suggested as a possible way forward. Getz, D., and Tazim B. Jamal (1994). "The Environment-Community Symbiosis: A case for collaborative tourism planning." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 2(3). The article advances the proposition that sustainable tourism can be achieved through UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 21 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 recognition that the public and private sector, the host communities and the natural environment are interdependent stakeholders in a complex tourism domain where no single individual, agency or group can reslove strategic tourism issues by acting alone. Globe, G. (2004). International Ecotourism Standard. Identifies and defines in a bullet point oriented fashion various aspects of ecotourism including policy, standards, performance, infrastructure development, practice, cultural sensitivity and respect, codes of conduct, and marketing principles. Reads as a guide or set of guidelines, including a glossary of terms pertaining to verbiage used and a fairly rigid code of conduct applicable to most ecotourism activities to aid the user in practicing the principles. Glorioso, R. S., and Laurence A. Moss (2007). "Amenity Migration to Mountain Regions: Current Knowledge and Strategic Construct for Sustainable Management." Social Change 37: 137-161. Amenity migration has become an important force for change in non-metropolitan high amenity places around the world. This report describes their own and others’ research on related community development experience, amenity migration, and its dependent economic migration is analysed in relation to socio-cultural, economic and biophysical effects. Particular attention is considered for amenity-led migration to mountain regions and what has to be done to mitigate present negative effects, avoid them in the future, and take greater and superior advantage of its benefits. The authors suggest research priorities for obtaining greater understanding of amenity migration and to assist in managing it in a manner that will sustain mountain ecologies and their human communities. Goldsmith, F. B. (1973). "The ecologist's role in development for tourism: a case study in the Caribbean." Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 5: 22. Gopalakrishana, C., and Linda J. Cox (2003). "Water Consumption by the Visitor Industry: The Case of Hawaii." Water Resource Development 19(1): 29-35. Water consumption by the tourism industry on Oahu is analyzed, due to the expected growth of the tourism industry. Two main categories are studied: hotels and resorts, and golf courses. 11 of the 36 total golf courses were studied, while hotels representing 16,743 of the 31,546 units were studied. Every hotel and golf course in the study is listed as a top 100 user of water on Oahu. HBWS supplied data including price and amount of water used. Hotel data came from internet sources and over-the-phone interviews with hotel employees while golf course information was provided over the phone from employees. Formulas are developed to represent water usage. Statistical tests are used to show which variables are significant predictors of water use. For golf courses the course size and price of water are significant. For hotels and resorts the number of units, the number of swimming pools, and if the hotel also has a golf course are significant. The authors conclude that pricing is effective for golf course water allocation, but not for hotels and resorts. The authors recommend that hotels and resorts focus on substituting non-potable water for golf courses and adopting water conservation practices for hotels and resorts. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 22 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Gordon, M. (2007). Hana Embodies Spirit of Noel. Honolulu Advertiser: A1, A2. Author Mike Gordon describes the generosity, selflessness and aloha that exists in Hana over the Christmas season. Gordon asserts that Hana is one of the few towns in the United States where the idealized version of Christmas still exists. The article describes the Torentino family chorus, and the annual school Christmas pageant – an event that the entire town turns out in support of. Gross, A. (2005). Kauaians working on strategic marketing plan. The Garden Island. Gross, A. (2005). Kaua‘i featured on cover of ‘Travel Agent’. The Garden Island. Gupta, S. (2007). Happy Trails: ecotourism continues to grow. Honolulu Weekly. Honolulu. April 18-24, 2007. Curt Cottrell, the program manger of Na Ala Hele argues for a better ecotourism plan and a more effective legislation in order to maintain sustainable ecotourism. Activities such as surfing, kayaking, and hiking are the most popular tourist' attractions in Hawaii, but have not been properly managed in the past. These activities have resulted in environmental degradation on the islands. Na Ala Hele is therefore participating to create a better plan for the industry. Habel, S. K. (1999). From Pineapple to Tourism on the Island of Lana'i: A Tale of Two Plantations? Sociology. Honolulu, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Ph.D. Hadley, N. P. (2001). "Cooperative tourism management of Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge: planning, assessment, and strategy." Tourism 49(3): 189-202. This paper presents a heuristic assessment of the tourism system on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge established in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 1997. The paper examines how a newly-formed management cooperative could attend to the opportunities of island tourism in a multiple-use protected area while 1) minimizing negative impacts to the natural and social setting and 2) maximizing the probability of long-term sustainability. This research also uses a tourism planning process and a tourism assessment model to develop a tourism strategy that integrates the distinct missions of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, a private corporation, and a non-governmental organization. Hamilton, L. (1995). The Last Hawaiian Place. Honolulu Weekly: 6-8. The town of Hana has ample reason to proclaim itself “the last Hawaiian place.” Hana is over 47% ethnic Hawaiian (compared to 12.5% for the state as a whole), and likely contains the largest number of historic and pre-contact archaeological sites in the state. The community is also unique in terms of the large number of residents that practice subsistence lifestyles. Agriculture, forestry, and fishing closely follow tourism as the leading occupation in Hana. Author Lisa Hamilton argues that this unique way of life is threatened by Keola Hana Maui Inc.’s possible decision to sell interest in its assets in Hana. Under the updated Hana Community Plan (rev. 1994) there are no longer safeguards for zoning-related development. Hamilton asserts that without safeguards in UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 23 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 place, Hana’s future will likely be one of extended golf courses and gentlemen’s estates. Hang, P. L. K. (2005). "The World Ecotourism Summit: final report." Tourism Management 26: 2. The publication is the final report of the World Ecotourism Summit held in Quebec Canada on May 19-22, 2002. The report summarises the discussions and conclusions reached at the summit. Harmon, D. (2007). "A Bridge over the Chasm: Finding Ways to Achieve Integrated Natural and Cultural Heritage Conservation." International Journal of Heritage Studies 13(4&5): 380-392. Discusses the effectiveness of integrated natural and cultural heritage conservation. Explores the emerging field of bio-cultural diversity research that will aide in bridging the gap between natural and cultural heritage. Hawaii (1997). "Tourism in Independent Hawaii." Contours 7(11-12). Hawaii Department of Business, E. D., and Tourism Interim report on a comprehensive plan to promote ecotourism development in Hawaii. Honolulu. Hawaii Department of Business, E. D., and Tourism (1989). A report on cultural tourism. Honolulu, Department of Business and Economic Development. Hawaii Department of Business, E. D., and Tourism (1995). Opportunities for the Development of Health-Related Tourism in Hawaii. Honolulu, Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism. Hawaii Department of Business, E. D., and Tourism (2003). Progress on the study Planning for sustainable tourism in Hawaii - A study on the carrying capacity for tourism. Honolulu, Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism. Hawaii Department of Business, E. D., and Tourism (2006). Planning for Sustainable Tourism: Summary Report. Honolulu, Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism. Tourism continues to be Hawaii’s dominant industry, providing an incredible number of jobs and money for the state. As important as tourism is to Hawaii, its negative affects are often severe. More importantly, residents have more of an impact on Hawaii’s environment, therefore need to focus more on sustainability. The tourist industry allows visitors to consistently break the carrying capacity of a place, and events such as this are overlooked by residents who benefit from the extra cash flow. Laws must be enforced to preserve the land to maintain the environment, keeping Hawaii a destination that people will want to experience. Hawaii Department of Business, E. D., and Tourism (2007). Visitor Satisfaction Monitoring Report. Honolulu. This documents reports Hawaii visitors’ satisfaction, opinions, and characteristics. Analysis is also subdivided for each island. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 24 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Hawaii, P. B. C. P. U. o. (1991). Ecological Tourism and Small Business in the Pacific. Ecological Tourism and Small Business in the Pacific Conference, Palikir, Micronesia. Hawkins, D. E. (2004). "A Protected Areas Ecotourism Competitive Cluster Approach to Catalyse Biodiversity Conservation and Economic Growth in Bulgaria." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 12(3): 219-244. Hay, J. E., Ed. (1992). Ecotourism Business in the Pacific: Promoting a Sustainable Experience, Environmental Science, University of Auckland and East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii. This publication is considered the first ecotourism conference to be held in New Zealand but was published in conjunction of the East-West Center in Hawai‘i and includes some articles of reference to the Hawaiian context. The articles are focused primarily with early developments of ecotourism in the Pacific region. The conference had an emphasis on the business management aspects of ecotourism within a Pacific context. Helu-Thaman, K. (1993). "Beyond hula, hotels, and handicrafts: A Pacific Islander's perspective of tourism development." The Contemporary Pacific 51(Spring): 104-111. Herbet, R. and D. Dugan (2003). Rights and Responsibilities: A Compilation of Codes of Conduct for Tourism and Indigenous & Local Communities. To qualify as ecotourism, travel to natural areas must also be an instrument for the empowerment of local communities for the maintenance of cultural diversity, and the alleviation of poverty. The goal of the Center on Ecotourism and Sustainable Development and The International Ecotourism Society is to set standards for interaction between the tourism industry and local communities, particularly indigenous peoples. The publication is an effort to collate and synthesize many of the codes of conduct when interacting with different cultures. Hiatt, W. (1993). "Hawaii: Growth, government, and economy." Journal of Urban Planning and Development 119(3). The article describes the Hawaiian state-planning system and other efforts that attempt to keep a balance between growth of tourism and the environment. It includes reports concerning the decline of agricultural economy, land use, urban design, housing, and national policies of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Higham, J. and A. Carr (2003). "Defining Ecotourism in New Zealand: Differentiating Between the Defining Parameters Within a National/Regional Context." Journal of Ecotourism 2(1): 17- 32. There has been much debate over defining ecotourism. Different components of the definitions are analyzed and assessed. It was shown that regional and international contexts need to be considered when defining ecotourism. Different areas require different definitions. New Zealand is discussed in particular. Higham, J., A. M. Carr, et al. (2001). Ecotourism in New Zealand: profiling visitors to New Zealand Ecotourism Operations. Dunedin, New Zealand, Department of Tourism, University of UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 25 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Otago: 1-17. This research was designed to achieve a more clear profile and understanding of visitors to ecotourism operations in New Zealand, and their ecotourism experiences. This paper covers the definition and description of ecotourism development and methodology of the research. Ecotourism was defined within the wider field of nature-based tourism. Ecotourism operations were identified from a database of nature-based tourism, and selection criteria were employed to further categorize the operations. For the research, a mixed-methods approach was used which consisted of two phases. The first phase employed qualitative methods including participant observations and interviews to provide insights into ecotourism experiences in New Zealand. The second phase of research involved the development and administration of a questionnaire. The research identified that the ecotourism sector in New Zealand is in the early stages of development, but those chapters were not included in this section of the research paper. Higham, J. E. S., Carr, Anna, and Stephanie Gale (1994). Ecotourism in New Zealand. Dunedin, University of Otago: 42. Hiwasaki, L. (2000). Ethnic Tourism in Hokkaido and the Shaping of Ainu Identity, University of British Columbia: 15. The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between the Wajin and Ainu in Japanese society today, and the effects of tourism on each of these areas. Hiwasaki, L. (2004). Using Visitor Fees to Maintain Forests for Nature Tourism activities in Yakushima Island, Kirishima-Yaku National Park. Asia-Pacific Environmental Innovation Startegies (APEIS), Research on Innovative and Strategic Policy Options (RISPO). This article presents ecotourism as an alternative to mass tourism. It focuses on the Yakushima Island located in Japan. The island mostly covered by forest based its economy on logging. However, the National Forest focus has shifted to conservation and recreational use of the forest. Members of local organizations commissioned by the Forestry Agency implemented a voluntary visitor fee of 300 yen since 1993. The money collected is directed towards local organizations to maintain the forest. The objective of the fee is to seek voluntary cooperation from visitors in order to maintain the forest and the natural environment, as well as the stimulation of economic development around the area. Hiwasaki, L. (2007). "Community Dynamics in Japanese Rural Areas and Implications for National Park Management." The International Journal of Biodiversity Science and management 3(2): 102-114. Land in Japanese parks is not set aside for nature conservaion, instead park land is managed through a system of zoning and regulations, regardless of existing ownership and use "to preserve scenic beauty". This study seeks to understand the dynamics that help in facilitating community conservation and sustainable protected area management. Hollier, D. (2007). Learning the Land. Hana Hou! Honolulu. 10. Honey, M. (1999). Ecotourism and Sustainable Development: who owns paradise? Washington UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 26 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 D.C., Island Press. The books provides a unique and compelling look at the promise and pitfalls of ecotourism. It is the only such account of worldwide ecotourism available today, and is an important guide for students and researchers involved with international development and tourism. Honey, M. (2003). "Protecting Eden Setting Green Standards for the Tourism Industry." Environment 45(6). Provides infromation to the tourism certification programs in Costa Rica and Australia. Honey, M. and E. Stewart (2002). Introduction. Ecotourism & Certification: Setting Standards in Practice. M. Honey. Washington, Island Press: 1-29. HTA (2003). HTA Initiates Natural Environment Program. This news release announces the launch of a natural resources program to enhance and protect environmental attractions frequented by visitors. Under the terms of this program, HTA will allocate funds for a state-wide natural resources assessment, county-specific projects, surveys of state parks, and trail and park improvements. The state-wide natural resources assessment will include a comprehensive inventory and assessment of approximately 100 natural resource sites frequented by visitors. Concurrently, HTA will conduct on-site surveys at the State parks to determine the areas receiving the most foot traffic. Several organizations acted as consultants during the planning process, these included the Sierra Club, the Nature Conservancy, the Hawaii Ecotourism Association, Department of Land and Natural Resources, and the Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism. HTA. (2005). "HTA Announced 14th Annual Keep in Hawaii Recognition Awards." from http://www.hawaiitourismauthority.org/index.cfm?page=news_releases&news_id=6. This news release announces the 2005 winners of Hawaii Tourism Authority’s “Koa”, “Kahili”, and “He Kuleana Ke Aloha” awards. The “Keep it Hawaii Recognition Awards” honor outstanding efforts by the travel industry, to authentically and responsibly portray Hawaiian culture. The “Keep it Hawaii” program is in its 14th year, and under new management at the HTA. Many of the program’s goals are guided by the “Hawaii Tourism Strategic Plan: 2005-2015” – a plan that stresses the need for increased emphasis on Hawaiian culture. Rex Johnson, President and CEO of HTA, states that “the increasing importance of the Hawaiian culture and community in maintaining Hawaii’s uniqueness as a destination has continued to be recognized as a high priority issue for Hawaii’s visitor industry future and for the well-being of Hawaii’s community as a whole.” Hurley, T. (2004). Tourist 'bibles' Angering Hawaii Business Officials. Honolulu Advertiser. Honolulu: 1-4. Discusses the conflict over Hawaiian tourist guide books. The Hawaii Revealed guide books are leading tourists to excluded places and sacred Hawaiian sites, not to mention suggesting dangerous adventures. The result of the guide books has not been favorable for locals, law officials and tourists alike. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 27 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Industry, T. N. C. a. t. P. S. D. o. C. a. (1997). Final report: ecotourism and trail design workshop. Honolulu, Pacific Island Network/Pacific Program, University of Hawaii Sea Grant Extension Service. Industry, T. N. C. a. t. P. S. D. o. C. a. (1997). Final report: ecotourism and trail design workshop. Honolulu, Pacific Island Network/Pacific Program, University of Hawaii Sea Grant Extension Service. This document is a report of an ecotourism and trail design workshop held in Pohnpei. Trail design and maintenance and the impacts to the ecotourism sector were discussed. Summaries of sessions related to trail design are included in the publication. Ireland, M. (2006). Understanding and Adapting to Change in Mountain Resort Communities. Mountain resort communities are experiencing an overflow of visitors, therefore detracting from the quality of life for the established community. A balance between economical prosperity and preservation of a place must be maintained to provide a comfortable and eco-friendly experience for everyone. Policies must be made to regulate the flow of people and guidelines must protect the communities from wealthy land- owners. Examples from multiple places in Colorado, such as Vail and Aspen, are used as models to show the harmful shift in populations. IUCN (2006). The World Heritage List: Guidance and future priorities for identifying natural heritage of potential outstanding universal value. The report comprises of information on what the global strategy for world heritage is, what outstanding universal value means, how IUCN assesses outstanding universal value and what the future priorities for natural heritage are. The World Heritage Convention is concerned with the identification, protection, conservation and presentation of cultural and natural heritage of outstanding universal value and their transmission to future generations. The World Heritage Committee is responsible for establishing the criteria for the assessment of outstanding universal value. The conclusion part of the report is emphasized on the issues that there are intrinsic differences between natural and cultural properties, requiring different frameworks for assessing outstanding universal value. Also, the conclusion includes the guidance on application of outstanding universal value to natural heritage and tools for assessing outstanding universal value. Priority biomes (ecosystems) of potential outstanding universal value include: tropical grasslands/savannas, lake systems, tundra and polar deserts, temperate grasslands, and cold winter deserts. Jamal, T. (2004). "Conflict in Natural Area Destinations: a critique of representation and interest in psrticipatory processes." Tourism Geographies 6(3): 352-379. The paper addresses the notion of interest-based participation in process addressing conflict in environmentally sensitive tourism destinations. Jamal, T. and A. Tanase (2005). "Impacts and Conflicts Surrounding Dracula Park, Romania: the role of sustainable tourism principles." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 13(5): 440-455. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 28 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Romania’s introduction into the European Union in 2007 after years under a communist regime caused concern over the loss cultural sustainability in the World Heritage Site of Sighisoara, Transylvania where plans were made to develop a Dracula Theme Park based on the American pop culture Dracula films. Stakeholders chose to evaluate the need and impact of the theme park using sustainable tourism principles. The study relies heavily on newly developed strategies of applied ethics to measure impacts to culture from tourism. Johnson, R. (2005). Embarras de richesse. Economist. 375: 24-26. The article discusses the pros and cons of tourism in Hawaii. The hotels are full and the unemployment rate is a mere 3% of the workforce. So what could possibly knock Hawaii, the "aloha" or "welcome" state, off its wave? The answer, according to Rex Johnson, the president of the Hawaii Tourist Authority, is that Hawaii's 1.2m residents may one day get fed up with playing host to overseas visitors, 7m of them this year. KAHEA, an alliance of environmentalists and defenders of native Hawaiian culture, bemoans the pollution caused by the cruise ships and the risk posed by the tourist hordes to creatures such as the dark-rumped petrel and the Oahu tree snail, or to plants like the Marsilea villosa fern. However, economists at the University of Hawaii agree that Hawaiians' real personal income rose by 2.8% last year, will rise by 2.7% this year and will continue through 2007 at 2.5%. According to the state's "strategic plan" for the next decade, tourism should take much of the credit, accounting directly and indirectly for some 22% of the state's jobs by 2007, more than 17% of its economic output and around 26% of its tax revenues. Johnston, C. (1995). Enduring idyllis? A geographical study of tourism in Kona, Hawaii Island. Geography. Honolulu, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Ph.D. Kallen, C. (1990). "Eco-Tourism: The Light at the End of the Terminal." The Environmental Magazine 1: 37-41. Eco-tourism is the latest hotspot in organized travel, and a rapidly increasing trend. Eco- travel opportunities are many, and the companies that offer them are increasing daily. People are now able to visit mountain gorillas in Rwanda or even visit the coast of Antarctica on a ship. The article suggests that eco-tourism can get the pubic support in environmental conservation. It argues that by taking people to places that they would not normally go can give them a personal experience and an interest in saving the environment as well as endangered species. In Hawaii eco-tourism is used as a tool to promote Hawaii's environmental well being. The author suggest that it is important to recognize the impact that eco-tourism has on the environmental movement as it is currently the world's largest travel industry. To ensure the integrity of eco-travels- standards should be set within the travel industry that define what an eco-tour is, how it should be run, and what it should accomplish. Kanahele, G. S. (1991). Critical reflections on cultural values and hotel management in Hawaii. Honolulu, Waiaha Foundation. Karnow, C. (1999). Reinventing paradise, with a renewed respect for tradition and a less-is- better perspective, Big Islanders are creating a more genuine Hawaiian experience. Sunset UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 29 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Magazine. November 1999: 22-30. Kaufman, G. D. and P. H. Forestell (1997). Hawaii's Humpback Whales: A Complete Whalewatchers Guide. Kihei, Pacific Whale Foundation Press. This book is provides extensive information about the Humpback Whales of Hawai‘i. Biological, behavioral, social, historical, and conservation information are presented. There are many pictures to illustrate concepts in the book. Also included is information about the whales and dolphins of Hawai‘i. Kerr, W. (2005). Recreational Impacts to Reefs Local Action Strategy (RIR – LAS) Summary. Local Action Strategies (LAS) dealing with the conservation of coral reefs are used to address the current threats to the ecosystem. Lack of awareness, land-based pollution, and recreational overuse have become more prevalent problems in our environment. In Hawaii, coral reefs suffer from the growing tourism industry while carrying capacities are frequently surpassed. The goal of LAS is to develop management techniques to increase sustainability within our ecosystem. Khan, M. (2003). "ECOSERV Ecotourists' Quality Expectations." Annals of Tourism Research 30(1): 109-124. The objective of this study was to investigate the service quality expectations of the ecotourists by developing an adapted version of the SERVQUAL scale named ECOSERV. Kimball, K. (2005). Lonely Planet Maui. Australia, Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd. The content of the guidebook resembles a lot the first edition. Blue Pool is still discussed in the book. Only a reminder on reading visiting guidelines (posted by the residents, but don’t know who) was added to the content. Knox, J. and C. Suggs (1979). Tourism Research Priorities in Hawaii and the Pacific. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press. Komatsu, M. and J. C. Liu (2007). "Cross-cultural Comparison Between Japanese and Western Visitors for the Effectiveness of the Hanauma Bay Education Programme." Tourism Recreation Research 32(3): 3-12. Kontogeorgopoulos, N. (2005). "Community-Based ecotourism in Phuket and Ao Phangnga, Thailand: Partial Victories and Bittersweet Remedies." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 13(5): 4- 23. This study identifies the need for a sub-category of ecotourism that recognizes exposure to the natural environment as well as the importance of sustainable community development and management of the area’s natural resources within developing or rural communities. The three contributions of this recognize that even this form of ecotourism is not without highly complex consequences for the environment and society. First the emergence of community-based ecotourism in a poorly regulated area with an already established luxury tourism industry. Secondly, the improvement in the quality of life for UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 30 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 employees of the ecotourism company Sea Canoe. Thirdly, community-empowerment resulting from increased pride and wealth. Kruger, O. (2004). "The role of ecotourism in conservation: Panacea or Pandora's box?" Biodievrsity and Conservation 1(22). Does ecotourism contribute towards conservation of threatened species and habitats or is it just a marketing ploy of the tourism industry? The paper includes case studies of 251 different areas , and determines the effects of ecotourism on the flora and fauna of an area. Kua, C. (1998). State limits use of some public hiking trails. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Kubota, G. T. (1996). Protests stall Molokai Ranch camp permits. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. LaDuke, W., and M.B. Trask (1992). "Someone else's paradise." Utne Reader(51): 78 (2pgs). The article discusses how militarism and tourism keep Hawaii a colony. Mentions the idea that Hawaii is a separate and struggling geopolitical entity, In the middle of a very strategic region; with more than 100 military installations in the Hawaiian islands- Big industries in Hawaii. Lane, B. (2001). Sustainable Tourism: Challenges and Opportunities for Hawaii. The Ambassador L. W. ‘Bill’ Lane Sustainable tourism lecture. Lefeuvre, J.-C. (2007). "Natural World heritage: A new Approach to Integrate Research and Management." International Journal of Heritage Studies 13: 350-364. Mont-Saint-MIchel bay case study used to show that "long-term multidisciplinary research is necessary to provide new knowledge and...new systems of management for complex ecosystems with users, stakeholder and elected members." Discusses the affect humans have had on the environment and ecosystems. Discusses Legislature, H. o. R. o. t. T.-F. (2008). House Resolution (H.R. No. 295). Maui, Government Printing Office. This print reports the controversy over the access to Blue Angel Falls, which extends across private land owned by several residents. It reveals the ambiguity about ownership and jurisdictional responsibility for that area, which could expose the State or Maui County to liability if individuals are injured. An investigation by the Department of Attorney General is requested. Legislature, H. o. R. o. t. T.-F. (2008). House Resolution (H.R. No. 307). Maui, Government Printing Office. This print reports the issue of jurisdictional responsibility on Ulaino road, and requests an investigation from the Department of the Attorney General to determine the ownership of the road. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 31 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Lenhart, M. (2007). Hawaii evolving into upscale market. Travel Weely. 66: 46-48. This article reports on the evolution of Hawaii's hotel industry from a mass-market to an upscale market. Attributions to the trend are mentioned. Highlights of the survey conducted by hotel consultants Hospitality Advisors on Hawaii's luxury properties are discussed. Also presented are visitor statistics released in 2006. Comments from tourism officials are included. Leone, D. (2002). Ecotourism touted at conference. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Leone, D. (2002). Hearings set on NW isle fishing. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Leone, D. (2006). A Monumental vacation. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Leone, D. (2006). Kayak tours emphasize care of nature. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Lew, A. (2002). "Editorial: Ecotourism in Asia and Tourism Geography Worldwide." Tourism Geographies 4(2): 113-114. Lindberg, K. and D. Hawkins, Eds. (1993). Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers. North Benington, VT, The Ecotourism Society. Liu, J. (1984). Resident opinion on the effects of tourism development in Hawaii. Honolulu, University of Hawaii School of Travel Industry Management. Liu, J. (1984). Resident opinion on the effects of tourism development in Hawaii. Honolulu, University of Hawaii School of Travel Industry Management. Liu, J. (1988). "Hawaii tourism to the year 2000: A delphi forecast." Tourism Management December: 279-290. Liu, J. (1994). Pacific Islands Ecotourism: A Public Policy and Planning Guide. Honolulu, Pacific Business Center Program, College of Business Administration, University of Hawai‘i at Manoa. This guide discusses frameworks, issues, models, economic aspects, environmental impacts, and resource management guidelines of ecotourism in the American Affiliated Pacific Islands. The document is intended to be a guide to promote ecotourism development in the region. Liu, J. (1997). The Economic Impact of Hawaii museums on the local economy. Liu, J. (1997). The Economic Impact of Hawaii museums on the local economy. Liu, J., M. Clark, et al. (2005). Ecotourism Plan for American Samoa. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Pacific Business Center Program and School of Travel Industry Management. Ecotourism has become the preferred means of promoting tourism and the economy in UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 32 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 American Samoa. The four goals that were determined for American Samoa's ecotourism development are the protection of the environment, economic sustainability, cultural integrity and enhancement, and educational values. The Ecotourism Plan provides an outline for successfully reaching these four goals. The document was prepared for the American Samoa Government Department of Commerce, and includes a general overview of the island, an ecotourism assessment, and a development action plan. Liu, J. C. and T. Var (1986). "Resident Attitudes toward Tourism's Impacts in Hawaii." Annals of Tourism Research 13(2): 193-214. Liu, Z. (2003). "Suatainable Tourism Development: A Critique." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 11(6): 16. The paper is a brief critique of some of the weaknesses in the sustainable tourism literature. In particular, it explores six issues that are often overlooked but must be addressed in research, which include the role of tourism demand, the nature of tourism resources, intra-generational equity, and the measure of sustainability. Loftus, M. (2000). No Ads for Hawaii? National Geographic Traveler. 7: p.22 (2pgs). The article provides information on the lawsuit filed by the Sierra Club against the Hawaii Tourism Authority regarding the completion of an environmental impact study in Hawaii. It includes claims of the Sierra Club,the Impacts of tourism on the environment, and Information on Hawaii's tourism industry. Lowman, M. (2004). Ecotourism and its Impact on Forest Conservation. This article focuses on how impacts of mass tourism can alter the natural balance of islands’ ecosystems. It defines what is ecotourism as nature-based experiences, where visitors go to places for the only purpose of appreciating their natural beauty and the local culture. The author mentions two principles of sustainability that ecotourism follows; which are to promote conservation of the natural ecosystems, and to support local economies. Moreover, three case studies conducted in Costa Rica, Western Samoa, and Florida show the global impacts on forests; as well as the developing of ecotourism to stimulate the local economies while managing the forests’ sustainability. Lynch, R. (1997). Tourism’s glory days gone for good? Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Lynch, R. (1999). HTA mulls proposals for $3 million in grants. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Mak, J. and J. Moncur (1995). "Sustainable tourism development: Managing Hawaii's `unique' touristic resource--Hanauma Bay." Journal of Travel Research 33(4): 51-56. The article describes and evaluates the Honolulu City and County management plan for Hanauma Bay in Hawaii. It includes an evaluation of management strategies for touristic resources; Sustainable recreational resource management and the benefits of charging admission fees. Management, C. f. T. P. S. S. o. T. I. (1998). Repositioning Hawaii's Visitor Industry Products UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 33 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Development Strategies For The New Tourism Environment. Honolulu, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Management, C. f. T. P. S. S. o. T. I. (1998). Repositioning Hawaii's Visitor Industry Products Development Strategies For The New Tourism Environment. Honolulu, University of Hawaii at Manoa. The goal of this report is to assess and identify issues relating to the changing tourism market in Hawai‘i and to make recommendations. Each island needs to maintain its own image. A future vision, management, policies, and plans need to be incorporated. Trends in the local tourism market are discussed. Marion, J. L. (2007). "Minimising Visitor Impacts to Protect Areas: The Efficacy of Low Impact Education Programmes." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 15(1). The effect of education on tourism’s impact to cultural, environmental, and social conditions is analyzed through various studies in the literature. Content, delivery, and audience are important characteristics to include when designing a visitor education program. Many of the studies found that education increased visitor knowledge and altered behavior. However, there was less evidence that education helped resources. Markrich, M. (1984). Economic profile of Hawaii's tour boat industry. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program. Matsuoka, A. (1997). Tough new regulations to protect ecosystems. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Maui, C. o. (1982). Hana Community Plan: 35. The Hana Community Plan serves as a guide to making regional development decisions through the year 2000. The HCP is mandated by the Charter of Maui County (1977) and the Maui County General Plan. Updates are mandated every five years in order to incorporate new data and analysis. The HCP identifies major problems (as discussed by Hana’s residents), and offers recommendations and potential implementation programs for addressing these issues. Some of the problems identified by residents include a lack of economic diversity, improper land use and zoning, transportation and water concerns, limited educational opportunities, and a need for greater access to government services and decision-making processes. The Hana Community Plan is guided by state planning standards and principles, and includes an implementation matrix that addresses elements of concern (land use, education, public health and safety, and etc.), and envisioned effects of the plan. A large section of the document addresses proposed revisions to the Hana Community Plan land use map. McDowell, E. (2002). Travel Advisory: Correspondent's Report; Hawaii's Tourism Shows Signs of Recovery. New York Times. New York. Hawaii's tourism industry is recovering from the sharp decline caused by September 11. However, the numbers of visitors and income brought in are still lower than before. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 34 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 McLaren, D. (1998). Rethinking Tourism and Ecotravel. Connecticut, Kumarian Press. The book presents a comprehensive overview of the history and global development of tourism, an industry that has promised great benefits to hosts and guests alike while often resulting in painful consequences for local communities and the environment. The author includes a case study of the Hawaiian Islands summarizing some of the negative effects that the tourism industry has had on Hawaiian culture, and the land as well as the ocean itself. McNarie, A. D. (2004). Clash on the Saddle Road. Realignment project struggles to create a new highway safe for the public, the Army and the environment. Hawaii Island Journal. Hilo, Hawaii Island Journal. Mebel, G. (2007). Putting a Cap on Tourism. Honolulu Weekly. Honolulu: 23. Senator Fred Hemmings, a republican in the Hawaii State Senate has addressed the possibility of putting a cap on tourists entering Hawaii at any one time. Visitors account for about 13 percent of the daily population in Hawaii, but spend more than double of the amount of money spent by locals. The problem is that tourism is taking as toll on Hawaii's natural environment as tourist s use twice as much water, electricity, and generate three times as much solid waste as locals. The idea in the article is to bring awareness to the problem and possible solutions of sustaining the environment, but continuing to promote tourism Millard, E. (2003). Business Planning for Environmental Enterprises. Washington D.C, Conservation International: 1-122. The report shows that the possibilities of success of biodiversity conservation measures themselves are limited if they are not linked to attention for the needs of the social and human environment. The purpose of this manual is to strengthen the use of good business practice in the field of environmental enterprise development. Miller, M. L. and J. Auyong (1998). Remarks on tourism terminologies: Anti-tourism, mass tourism, and alternative tourism. 1996 World Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism: Experiences in Management and Development. M. L. Miller and J. Auyong. Honolulu, HI, Washington Sea Grant Program and the School of Marine Affairs, University of Washington and Oregon Sea Grant Program, Oregon State University: 1-24. The growth of tourism has also caused the everyday use of terminologies associated with it. Anti-tourism communication has become commonplace. Alternative tourism and ecotourism terminologies have also been used frequently, but these terms are often used for marketing and not actual definitions. Vocabulary without value judgments regarding tourism needs to be developed and used. Miller, M. L. and J. Auyong, Eds. (1998). Proceedings of the 1996 World Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism: Experiences in Management and Development. Seattle, WA, Washington Sea Grant Program and the School of Marine Affairs, University of Washington and Oregon Sea Grant Program, Oregon State University. This conference proceedings features papers involving sustainability, frameworks, UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 35 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 partnerships, economic aspects, business, the community, the visitor, and economic valuation relating to marine tourism. Mills, B. F. (1999). E malama: ecotourism manual for Hawaii. Honolulu, Hawaii Ecotourism Association. Mills, B. F. (1999). E malama: ecotourism manual for Hawaii. Honolulu, Hawaii Ecotourism Association. This manual is designed as a guide for ecotourism in Hawai‘i. Outdoor activities, standards for ecotour guides, and guidelines are discussed. The document is designed for those already in the ecotourism industry or those who are thinking of starting an ecotourism enterprise. Suggestions in developing ecotourism activities are presented. Minerbi, L. (1991). Alternative Forms of Tourism in the Coastal Zone: Searching for Responsible Tourism in Hawaii. Honolulu, University of Hawaii, Department of Urban and Regional Planning. Minerbi, L. (1991). Alternative Forms of Tourism in the Coastal Zone: Searching for Responsible Tourism in Hawaii. Honolulu, University of Hawaii, Department of Urban and Regional Planning. There is a growing interest in eco-tourism in the coastal zone in Hawai‘i. Alternative forms of tourism in coastal areas are discussed. Using Hawai‘i as a case study concepts for other locales are suggested to effectively develop policies and approaches for more responsible tourism. Minerbi, L. (1994). A Framework for alternative and responsible tourism: Eco-cultural tourism. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Department of Urban Planning. Minerbi, L. (1994). A Framework for alternative and responsible tourism: Eco-cultural tourism. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Department of Urban Planning. A framework is presented for the development of alternative tourism in Hawai‘i. Definitions of eco-cultural tourism are discussed in addition to the policies and strategies that must be employed in the development of eco-cultural tourism in Hawai‘i. Mokuau, N. and J. Matsuoka (1995). "Turbulence among a Native People: Social Work Practice with Hawaiians." Social Work 40(4): 465-472. The article discusses the social problems of the Hawaiian population by analyzing historical and current social problems and describing appropriate prescriptions for empowerment of the native government and economies. Indigenous peoples throughout the world are facing cultural deterioration, and many populations are even threatened by extinction. Aboriginal peoples generally share a history of colonization and are bereaved of the right to self-determination, their own land, and their own resources. Like other indigenous populations, Hawaiians experience an array of health, social and economic UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 36 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 problems. Steadily over the years, developers of premier hotels, golf courses, and luxury housing acquired rights to develop some of Hawaii's most scenic and pristine coastlines. These developments cumulatively deprived Hawaiians of access to the natural resources on which they relied for subsistence. In addition, the economy has become overly dependent on the tourism sector, leaving Hawaii vulnerable to external economic forces and with an economy increasingly characterized by low-paying service-sector jobs. Monson, V. (2004). Kipahulu Lost a True Friend in Rockefeller. The Maui News. In this memorial, Monson recognizes the contributions of Laurance Rockefeller in preserving the upper and lower sectors of Kipahulu Valley. Haleakala park superintendent Don Reeser credits Rockefeller with enabling the park to extend from the mountains to the sea. Rockefeller arrived in Kipahulu in 1961 with the intention of finding the ideal location for a resort. Instead, he found Kipahulu and the East Maui region too special to belong to any one person. As a result, he built his resort elsewhere (the Mauna Kea Beach Hotel), and purchased 52 acres of land along the Kipahulu coast. Rockefeller purchased this land without the thought of keeping it for himself – instead, he navigated beauracratic waters to see that his land could be joined with land from the lower Kipahulu Valley, and added onto Haleakala National Park. Monson concludes that Rockefeller’s life should serve as an example to other millionaires in Maui - millionaires that have the funds and landholdings to give back to the island. Rockefeller died at the age of 94. Morris, N. (2005). Hawaii Territory. American Heritage. 56: 40-49. The article presents the author's view that long before it became a state, Hawaii enchanted Americans with a vision of tropical ease, languid music, and a steady throb of sensuality. Long years of lobbying by Hawaii's Caucasian businessmen, a brief American imperialistic flurry, and military exigencies brought about by the Spanish-American War led to acquisition of Hawaii to the United States. Americans were at first suspicious of this newly gained acquisition with its centuries-old Polynesian culture intermixed with Asian patterns brought by immigrant workers. But a strange vogue came along in the 1920s and 1930s, the Hawaiian craze. Island tourist boards, steamship lines, sugar and pineapple advertising agencies, and the mainland motion-picture industry fueled the fantasy. Ceramic hula girls, surfer-boy figures, and tiki images flooded the shops. Motavalli, J. (1995). "Transforming Travel." The Environmental Magazine 5: 38-45. Eco-Tourism had become the most successful industry in the 90's accounting for about $3.5 trillion in annual business. However, the phrase "eco-tourism" is often misused and has lost its meaning in recent times. One of the main concerns with eco-tourism is that it has not proven to be culturally friendly. Most of the indigenous people living in eco- tourists areas have not been given the opportunity to profit or sustain themselves from the industry. The author argues that if done correctly, eco-tourism can make the environment very relevant to indigenous populations around the world, giving them a personal and economic stake in preserving wildlife and wild places. N.H. (1996). Beyond Hawaii's sun, surf and sand. BRW. 18: p.42. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 37 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 The author reports on the efforts of Australian native Paul Casey to increase rates of tourism to Hawaii. The article includes information about his position as chief executive of the Hawaii Visitors Bureau, events which have hurt Hawaii's tourist industry, and the importance of tourism to Hawaii's economy. The article also covers Casey's plans to increase tourism; Comments from Casey. Naya, S. (1996). An economic perspective of tourism issues and policies in Hawaii. Honolulu. Noakes, S. (2007). Pacific Asia Tourism: A New Global Knowledge Management Network Capability Statement. Pacific Asia Tourism Pty. Ltd. is a private sustainable tourism development company. They focus on developing ecotourism through consulting, investments, and operational activities especially in developing countries. They collaborate closely with professionals from around the world. The company was founded by Steve Noakes. It is currently owned by its founders as well as a group of expert researchers and consultants. Nowaczek, A. and K. Fennell (2002). "Ecotourism in Post-communist Poland : an Examination of Tourists, Sustainability, and Institutions." 4(4): 372-395. Compares ecotourism to mainstream tourism in Poland to study to attractions of each, the effects and the differences. Explores the demographics, trip expenditures and benefits of each side of the tourism specter. Ecotourism implications in Poland and the opportunities for the region. Nyaupane, G. P. and B. Thapa (2004). "Evaluation of Ecotourism: A Comparative Assessment in the Annapurna Conservation Area Project, Nepal." Journal of Ecotourism 3(1): 20-45. This is a comparative study between a traditional tourism area and an ecotourism area in Nepa. Residents’ perceptions on the environmental, economic, and socio-cultural impacts of tourism are researched. It is shown that residents of the ecotourism area see fewer negative environmental, economic and socio-cultural impacts, but at the same time see fewer positive economic impacts when compared with a traditional tourism area. O' Brien, B. R. (1999). Our National Parks and the search for sustainability. Austin, Texas Press. Longtime Yosemite National Park visitor, and professional geographer Bob O'Brien explores the National Park Service's attempt to achieve sustainability- defined as a balance that allows as many people as possible to visit a park that is kept in as natural a state as possible. O'Neal, E. K. (1999). Ecotourists and mass tourists in Maui: a critical examination of distinction in tourism. Geography. Honolulu, University of Hawaii at Manoa. MA. This study investigates the similarities and differences between ecotourists and mass tourists visiting Maui. The main differences between the groups were accommodation type, preferences, education, and activities that they participated in. The results are ambiguous, leading to the conclusion that ecotourism activities are becoming mainstreamed and that ecotourists have specific norms. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 38 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 O'Neal, K. (1998). Ecotourism in Hawaii: An Echo(Eco) of Mass Tourism? AAG Recreation, Tourism & Sport Specialty Group. Honolulu. Oi, C. (1999). The foot patrol. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Oi, C. (2000). Giving tourists real heritage. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Oi, C. (2002). Under the Sun. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Oi, C. (2003). Hawaii and tourism just seem to go hand in hand. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Oliver, C. (1999). Walking to the future. Honolulu Advertiser: E1, E6, E7. Organization, H. S. (2008). "Helele’ike’oha Blue Angel Falls and Pool (Kapu)." Retrieved April 29, 2008, from http://www.hawaii-guide.com/index.php/maui/spot/heleleikeoha_ blue_ angel_falls_and_pool/. This web page describes the area, and explains how to get there. The author acknowledges the controversy over the falls, and asks visitors to skip it. “Our opinion is that visitors should show some Aloha and skip this spot, better things are ahead ». Osland, G. E. and R. Mackoy (2004). "Ecolodge Performance Goals and Evaluations." Journal of Ecotourism 3(2): 109-128. The performance of ecolodges is an under-researched area. Interviews were conducted with 21 ecolodge managers. Performance goals were identified and used in a new performance-based framework. Financial goals were most frequently used to analyze success of the lodge. Many performance goals were used by managers, and no one model was used by all managers. Parris, M. H. (2006). Newsletter #1: 1-4. This newsletter announces the commencement of a comprehensive Commercial Services Plan (CSP) for Haleakala National Park. The CSP will evaluate commercial services operating in the park, determining the desirability of these activities, and their long-term sustainability. The facilities at Haleakala National Park were originally designed to accommodate 350,000 individuals – a figure that is much lower than current estimates (In 2006, the park received approximately 1.7 million visitors). Forty-five commercial operators presently conduct activities in the park; these include hiking and horseback riding tours, biking, and buses to Kipahulu. The ongoing presence of these activities are raising concerns pertaining to cumulative social and environmental impacts. Also of concern, is the safety of guided and unguided recreational activities, particularly downhill biking and the use of the pools at Kipahulu. When completed, the CSP will serve as a guideline for managing commercial activities in the park over the next 5-10 years. Parris, M. H. (2007). Newsletter #2: Summary of Comments Received": 1-2. This newsletter provides a summary of the scoping activities conducted since September 2006 (the release of newsletter #1). Following the distribution of the initial newsletter, UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 39 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 two public meetings were held in Hana and Pukalani. Comments received from individuals and groups primarily fell into one of four groups - cultural and natural resources, public health and safety, visitor use and experience, and park management activities and finances. Of widespread concern, was the degradation of trails, vegetation trampling, and visitor safety (particularly as it applies to downhill mountain biking). HNP’s next step will be the development of a draft Commercial Services Plan / Environmental Assessment (conducted by HNP’s planning team). This plan will consider, and where appropriate, incorporate comments and suggestions offered by the public. Partnership, E. M. W. (2006). Draft Environmental Assessment: East Maui Watershed Partnership Fence Extensions In The East Maui Watershed. The State of Hawaii DLNR/Division of Forestry and Wildlife, in a cooperative effort with the East Maui Watershed Partnership proposes to construct fences through the Hanawi Natural Area Reserve, Ko‘olau Forest Reserve, Hana Forest Reserve, Waiho‘I Valley and Kipahulu Forest Reserve. These fences will connect with existing fences and natural borders surrounding Haleakala National Park. These fences will deter animals from moving into the upper elevations of the forest, therefore preventing further degradation of the native flora and fauna of the East Maui watershed and the acceleration of distribution of invasive plant species. The environmental assessment will investigate the potential impacts, both physically and economically, of the proposed project. Perry, J. (2008). "Testimony in Support of HB 3415 - Relating to Public Roads." from http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/session2008/ testimony/ HB3415_TRN-WLH_02-04-08_.pdf. This affidavit explains the reasons why Mr. James P. Perry supports the passing of House Bill 3415 Relating to Public Roads. Pisani, D. J. (2002). "Book Review: Fragile Paradise: The Impact of Tourism on Maui, 1959- 2000." American Historical Review: 562-563. The book incorporates politics, economics, the environment, and cultural history when analyzing the development of tourism on Maui. It is argued that tourism creates a "service underclass" and the economic benefits go mainly to people not in Maui. The future of tourism on Maui is unknown. Rampell, E. (1996). "Welcome to Paradise." The Environmental Magazine 7(4): p.46. Molokai is a 260 square-mile, undeveloped isle without buildings taller than three stories, and is the most ethnically Polynesian place accessible in the archipelago. More than half of Molokai's 7,000 residents are native. Many still pursue traditional fishing, farming or hunting-and-gathering lifestyles. In all Hawaii, Molokai, "The Friendly Isle," is probably best suited for ecotourists and adventurers who want more than a week in the sun. Rampell, E. (1996). Welcome to paradise - ecotourism in Hawaii's Molokai Island. The Environmental Magazine. Norwalk. July-August 1996. Reiser, A. and D. G. Simmons (2005). "A Quasi-experimental Method for Testing the Effectiveness of Ecolabel Promotion." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 13(6): 26. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 40 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Resources, C. o. t. F.-U. M. C. o. T. A. a. H. Hana Area. The demographics of the Hana community are quite different from those of Maui County, and Hawaii as a whole. The ethnic makeup of Hana is particularly unique; Hana has the lowest percentage of Asians statewide (6.3%), and the second highest number of ethnic Hawaiians after Niihau (34.5%). Over 2/3rds of Hana’s population identify themselves as part-Hawaiian. Particularly striking, are Hana’s economic statistics. The per capita income is almost 25% lower than the state average, and approximately 30% of the children under the age of four are living in poverty. Resources, H. D. o. L. a. N. (1998). Na Ala Hele Trail and Access Program - DLNR Commercial trail tour activity. The Environmental Notice. Reyes, B. J. (2003). Lawmakers debate bills to define farm tourism. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Reyes, B. J. (2003). House committee looks at agricultural tourism bill. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Richard, K. R. (2006). "Ready, Aim, Thrive." Vital Speeches of the Day 72(26): 763-773. The article presents a speech by Richard R. Kelley, Chairman of the Board for Outrigger Enterprises, as delivered to the Signature Travel Network in Waikiki, Hawaii on October 5, 2006. Kelley addresses the topic of success in the travel industry within the context of change: planning for change, embracing change, and using change as a competitive strategy. Among other things, he proposes that agents focus on their niche, develop basic business skills, and upgrade skills in technology. Ritchie, J. R. B. and G. I. Crouch (2000). "The Competitive destination: A sustainability perspective." Tourism Management 21: 7. The fundamental product in tourism is the destination experience. Competition, therefore, centers on the destination. The article focuses on the wide complex range of issues concerning competition. Rodgers, K. S., and E.F. Cox (2003). "The effects of trampling on Hawaiian corals along a gradient of human use." Biological Conservation 112(3): 383-389. Coral transplantation was used to evaluate the response of corals to trampling by determining growth and mortality at sites that ranged along a gradient of human use. Human use was measured with observational sampling. A clear progression of coral survivorship along the gradient was evident. Survivorship dropped from 70% at the low impact site to 55% at the medium impact site. Total loss (0% survivorship) was reported from the high impact site after only 8 months, equivalent to less than 200000 total visitors or 63 people in the water per hour. Where transplanted corals survived, there was no difference in growth, presumably due to the control of activities of people in the water at those sites. Rohter, I. (1993). "Eco-Tourism" Just a Marketing Gimmick or For Real? Honolulu Advertiser. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 41 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Honolulu. Rohter, I. (1994). "A Green Economy For Hawaii. The Political Economy of Hawaii." Social Processes in Hawaii 35: 124-144. Hawai‘i’s dependency on tourism has created social and environmental problems. These problems will continue unless alternatives to mass tourism are promoted. Green tourism in Hawai‘i would improve the local economy and well-being of residents. Sustainable agriculture must also be practiced and environmental and cultural stewardship need to be emphasized. Rome, A. (1999). Ecotourism Impact Monitoring: a review of methodologies and recommendations for developing monitoring programs in Latin America. Ecotourism technical report series number 1, The Nature Conservancy. Ecotourism is one strategy for supporting conservation and providing income for communities in and around protected areas. While envisioned as a positive approach towards sustainable development, unplanned or poorly planned and implemented tourism can have serious negative effects on the environment and on communities, offsetting the benefits it was designed to provide. In order to anticipate negative impacts and to prevent or mitigate them, ecotourism impacts monitoring is required. While visitor impacts management methodologies have been developed and applied in the United States and other developed countries, little such work has been done in the developing world. And, few monitoring programs have assessed socio-cultural impacts on nearby communities. A methodology that is easy to implement on limited budgets and with limited technical expertise is needed for Latin America. Rosenbaum, M. and D. L. Spears (2006). "Legalization of Gambling in Hawaii: An Empirical Re-Inquiry." Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 20(3/4): 145-151. The purpose of this research note is to extend Agrusa's (2000) philosophical inquiry into the possible effects of gambling offerings on Japanese tourists visiting Hawaii. More specifically, the researchers empirically assess attitudinal and behavioral responses among American and Japanese tourists vacationing in Waikiki Beach to the possible implementation of gambling in the island state. The results indicate that both Japanese and American tourists view gambling in Hawaii negatively, or with ambivalence, regardless of their country-of-origin or gender. Overall, this note provides evidence that supports Agrusa's inquiry. Roumasset, J., B. Kaiser, et al. (1998). Environmental Valuation and the Hawaiian Economy. Ruel, T. (1999). Funding constraints threaten fruition of ecotourism track. Pacific Business News. Ruel, T. (2003). Tourism’s cultural role encouraged. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Ruel, T. (2003). Tourism study wants greater focus on culture. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 42 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Salden, D. (1988). "Humpback whales encounter rates offshore of Maui, Hawaii." Journal of Wildlife Management 52(2): 301-304. Salden researched a potential decline of humpback whale encounter rates off of Maui. However, there was actually no decline over the period investigated. In fact, calf encounter increased. It is hypothesized that the whales might be moving further offshore. Salkever, A. (1997). Hawaii conservationists may stem budding ecotourism. Christian Science Monitor. 90: 3. The article reports that conservationists in Hawaii are trying to stem the growing ecotourism industry, or environmentally friendly travel with an emphasis on outdoor activities and education. The article includes examples of the negative impact of ecotourism especially on Kauai, how the sheer volume of visitors to Hawaii is impacting the environment, and efforts to limit the number of tourists in various areas as well as enforcing environmental regulations. Sanburn, C. (2000). Can We Build an "Eco-Highway?". Honolulu Weekly. Honolulu: 6-8. Schwab, W. A. and M. F. Reid (2005). Applying the Principles of Cultural Resource Management to Economic Development through Sustainable Tourism. The International Conference on Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability. Honolulu. This international conference was associated with the United Nations’ International Year of Ecotourism in 2002 and identified a number of core principles and best practices centered on themes such as Ecotourism Policy and Planning, Regulation of Ecotourism, Product Development, Marketing and Promotion of Ecotourism, and Monitoring Costs and Benefits of Ecotourism to all stakeholders. This paper adopts the position that sustainable tourism development must be embedded in a complex web of economic, social, political and cultural conditions that shape the type and scale of tourism activities that are deemed appropriate by local and national actors. These issues are being illustrated with discussion of the ten-year engagement between the University of Arkansas and the Yarmouk University in Irbid, Jordan in developing a Sustainable Tourism Development Plan for Northern Jordan. Scott, S. (1988). Oceanwatcher: An Above-Water Guide to Hawaii's Marine Animals. Honolulu, Green Turtle Press. Serrano, Z. (2005). Island Heroes: Living Aloha, Every Day. Honolulu Advertiser. This article details the accomplishments of John and Tweetie Lind, co-founders of the Kipahulu Ohana – a non-profit organization dedicated to educating residents and visitors alike, on the cultural practices of ancient Hawaiians. Through education, Kipahulu Ohana’s founders hope that these traditions can be remembered, and in some cases, re- incorporated into native Hawaiian life. The Linds welcome all visitors at the ‘Ohana site, including youth performing court-ordered community service. The Kipahulu Valley once served as a home to thousands of Hawaiians living a subsistence lifestyle. Today, the region is beginning to take on its former agricultural appearance – ‘Ohana has reintroduced small-scale taro farming and cultivated crops of banana, breadfruit, coconut, kukui, and sugar cane. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 43 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Service, N. P. (2005). Strategic Plan for Haleakala National Park, Fiscal Year 2005-2008. Services, U. S. F. a. W. S. M. A. N. W. R. a. P. I. D. o. E. A. a. V. (2006). Draft Interim Visitor Services Plan for Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, the Battle of Midway National Memorial, and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument’s Midway Atoll Special Management Area. This draft is a comprehensive management plan for Midway Atoll, including the National Wildlife Refuge, the Battle of Midway National Memorial, and the Special Management area. It proposes that recreational uses that Midway Atoll are compatible with the Refuge System mission and the purpose of the refuge and the Battle of Midway National Memorial. The document states approved recreational activities at Midway Atoll and identifies the structure of the visitor services program. This is the first and only remote island national wildlife refugee in the Pacific to provide the general public with an opportunity to learn about and experience this unique ecosystem. Shapiro, M. (2007). "Wings of Desire: Hawai'i's rare endemic species and the holy grail of birdwatching." Hana Hou 10: 93-101. Hawaii contains the highest number or endemic and rare birds in the world, making it a hotspot for bird watchers. The article emphasizes the popularity of bird watching on the islands. Tourists have been known to dive for up to 200 miles to see birds, or travel from far away countries such as Russia, France, and Germany to get a glimpse of Hawaii's native birds. Bird watching in Hawaii has become another popular activity and has the potential to become a growing ecotourism attraction as about fifty of the 300 birds found in Hawaii are endemic and can not be seen anywhere else in the world. Shapiro, T. (2000). Ecotourism Off Track? Honolulu Star Bulletin. Honolulu. Shapiro, T. (2001). No more legit tours on Manoa Falls Trail Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Sheldon, P. and T. Abenoja (2001). "Resident attitudes in a mature destination: the case of Waikiki." Tourism Management 22: 435-443. Sustainable tourism needs input from local residents, and in this study residents of Waikiki are surveyed to determine their opinions on tourism and development. Waikiki is an important world-wide travel destination and is now in the “mature” phase, characterized by slow development and planning revitalization. Surveys were mailed to Waikiki residents and 354 responses were received. Survey demographics include gender, ethnicity, and education. These demographics (from 1999) are compared with 1990 Census data. Residents responded that they enjoy living in Waikiki but dislike the pollution of the Ala Wai, traffic congestion, noise, lack of parking, lack of bike lanes, and prostitution. Residents responded that they would like more open spaces and parks. Residents would like better maintenance of the neighborhood and improvement of the zoo, beaches, and Ala Wai Canal. Respondents would like to keep current open spaces undeveloped. The authors conclude that transportation needs to be improved, Waikikian culture needs to be considered, a “cultural gathering place” needs to be developed, environmental problems need to be addressed, and that open spaces need to be UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 44 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 maintained and added. Sheldon, P., J. M. Knox, et al. (2005). "Sustainability in a Mature Mass Tourism Destination: The Case of Hawaii." Journal of Wildlife Management 9(1): 47-59. Shores, J. N. (2001). The Challenge of Ecotourism: A Call for Higher Standards. San Jose, California. One of the fastest growing sectors of the tourism business is nature-oriented tourism. The travel industry has been in support of environmental organizations and park agencies and is promoting nature travel as the most "environmentally correct" activity. However, the author argues that ecotourism has not been environmentally sound in the past, and proposes to create a goal that challenges tour operators, park officials, and the traveling public. One of the solutions that is suggested is to establish a 0-5 scale to classify the stages of ecotourism, based on difficulty. This would establish criteria for defining the Ecotourism Level of different stages in the travel system. Shultis, J. D. (2006). "Changing Conceptions of Protected Areas and Conservation: Linking Conservation, Ecological Integrity and Tourism Management." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 14(3): 223-237. From their first creation, national parks and equivalent reserves were socially constructed as static, primordial, untouched wilderness areas. Conservation efforts in these early protected areas were focused on the preservation of specific species. However, research within conservation biology has begun to refocus the gaze of wildlife biology, from the traditional species-based analysis to a new model that considers the preservation of ecological processes and associated requirements to be of greater importance than the preservation of constituent parts of the ecosystem. Thus, the authors suggest that there has been a shift from species- to process-based conservation, which has critical ramifications for protected area and sustainable tourism management. This shift involves the recognition of ecological integrity (EI). EI acknowledges that ecosystems have three interrelated components: (1) composition, (2) structure, and (3) processes. EI suggests that maintaining structure and processes are critical to conserving species or ecosystems. Land managers need to adapt to a new paradigm that reflects and supports this philosophical change in conservation principles; this shift is also reflected in science itself, manifested by a move from normal to ‘post-normal science’ which embraces these new principles. This approach should link visitor expectations with dynamic, non-linear, self-organizing natural processes in order to meet conservation objectives. Singh, T. V. a. S. S. (2004). "On Brining People and Park Together Through Ecotourism: The Nanda Devi National Park, India." 9, No. 1: 43-55. Explores the disconnection with people and their land, proposes that the development of sound- ecotourism could resolve this void and unite people back with their land. Case study of The Nanda Devi National Park in India and the affect it has had on the people and their connection with their land. It discusses the challenges to raise funds and support. They conclude with a look at Bhotia Tourism in the Niti Valley. Smith, M. (2002). "A Critical Evaluation of the Global Accolade: the significance of world UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 45 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 heritage site status for Maritime greenwich." International Journal of Heritage Studies 8(2): 137- 151. The paper examines the motivations which appear to underpin the quest for WHS status in an international context, before proceeding to an analysis of Meritime Greenwich which was placed on the list in 1997. Society, T. I. E. (2007). Oslo Statement on Ecotourism. This is a statement born from the Global Ecotourism Conference 2007 (GEC07) held in Oslo, Norway. This is a tool for ecotourism stakeholders to assess the current state of the global ecotourism community, to evaluate the challenges facing ecotourism today and to establish goals and benchmarks for the coming years. Offers information regarding background on ecotourism, current status and challenges within global ecotourism community, and recommendations from the GEC07. Includes detailed actions amongst recommendations. Stacy, M. (2002). Midway Isle pullout hits Coast Guard, airlines. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Staff, E. P. D. (2006). Changing the Nature of Tourism: Developing an Agenda for Action. D. f. I. D. (DFID). As tourism takes surpasses the oil industry as the worlds biggest industry the British Department for International Development (DFID) is promoting development of new agendas to promote responsibly successful tourism. The paper argues tourism as a productive path toward development, including nature tourism in rural environments. It considers the role of national parks, visitor management, and community involvement as key organizational elements, The article details a structure that links small businesses, and consumers into mutually beneficial relationships by focusing on what they DFID calls action points. Staff, P. B. C. (1991). Proceedings of Ecological Tourism and Small Business in the Pacific: A conference presenting aspects of ecotourism and small business in the American Affiliated Pacific Islands. Honolulu, Pacific Business Center Program University of Hawaii at Manoa. This document is the conference proceedings from a 1991 conference held in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. Panel discussions are included as are general recommendations for ecotourism development in the region. Steiner, W. W. M. (2001). "Evaluating the cost of saving native Hawaiian birds." Studies in Avian Biology 22: p. 377-383. Approximately dollar sign94 million has been spent on avian research and management in Hawai'i over the past decade. This figure represents a large investment in refuges and reserves as well as research across five state and federal agencies and The Nature Conservancy. This level of funding has made a substantial contribution to local economies, far outweighing even any contribution that local hunters make. Yet only one firm success story exists, the Nene (Branta sanvichensis), which has been brought back from the edge of extinction to more than 300 birds on two islands today. This paper UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 46 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 examines the accomplishments gained by this level of funding, and the problems that still remain to be examined. Niche dimensions, territory sizes, impact of introduced birds, diet preferences, plant associations, invertebrate hosts, disease avoidance mechanisms, behavioral barriers all await study in rare species. Complex models of interaction must be built to better define the decline process. Avian genetics and the consequences of hybridization, important for future recovery efforts, are poorly studied and will likely become future focal points for research. It is recognized that a need exists to integrate future restoration efforts with tourism, the primary income generator for the Hawaiian Islands. One way to do this is through ecotourism and attraction of the birding community. Continued public support is necessary to maintain current and future funding levels or research and management of birds, and the need to develop outreach and education programs for the public is recognized as well. Hawai'i and the research community should seize the opportunity to integrate economic needs of the state and resource management needs that can then serve as a model for other states and countries. Steinhart, P. (1989). "Time Passes." Audubon 91(1): 8-11. Highlights the Na Pali Coast in Kauai, Hawaii. Air tour companies operating in the island; Tourist destinations; History and system of government; Environmental protection societies and organizations; State of tourist trade; Plant and animal species inhabiting the island; Impact of tourism on the ecology. Stem, C., J. Lassoie, et al. (2003). "Community Participation in Ecotourism Benefits: the Link to Conservation Practices and Perspectives." Society and Natural Resources 16: 387-413. Ecotourisms effect on conservation perspectives and practices. Discusses different influences on the attitudes toward conservation. Explores the overall well-being of conservation friendly communities and how ecotourism encourages conservation. Links community participation in ecotourism to community benefits. Sterling, P. (1998). Sites of Maui. Honolulu, Bishop Museum Press. This book explains the history of several sites in Hana based on the Hawaiian legends. It describes the setting of Pi’ilani heiau, and the clearing off the overgrown walls. Stevens, S. (1997). Conservation Through Cultural Survival: indigenous peoples and protected areas. Washington D.C., Island Press. The creation of national parks and protected areas has been a major threat to the survival of indigenous peoples. Parks based on wilderness ideals have changed the traditional ways of the people and have forced many out of their land. The book assesses the state of many environments including Nepal, Australia, Papua New Guinea, and Alaska. It also offers guidelines, models, and recommendations in an effort to establish a new kind of parks system based on partnerships with indigenous peoples. Studies, T. C. f. T. P. (1994). Ecotourism Opportunities for Hawaii's Visitor Industry. Honolulu, School of Travel Industry Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Studies, T. C. f. T. P. (1994). Ecotourism Opportunities for Hawaii's Visitor Industry. Honolulu, School of Travel Industry Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 47 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 This is a report on a project that addresses ecotourism in Hawai‘i. It includes the definition of ecotourism in Hawai‘i, Hawai‘i’s ecotourism potential and constraints, and recommendations. The authors call for a state ecotourism plan, increased government support, increased funding, increased community involvement, more research and data collection, and increased educational opportunities. Tabata, R. S. (1992). Hawaii's recreational dive industry and use of nearshore dive sites. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program. This report addresses environmental perception, the demographics of Hawai‘i’s divers, the Hawai‘i recreational dive industry, and dive site characteristics. Resource management implications are also included. This project was conducted because little was known previously about where dive operators were taking their customers and the preferences of divers in Hawai‘i. Tabata, R. S., J. Yamashiro, et al. Joining Hands for Quality Tourism: Interpretation, Preservation and the Travel Industry. Heritage Interpretation International Third Global Congress, University of Hawaii, Hawaii. The conference focused on global concerns of preservation of cultural and natural heritage and had a theme of bringing stakeholders together to work on common objectives. Numerous papers which our outlined in the proceedings cover subjects of special interest tourism including ecotourism and some within a Hawaiian context. The workshops, seminars and presentations, many of which are described in the proceedings addressing a number of subthemes, including the following: preserving cultures and environments, interpreting across cultures, interpreting communities, guided travel experiences, applying appropriate techniques of interpretation, building partnerships and bridges of diverse groups and tourism development and marketing. Tabatchnaia-Tamirisa, N., M. K. Loke, et al. (1997). "Energy and Tourism in Hawaii." Annals of Tourism Research 24(2): 390-401. Talwar, J. (2007). "'We see opportunities for growth.'." Travel Weekly 66(20): 30. This section presents an interview with Jay Talwar, vice president of sales and marketing for the Hawaii Visitors and Convention Bureau. When asked about the threat to the tourism industry of Hawaii, he mentioned that travel companies are identifying markets where they see potential for growth. He also stated that travel agents are significant to the sector because they are able to bring upscale visitors in the state. He added that Hawaii is capable of serving a broad range of travelers Tanji, E. (1992). When the Call of the Whirlybird Shatters Rural Peace. Sunday Star-Bulletin and Advertiser: A25. This article from the Sunday Star-Bulletin & Advertiser addresses issues of residential noise pollution in East Maui. Local residents complain that noise from constant helicopter traffic is disturbing the tranquility found in this isolated corner of Maui. While a “Fly Neighborly” program is in effect with tour operators, non-tour flights (commercial photographers, police, military, utility companies, and etc.) are exempt from its regulations. Under the “Fly Neighborly” program, tour pilots are mandated to keep a UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 48 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 minimum of 1,500 feet away from residential dwellings. They are also required to avoid noise sensitive areas such as Oheo Gulch and Kipahulu Valley. Residents claim that many tour operators often violate these restrictions, claiming not to be on a tour, or flying low as a result of weather conditions. Hana and Kipahulu residents say that while they have complained to state officials, they have seen few changes in operator practices. Tanji, E. (1998). Maui, Inc. The Honolulu Advertiser: A1, A5. In “Maui, Inc.” author Edwin Tanji traces the economic development and growth of “America’s Magic Isle.” For the last 25 years, Maui has led the rest of Hawaii in economic growth. During these years, Maui’s employment figures skyrocketed from 18,700 to more than 60,000, with state tax collections rising from $16 million to $167 million. FHB statistics corroborate this growth, showing Maui County’s visitor numbers doubling every decade (1970 to 1995). Community leaders attribute the island’s growth to the county charting its own economic course. Over the last few decades, the county has not relied on the Hawaii Visitor Bureau to promote it. Instead, the Maui County Visitor’s Association has been proactive in publicity efforts. The development of Kaanapali as the first “master-planned destination resort” in the world, did much to draw visitors to the island. Time Magazine’s March 1979 six-page cover story further promoted existing idyllic images among the public. In this article, Maui was dubbed “America’s Magic Isle,” and “a last paradise in the sun.” Some observers state that in today’s uncertain global economy, it will be difficult to protect Maui’s economy – an economy that is so heavily dependent on investment. Others state that among all of the islands, Maui is best suited to weather an economic downturn. Tanji, E. (2000). Legacy of Winding Road to Hana Preserved. Honolulu Advertiser: A27, A32. This article announces the June 2000 designation of a 50-mile stretch of the Hana Highway as Hawaii’s Millenium Legacy Trail. East Maui residents hope that the designation will be the first step toward protecting larger sections of the historic highway. While the MLT designation does not provide money for restoration and preservation, it emphasizes the historic value of the highway to state and county officials. The Hana Highway (between Pa’uwela and Kaupo) is one of 52 national roadways and trails selected as Millenium Trails. In the future, the state hopes to develop a Scenic Byways program to bring in federal highway funds – a process that is likely to take some time. What is clear, is that infrastructure improvements are needed soon. With 500,000 visitors traveling on the roadway annually, bridges are badly in need of repair. Tanji, E. (2000). Legacy of Winding Road to Hana Preserved. Honolulu Advertiser. This article announces the June 2000 designation of a 50-mile stretch of the Hana Highway as Hawaii’s Millenium Legacy Trail. East Maui residents hope that the designation will be the first step toward protecting larger sections of the historic highway. While the MLT designation does not provide money for restoration and preservation, it emphasizes the historic value of the highway to state and county officials. The Hana Highway (between Pa’uwela and Kaupo) is one of 52 national roadways and trails selected as Millenium Trails. In the future, the state hopes to develop a Scenic Byways program to bring in federal highway funds – a process that is likely to take some time. What is clear, is that infrastructure improvements are needed soon. With 500,000 visitors UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 49 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 traveling on the roadway annually, bridges are badly in need of repair. Taskforce, I. M. R. A. S. a. C. (2006). Standard Requirements for Recreational Snorkeling Services in the Mesoamerican Reef System. This voluntary standard specifies requirements for marine recreation providers in the field of recreational snorkeling operations in vulnerable ecosystems such as coral reefs, sea grass beds and related coastal environments. It gives requirements for environmental performance, conservation practices, and operational safety that enhance the snorkeling experience and minimize environmental impact of recreational snorkeling operations on fragile marine ecosystems in the Mesoamerican Reef system. The standard addresses four critical areas: minimizing impact to the marine environment; competence of staff and clients; minimum requirements for conducting guided snorkeling and providing equipment to independent snorkelers; and operational safety practices and emergency equipment. The standard does not address business relationships with clients. Also provided as Annex A and B respectively, are preferred practices for good environmental behavior for snorkelers, snorkeling leaders, and marine recreation providers and a model exit survey. Taskforce, I. M. R. A. S. a. C. (2006). Standard Requirements for Recreational Scuba Diving Services in the Mesoamerican Reef System. The purpose of the ICRAN MAR standard is to set rules and guidelines for marine recreation providers in the field of recreational scuba diving in the Mesoamerican Reef system. Importantly the standard hopes to direct attention to four vital areas: the marine environment; capabilities of staff and clients; required number of dives for certified divers; and operational safety and emergency equipment. According to the ICRAN MAR standard employees will be required to be trained customer management in order to prevent clients from breaking the rules. Recreational scuba diving operators will not be permitted to use places that have been selected off limits by the local authorities or the local community. Regarding operational safety and emergency equipment the marine recreation operator will be required to create a written emergency management procedure for each form of service offered and dive site operated. The authors conclude that recreational scuba diving operators found to be breaking the rules and local regulations will be held liable. Taskforce, I. M. R. A. S. a. C. (2006). Standard Requirements for Recreational Boat Operations in the Mesoamerican Reef System. The purpose of the ICRAN MAR standard is to set specific rules and regulations that will cover vital areas in environmental performance, and conservation practice, and operational safety for Recreational Activities at Beaches in the Mesoamerican Reef system. The general requirements of the ICRAN MAR standard will apply to all boats operated by marine recreation providers. Primarily the ICRAN Mesoamerican Reef Alliance project will direct attention to marine ecosystem protection and conservation. According to the rules and regulations of the ICRAN MAR standard it the responsibility of the marine recreation operator to make sure that boat operators are competent with the required level of knowledge and experience. Furthermore the marine recreation operator will be required to hinder and alleviate any environmental degradation to the coral reefs, UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 50 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 and coast along the Mesoamerican Reef. The rules and also state that marine recreation providers will be responsible for implementing a waste management and emission control strategy for boat operations and maintenance. The authors conclude that safety equipment will need to be functional and stored in order to enable access in times of emergency. Thompson, R. (2001). Kona conference explores ‘agtourism’ opportunities. Honolulu Star- Bulletin. Honolulu. Thompson, R. (2004). Big Isle farmers learn of ag tourism opportunities. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Thorsell, J. and T. Sigaty (2001). "Human Use in World Heritage Natural Sites: A Global Inventory." Tourism Recreation Research 26(1): 85-101. In this overview, IUCN compiled the tourism data on each site to demonstrate just how substantial visitation numbers and to detect variations between the different sites and continents. Tighe, L. (1998). Thinly disguised resort or tent camp? Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Tighe, L. (1999). Developers propose smaller North Shore ‘eco-camp’. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Tokioka, B. (2008). Checking in with tourism plan keeps it moving. The Garden Island. Tourtelott, J. B. (2006). Places Rated: How Do 94 World Heritage Destinations Stack Up? National Geographic Traveler. November/December: 113-124. UNESCO developed the World heritage site program in an effort to recognize and protect important sites across the globe. This destination score card of 94 UNESCO World Heritage sites explores both positive effects and problems related to the accession of a site to World Heritage Site status. In this article National Geographic panelists grade the condition of places who’s star attraction is a site inscribed on the World Heritage List monitored my UNESCO. The panelist said some are doing well; while others suffer from pollution, poor management, overdevelopment-even, perhaps, from being added to the list. The score card categorizes sites in into many groups such as Best Rated, Doing Well, So So, In Trouble and the Worst Rated destinations with short explanations of contributing factors. Trask, H.-K. (2000). "Tourism and the Prostitution of Hawaiian Culture." Cultural Survival Quarterly 24(1). Tsutsumi, C. C. (2005). Sacred sites inspire wonder. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Tsutsumi, C. C. (2005). Wildlife tours are eye-openers for city dwellers. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 51 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Tsutsumi, C. C. (2005). Taro patch experience helps problem kids. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Tsutsumi’s article describes the efforts of John and Tweetie Lind to educate Hawaii’s children and teenagers in traditional Hawaiian culture. John and Tweetie Lind are two of the founders of Kipahulu Ohana, a non-profit organization formed in 1995. Kipahulu Ohana’s mission statement is “to restore the Kipahulu ahupua’a as a model of a living, working, self-sustaining native Hawaiian community circa 1778 to 1848, including the construction and maintenance of traditional native Hawaiian agricultural and aquaculture features.” During school group tours, the Linds spend up to four hours with students – discussing the cultural and historical significance of taro, and the irrigation systems that allow the fields to flourish. Afterwards, they invite the students to participate in the weeding, planting, and harvesting processes. In addition to guided school visits, the Linds also offer a monthly Taro Patch Interpretive Hike to the general public. Tsutsumi, C. C. (2006). Kailua kayaking tours meld sea with spirit. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Tsutsumi, C. C. (2007). Farmers set the table at Hamakua Alive. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. 12. Tune, J. (1999). Beefing up eco-tourism. Honolulu Advertiser: C1, C4. UNEP (2007). GEO (Global Environment Outlook) 4: Environment For Development. Provides an overview of global social and economic trends, and the state-and-trends of the global and regional environments over the past two decades, as well as the human dimensions of these changes. It highlights the interlinkages as well as the challenges of environmental change and opportunities that the environment provides for human well being. It provides an outlook for the future and policy options to address present and emerging environmental issues. Addresses development, issues regarding atmosphere, land, water, biodiversity, sustainability, human well-being and vulnerability, governance and action plans. UNESCO A Proposed Framework for the Development of Joint Cooperation On Nature Conservation and Sustainable Tourism At World Heritage Natural sites Between The Tourism Industry and the UNESCO, World Heritage Centre. This proposal suggests that an international policy be instated regarding the tourism management concerns at most World Heritage sites. Striving to use tourism as an effective tool for achieving long-term nature conservation and sustainable development, this policy provides an initial framework between two organizations: tourism industry and World Heritage Centre (WHC). This will be a unification committee that establishes regulation criteria for tourism management, trains local community member about tourism, helps market local products, raises public awareness, uses tourism revenue to conserve and protect, spreads international lessons, and increases awareness of World Heritage. Vodenska, M. (2003). A guidebook for monitoring ecotourism impacts on protected areas and UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 52 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 surrounding communities, Bulgaria Biodiversity Conservation and Economic Growth Project: 22. The BCEG Project is not a specific study on a particular location, but rather a guidebook dedicated to the belief that communities who set their own targets for ecotourism development are also in the best positions to chose and monitor their success or failure. This project follows some 10 years of assessment, technical assistance and financing of Bulgaria’s biodiversity conservation strategic developments, new protected areas legislation, and new national park institutions: Rila Monastery Nature Park and Central Balkan. The plan is to focus first on communities with smaller numbers of tourists: 10- 15,000; thus making it easier to determine/predict/identify potential impacts before they occur. Promote smaller ecotour groups, using that research to link to locations within protected areas. The report lists a series of procedures and criteria that will ultimately result in a sustainable ecotour project, simply a guidebook for identifying potential hazards and developing indicator processes with a strong emphasis on “vision of community” and community ecotourism. Criteria are a measure of impact indicators both positive and negative and their maximum damage extents. Indicators tell you “where you are now” and “where you are going”, so that you can devise preventative project plans for the future/”where you want to be.” Vourc'h, A. and R. Denman (2003). Tourism and Local Agenda 21- The Role of Local Authorities in Sustainable Tourism, United Nations Environment Programme. The Local Agenda 21 approach is an approach through which a local community defines a sustainable development strategy and an action program to be implemented. This approach is usually initiated by the local authority, which proves leadership for the process. Local Agenda 21 was developed because tourism is recognized as being one of the world’s main economic activities. Tourism has major impact on local communities in tourist destinations, and it can be a significant source of income and employment. It can also pose a threat to an area’s social fabric and its natural and cultural heritage, upon which it ultimately depends, but if it is well planned and managed it can be a force for their conservation. The case studies provide learning from the experience of local communities. Wahle, C. and S. Lyons (2003). Social Science Research Strategy: for marine protected areas. Santa Cruz, California, National Marine Protected Areas Center: 1-35. In the United States conservation of marine environments have been taken place under marine protected areas (MPAs). MPAs come in a range of sizes and are used for a variety of purposes from protecting species to fisheries management and tourism. There has been sufficient research on the ecology and biology of MPAs but information on the social, cultural and economic areas is missing. The Social Science Research Strategy has identified this as a high priority so that the human dimension is taken under consideration when looking at MPAs. Without inclusion of this dimension MPAs are not as useful in their goals of protection and sustainability. Walker, T. J. (1998). How to Swim with Dolphins: A Guide to Being. Pahoa, Hawaii, DolphinHeart Press. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 53 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Wall, G. (1997). "Is Ecotourism Sustainable?" Environmental Management 21(4): 483-491. The article focuses on several questions pertaining to ecotourism including what is sustainable tourism? It also argues that if tourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then it must be economically viable, ecological sensitive and culturally appropriate. Watch, M. Makai: "toward the ocean", State of Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources. This brochure is a guide to the better understanding of the ecosystems that live in the Makai region of Hawaii, and their significance to the Hawaiian culture. It explains the intimate relationship Hawaiians have with nature, and calls for people’s stewardship responsibility. Weaver, D. (2002). "Asian Ecotourism: Patterns and Themes." 4(2): 153-172. Asian Ecotourism as practiced in the three main regions: the rain-forest and reef, the mountain trekking region and the blossom and waterfall region. It explores the main themes of Asian ecotourism that include spatial concentration, the presence of ecotourism that is linked to other forms of tourism and the influence of external environments. It explores the nature based, learning based and environmentally and socio-culturally sustainable aspects. Weaver gives a synopsis of Asian ecotourism as expressed through the three regions. Graphs and diagrams are used to illustrate points made. Weaver concludes by exploring the emergent and potential ecotourism regions. Weiler, B. and D. Davis (1993). "An Exploratory Investigation Into the Roles of the Nature- Based Tour Leader." Tourism Management(April). Ecotourism is a new form of tourism that is “destination-friendly with respect to both the environment and the host population.” It is a very good way for countries to utilize their natural resources without destroying them. The tour guides of these programs have a huge responsibility for making sure that the tourist are happy and that the environment is not harmed. This paper found that the tour leader’s duties are to monitor and minimize the adverse affects of visitors on the environment and to enhance the visitors appreciation and understanding of their surroundings within the conservation objectives for the area. Weiler, B. and S. H. Ham (2002). "Tour Guide Training: a model for sustainable capacity building in developing countries." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 10(1): 52-69. Ecotourism is an industry that is beginning to grow. It has great potential in developing countries with pristine natural environments. If done properly, ecotours can provide these countries with a profitable way to showcase their culture and environment in a respectful, sensitive, sustainable, and environmentally friendly way. Clearly their needs to be adequate training for those that will lead these ecofriendly guides. This report describes training methods and reviews for tour guides. Weinberg, A., B. Story, et al. (2002). "Sustaining Ecotourism: Insights and Implications From Two Successful Case Studies." (15): 371-380. Field work study from costa Rica and New Zealand examining the potential for long term sustainability of ecotourism. Address the many ecological, economic, technological, UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 54 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 political and social problems with sustaining long term ecotourism. Discusses the paradox of successful ecotourism practices. Ecotourism Wiener, C. (2006). Imi O Na Ala O Ke Moana (Learning the Ways of the Oceans): An Evaluation of Ocean Education and Marine Tourism Practices in Hawaii. Environmental Studies. Toronto, York University. MA. The author’s research is composed of interviews and reviews both theoretical and advertising literature related to marine tourism, and its current consequences. The material used is to help educate, supply a base for marine tourism impacts, and hopefully reduce the effects of visitors in marine ecosystems. This report provides solutions to marine conservation such as education and alternatives to inappropriate practices in management. Moreover the author points out the need for more consideration to long- term visitor management strategies in Hawai’i. Wiener, C. and L. Foote (2006). Maui Voluntary Standards for Marine Tourism Project – Changing Tides: Ocean Awareness and Etiquette Campaign. This project is an educational campaign directed towards quality of specific habitats, especially coral reefs, which are threatened by the increased tourism on the island of Maui. The campaign goals are to provide accurate and relevant information to visitors and tourism professionals regarding the marine ecosystem. Through the promotion of awareness, guidelines will also be implemented that are achievable, affordable, effective, and accepted by the industry. The proposed project strives to improve sustainable business practices in the area of marine tourism which will reduce the negative impacts of high-use, non-managed marine recreation sites on Maui. Wiener, C. and L. Foote (2006). Maui Voluntary Standards for Marine Tourism Project – Changing Tides: Ocean Awareness and Etiquette Campaign. This project is an educational campaign directed towards quality of specific habitats, especially coral reefs, which are threatened by the increased tourism on the island of Maui. The campaign goals are to provide accurate and relevant information to visitors and tourism professionals regarding the marine ecosystem. Through the promotion of awareness, guidelines will also be implemented that are achievable, affordable, effective, and accepted by the industry. The proposed project strives to improve sustainable business practices in the area of marine tourism, which will reduce the negative impacts of high-use, non-managed marine recreation sites on Maui. Wilkentgi, D. (2000). Council approves Makaweli resort. The Garden Island. Wilson, C. (2007). Hawaii Wildlife Generates 402.3 Million. Honolulu Advertiser. Compares the pros and cons of the 4 million Hawaii wildlife industry. Last year over 4 million dollars were generated from wildlife seeking tourists, however the opportunity costs for this revenue are not being fully researched. The activity levels of wildlife adventurers are rising, but the affects of their actions need to be assessed. Hawaii has been ranked one of the lowest states for the locals wildlife interaction for recreational purposes. UH Manoa Ecotourism Research Group - 55 - Ecotourism in Hawai‘i Annotated Bibliography 6.2.08 Wilson, C. (2007). Hawaii Wildlife Generates 402.3 Million. Honolulu Advertiser. Compares the pros and cons of the 4 million Hawaii wildlife industry. Last year over 4 million dollars were generated from wildlife seeking tourists, however the opportunity costs for this revenue are not being fully researched. The activity levels of wildlife adventurers are rising, but the affects of their actions need to be assessed. Hawaii has been ranked one of the lowest states for the locals wildlife interaction for recreational purposes. Wilson, E. O. (2000). "On the Future of Conservation Biology." Conservation Biology 14(1): 3. Wilson-Molina, M. (1991). "Coastal and Marine Tourism." The Environmentalist 11(1). Wood, P. (1999). AHEM and the Old Bridges: East Mauians Strive to Preserve Peace and Quiet. Kihei Times: 1-3, 10. In this piece from the Kihei Times, Wood reports on the ongoing controversy over bridge replacement along the Hana Highway. In July 1999, DOT representatives, community members, and historic preservation advocates met to discuss the future of the Hana Highway. While much of the discussion focused on the appropriateness of replacing existing one-land bridges with federally approved structures, participating individuals also discussed the need for retaining a rural atmosphere and existing aesthetics along the roadway. The majority of local residents present at the meeting opposed bridge reconstruction and widening. State Highways Chief Pericles Manthos explained to the community that while the state was not unsympathetic to their position, the state’s primary concern was public safety. With 29 of the 38 bridges testing as structurally deficient, improvements must be made in order to lessen the state’s liability. In addition, he asserted that in order to use federal funds for maintenance and repair, the structures must be brought on par with federal guidelines. Woolard, C. (2006). Draft plan coming for Marine Monument. The Garden Island.
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