ATC Directive

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                                                             ATCD: 2010-4
                                                     Effective: 2010-10-21

ATC Directive

1.   Major changes:


        1.   When a full-stop landing manœuvre is imposed on an aircraft by ATC, there is an obligation to
             provide the aircraft with the runway length remaining before issuing a take-off clearance.

        2.   If the runway length remaining for take-off is unknown, then ATC must determine from the aircraft
             whether a backtrack is required.

        3.   The changes to ATC MANOPS are:

             a.   Index – paragraph references added under intersection and runway;

             b.   334.5 – editorial change and the interpretation is removed;

             c.   336.11 (new) – the interpretation content regarding runway length remaining, a reference, and
                  phraseology are added;

             d.   336.11 (old) to 336.19 (old) – are renumbered 336.12 to 336.20 respectively; and

             e.   352.1 Interpretation and 352.6 Interpretation – are removed.


        1.   ATC MANOPS is amended to specify a maximum of 27 calendar days' absence from operational
             duties. Beyond that, an operational competency check is conducted before personnel return to
             operational duty.

        2.   This change results from CATCA and NAV CANADA discussions concerning operational proficiency.

        3.   The changes to ATC MANOPS are:

             a.   119.2 and 119.2 Note – 30 calendar days is changed to 27 calendar days; and

             b.   119.2 A. and 119.2 B. – are amended for grammatical reason.


        1.   Some airport controllers have been using non-standard STOP-AND-GO phraseology when clearing
             aircraft conducting circuits. The phraseology STOP-AND-GO I'LL CALL THE GO was used to
             indicate that a full-stop landing was required for control purposes. Pilots unaccustomed to this ad hoc
             restriction failed to make full-stop landings.

        2.   A STOP-AND-GO is a procedure in which an aircraft lands, makes a complete stop on the runway,
             and then commences a takeoff from that point. A STOP-AND-GO clearance permits the pilot to carry
             out each phase of the procedure without interruption.

        3.   The standard phraseology to use when ATC is unable to clear an aircraft for a STOP-AND-GO is

        4.   The changes to ATC MANOPS are:

             a.   344.3 C – traffic information is added;

             b.   344.3 F Note – added to explain that a stop-and-go clearance permits the procedure without
                  interruption; and

             c.   344.3 F Example – new phraseology example added.


        1.   During a procedures review it was noted that “can you” phraseology is being used by ATC. “Can you”
             is not standard phraseology and may be misunderstood as a suggested course of action. Addtionally,
             “can you” is used in ATC MANOPS 432.2 B 1 Phraseology (old).

        2.   “Are you able” is the standard phraseology to query whether an aircraft is able to comply with
             proposed ATC action.

        3.   The change to ATC MANOPS is:

             a.   432.3 D 1 Phraseology (old 432.2 B 1 Phraseology) – “can you accept” is replaced by “are you

2.   Minor changes:


        1.   ATC MANOPS 119.4 is amended to correspond with changes to ATSAMM.

        2.   The change to ATC MANOPS is:

             a.   119.4 – editorial change that retains only the frequency and extent of information to be


        1.   When an aircraft accident occurs on or near an airport, obtaining an accident check weather
             observation is mandatory. This observation records meteorological facts that may relate to the
             accident or that may be of significance to an aircraft accident investigator.

        2.   Several recent aircraft accidents revealed lack of direction regarding this requirement in ATC

        3.   This document provides direction regarding the requirement for a tower controller to obtain an
             accident check weather observation and record RVR readings when an accident occurs on or near an

        4.   The changes to ATC MANOPS are:

             a.   124.1 is amended to require recording of RVR readings after all aircraft accidents that occur on
                  or near an airport.

             b.   124.1 D is added to ensure an accident check weather observation is obtained when an aircraft
                  accident occurs on or near an airport.


        1.   This amendment changes the requirement to verify the accuracy of the direct reading altimeter.

        2.   ATC MANOPS requires controllers to verify the accuracy of the direct reading altimeter by
             comparing its reading to the reference altimeter setting recorded in the METAR, or by using a
             primary source digital barometer.

        3.   Many direct reading altimeters now obtain their data directly from the primary digital barometer; in
             these cases, the need for comparison is redundant.

        4.   The changes to ATC MANOPS are:

             a.   135.2 is renumbered as 135.4 and “altimeter setting indicator” is replaced with “direct reading

             b.   135.3 and 135.4 are renumbered as 135.2 and 135.3 respectively;

             c.   135.5 and 135.6 are reworded to reflect the new direction.


   1.   Due to discrepancies between DOC8643 and TP143, national direction was issued to use TP143
        exclusively for stop group information, and DOC8643 for aircraft type and wake turbulence category
        information. This amendment formalizes this decision.

   2.   When variants of an aircraft type fall into different wake turbulence categories (e.g. L/M) the pilot or
        operator is responsible for filing appropriately.

   3.   The changes to ATC MANOPS are:

        a.   181.4 is amended to outline the use of DOC8643 which replaces TP143 as the official source of
             aircraft wake turbulence category information.

        b.   181.4 Note 1 is added to describe pilot responsibility to file wake turbulence category in
             situations when more than one WTC exists for an aircraft type.

        c.   181.4 Note is renumbered 181.4 Note 2.

        d.   181.5 is added to outline the use of TP143 exclusively for stop group information and 181.5 (old)
             is renumbered 181.6.

        e.   181.5 Note is added to identify where on the NAV CANADA portal additional stop group
             information is located.


   1.   Traditional surveillance has involved the use of radar and was primarily confined to operations in
        the Southern Domestic Airspace (SDA). The advent of ADS-B surveillance has resulted in the
        capability of providing vectoring service to aircraft operating in Northern Domestic Airspace (NDA).

   2.   A hazard identified as part of the ADS-B implementation was whether aircraft vectored in the NDA
        would be required to fly true headings rather than magnetic and what behaviour would be expected
        from those aircraft transitioning the NDA and SDA while on vectors .

   3.   Despite the current indication in ATC MANOPS that true headings are to be used in the NDA,
        research has indicated that there is no regulation requiring this. Rather, pilots are directed to use
        true track in the NDA only for the selection of altitude appropriate for the direction of flight.

   4.   Typical operations in the NDA involve navigation from point to point either using IRS or GPS
        (primarily GPS for those under ADS-B surveillance). Magnetic heading is mostly used as a reference
        to the pilot and not a means of navigation in itself.

   5.   Research also indicates that compass performance should not be compromised under normal
        conditions until aircraft approach 73 degrees North. To address the issue of compass unreliability,
        controllers are not to assign vectors based on aircraft flying an assigned magnetic heading when the
        aircraft is operating north of 70 degrees North.

   6.   The changes to ATC MANOPS are:

        a.   212.10 is amended to remove the reference to Canadian Domestic Airspace and to specify that
             true headings are to be used where appropriate; and

        b.   553.3 and 553.3 Note are added to specify and provide explanation of the method of vectoring to
             be used for aircraft operating north of 70 degrees North.


     1.   A review of two interpretations has resulted in their removal.

     2.   Interpretation FMP 2001-645 is removed, for all rules already exist in ATC MANOPS. 353.1 Note 3
          is added.

     3.   Interpretation FMP 2002-1718 is removed, for rules have changed and it is no longer valid.

     4.   The changes to ATC MANOPS are:

          a.   interpretations FMP 2001-645 and FMP 2002.1718 in 308.1, 315.5, 352.6 K, 354.1, and 354.2
               are removed; and

          b.   353.1 Note 3 is added.


     1.   Since the implementation of RVSM in 2005, aircraft within RVSM airspace may not always be
          operating in accordance with the CARs 604.32 requirement for flight at an altitude appropriate to
          aircraft track. Transport Canada has granted an exemption to CARs for RVSM, and this modification
          to MANOPS clarifies altitude assignment within RVSM.

     2.   As well, we have slightly restructured and re-worded the rules regarding altitude inappropriate to
          aircraft track assignment.

     3.   The changes to ATC MANOPS are:

          a.   432.1 is simplified to cover the requirements of CARs 604.32.

          b.   432.2 is a new paragraph and table covering altitude assignment within RVSM airspace;

          c.   432.2 Note is a new note explaining that Transport Canada has granted a waiver to the CARs
               requirement for altitude assignment in accordance with aircraft track.

          d.   432.3 incorporates all instances when an altitude inappropriate to aircraft track may be

          e.   432.2 to 432.8 are renumbered.


     1.   When applying procedural separation predicated on DME and or GNSS reports obtain simultaneous
          DME and/or GNSS readings at frequent intervals to ensure the minimum in question will not be

     2.   The change to ATC MANOPS is:

          a.   471.5 Note 3 is added for clarity.


     1.   A national HIRA was conducted to assess the issue of 3 minute revisions and CAATS strip printing
          VSPs. A number of changes to ATC MANOPS and ATSAMM are required to reflect the HIRA
          findings and recommendations.

     2.   The changes to ATC MANOPS are as follows:

          a.   492.7 and 493.2 are revised for readability and consistancy with other sections of ATC

          b.   492.7 A Note becomes 492.7 Note and is amended for consistancy to indicate that revisions may
               be forwarded electronically;

          c.   492.7 Reference is added directing the reader to ATSAMM 441.2 where a list of the CAATS
               strip printing VSPs required in relation to ATC Manops 492.7 may be found; and

          d.   493.2 Note is added to indicate that the revised information may be forwarded electronically.


     1.   This amendment clarifies the ATC MANOPS note regarding the use of TRACS.

     2.   The change to ATC MANOPS is:

          a.   542.1 F.1 Note is modified to more clearly indicate the capacity of TRACS.


     1.   In recent years, increased radar surveillance, restructuring of some units providing terminal control
          services and a redefinition of terminal control service in ATC MANOPS has blurred some of the lines
          between terminal control and low area control.

     2.   ATS Standards and Procedures has determined that some applications used by low en route controllers
          today go beyond the original intent of the standard and are out of compliance with CARs, ICAO
          recommendations and the practices of our sister ANSs worldwide.

     3.   Accordingly, this amendment modifies four ATC MANOPS Part 5 standards to require that they be
          applied only by a controller providing terminal control service.

     4.   The change to ATC MANOPS is:

          a.   562.1, 564.1, 572.2 and 572.3 – the lead-in is modified to indicate that this standard may be applied
               only by a controller providing a terminal control service.


     1.   A recent ATCD introduced the customer-requested phraseology "CAN YOU ACCEPT" as an example of
          how to confirm that the aircraft is able to comply with the proposed descent profile. Subsequently it has
          been determined that the existing standard phraseology "ARE YOU ABLE" should be used instead. The
          ATC MANOPS 579.6 Example is changed to use the standard phraseology.

     2.   Additionally 579.6 B. is simplified and amended to conform with the structure of 579.6 A. and C.

     3.   The changes to ATC MANOPS are:

          a.   579.6 B is edited for simplicity and conformity.

          b.   579.6 C Example is edited replacing “CAN YOU ACCEPT” with “ARE YOU ABLE.”


     1.   Instructions for filing Aviation Occurrence Reports (AORs) when an ELT signal is heard or reported are
          contained in the AOR Procedures document and ATC MANOPS.

     2.   To avoid discrepancies in these instructions, the duplicate material is removed from ATC MANOPS. The
          AOR Procedures document will be the sole source for these instructions.

     3.   The changes to ATC MANOPS are:

          a.   625.1 is amended to direct the user to the AOR Procedures document if an ELT is heard or reported
               that does not conform to the duration and time for testing.

          b.   625.1 B is deleted as the material is contained in the AOR Procedures document.

          c.   625.2 is added to provide direction when the ELT source cannot be identified.


            1.   ATC MANOPS 1041.2 is amended to permit alternatives – such as abbreviations – when making an entry
                 to signify routine operations.

            2.   The change to ATC MANOPS is:

                 a.   1041.2 – editorial change to eliminate the need to use only “Routine Operations” and note added.

3.   The following urgent ATS Operational Publication changes is included:


            1.   ATC MANOPS 473.5, 473.10, 473.11 and 743.1 are amended in accordance with the ATS Operational
                 Publication change.

            2.   Remove the ATS Operational Publication change and retain it with the explanatory pages for this ATCD.

4.   Editorial changes:

     A.     Definitions – “TARGET/RESOLUTION” is changed to “TARGET RESOLUTION” in the English version only;

     B.     182.5 A and 182.6 B are deleted;

     C.     182.16 B – “if” is replaced by “the light or medium aircraft” in the English version only;

     D. 314.1 D Reference, 314.2 C Reference, 314.3 D Reference, 314.4 Reference and 315.4 C Reference – a reference
        to “Handling and reporting occurrences” is added;

     E.     362.5 B Waiver and 362.5 C Waiver – are updated;

     F.     422.2 – the reference to paragraph 422.3 is changed to 422.4;

     G. 473.10 B Note – the word “decent” is changed to “descent” in the English version only;

     H. 542.1 B Interpretation and 542.2 B Interpretation – the english only interpretation (FMP2004-146) is deleted;

     I.     554.1 Waiver – is deleted.

5.   Attached are the ATC MANOPS page replacements:

     Remove                                                  Insert

     ATC-VII          to      ATC-X                          ATC-VII      to       ATC-X

     DEF-15           to      DEF-16                         DEF-15       to       DEF-16

     IND-3            to      IND-6                          IND-3        to       IND-6

     1-13             to      1-16                           1-13         to       1-16

     1-29             to      1-32                           1-29         to       1-32

     1-55             to      1-58                           1-55         to       1-58

     1-67             to      1-68                           1-67         to       1-68

     2-9              to      2-10                           2-9          to       2-10

     3-13             to      3-20                           3-13         to       3-20

     3-27             to      3-28                           3-27         to       3-28

     3-33             to      3-36                           3-33         to       3-36

     3-39             to      3-42                           3-39         to       3-42

3-47    to   3-48             3-47        to   3-48

3-53    to   3-60             3-53        to   3-60

3-65    to   3-66             3-65        to   3-66

4-15    to   4-16             4-15        to   4-16

4-23    to   4-26             4-23        to   4-26

4-49    to   4-50             4-49        to   4-50

4-55    to   4-600            4-55        to   4-60

4-97    to   4-98             4-97        to   4-98

5-27    to   5-30             5-27        to   5-30

5-39    to   5-40             5-39        to   5-40

5-45    to   5-46             5-45        to   5-46

5-51    to   5-52             5-51        to   5-52

5-55    to   5-56             5-55        to   5-56

5-63    to   5-64             5-63        to   5-64

6-15    to   6-16             6-15        to   6-16

7-15    to   7-16             7-15        to   7-16

10-17   to   10-18            10-17       to   10-18

                          Ben Girard
                     ATS Operational Support
ATC-I      2010-01-14   1-23     2010-04-08   2-13     2008-04-10   3-57     2010-10-21
ATC-II     2010-01-14   1-24     2010-04-08   2-14     2008-04-10   3-58     2010-10-21
ATC-III    1999-07-15   1-25     2010-04-08   2-15     2008-04-10   3-59     2010-10-21
ATC-IV     1999-07-15   1-26     2010-04-08   2-16     2008-04-10   3-60     2010-10-21
ATC-V      2004-09-30   1-27     2010-04-08   2-17     2007-04-12   3-61     2009-04-09
ATC-VI     2004-09-30   1-28     2010-04-08   2-18     2007-04-12   3-62     2009-04-09
ATC-VII    2010-10-21   1-29     2010-10-21   2-19     2006-07-20   3-63     2010-01-14
ATC-VIII   2010-10-21   1-30     2010-10-21   2-20     2006-07-20   3-64     2010-01-14
ATC-IX     2010-10-21   1-31     2010-10-21   2-21     2007-10-25   3-65     2010-10-21
ATC-X      2010-10-21   1-32     2010-10-21   2-22     2007-10-25   3-66     2010-10-21
                        1-33     2010-04-08   2-23     2010-01-14   3-67     2010-01-14
TOC-1      Original     1-34     2010-04-08   2-24     2010-01-14   3-68     2010-01-14
TOC-2      Original     1-35     2010-04-08                         3-69     2009-07-16
                        1-36     2010-04-08   PART 3                3-70     2009-07-16
DEF-1      2010-07-15   1-37     2010-04-08                         3-71     2009-01-15
DEF-2      2010-07-15   1-38     2010-04-08   3-1      2009-07-16   3-72     2009-01-15
DEF-3      2009-04-09   1-39     2010-04-08   3-2      2009-07-16   3-73     2010-04-08
DEF-4      2009-04-09   1-40     2010-04-08   3-3      2009-10-22   3-74     2010-04-08
DEF-5      2009-10-22   1-41     2010-04-08   3-4      2009-10-22   3-75     2010-07-15
DEF-6      2009-10-22   1-42     2010-04-08   3-5      2009-10-22   3-76     2010-07-15
DEF-7      2009-07-16   1-43     2010-04-08   3-6      2009-10-22   3-77     2010-01-14
DEF-8      2009-07-16   1-44     2010-04-08   3-7      2009-10-22   3-78     2010-01-14
DEF-9      2010-07-15   1-45     2010-04-08   3-8      2009-10-22
DEF-10     2010-07-15   1-46     2010-04-08   3-9      2009-07-16   PART 4
DEF-11     2010-07-15   1-47     2010-04-08   3-10     2009-07-16
DEF-12     2010-07-15   1-48     2010-04-08   3-11     2010-07-15   4-1      2009-01-15
DEF-13     2010-04-08   1-49     2010-04-08   3-12     2010-07-15   4-2      2009-01-15
DEF-14     2010-04-08   1-50     2010-04-08   3-13     2010-10-21   4-3      2009-10-22
DEF-15     2010-10-21   1-51     2010-04-08   3-14     2010-10-21   4-4      2009-10-22
DEF-16     2010-10-21   1-52     2010-04-08   3-15     2010-10-21   4-5      2008-07-31
DEF-17     2010-04-08   1-53     2010-04-08   3-16     2010-10-21   4-6      2008-07-31
DEF-18     2010-04-08   1-54     2010-04-08   3-17     2010-10-21   4-7      2010-07-15
                        1-55     2010-10-21   3-18     2010-10-21   4-8      2010-07-15
ABB-1      2010-04-08   1-56     2010-10-21   3-19     2010-10-21   4-9      2010-01-14
ABB-2      2010-04-08   1-57     2010-10-21   3-20     2010-10-21   4-10     2010-01-14
ABB-3      2010-07-15   1-58     2010-10-21   3-21     2009-01-15   4-11     2009-01-15
ABB-4      2010-07-15   1-59     2010-04-08   3-22     2009-01-15   4-12     2009-01-15
                        1-60     2010-04-08   3-23     2009-10-22   4-13     2008-07-31
IND-1      2010-07-15   1-61     2010-04-08   3-24     2009-10-22   4-14     2008-07-31
IND-2      2010-07-15   1-62     2010-04-08   3-25     2010-07-15   4-15     2010-10-21
IND-3      2010-10-21   1-63     2010-04-08   3-26     2010-07-15   4-16     2010-10-21
IND-4      2010-10-21   1-64     2010-04-08   3-27     2010-10-21   4-17     2010-01-14
IND-5      2010-10-21   1-65     2010-04-08   3-28     2010-10-21   4-18     2010-01-14
IND-6      2010-10-21   1-66     2010-04-08   3-29     2010-01-14   4-19     2009-10-22
IND-7      2010-07-15   1-67     2010-10-21   3-30     2010-01-14   4-20     2009-10-22
IND-8      2010-07-15   1-68     2010-10-21   3-31     2009-04-09   4-21     2010-01-14
                        1-69     2010-04-08   3-32     2009-04-09   4-22     2010-01-14
PART 1                  1-70     2010-04-08   3-33     2010-10-21   4-23     2010-10-21
                        1-71     2010-07-15   3-34     2010-10-21   4-24     2010-10-21
1-1        2009-01-15   1-72     2010-07-15   3-35     2010-10-21   4-25     2010-10-21
1-2        2009-01-15   1-73     2010-04-08   3-36     2010-10-21   4-26     2010-10-21
1-3        2010-01-14   1-74     2010-04-08   3-37     2009-01-15   4-27     2009-04-09
1-4        2010-01-14   1-75     2010-04-08   3-38     2009-01-15   4-28     2009-04-09
1-5        2010-01-14   1-76     2010-04-08   3-39     2010-10-21   4-29     2009-01-15
1-6        2010-01-14   1-77     2010-04-08   3-40     2010-10-21   4-30     2009-01-15
1-7        2010-04-08   1-78     2010-04-08   3-41     2010-10-21   4-31     2008-07-31
1-8        2010-04-08                         3-42     2010-10-21   4-32     2008-07-31
1-9        2010-01-14   PART 2                3-43     2009-07-16   4-33     2010-01-14
1-10       2010-01-14                         3-44     2009-07-16   4-34     2010-01-14
1-11       2010-01-14   2-1      Original     3-45     2010-01-14   4-35     2006-01-19
1-12       2010-01-14   2-2      Original     3-46     2010-01-14   4-36     2006-01-19
1-13       2010-10-21   2-3      2006-07-20   3-47     2010-10-21   4-37     2007-01-18
1-14       2010-10-21   2-4      2006-07-20   3-48     2010-10-21   4-38     2007-01-18
1-15       2010-10-21   2-5      2010-01-14   3-49     2009-01-15   4-39     2008-07-31
1-16       2010-10-21   2-6      2010-01-14   3-50     2009-01-15   4-40     2008-07-31
1-17       2010-04-08   2-7      2010-01-14   3-51     2009-01-15   4-41     2010-04-08
1-18       2010-04-08   2-8      2010-01-14   3-52     2009-01-15   4-42     2010-04-08
1-19       2010-07-15   2-9      2010-10-21   3-53     2010-10-21   4-43     2010-04-08
1-20       2010-07-15   2-10     2010-10-21   3-54     2010-10-21   4-44     2010-04-08
1-21       2010-07-15   2-11     2009-01-15   3-55     2010-10-21   4-45     2010-04-08
1-22       2010-07-15   2-12     2009-01-15   3-56     2010-10-21   4-46     2010-04-08

4-47     2009-10-22   5-13     2009-07-16    6-7      2009-04-09   8-8       2010-01-14
4-48     2009-10-22   5-14     2009-07-16    6-8      2009-04-09   8-9       Original
4-49     2010-10-21   5-15     2009-07-16    6-9      2006-10-26   8-10      Original
4-50     2010-10-21   5-16     2009-07-16    6-10     2006-10-26   8-11      2006-01-19
4-51     2009-10-22   5-17     2010-01-14    6-11     2010-01-14   8-12      2006-01-19
4-52     2009-10-22   5-18     2010-01-14    6-12     2010-01-14   8-13      2006-01-19
4-53     2009-10-22   5-19     2010-01-14    6-13     2008-10-23   8-14      2006-01-19
4-54     2009-10-22   5-20     2010-01-14    6-14     2008-10-23   8-15      Original
4-55     2010-10-21   5-21     2009-07-16    6-15     2010-10-21   8-16      Original
4-56     2010-10-21   5-22     2009-07-16    6-16     2010-10-21   8-17      2008-07-31
4-57     2010-10-21   5-23     2010-01-14    6-17     2010-01-14   8-18      2008-07-31
4-58     2010-10-21   5-24     2010-01-14    6-18     2010-01-14   8-19      Original
4-59     2010-10-21   5-25     2010-04-08    6-19     2009-07-16   8-20      Original
4-60     2010-10-21   5-26     2010-04-08    6-20     2009-07-16   8-21      Original
4-61     2010-04-08   5-27     2010-10-21    6-21     2010-01-14   8-22      Original
4-62     2010-04-08   5-28     2010-10-21    6-22     2010-01-14   8-23      2010-01-14
4-63     2010-04-08   5-29     2010-10-21    6-23     2009-07-16   8-24      2010-01-14
4-64     2010-04-08   5-30     2010-10-21    6-24     2009-07-16   8-25      2002-10-03
4-65     2010-04-08   5-31     2009-10-22    6-25     2009-07-16   8-26      2002-10-03
4-66     2010-04-08   5-32     2009-10-22    6-26     2009-07-16   8-27      2010-01-14
4-67     2010-04-08   5-33     2010-04-08    6-27     2009-07-16   8-28      2010-01-14
4-68     2010-04-08   5-34     2010-04-08    6-28     2009-07-16   8-29      2010-01-14
4-69     2010-04-08   5-35     2009-07-16    6-29     2010-01-14   8-30      2010-01-14
4-70     2010-04-08   5-36     2009-07-16    6-30     2010-01-14   8-31      2010-01-14
4-71     2010-04-08   5-37     2010-07-15                          8-32      2010-01-14
4-72     2010-04-08   5-38     2010-07-15    PART 7                8-33      2010-01-14
4-73     2010-04-08   5-39     2010-10-21                          8-34      2010-01-14
4-74     2010-04-08   5-40     2010-10-21    7-1      2008-10-23
4-75     2009-01-15   5-41     2010-07-15    7-2      2008-10-23   PART 9
4-76     2009-01-15   5-42     2010-07-15    7-3      2006-07-20
4-77     2009-10-22   5-43     2009-07-16    7-4      2006-07-20   9-1       Original
4-78     2009-10-22   5-44     2009-07-16    7-5      2008-07-31   9-2       Original
4-79     2010-01-14   5-45     2010-10-21    7-6      2008-07-31   9-3       2008-07-31
4-80     2010-01-14   5-46     2010-10-21    7-7      2004-07-08   9-4       2008-07-31
4-81     2010-01-14   5-47     2010-01-14    7-8      2004-07-08   9-5       2010-07-15
4-82     2010-01-14   5-48     2010-01-14    7-9      2004-09-30   9-6       2010-07-15
4-83     2009-10-22   5-49     2009-07-16    7-10     2004-09-30   9-7       2009-04-09
4-84     2009-10-22   5-50     2009-07-16    7-11     2010-07-15   9-8       2009-04-09
4-85     2010-01-14   5-51     2010-10-21    7-12     2010-07-15   9-9       2010-04-08
4-86     2010-01-14   5-52     2010-10-21    7-13     2005-04-14   9-10      2010-04-08
4-87     2009-10-22   5-53     2009-07-16    7-14     2005-04-14   9-11      2010-04-08
4-88     2009-10-22   5-54     2009-07-16    7-15     2010-10-21   9-12      2010-04-08
4-89     2010-07-15   5-55     2010-10-21    7-16     2010-10-21   9-13      2010-04-08
4-90     2010-07-15   5-56     2010-10-21    7-17     2005-04-14   9-14      2010-04-08
4-91     2010-07-15   5-57     2010-04-08    7-18     2005-04-14   9-15      2010-04-08
4-92     2010-07-15   5-58     2010-04-08    7-19     2005-04-14   9-16      2010-04-08
4-93     2010-04-08   5-59     2010-07-15    7-20     2005-04-14   9-17      2010-01-14
4-94     2010-04-08   5-60     2010-07-15    7-21     2005-04-14   9-18      2010-01-14
4-95     2009-04-09   5-61     2010-04-08    7-22     2005-04-14   9-19      2010-04-08
4-96     2009-04-09   5-62     2010-04-08    7-23     2010-04-08   9-20      2010-04-08
4-97     2010-10-21   5-63     2010-10-21    7-24     2010-04-08   9-21      2010-04-08
4-98     2010-10-21   5-64     2010-10-21    7-25     2010-04-08   9-22      2010-04-08
4-99     2010-01-14   5-65     2010-04-08    7-26     2010-04-08   9-23      2010-01-14
4-100    2010-01-14   5-66     2010-04-08    7-27     2010-01-14   9-24      2010-01-14
4-101    2010-01-14   5-67     2010-04-08    7-28     2010-01-14   9-25      Original
4-102    2010-01-14   5-68     2010-04-08    7-29     2009-07-16   9-26      Original
                      5-69     2010-04-08    7-30     2009-07-16   9-27      2010-07-15
PART 5                5-70     2010-04-08    7-31     2008-10-23   9-28      2010-07-15
                      5-71     2010-04-08    7-32     2008-10-23   9-29      2009-07-16
5-1      2009-07-16   5-72     2010-04-08    7-33     2010-07-15   9-30      2009-07-16
5-2      2009-07-16   5-73     2010-04-08    7-34     2010-07-15   9-31      2009-07-16
5-3      2010-04-08   5-74     2010-04-08                          9-32      2009-07-16
5-4      2010-04-08                          PART 8                9-33      2006-04-13
5-5      2010-04-08   PART 6                                       9-34      2006-04-13
5-6      2010-04-08                          8-1      2010-01-14   9-35      2008-07-31
5-7      2009-04-09   6-1      2009-07-16    8-2      2010-01-14   9-36      2008-07-31
5-8      2009-04-09   6-2      2009-07-16    8-3      2006-01-19
5-9      2009-07-16   6-3      2010-01-14    8-4      2006-01-19   PART 10
5-10     2009-07-16   6-4      2010-01-14    8-5      2006-01-19
5-11     2009-07-16   6-5      2009-04-09    8-6      2006-01-19   10-1      2010-07-15
5-12     2009-07-16   6-6      2009-04-09    8-7      2010-01-14   10-2      2010-07-15

                    PAGE VERIFICATION SHEET
10-3         2009-04-09
10-4         2009-04-09
10-5         2010-04-08
10-6         2010-04-08
10-7         2010-07-15
10-8         2010-07-15
10-9         2010-07-15
10-10        2010-07-15
10-11        2010-07-15
10-12        2010-07-15
10-13        2008-04-10
10-14        2008-04-10
10-15        2008-04-10
10-16        2008-04-10
10-17        2010-10-21
10-18        2010-10-21


APP1-1       2009-07-16
APP1-2       2009-07-16
APP1-3       2007-07-19
APP1-4       2007-07-19
APP1-5       2007-07-19
APP1-6       2007-07-19
APP1-7       2007-07-19
APP1-8       2007-07-19
APP1-9       2009-04-09
APP1-10      2009-04-09
APP1-11      2007-07-19
APP1-12      2007-07-19
APP1-13      2007-07-19
APP1-14      2007-07-19
APP1-15      2007-07-19
APP1-16      2007-07-19
APP1-17      2007-07-19
APP1-18      2007-07-19
APP1-19      2007-07-19
APP1-20      2007-07-19
APP1-21      2007-07-19
APP1-22      2007-07-19
APP1-23      2007-07-19
APP1-24      2007-07-19


SIGMET — A weather advisory issued concerning weather significant to the safety of aircraft. SIGMET
advisories include:
A. active thunderstorm areas or lines of thunderstorms;
B. hurricanes, tropical storms;
C. moderate hail;
D. severe turbulence;
E. severe icing;
F. marked mountain waves;
G. widespread sand or dust storms;
H. volcanic ash;
I. severe squall lines;
J. low-level wind shear; and
K. tornadoes or waterspouts.

SIGNIFICANT POINT — An expression used to describe a NAVAID, a fix derived from a NAVAID, or a
geographical location as expressed in latitude and longitude.

SIMULATED APPROACH — An instrument approach, conducted in VFR weather conditions by an aircraft not
on an IFR clearance.

SPECIAL AVIATION EVENT — An air show, low-level air race, aerobatic competition, fly-in or balloon festival.

SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE — Includes airspace classified as:
A. Class F advisory (CYA) or Class F restricted (CYR), which can be controlled airspace, uncontrolled airspace
   or a combination of both;
B. Military Operations Area (MOA), (below FL180 in the U.S.A.);
C. ATC-Assigned Airspace (Military Area) (ATCAA) (FL180 and above in the U.S.A.);
D. Airspace restricted by NOTAM for forest fire aircraft operating restrictions; and
E. Other airspace restricted by NOTAM to cover specific situations such as well fires, disaster areas, airshows,

SPECIAL VFR FLIGHT (SVFR) — Visual flight authorized by an ATC unit to operate within a control zone under
meteorological conditions that are below VFR weather conditions.

STACK — Aircraft holding at a common fix with vertical separation.

STANDARD INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE (SID) — An IFR air traffic control departure procedure, published in
the CAP for pilot and controller use. SIDs may be either:
A. Pilot Navigation (Pilot Nav.) SIDs — SIDs where the pilot is required to use the applicable SID chart as
    reference for navigation to the en route phase; or
B. Vector SIDs — SIDs established where ATC will provide radar navigational guidance to a filed or assigned
    route, or to a fix depicted on the applicable SID chart. Pilots are expected to use the SID chart as reference
    for navigation, until radar vectoring is commenced.

STANDARD PRESSURE REGION — The area within Canada outside the altimeter setting region.

STANDARD TERMINAL ARRIVAL (STAR) — An IFR ATC arrival procedure published in the CAP for pilot and
controller use.

STATION — One or more transmitters or receivers, or a combination of transmitters and receivers, including the
accessory equipment, necessary at one location for carrying on a radiocommunication service.

STOP-AND-GO — A procedure in which an air- craft lands, makes a complete stop on the runway, and then
commences a takeoff from that point.

STRAIGHT-IN APPROACH (IFR) — An instrument approach in which final approach is begun without first
having executed a procedure turn.

                                                 ATC DEF-15
    STRAIGHT-IN APPROACH (VFR) — An approach in which the traffic circuit is entered on the final leg, without
    having executed any other part of the circuit.

    SURVEILLANCE APPROACH — An emergency radar approach intended to assist an aircraft in executing an
    approach and landing.

    TAILWIND — For runway operations a tailwind is considered to exist whenever the surface wind exceeds an angle
    of 90 degrees to the runway in use, thus adding to the ground speed of an aircraft using that particular runway.

    TAILWIND COMPONENT — The wind speed measured in knots at angles from 91 to 179 degrees from the
    runway in use which would equal the effect of a wind applied at 180 degrees to the runway in use. Components
    are specified in a component table for a specified permissible tailwind.

    TAKEOFF — In relation to an aircraft, means the act of abandoning a supporting surface and includes the
    immediately preceding and following acts and, in relation to an airship or balloon, means the act of freeing the
    airship or balloon from restraint and includes the immediately preceding and following acts.

    TARGET — The indication on a radar display of a primary radar return or a transponder reply.

*   TARGET RESOLUTION — In the application of radar separation, an action to ensure that radar targets do not

    TAXIWAY LIGHTS — Lights marking a taxiway.

    TERMINAL AREA ENTRY FIX (BEDPOST) — A significant point located along the established en route
    structure over which an aircraft, cleared for a conventional or RNAV STAR, is required to pass prior to entering
    the terminal airspace.

    TERMINAL CONTROL SERVICE — Control service provided to aircraft operating in the vicinity of a selected
    airport by:
    A. a dedicated Terminal Control function (specialty/sub-unit) within an ACC;
    B. an en route sector of an ACC adjacent to a terminal control/specialty/sub-unit to permit the transition from 3
        miles radar separation to 5 miles radar separation.

    TERMINAL CONTROLLER — Duty controller assigned to the terminal control position.

    THRESHOLD LIGHTS — Lights placed across the ends of a runway or landing strip to indicate its usable limits.

    TIME OF ACTIVATION — The time, expressed in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), at which an aircraft
    departs from, or is estimated to arrive over, a specified point of activation.

    TOUCH-AND-GO — A procedure in which an aircraft lands and then commences a takeoff, without stopping.

    TOWER RADAR AREA — An area of defined dimensions surrounding an airport within which radar service is

    TRACK — The projection on the earth's surface of the path of an aircraft, the direction of which path at any point
    is usually expressed in degrees from North (true, magnetic, or grid).

    TRAFFIC ALERT AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM — An airborne collision avoidance system based on
    radar beacon signals which operate independent of ground-based equipment. TCAS-I generates traffic advisories
    only. TCAS-II generates traffic advisories, and resolution (collision avoidance) advisories in the vertical plane.

    TRAFFIC INFORMATION — Information issued to advise pilots of known or observed air traffic, which may be
    in such proximity to their position or intended route of flight, to warrant their attention.

                                                     ATC DEF-16
  radar minima, 542                                                     F
  release time IFR, 443
  standard instrument, 442                                     flight
  successive - IFR visual separation, 335                         of short duration, 425
  take-off clearance, 336                                         priority, 132
  VFR departure of IFR aircraft, 338                           flight information service, 160
  VFR release of IFR aircraft, 444
                                                               flight information, parachute activity, 161.12
deviation form assigned airspace, 509
                                                               flight plan
direction of flight                                               composite, 414
  altitude appropriate to, 432
  altitude inappropriate to, 432.3                             flight safety hazards, 117

diversions, aircraft, 496                                      formation flights
                                                                 civil IFR/CVFR, 702
DME separation                                                   military IFR, 843
 lateral, 473.13                                                 VFR, 313
 longitudinal, 474
                                                               forms and reports
                                                                 aircraft event, 1021
                                                                 altitude reservation, 1030
         E                                                       ATC clearance form, 1011
ECC, 660                                                         distribution, 1003
                                                                 flight progress strips, 1012
ECM, 848                                                         monthly traffic summary, 1022
ELT, 625                                                         preparation, 1002
emergency                                                        retention, 1004
  alerting service, 620                                          unit log, 1040
  assistance, 601.2                                            frequency change
  bombthreat, 650                                                departure IFR or CVFR aircraft, 363.4
  communication failure under radar control, 612                 departure VFR aircraft, 363.2, 363.3
  communication search, 630                                      military single-piloted aircraft, 167
  coordination centre, 660                                       to the ECC, 661
  descent, 603                                                 fuel
  ELT signals, 625                                               dumping, 701
  guidelines, 601                                                minimum, 132.6
  hijack, 651                                                    shortage, 132.5
  local or national, 116
  notification of RCC, 624
  phases, 624.1
  radar data, 602                                                       G
  RDPS/DSE failure, 680                                        geographic separation (VFR), 382.6
  SSR, 602.1
  surveillance approach, 672                                   GPWS, 127
  triangular pattern, 602.1                                    gross navigation error reports, 118
  VFR aircraft in IFR weather, 640
en route
  descent, 462                                                          H
  holding, 450
  monitoring reports, 118
                                                                 receiving sector/unit, 513
  position reports, 406
                                                                 transferring sector/unit, 512
                                                               hang gliders and ultra-light aeroplanes, 317
  airport, 305
  radar performance, 501.2, 501.3                              helicopters
  unit, 190                                                      on intersecting runways, 352.6
                                                                 operations, 353
                                                               hijacking, 650

                                                   ATC IND-3
holding                                                language
  areas, 451                                             change of, 734
  clearances, 454                                        clearances, 733
  fixes, 452                                             coordination IFR units, 736
  patterns, 453                                          identification, 731
  sequencing, 455                                        strips, 731
hours of operation, towers, 137                          traffic information, 732
                                                         use of, 734
hover taxi, 353.4
                                                       lasers and other directed bright lights, 161.16
                                                       lateral separation
         I                                               CMNPS, 745
                                                         IFR, 473
identification                                           RNPC, 483
  aircraft, 216
                                                       legal responsibility
  airways and air route, 219
                                                         NAV CANADA, 115
  NAVAID, 218
                                                         of employee, 114
  radar, 511
  unit, 215                                            lights
                                                          airport, 370
                                                          approach, 373
  canceling, 404
                                                          apron flood, 377.1
  clearance format, 333.2
                                                          centreline, 374
  local flights, 423
                                                          intensity, 378
  provision of service, 401
                                                          lead-in, 377.1
ILS                                                       obstruction, 377.2
  malfunction, 193                                        PAPI, 375
  operation, 192                                          runway, 374
information                                               runway indentification, 373
  dissemination during emergency, 623                     taxiway, 376
  non-radar traffic, 166                                  tower cab, 306
  radar traffic, 165                                      VASIS, 375
  traffic, 405                                            wind direction indicator, 377.3

initial separation, 475                                line squalls, 162.1

initials, use of, 121.1                                longitudinal separation
                                                         CMNPS, 746
instructions, 133, 217.2                                 IFR, 474
instrument approaches, en route, 426                     RNPC, 484
intensity setting, airport lights, 378
intercept, final approach, 574
  acceptable messages, 231                             malfunction
  procedures, 211                                       airport equipment, 305.3
                                                        ILS, 193
                                                        unit equipment, 191.3
  departure, 334.4
  runway length remaining, 334.5, 336.11               management, of VFR aircraft, 312
                                                       mandatory frequency, 494.4
                                                       MANOT, 627
         L                                             MARSA, 807
LAHSO/SIRO, 352.6, 352.7                               MEDEVAC
landing                                                 identification, 216
  clearance, 344                                        U.S., 132
  information, 341, 461                                message, format, 217
                                                       microbursts, 162.1

                                           ATC IND-4
military aircraft                                       phraseology
 identification, 216.5                                    transmitting technique, 201.8
 IFR formation flights, 843                             PIREPS
 inter-centre coordination, 842                           controller request, 162.4
 jet approaches, 847                                      general, 134
 minimum fuel requirements, 842.1
 modification of minima, 841                            point-out
 penetration turns, 847                                   originating controller, 514
 USAF Bomber Cell flights, 845                            receiving controller, 515
 USAF Tanker Celestial Navigation, 846                  position information, 555
minimum altitudes, 433                                  position reports
monthly traffic summary, 1022                             altitude, 161.10
                                                          en route aircraft, 406
                                                          messages, 243
                                                          omission of, 505.1
        N                                                 radar identified aircraft, 505
NADS, 720                                               powerback and pushback, 334.1
NARDS, 681                                              pre-taxi, 332
NAVAIDS                                                 priority
 change in serviceability, 161.3                          control service, 131
 identification, 218                                      flight, 132
 interruptions to, 194                                    head of state, 132.3
 monitoring, 413.1                                        military aircraft, 132.1
noise                                                   proficiency of operational personnel, 119
  abatement procedures, 136
                                                        provision of service
  abatement reports, 136.3
                                                          airport control, 301
  deviation, 342.6
                                                          IFR control, 401
NORDO and RONLY, 316                                      radar control, 501
  in case of accident, 124
  of ECC, 620                                                   R
  of operator, 626
  of RCC, 624                                           radar
                                                          altitude filters, 504
numbers and phonetics, 212                                altitude readouts, 503
                                                          approach information, 573
                                                          arrivals, 570
        O                                                 bird activity, 164.3
                                                          departures, 560
obstruction clearance, 556
                                                          display presentation, 502
oceanic control, 126                                      emergency codes, 602
OIDS, units of measurement, 214.2                         hand-offs, 512
                                                          identification, 511
one thousand on top, 435, 712.1                           interception of final approach, 574
operating irregularity, reporting of, 125                 missed approaches, 575
over-the-top, VFR, 318                                    navigation assistance, 168
                                                          observed chaff, 163
                                                          observed weather, 162.6
                                                          obstruction clearance, 556
        P                                                 operation in HLA without transponder, 522
PAPI, 375                                                 point-out, 514
                                                          position information, 555
parallel offset procedures, 506                           position reports, 505
pedestrians and vehicles, 354                             provision of service, 501
phonetics and numbers, 212                                separation application, 540
                                                          separation minima, 542

                                            ATC IND-5
  service by control tower, 380                                     S
  service terminated, 501.5
  simultaneous arrivals arrival/departure, 583             safety alert, 507
  simultaneous dependent parallel ILS approaches,          separation
       582                                                   airspace to be protected on turns, 473.11, 473.12
  simultaneous independent parallel ILS                      altitude reservations, 820
       approaches, 581                                       application, 471
  sole source (SSR), 501.10                                  between flight levels and altitudes, 434
  SSR code assignment, 523                                   crossing tracks, 474.12
  successive arrivals, 572                                   departure minima, 561.2
  terrain clearance, 556                                     DME lateral separation, 473.13
  traffic information, 165                                   DME longitudinal separation, 474.10, 474.11
  transponder operation, 521                                 fix tolerance areas, 473.7
  vectoring, 550                                             from airspace restricted by the Minister, 477
  visual approach, 576                                       from class F airspace, 476, 542.4
radio                                                        from photographic survey aircraft, 478
  checks, 331.1                                              from terrain, 556
  operation (general), 220                                   fuel dumping, 701
                                                             general, 470
radio aid shutdown, 194
                                                             geographic, 473.6, 473.7, 473.8, 473.9
radio and interphone, procedures, 210                        geographic (VFR), 382.6
RCC, notification of, 624                                    initial, 475
                                                             lateral, 473
RDPS or local display failure, 680
                                                             longitudinal, 474
readback, 133, 201.5                                         omni-track, 473.14
recording of ATIS, 173                                       parallel runways, 581, 582
                                                             reduced for military, 825
relay, IFR clearance, 416                                    VDF navigation assistance, 304
release                                                      vertical, 472
  IFR aircraft, 443                                          visual, 335
  VFR of an IFR aircraft, 444                              sequencing, 455
responsibilities                                           severe weather information, 161.3, 162
  general, 111
  position, 113                                            SID
  preparation for and completion of, 112                     assignment, 442
                                                             cancellation, 552.5
  approach clearance, 465.4                                SIGMET, 162
  IFR aircraft, 401.3                                      SIR agreement
  of VFR operations, 403                                     flight priority, 132.1
RIMCAS, 307.2                                              SIRO/LAHSO, 352.6, 352.7
RNPC, 481                                                  special aviation event, 750
RONLY and NORDO, 316                                       special VFR
route description, 422                                       assigning altitudes, 381.11
                                                             authorized through FSS, 402.4
runway                                                       helicopters, 402.5
  lighting, 374                                              night departures, 402.5
  runway length remaining, 334.5, 336.11                     procedures by IFR unit, 402, 714
  selection, 302                                             procedures by VFR unit, 311
  use during Flight Inspection, 315.6
RVR                                                          aircraft adjustment, 554
 procedures, 152
 provision of service, 151                                 SSR, 520
 system, 153                                                 code assignment (discrete), 523
                                                             code assignment (non-discrete), 523.5
RVSM, 408                                                    code change - military, 167
                                                           STAR, 461.2, 463.2, 551.1

                                               ATC IND-6

117.1                                                            117.1 Reference:
Inform aircraft of conditions, observed by you or                ATC Clearances, Instructions and Information; RAC 1.7,
relayed to you by other responsible agencies,                    TC AIM.
individuals or pilots, which may affect flight safety.

If you notice, or are aware of a hazard to the safety
of aviation, you shall immediately bring the matter
to the attention of your supervisor.


The following types of reports are En Route
Monitoring Reports:
A. Gross Navigation Error (GNE);
B. Altitude Deviation; and
C. Tactical Monitoring.

118.2                                                            118.2 Note 1:
Complete an initial GNE Report and submit to the                 For reporting purposes, consider an aircraft to be outside of
                                                                 protected airspace if it is operating:
supervisor or shift manager, if an aircraft in High
                                                                 A. 25 miles or more from the assigned track in CMNPS
Level airspace is observed, reported or reports                       airspace; or
operating outside its protected airspace. (N)                    B. 10 miles or more from the assigned track in RNPC
                                                                      airspace; or
                                                                 C. outside the protected airspace of an airway.
                                                                 118.2 Note 2:
                                                                 Record any comments provided by the pilot and include as
                                                                 part of the report.

118.3                                                            118.3 Phraseology:
Inform the aircraft that a GNE report will be                    ATC OBSERVES A TRACK ERROR OF (number of miles).
                                                                 BE ADVISED A GROSS NAVIGATIONAL ERROR
processed. (P)
                                                                 REPORT WILL BE FILED.

118.4                                                            118.4 Note 1:
Complete an Altitude Deviation Report and submit                 An Altitude Deviation Report is only required for
it to the supervisor or shift manager, if an aircraft is         deviations that occur within RVSM airspace.
                                                                 118.4 Note 2:
observed, reported or reports: (N)                               Altitude deviations can result from turbulence, emergency
                                                                 descents, TCAS manoeuvres, climbs/descents without
                                                                 clearance, ATC clearances issued in error and errors in
A.    deviating from the assigned flight level by 300
      feet or more; or
B.    operating at an incorrect altitude.

                                                      ATC 1-13

    Demonstrate that your performance of operational
    duties meets the unit proficiency standards on an
    ongoing basis.

*   119.2                                                    *    119.2 Note:
    At least once in the preceding six months, or                 At the Unit Manager’s discretion, an operational
    following an absence from operational duties for              competency check may be required for absences of 27
                                                                  calendar days or less, or for other circumstances such as an
    more than 27 calendar days, controllers must                  ATS operating irregularity.
    demonstrate their ability to achieve, or maintain as
    appropriate, performance that meets the unit
    proficiency standards in the following areas: (N)
*   A. operational skills based on the task analysis for
         the operational position as identified on the
         appropriate checklist; and
*   B. operational communications skills based on the
         established and published communications
         procedures and       phraseologies,   for    the
         operational position as identified on the
         appropriate checklist.

    Demonstrate that your operational knowledge
    meets the unit proficiency standards for operational
    knowledge by successfully completing the applicable
    knowledge verification test for the applicable
    operational position:
    A. at least once in the preceding twelve months;
    B. more frequently if deemed necessary by unit

*   119.4
    At least once during the preceding 12 months,
    operational personnel who continuously provide
    service in a radar environment shall demonstrate
    their knowledge and application of non-radar rules,
    procedures, separation minima, and radar failure
    emergency procedures.

                                                       ATC 1-14

121      PERSONNEL

Use operating initials in all written documentation
unless a signature is required.


122.1                                                          122.1 Reference:
The Unit Manager may release to the press or                   Confidentiality; 204
public only such information that has been
approved for release by Head Office or the GMFIR
except that duty controllers may provide a signed
statement containing any pertinent information,
before, during, and after an accident involving
military aircraft provided: (R)
A. they are requested to do so by Department of
    National Defence investigators;
B. the statement is screened by the Unit Manager
    for approval (initialled if approved) before being
    signed; and
C. the following sentence is included: “Any opinion
    expressed in this statement is that of the
    undersigned and does not necessarily represent
    the view of NAV CANADA.”

122.2                                                          122.2 Reference:
Do not release flight data regarding commercial                Flight Priority — Canadian Military Aircraft; 132.
airline flights, military flights, VIP flights,
Transport Canada and NAV CANADA flights
except to their respective agencies. (R)

Direct all enquiries from the general public to the
airline company or NAV CANADA Head Office.

                                                    ATC 1-15

    123.1                                                         123.1 Note:
    Process aviation occurrence reports in accordance             The Aviation Occurrence Reporting Procedures document
                                                                  may be found on the NAV CANADA Portal.
    with the Aviation Occurrence Reporting Procedures
    document. (N)


*   124.1
    If an accident occurs on or near the airport, tower
    personnel shall, as soon as practicable:
    A. record all RVR readings and associated runway
         light settings;
    B. notify Maintenance Services personnel in
         accordance with locally developed procedures;
    C. release the RVR system to Maintenance
         Services personnel for validation; and
*   D. if weather information is obtained from an
         airport weather observer, request an accident
         check weather observation from the observer.

    If there is a possibility you may be required to
    appear as a witness in court proceedings resulting
    from an accident, make handwritten notes as soon
    as possible and retain them for future use to assist
    in giving evidence.

    Secure, as soon as practicable after it is known that
    an accident has occurred, all documentation that
    may contain information relevant to an


    Request a review should you consider that OSI
    findings are not supported by facts:
    A. in writing, to your manager; and
    B. within two weeks of receiving the Report.

                                                       ATC 1-16
134.4                                                      134.4 Note:
Forward PIREPs to: (N)(R)                                  PIREPs enhance weather briefings, as they supplement
                                                           aviation weather reports. In addition, they are used by
                                                           meteorological personnel as an aid when preparing
                                                           forecasts. PIREPs should be passed in the following format:
                                                           A. position;
                                                           B. time;
                                                           C. altitude;
                                                           D. type of aircraft; and
                                                           E. meteorological conditions observed.
                                                           134.4 Reference:
                                                           PIREP; Definitions.
                                                           Turbulence Reporting Criteria Table; MET 3.7, TC AIM.
                                                           PIREP; MET 3.17, TC AIM.
A. concerned aircraft if the weather is of
B. the position designated the responsibility for          134.4 B. Note:
   disseminating      weather   information,    if         Note in 134.3 B. applies to this paragraph.
   applicable; (N)
C. other concerned sectors/units if the weather is
   of significance; and
D. the appropriate FIC if the weather is of

134.5                                                      134.5 Note:
Give priority to Urgent PIREPs and forward them            Urgent PIREPs contain information on hazardous or
                                                           potentially hazardous flight conditions and timely relay is
as soon as possible to: (N)(R)
                                                           of the utmost importance.
                                                           134.5 Reference:
                                                           Urgent PIREP; Definitions.
A.   concerned aircraft;
B.   the appropriate FIC; and (N)                          134.5 B. Note:
                                                           The FIC will forward Urgent PIREPs to EC, the ACC and
                                                           towers via the quickest means available. ATC personnel
                                                           will pass Urgent PIREPs to other ATC and FSS sectors/
                                                           units via hotline, interphone or telephone.
C.   other concerned sectors/units.

134.6                                                      134.6 Reference:
You may use the term “CAVOK” in the transmission           CAVOK; Definitions.
of meteorological information to an arriving or
departing aircraft provided the official weather
report indicates that CAVOK conditions exist. (R)

134.7                                                      134.7 Note:
You may use a tower observation of prevailing              The Manual of Surface Weather Observations (MANOBS)
                                                           describes the prevailing visibility as the maximum
visibility to authorize IFR, VFR or SVFR
                                                           visibility value common to sectors comprising one-half or
operations. (N)                                            more of the horizon circle.

                                                ATC 1-29

    Issue altimeter setting information as follows:
    A. State the word “altimeter” followed by the 4                  135.1 A. Phraseology:
        separate digits of the setting. (P)(N)(R)                    (Name) ALTIMETER (setting).
                                                                     135.1 A. Note:
                                                                     Although the provision of air traffic information services
                                                                     includes the issuance of altimeter setting information, it is
                                                                     the pilot’s responsibility to set the altimeter.
                                                                     135.1 A. Reference:
                                                                     Phonetics and Numbers; 212.
                                                                     Altimeter settings; 214.
    B.    Identify the setting by the name of the station            135.1 B. Example:
          to which it applies except if: (E)                         Toronto ACC issuing setting for Stirling —
                                                                     STIRLING ALTIMETER TWO NINER SEVEN TWO.
                                                                     Edmonton ACC issuing setting for Vermilion and
                                                                     Edmonton —
                                                                     VERMILION ALTIMETER TWO NINER SIX SIX
                                                                     EDMONTON ALTIMETER TWO NINER SIX THREE.
           the setting applies to the station at which
           the ATC unit is located; and
       2. there is no possibility of misunderstanding.
    C. State the setting twice if it is either 31.00 and             135.1 C. Phraseology:
       higher, or 28.99 and lower. (P)                               (Name) ALTIMETER (setting), I SAY AGAIN (setting).
    D. Include the time of the report if the setting is              135.1 D. Phraseology:
       obtained from a weather report that is 1 hour or              (Name) ALTIMETER AT (time) WAS (setting).
       more old. (P)
    E. Identify the setting as “QNH” if an aircraft asks             135.1 E. Note:
       which type of setting is being provided. (N)                  An altimeter on a QNH setting will display the height
                                                                     above sea level. In Canada, the height above aerodrome
                                                                     elevation or relevant runway threshold (QFE) is not

    Issue a revised altimeter setting if the setting
    changes by 0.02 inches or more.

    135.3                                                            135.3 Note:
    If the altimeter setting is higher than 31.00: (N)(R)            This applies only for en route operations below 18,000 feet
                                                                     ASL within affected areas. At the beginning of the final
                                                                     approach segment, the current altimeter setting will be set,
                                                                     if possible. If not possible, 31.00 will remain set throughout
                                                                     the approach. Aircraft that will remain on 31.00 will be
                                                                     higher than indicated by the altimeter.
                                                                     135.3 Reference:
                                                                     Altimeter Setting Procedures During Abnormally High
                                                                     Pressure Weather Conditions; RAC 12.12, TC AIM.
    A.    issue the actual altimeter setting to the
          aircraft; and
    B.    confirm that the aircraft has set its altimeter to

*   135.4
    Use the direct reading altimeter installed in the
    unit for obtaining the local altimeter setting.

                                                          ATC 1-30
*   135.5                                                    *    135.5 Note:
    At locations where the direct reading altimeter is            The reference altimeter setting may be obtained from the
    independent of the primary source digital                     METAR or calculated using a primary source digital
    barometer, verify the accuracy of direct reading
    altimeter against the reference altimeter setting:
*   A. when opening the unit; and
*   B. at least once per shift.

*   135.6
    Report the direct reading altimeter as unserviceable
    if its reading varies from the reference altimeter
    setting by more than ±.02 inches.

    135.7                                                         135.7 Note:
    Issue wind information as follows: (N)(R)                     Controllers are not required to specify if the wind being
                                                                  issued is a now or mean wind.
                                                                  135.7 Reference:
                                                                  Mean Wind; Definitions.
                                                                  Now Wind; Definitions.
                                                                  Units of Measurement; 214.
    A. where available issue a mean wind;
    B. at locations equipped with digital automated
       systems, issue wind speed and direction
       according to the information displayed;
    C. during gusty conditions, give the fluctuations of
       wind direction and speed of peak gusts;
    D. if issuing wind information from an aviation
       weather report, indicate the time of the report.


    136.1                                                         136.1 Reference:
    Do not issue a clearance or approve a request from            Noise Operating Criteria; 602.105, CARs.
    an aircraft that would result in a deviation from an
    established noise abatement procedure except for
    reasons of safety. (R)

    Even where procedures are not established, you
    should not clear or direct aircraft that generate
    significant noise over a populated area, particularly
    at night.

    You should include the following items in each noise
    abatement report:
    A. Time.
    B. Runway assigned.
    C. Runway condition.
    D. Wind.
    E. Aircraft identification.
    F. Whether the aircraft was taking off or landing.
    G. The aircraft's stated reason for refusal.

                                                       ATC 1-31

137.1                                                           137.1 Reference:
Provide air traffic services only during published              Aerodrome/Facility Directory; CFS.
hours of operation except when: (R)
A. judged appropriate to finalize communications                137.1 A. Note:
    with aircraft in the control zone that are                  The extension should be limited to a few minutes
                                                                contiguous to the regular hours of operation.
    expected to land shortly after the hours of
    operation; (N)
B. engaged in an aircraft emergency situation; or               137.1 B. Note:
    (N)                                                         The unit should remain open until the emergency is
                                                                resolved or it is evident that another unit is providing
                                                                appropriate assistance.
C.    otherwise authorised in a unit directive.

137.2                                                           137.2 Note:
If you provide airport control service outside the              Since pilots of NORDO aircraft will expect to be able to
                                                                operate unrestricted outside of the published hours of
published hours of operation for the unit: (N)
                                                                operation, it is important that hours of operation not be
                                                                extended except in unusual circumstances. A control zone
                                                                which is designated as Class C or D airspace in the DAH,
                                                                becomes Class E airspace when the Control Tower is not in
A.    coordinate with other control units, Flight               137.2 A. Reference:
      Service Stations and any other agencies                   Coordination/Reports; 361.
      considered necessary; (R)
B.    issue a NOTAM if: (E)                                     137.2 B. Example:
                                                                (Name) TOWER PROVIDING AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES
                                                                OUTSIDE OF PUBLISHED HOURS FROM (date/time)
                                                                TO (date/time). POSSIBILITY OF UNKNOWN TRAFFIC
                                                                EXISTS WITHIN (name) CONTROL ZONE. IF FLYING
                                                                IN (name) CONTROL ZONE CONTACT (name) TOWER
                                                                ON (frequency) FOR TRAFFIC INFORMATION.
      1.   you are aware at least 5 hours before an
           extension that it will be required; and
      2. the duration of an extension is 1 hour or
           more; and
C.    inform aircraft within, entering or about to              137.2 C. Phraseology:
      enter your control jurisdiction, that other               (Name)    TOWER       OPERATING OUTSIDE    OF
                                                                PUBLISHED HOURS. POSSIBILITY OF UNKNOWN
      aircraft, not aware that control service is being
                                                                TRAFFIC EXISTS WITHIN (name) CONTROL ZONE.
      extended outside of the published hours, may
      be flying in the area. (P)


138.1                                                           138.1 Reference:
Maintain close coordination at all times between                Coordination; 360, 491, 590.
positions of operation within ATC units and
between these positions and other ATC units, Flight
Service Stations, Flight Information Centres and
other concerned agencies. (R)

138.2                                                           138.2 Note:
Notify the ACC shift manager immediately if an                  A communicable disease may be any one of the following:
                                                                yellow fever, cholera, smallpox, severe acute respiratory
aircraft reports carrying a passenger diagnosed
                                                                syndrome (SARS), plague, ebola, bacterial meningitis,
with or symptomatic of a communicable disease.                  tuberculosis (TB), anthrax and pandemic influenza.
(N)(R)                                                          138.2 Reference:
                                                                Aircraft Diversion; 496.2.

                                                     ATC 1-32

181      GENERAL

181.1                                                            181.1 Note:
Be alert to possible hazards caused by wake                      All aircraft produce vortices somewhat in proportion to
                                                                 their weight. Helicopters in forward flight produce vortices
turbulence. (N)
                                                                 that, per pound of gross weight, are more intense than
                                                                 those of fixed-wing aircraft. However, since wake
                                                                 turbulence is invisible, its presence and exact location
                                                                 cannot be determined with precision.

If a succeeding aircraft is an ultra-light or a balloon:
A. inform the aircraft of the type of the preceding
     aircraft; and
B. as required, provide:
     1. wake turbulence separation or a cautionary
          to an ultra-light; or
     2. a cautionary to a balloon. (R)                           181.2 Reference:
                                                                 Wake Turbulence — General; 181.4.
                                                                 Airport Control; 182
                                                                 Terminal and En route Control; 183.

181.3                                                            181.3 Note:
If you judge it necessary: (N)                                   Issues to consider:
                                                                 A. Calm winds and stable air.
                                                                 B. Crosswind or tailwind that might hold a vortex on a
                                                                      runway or cause it to drift to another runway.
A.    increase a wake turbulence separation
B.    apply a wake turbulence separation minimum
      to a situation not covered by a specific
C.    issue a cautionary; or (N)                                 181.3 C. Note:
                                                                 Instructions such as increase speed on final, climb
                                                                 straight-out or other similar direction may limit an
                                                                 aircraft’s ability to avoid the vortices.
D. provide wake avoidance information. (N)(D)                    181.3 D. Note:
                                                                 To avoid the vortex:
                                                                 A. Behind a heavier departure:
                                                                      1. a succeeding departure could lift off before the
                                                                            rotation point and climb above the flight path.
                                                                      2. an arrival could touch down before the rotation
                                                                 B. Behind a heavier arrival:
                                                                      1. a succeeding arrival could remain above the
                                                                            flight path and touch beyond the touchdown
                                                                      2. a departure could lift off after the touch down

                                                      ATC 1-55
                                                               181.3 D. Diagram 1:

                                                                               NO VORTEX ZONE

                                                               181.3 D. Diagram 2:


                                                                                            NO VORTEX ZONE

                                                                MANOPS 181.3

*   181.4                                                 *    181.4 Note 1:
    Use ICAO DOC 8643 (Aircraft Type Designators) to           When variants of an aircraft type fall into different wake
    determine an aircraft's wake turbulence category.          turbulence categories, the pilot or operator is responsible
                                                               for filing the appropriate wake turbulence category
    (N)(R)                                                     indicator.
                                                               181.4 Note 2:
                                                               For wake turbulence separation and cautionaries:
                                                               A. A Boeing 757 is a heavy when it is the preceding
                                                               B. An ultra-light aircraft is a light aircraft.
                                                               C. Any motorized aircraft is a heavy aircraft when it
                                                                    precedes a hang-glider or balloon.
                                                               181.4 Reference:
                                                               Heavy Aircraft; Definitions.
                                                               Medium Aircraft; Definitions.
                                                               Light Aircraft; Definitions.

*   181.5                                                 *    181.5 Note:
    Use TP143 (Air Traffic Designators) to determine           Additional stop-group information can be found on the
    stop-group information. (N)                                NAV CANADA portal in the "All Unit Libraries-Electronic"
                                                               section of the ATS Unit Library.

    181.6                                                      181.6 Note:
    Use the term SUPER after the aircraft call sign in         Although the term SUPER is used when referring to the
                                                               Airbus A380, ICAO defines the aircraft as a heavy category
    the initial communication with an A380. (N)(E)
                                                               with several additional wake turbulence standards.
                                                               181.6 Example:
                                                               AIR FRANCE (flight number) SUPER (message).

                                                    ATC 1-56

Issue a cautionary to:
A. Any manoeuvring aircraft or vehicle that may
    be affected by jet blast or prop wash.
B. A helicopter that operates entirely over non-               182.1 B. Diagram:
    manoeuvring area within 2,500 feet of the
    active runway where heavier aircraft are
    operating. (D)

                                                                                                                    VRING AREA

                                                                                                         TAKE OFF



182.2                                                          182.2 Note:
Do not clear a helicopter to air taxi or hover taxi if         Helicopters produce rotor downwash when hovering and
                                                               vortices when in forward flight.
you know it will result in flight over persons,
                                                               182.2 Reference:
vehicles or aircraft. (N)(R)                                   Helicopters; 353.

Apply the appropriate wake turbulence separation
to a helicopter that:
A. air taxis or hovers over a manoeuvring area
     within 2,500 feet of the active runway where
     heavier aircraft are operating; or
B. takes off into the wake of a heavier aircraft. (D)          182.3 B. Diagram:




                                                                        MANOEUVRING A


                                                                                 NON-MANOEUVRING AREA
                                                                   2500 FEET

                                                    ATC 1-57
If you delay take off clearance due to wake
turbulence and a waiver can be granted, inform the
aircraft of:
A. the reason for delay; and
B. the type and position of the preceding                  182.4 Phraseology:
     departure. (P)(R)                                     NEGATIVE, HOLD SHORT WAKE TURBULENCE (type
                                                           and position of wake-creating aircraft);
                                                           or —
                                                           LINE UP AND WAIT, WAKE TURBULENCE, (type and
                                                           position of wake-creating aircraft).
                                                           182.4 Reference:
                                                           Wake Turbulence Avoidance; 181.3.

182.5                                                      182.5 Reference:
Apply wake turbulence separation to any IFR or             Cautionary; 181.
                                                           Arrivals and Departures; 352.1.
VFR departure that takes off into the wake of an
                                                           182.5 Diagram 1:
aircraft on the same or parallel runway separated
by less than 2,500 feet as follows: (R)(D)
    Preceding        Succeeding           Time
                                    3 minutes
                                                                    LESS THAN 2500 FEET
                                    2 minutes
                                      No time               MANOPS 182.5
   MEDIUM            LIGHT
                                                           182.5 Diagram 2:

                                                                                             PRECEDING DEPARTURE



                                                           MANOPS 182.5

                                                ATC 1-58
182.13                                                      182.13 Note:
If you radar vector in accordance with unit radar           You need not apply this separation if the succeeding
                                                            aircraft will remain:
procedures, separate aircraft requiring wake
                                                            A. above the heavier aircraft; or
turbulence separation by the following minima until         B. 1,000 feet or more below the altitude vacated by the
visual separation is established: (N)(R)(D)                      heavier aircraft at the crossing point.
    Preceding        Succeeding          Time               182.13 Reference:
                                                            Radar Service; 381.6.
                     LIGHT             8 miles              Minima: 383.2.
                                                            182.13 Diagram 1:
                    MEDIUM             7 miles
                      A380             4 miles
                                      6 miles
                    MEDIUM             5 miles
                      A380            4 miles
   MEDIUM            LIGHT

                                                            MANOPS 182.13[1]
                                                            182.13 Diagram 2:

                                                             MAY BE LESS THAN THE MINIMUM      MINIMUM
                                                               FROM THE HEAVIER TRACK

                                                             MANOPS 182.13[2]
                                                            182.13 Diagram 3:


                                                 ATC 1-67
    182.14                                                        182.14 Diagram:
    Separate an IFR aircraft on final by the appropriate
    radar minima if you sequence a heavier VFR
    aircraft in front. (D)

                                                                                   4/5/6         CAUTIONARY


                                                                                                    TRAFFIC CIRCUIT

                                                                   MANOPS 182.12

    182.15                                                        182.15 Phraseology:
    Issue a cautionary then a take off clearance to an            CAUTION.       POSSIBLE         TURBULENCE          FROM
                                                                  DEPARTING (type of aircraft).
    aircraft that waives wake turbulence separation.
                                                                  182.15 Note:
    (P)(N)(R)                                                     An aircraft that initiates a waiver is considered to have
                                                                  accepted responsibility for wake turbulence separation.
                                                                  182.15 Reference:
                                                                  Take-Off Clearance; 336.
                                                                  Wake Turbulence — Pilot Waivers; RAC 4.1.1, TC AIM.

    Do not permit a light or medium departure to waive
    wake turbulence separation behind a heavy aircraft
    A. the preceding aircraft is an A380;
*   B. the light or medium aircraft will take off from an
        intersection or a point significantly further
        along the runway in the direction of take off;
    C. the heavier aircraft is doing a low or missed
        approach in the same direction on the same
        runway; or
    D. the heavier aircraft is taking off in the opposite
        direction on the same runway.

                                                       ATC 1-68
    212.4                                                         212.4 Example:
    Transmit whole thousands by pronouncing each                  5000         Five Thousand
    digit in the number of thousands followed by the              11000        One One Thousand
    word “thousand.” (E)

    212.5                                                         212.5 Example:
    You may express altitude above sea level in                   2700         Two Thousand Seven Hundred.
    thousands plus hundreds of feet. Use separate                 13200        One Three Thousand Two Hundred.
    digits to express flight levels. (E)                          FL265        Flight Level Two Six Five.
                                                                  FL200        Flight Level Two Zero Zero.

    212.6                                                         212.6 Example:
    You may express aircraft identification flight                WJA620       WestJet Six Twenty
    numbers and aircraft type numbers in group form,              ACA1240      Air Canada Twelve Forty
    provided there is no likelihood of misunderstanding.          DC10         DC Ten
                                                                  A320         A Three Twenty

    212.7                                                         212.7 Example:
    You may express wind speed, RVR data and cloud                WIND TWO SEVEN ZERO AT TEN.
    height in group form. (E)                                     WIND TWO THREE ZERO AT TWENTY GUSTING
                                                                  BKN 35 — THIRTY FIVE HUNDRED BROKEN.
                                                                  RVR2800 — RVR TWO THOUSAND EIGHT HUNDRED

    212.8                                                         212.8 Example:
    Except when issuing altimeter settings, transmit              118.1 One One Eight Decimal One.
    numbers containing a decimal point with the word              119.4 One One Niner Four.
    “decimal” in the appropriate sequence. However, in
    assigning VHF or UHF frequencies, you may omit
    the decimal point provided the omission is not likely
    to cause any misunderstanding. (E)

    212.9                                                         212.9 Reference:
    If transferring an aircraft to a frequency with 25            Communication Transfer; 363.
                                                                  Communication Transfer; 494.
    kHz spacing, do not include the sixth digit. If the
    aircraft cannot comply with a frequency assignment
    having a 2 or 7 as the fifth digit, assign a back-up
    frequency. (R)

*   212.10                                                        212.10 Note:
    Issue headings as 3-digit numbers expressed in                The word degrees and magnetic are omitted with reference
                                                                  to magnetic heading and only the word true follows the
    degrees magnetic except if deemed appropriate to
                                                                  number where references are to true headings.
    use headings expressed in degrees true. Use                   212.10 Example:
    “heading 360” to signify a north heading. (N)(E)              005 degrees magnetic             Heading Zero Zero Five
                                                                  030 degrees magnetic             Heading Zero Three Zero
                                                                  360 degrees magnetic             Heading Three Six Zero
                                                                  040 degrees true                 Heading Zero Four Zero
                                                                  180 degrees true                 Heading One Eight Zero

                                                        ATC 2-9
212.11                                                       212.11 Example:
Express speed by pronouncing each digit separately           90 knots           Speed Nine Zero Knots
followed by “KNOTS” or by pronouncing each digit             250 knots          Speed Two Five Zero Knots
of the MACH number preceded by “MACH”. (E)                   Mach 1.3           Mach One Decimal Three
                                                             Mach 0.82          Mach Decimal Eight Two


Use the following words and phrases, if practicable,
in radio and interphone communication:

ACKNOWLEDGE: “Let me know that you have
received and understood this message”
APPROVED: “Permission for proposed action
BREAK: “I hereby indicate the separation between             213.1 Note 1:
portions of the message”. (N)                                To be used where there is no clear distinction between the
                                                             text and other portions of the message.
BREAK BREAK: “I hereby indicate the separation
between messages transmitted to different aircraft
in a very busy environment.”
CONFIRM: “I request verification of: (clearance,
instruction, action, information).”
CONTACT: “Establish communications with…”
CORRECT: “True” or “Accurate.”
CORRECTION: “An error has been made in this
transmission (or message indicated). The correct
version is ...”.
DISREGARD: “Ignore.”
EXPEDITE: “Comply with this instruction as
promptly as possible”.
GO AHEAD: “Proceed with your message”. (N)                   213.1 Note 2:
                                                             Not used whenever the possibility exists of misconstruing
                                                             GO AHEAD as an authorization for an aircraft or vehicle
                                                             to proceed.
HOW DO YOU READ: “What is the readability of
my transmission?”
I SAY AGAIN: “I repeat for clarity or emphasis.”
MONITOR: “Listen out on (frequency).”
NEGATIVE: “No”, or “Permission not granted”, or
“That is not correct” or “Not capable.”
OUT: “This exchange of transmission is ended and             213.1 Note 3:
no response is expected.” (N)                                Not normally used in VHF communications.
OVER: “My transmission is ended and I expect a               213.1 Note 4:
response from you”. (N)                                      Not normally used in VHF communications.
READ BACK: “Repeat all, or the specified part, of
this message back to me.”
RECLEARED: “A change has been made to your
last clearance and this new clearance supersedes
your previous clearance or part thereof.”
ROGER: “I have received all of your last                     213.1 Note 5:
transmission”. (N)                                           This word is used to acknowledge receipt and is not
                                                             intended to be used for other purposes.
SAY AGAIN: “Repeat all, or the following part, of
your last transmission.”
SPEAK SLOWER: “Reduce your rate of speech.”

                                                  ATC 2-10
Identify a target observed on the ASDE display by
correlating its position with one or more of the
A. Pilot or vehicle operator position report.
B. Controller's visual observation.
C. An identified target return observed from
     another radar source.

When using ASDE, do not provide directional
guidance in the form of headings.

When RIMCAS generates a warning, assess the
situation by checking the ASDE display and, if
possible, conducting a visual scan, then issue
instructions based on best judgement.


308.1                                                            308.1 Note 1:
Airport and Ground controllers shall visually scan               At those locations where radar is available and there is no
                                                                 dedicated radar position, the airport controller's primary
the manoeuvring area thoroughly before issuing
                                                                 responsibility is to visually scan for airport traffic.
clearances or instructions to airport traffic, and, to           308.1 Note 2:
the extent possible, at other frequent intervals.                The following list of scanning techniques is included to
(N)(R)                                                           assist in developing methods for scanning the manoeuvring
                                                                 A. scanning has to be systematic;
                                                                 B. people can get “object hypnosis”, and only see things
                                                                      which move (scanning at least twice will help
                                                                      overcome this);
                                                                 C. the eyes should move from one point to another (not
                                                                      one continuous sweep);
                                                                 D. scanning should be from left to right, the same as you
                                                                      read; and
                                                                 E. the eye can only focus on an area that would be
                                                                      covered by the fist when your arm is extended in front
                                                                      of you.
                                                                 308.1 Reference:
                                                                 Manoeuvring Area; Definitions.

308.2                                                            308.2 Note 1:
Ensure that the runway to be used by a departing or              In the case of an aircraft departing from an intersection,
                                                                 there is no need to advise of obstructions on the runway
arriving aircraft is free, or will be free, of all known
                                                                 which are behind the intersection take-off point.
obstacles including vehicles, equipment and                      308.2 Note 2:
personnel before the departing aircraft commences                If the runway or a portion of the runway is not visible to the
its take-off roll or a landing aircraft crosses the              airport controller for any reason, including weather or a
runway threshold. (N)(R)                                         physical obstacle, it is expected you will ensure that
                                                                 vehicles, equipment and personnel you have been made
                                                                 aware of, are not on the runway.
                                                                 308.2 Reference:
                                                                 Airport Surface Detection Equipment; 307.
                                                                 Denial of Clearance; 315.
                                                                 Pedestrians and Vehicles; 354.

                                                      ATC 3-13

         ATC 3-14

311       SPECIAL VFR

311.1                                                           311.1 Phraseology:
Authorize SVFR within the control zone provided:                SPECIAL VFR IS APPROVED IN THE (name)
                                                                CONTROL ZONE, (cut-off time if required), (additional
                                                                control instructions as necessary).
A.    the aircraft has requested SVFR;
B.    you determine that the weather is at or above             311.1 B. Note:
      the minima for SVFR; (N)(R)                               The visibility minima for SVFR is 1 mile for fixed wing
                                                                aircraft and ½ mile for rotorcraft and must represent the
                                                                highest value common to sectors comprising one-half or
                                                                more of the horizon circle.
                                                                311.1 B. Reference:
                                                                Ground Visibility; Definitions.
                                                                Below Minima Operations; 314.
                                                                Special VFR Flight; 602.117, CARs.
C. you obtain approval from the appropriate IFR                 311.1 C. Note:
   Unit; (N)                                                    This approval may be contained in an Arrangement.
D. you make an adequate arrangement for recall;
E. you keep SVFR aircraft clear of the flight paths
   of IFR aircraft; and
F. you authorize only the number of aircraft that               311.1 F. Note:
   you can control safely and efficiently. (N)                  The number of aircraft you authorize during SVFR
                                                                conditions may vary, depending on factors such as the time
                                                                required for recall if approval for SVFR is withdrawn by
                                                                the IFR unit, and the stability of weather conditions.

311.2                                                           311.2 Reference:
With the exception of helicopters, do not authorize             Special VFR; 402.
                                                                SVFR Flight; 602.117, CARs.
SVFR aircraft to depart or transit the zone at night.

You may authorize more than one SVFR aircraft in
a circuit provided the aircraft will remain in sight of
the tower at all times.

At airports where specific local procedures have
been approved for special VFR helicopter
operations, you may authorize flights in accordance
with the Agreement.

                                                     ATC 3-15

312.1                                                          312.1 Reference:
If traffic density warrants, you may instruct aircraft         Initial Clearance; 342.
to hold on the ground or in the air in order to keep
the number of VFR aircraft at a level that you can
control safely and efficiently. (R)

312.2                                                          312.2 Note:
Do not restrict or suspend VFR operations in the               Only the Minister of Transport has the authority to restrict
                                                               or suspend access to airspace.
control zone or in the Tower Radar Area. (N)(R)
                                                               312.2 Reference:
                                                               Restrictions and Prohibitions for Safety or Security
                                                               Purposes; Part 1, Section 5.1, Aeronautics Act.


313.1                                                          313.1 Reference:
You may authorize a VFR formation flight within                Formation Flight; Definitions.
the control zone provided airport traffic permits.             Formation Flights; 602.24, CARs.

Treat a formation flight as one aircraft for the
purpose of separation. Issue clearances and
instructions to the formation leader.


314.1                                                          314.1 Reference:
If a VFR or SVFR aircraft requests a clearance,                Special VFR; 311.
                                                               Ground Visibility; Definitions
when weather conditions are below the applicable
                                                               Visual Meteorological Conditions; Definitions.
minima, take the following actions: (R)                        Minimum VMC for VFR Flight in Controlled Airspace;
                                                               602.114, CARs.
A. inform the aircraft that weather conditions are             314.1 A. Phraseology:
   below minima, state the reported ceiling and                WEATHER BELOW VFR/SVFR MINIMA. CEILING
                                                               (description), VISIBILITY (number) MILES.
   visibility; (P)
B. inform the aircraft that only IFR or SVFR                   314.1 B. Phraseology:
   operations will be approved and request the                 ONLY IFR OR SVFR OPERATIONS ARE PERMITTED.
                                                               WHAT ARE YOUR INTENTIONS?
   pilot's intentions; (P)
C. issue clearance if:
   1. traffic and airport conditions permit; and
   2. the aircraft still wishes to land, take off or
        operate within the airspace; and
D. complete an aviation occurrence report if the          *    314.1 D. Reference:
   operation takes place below SVFR conditions.                Handling and reporting occurrences; 123.

                                                    ATC 3-16
314.2                                                         314.2 Reference:
If an IFR aircraft requests a take-off clearance, and         Take-off  Minima/Departure     Procedures,         Operating
                                                              Minima, General; Canada Air Pilot.
the ground visibility is below the applicable
minimum take-off visibility published in the CAP:
A. issue the RVR and the ground visibility;
B. if traffic and airport conditions permit, issue
     clearance; and
C. if the aircraft takes off below the CAP visibility    *    314.2 C. Reference:
     minimum, complete an aviation occurrence                 Handling and reporting occurrences; 123.
     report. (R)

When an IFR aircraft is inbound to the outer
marker or final approach fix and the RVR for the
planned runway is below 1,200:
A. issue the current RVR and ground visibility;
B. request the pilot's intention;
C. if traffic and airport conditions permit, issue            314.3 C. Note:
    landing clearance; and (N)                                Landing clearance may not be issued if a runway has been
                                                              closed or restricted from use by the airport operator. In this
                                                              case the aircraft would be directed to land at its discretion.
D. if the ground visibility is below 1/4 SM,             *    314.3 D. Reference:
   complete an aviation occurrence report after               Handling and reporting occurrences; 123.
   the aircraft lands. (R)                                    Landing Minima; 602.129, CARs.

314.4                                                         314.4 Note 1:
Unless taxi operations are permitted by unit                  An aviation occurrence report need not be filed if:
                                                              A. one is filed for a below-minima landing or take-off; or
procedures, complete an aviation occurrence report
                                                              B. visibility drops below limits:
when an aircraft taxis onto a manoeuvring area and                 1. after an aircraft has landed; or
any visibility for the airport is below RVR 2,600 or               2. after taxi authorization has been issued.
1/2 SM. (N)(R)                                                314.4 Note 2:
                                                              For the purpose of this paragraph, visibility includes: RVR,
                                                              METAR including sector, tower observed or pilot-reported
                                                         *    314.4 Reference:
                                                              Handling and reporting occurrences; 123.

                                                   ATC 3-17

315.1                                                          315.1 Note 1:
Deny taxi authorization or take-off clearance when             An appropriate authority may include properly identified
directed by a NAV CANADA manager or an                         public employees acting within the scope of their authority,
                                                               such as:
appropriate authority. (N)                                     A. federal, provincial or municipal police officers but
                                                                    does not include private airport police, members of the
                                                                    Corps of Commissionaires or other private security
                                                               B. an on-site Security Inspector or Safety Inspector from
                                                                    Transport Canada; off-site inspectors must make
                                                                    arrangements through the NOC;
                                                               C. an officer of the Canada Border Services Agency
                                                                    (CBSA). Requests by American customs officers must
                                                                    be forwarded by CCRA officers:
                                                               D. an officer of the Canadian Forces;
                                                               E. any person authorized by the State, such as a medical
                                                                    quarantine officer; or
                                                               F. an officer of the court.
                                                               315.1 Note 2:
                                                               Airport operators must submit denial of clearance requests
                                                               through an appropriate authority.
                                                               315.1 Note 3
                                                               It is expected that controllers will either confirm the
                                                               identity of the person requesting the denial of clearance or,
                                                               if the request is received by phone, confirm the order to
                                                               deny clearance by requesting a written copy of the order be
                                                               sent on official letterhead by facsimile. If a late request is
                                                               received by phone and the controller is unable to
                                                               authenticate the request in time, the controller is expected
                                                               to comply with the order and explain the reason for the
                                                               denial to the pilot

315.2                                                          315.2 Note:
If notification of a court order to seize or detain an         This information does not affect clearance to an aircraft in
aircraft has been received by telephone: (N)                   flight.
A. ascertain the identity of the caller and confirm
     that the caller is an officer of the court;
B. ascertain whether the order has actually been
C. request a copy of the court order by facsimile;
D. contact the ACC Shift Manager for advice.

315.3                                                          315.3 Note:
Do not authorize airport traffic to use an airport or          The Airport Operator is responsible for closing an airport
                                                               or any part of an airport’s infrastructure or manoeuvring
any part of an airport that is closed by the Airport
                                                               area. Although the lack of airport ARFF services will affect
Operator. (N)                                                  certain aircraft operations, it does not constitute grounds
                                                               for denial of clearance by controllers.

                                                    ATC 3-18
If you refuse a request for a clearance for reasons
other than traffic, take the following actions:
A. advise the aircraft of the reason for the denial
     of clearance.
B. If the aircraft persists in its intention to land or
     take off:
     1. quote any pertinent NOTAM or directive                   315.4 B. 1. Example:
          regarding airport conditions; (E)                      NOTAM SPRINGBANK STATES RUNWAY ZERO
                                                                 SEVEN IS CLOSED FOR MAINTENANCE UNTIL (Date,
      2. when traffic permits, inform the aircraft               315.4 B. 2. Phraseology:
         that landing/take-off clearance cannot be               SINCE LANDING/TAKE-OFF CLEARANCE CANNOT
                                                                 BE ISSUED, YOU ARE LANDING/TAKING OFF ON
         issued and that the landing/takeoff will be
                                                                 YOUR OWN RESPONSIBILITY — and wind, if required.
         solely the pilot's responsibility; and (P)
C.    complete an Aviation Occurrence Report. (R)           *    315.4 C. Reference:
                                                                 Handling and reporting occurrences; 123.

315.5                                                            315.5 Note:
Except as permitted in 315.6, do not clear an                    Exceptions are permitted in accordance with directions
aircraft to land or take off if there is an obstruction,         contained in 352.2 and 352.3.
                                                                 315.5 Reference:
person, or vehicle: (N)(R)                                       Airport Conditions; 322.
                                                                 Pedestrians and Vehicles; 354.
A.    on the landing area; or
B.    adjacent to the landing area so as to endanger
      the safety of the aircraft.

You may permit a radio-equipped flight inspection
technician and a theodolite to be positioned off the
edge of an active runway, provided voice advisories
are issued to departing and arriving aircraft.

316        RONLY AND NORDO

You may request a RONLY aircraft to acknowledge
a transmission in one of the following ways:
A. to aircraft on the ground:
     1. by moving the ailerons; or (P)                           316.1 A. 1. Phraseology:
                                                                 ACKNOWLEDGE BY MOVING AILERONS.
      2.   by moving the rudder; (P)                             316.1 A. 2. Phraseology:
                                                                 ACKNOWLEDGE BY MOVING RUDDER.
B.    to aircraft in the air, by rocking the wings; or           316.1 B. Phraseology:
      (P)                                                        ACKNOWLEDGE BY ROCKING WINGS.
C.    at night, to aircraft on the ground or in the air,         316.1 C. Phraseology:
      by a single flash of landing lights. (P)(N)(R)             ACKNOWLEDGE BY A SINGLE FLASH OF LANDING
                                                                 316.1 C. Note:
                                                                 In order to fly at night in controlled airspace, aircraft must
                                                                 be equipped with an approved, serviceable and functioning
                                                                 radio communications system capable of two way
                                                                 316.1 C. Reference:
                                                                 Power-driven Aircraft - Night VFR; 605.16, CARs.
                                                                 Two-way Radio Failure in VFR Flight; 602.138, CARs.

                                                      ATC 3-19
Do not request an aircraft to acknowledge a
transmission by turning the navigation lights on
and off.

316.3                                                              316.3 Note 1:
Use air traffic control light signals from the                     The note to 316.1 C. applies here also.
                                                                   316.3 Note 2:
following table to control aircraft and the movement
                                                                   An arriving NORDO aircraft will join the traffic circuit on
of vehicles, equipment and personnel on the                        the downwind leg and a departing aircraft will taxi to the
manoeuvring area when radio communications                         edge of the manoeuvring area without a clearance.
cannot be employed. (N)                                            However, a clearance must be obtained either by
                                                                   prearrangement or by visual signal before:
                                                                   A. proceeding any closer than 200 feet from the runway
                                                                        in use;
                                                                   B. crossing or entering any runway;
                                                                   C. landing or taking off;
                                                                   D. taxiing back along the runway in use; and
                                                                   E. taxiing after being stopped by a red light.
                                                    ATC Light Signals
                                                                                                 Movement of vehicles,
   Color and type of signal       Aircraft on the ground            Aircraft in flight
                                                                                               equipment and personnel

  Steady green                    Cleared for takeoff           Cleared to land               Not applicable

                                                                Return for landing (to be
  Flashing green                  Cleared to taxi               followed by steady green at   Cleared to cross; proceed; go
                                                                the proper time)

                                                                Give way to other aircraft
  Steady red                      Stop                                                        Stop; hold your position
                                                                and continue circling

                                  Taxi clear of landing area    Aerodrome unsafe - Do not
  Flashing red                                                                                Vacate the runway immediately
                                  or runway in use              land

                                  Return to starting point on                                 Return to starting point on the
  Flashing white                                                Not applicable
                                  the aerodrome                                               aerodrome (N)

  Note:   In the course of moving on the manoeuvring area, the vehicle operator must hold short of each runway and receive
           permission to proceed across.

316.4                                                              316.4 Note:
Do not project a light signal through mylar shades.                The color and intensity of the light signal may be affected
(N)                                                                by the mylar shade.

                                                        ATC 3-20
Instruct an aircraft to either “cross” or “hold short”
of any runway it will cross while taxiing.

Issue a taxi authorization in the following form:
A. (Aircraft identification).
B. (Unit identification if required). (R)                       334.3 B. Reference:
                                                                Unit Identification; 215.
C. RUNWAY (number).
D. WIND (direction and speed). (R)                              334.3 D. Reference:
                                                                Altimeter Settings and Wind Information; 135.
E.   ALTIMETER (setting). (R)                                   334.3 E. Reference:
                                                                Altimeter Settings and Wind Information; 135.
F.   TAXI VIA (route) or CONTINUE TAXI, VIA                     334.3 F. Phraseology:
     (route), (if applicable), CROSS RUNWAY                     To a departure runway —
     (number) or HOLD SHORT OF (runway                          TAXI VIA BRAVO.
                                                                To a departure runway via multiple taxiways —
     number or taxiway) or HOLD (position or                    TAXI VIA BRAVO AND DELTA.
     direction relative to a position, runway, taxiway,         To cross a runway while taxiing towards the departure
     other). (P)(N)(R)                                          runway —
                                                                TAXI VIA BRAVO, CROSS RUNWAY 28.
                                                                To cross more than one runway or taxiway while taxiing
                                                                towards the departure runway —
                                                                TAXI VIA BRAVO, DELTA, CROSS RUNWAY 28 AND
                                                                RUNWAY 33.
                                                                To an intermediate point —
                                                                TAXI VIA ECHO AND FOXTROT, HOLD SHORT OF
                                                                RUNWAY 28.
                                                                To resume taxiing —
                                                                CONTINUE TAXI ACROSS RUNWAY 28 AND GOLF.
                                                                334.3 F. Note 1:
                                                                Do not use the word “TO” in the route if an aircraft's
                                                                destination is a runway.
                                                                334.3 F. Note 2:
                                                                Initial movement instructions given to an aircraft or
                                                                vehicle should only include that portion of the intended
                                                                route to the first “hold” area or intermediate point.
                                                                334.3 F. Reference:
                                                                Clearances, Instructions and Readbacks; 133.
                                                                Taxi Information; 303.
                                                                Arrivals and Departures; 352.
G. (Other information such as traffic, airport                  334.3 G. Note:
   conditions or RVR). (N)                                      Aircraft taxiing behind jet aircraft in freezing conditions
                                                                may experience aggravated engine and airframe icing. Be
                                                                alert to pilot advisories that increased taxi intervals may be
                                                                required during freezing conditions.
H. CONTACT TOWER (frequency) NOW/AT                             334.3 H. Note 1:
   (location/time)/HOLDING      SHORT      or                   The optional use of the term “holding short” may be
   MONITOR TOWER          (frequency) NOW/AT                    considered as a location for the purposes of communication
                                                                transfer. The use of the term is not considered a restriction
   (location/time). (N)                                         and does not require a readback.
                                                                334.3 H. Note 2:
                                                                Airport signs may instruct pilots to either change to or
                                                                monitor the tower frequency at a given point.

You may authorize a departure from an intersection
A. the aircraft requests it; or
B. you suggest it and the aircraft accepts it.

                                                     ATC 3-27
*   334.5                                                       334.5 Phraseology:
    Inform the aircraft of the runway length remaining          RUNWAY LENGTH REMAINING FROM INTER-
                                                                SECTION OF (taxiway) (number) FEET; ARE YOU ABLE
    before suggesting a departure from an intersection.
                                                                TO DEPART FROM THE INTERSECTION?

    334.6                                                       334.6 Phraseology:
    Precede a refusal or delay to a request, with the           NEGATIVE HOLD YOUR POSITION (reason);
                                                                — or —
    word “NEGATIVE” followed by further instructions
                                                                NEGATIVE HOLD SHORT OF RUNWAY (number)
    and if necessary, the reason. (P)                           (reason).

    334.7                                                       334.7 Reference:
    Except during rapidly changing conditions, you              Altimeter Settings and Wind Information; 135.
    need not issue information included in the current
    ATIS broadcast, provided the aircraft acknowledges
    receipt of the broadcast. (R)


    You may release a successive departing IFR aircraft
    from the same runway provided the following
    conditions are met:

                                                     ATC 3-28
    336.10                                                       336.10 Phraseology:
    Issue alternate instructions with a clearance for an         CLEARED FOR IMMEDIATE TAKEOFF RUNWAY
                                                                 (number) IF UNABLE, HOLD SHORT OF RUNWAY.
    immediate takeoff unless you have previously
                                                                 LINE UP (AT LOCATION IF NOT THE THRESHOLD),
    determined that the aircraft can comply. (P)(N)(R)           BE READY FOR IMMEDIATE DEPARTURE.
                                                                 ARE YOU ABLE AN IMMEDIATE DEPARTURE?
                                                                 — then —
                                                                 CLEARED FOR IMMEDIATE TAKEOFF RUNWAY
                                                                 336.10 Note:
                                                                 Aircraft unable to comply with an immediate takeoff
                                                                 clearance are expected to hold their position and advise the
                                                                 tower accordingly.
                                                                 336.10 Reference:
                                                                 Wake Turbulence — General; 181.
                                                                 Takeoff Clearance; RAC 4.2.8., TC AIM.

*   336.11
    Before you issue a take-off clearance after having
    instructed the aircraft to make a full-stop landing:
*   A. inform the aircraft of the runway length             *    336.11 A. Reference:
         remaining, if known; or (R)                             Intersection departure; 334.5 Phraseology.
*   B. inform the aircraft that the runway length           *    336.11 B. Phraseology:
         remaining is unknown and ask whether a                  RUNWAY LENGTH REMAINING IS UNKNOWN. DO
         backtrack is required. (P)                              YOU REQUIRE A BACKTRACK?

    Consider known aircraft operating characteristics
    and the effect that precipitation and surface
    conditions may have on the aircraft's ability to
    comply with an immediate take-off clearance.

    336.13                                                       336.13 Reference:
    If the wind speed is 15 knots or greater issue the           Altimeter Settings and Wind Information; 135.
                                                                 Units of Measurement; 214.
    direction and speed in the take-off clearance. (R)

                                                      ATC 3-33
336.14                                                      336.14 Phraseology:
Issue a take-off clearance in the following form:           (aircraft identification) LEFT/RIGHT TURN OUT,
                                                            CLEARED FOR TAKE-OFF RUNWAY (number).
                                                            336.14 Note:
                                                            A take-off clearance is normally issued on a tower
                                                            frequency published in the Canada Air Pilot for that unit.
                                                            336.14 Reference:
                                                            Visual Scanning - Manoeuvring Area; 308.
                                                            Takeoff Clearance; RAC 4.2.8., TC AIM.
A.   (Aircraft identification).
B.   (Unit identification, if required). (R)                336.14 B. Reference:
                                                            Unit Identification; 215.
C. (Special information, such as a hazard or
D. (Control instruction, such as a turn or heading          336.14 D. Note:
   after takeoff). (N)(E)                                   Use caution when issuing turn out instructions to an
                                                            aircraft that has not already lined up for an intersection
                                                            departure as the aircraft could mistake the turn instruction
                                                            for the line up direction. In such cases, the phrase “AFTER
                                                            DEPARTURE” may be inserted between the turn
                                                            instruction and the intersection name in order to prevent
                                                            336.14 D. Example:
                                                            DELTA TANGO MIKE, RIGHT TURN OUT AFTER
                                                            DEPARTURE, FROM BRAVO CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF
                                                            RUNWAY TWO SEVEN.
E.   (Wind information, if required). (E)                   336.14 E. Reference:
                                                            Altimeter Settings and Wind Information; 135.
     - or -
     FROM (name of taxiway, runway intersection
     or threshold), CLEARED FOR TAKE-OFF
     RUNWAY (number).

336.15                                                      336.15 Phraseology:
You may clear the aircraft for the option provided:         CLEARED FOR THE OPTION RUNWAY (number).
                                                            336.15 Note:
                                                            Normally this clearance is used during light traffic
                                                            336.15 Reference:
                                                            Cleared for the Option; Definitions.
A.   the aircraft requests it; and
B.   traffic permits.

336.16                                                      336.16 Note:
Confirm the departing aircraft's intentions before          In this situation, response means:
                                                            A. immediate verbal communications, in reply to the
issuing a landing clearance to an arriving aircraft
                                                                 clearance; or
using the same runway if no response is received            B. observed movement or non-movement of the aircraft
from the departing aircraft. (N)                                 followed by verbal confirmation.

                                                 ATC 3-34
Combine take-off clearance with instructions to
change from tower frequency if:
A. direct communication with the next control
    sector/unit is needed immediately after takeoff;
B. the aircraft is a UHF-equipped, military fighter           336.17 B. Phraseology:
    that you know is operated by only one pilot.              MONITOR GUARD AND CONTACT DEPARTURE
                                                              CONTROL (frequency) NOW, CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF
                                                              RUNWAY (number).
                                                              336.17 B. Note:
                                                              Use of this phraseology ensures that 243.0 MHz will be
                                                              available as a back-up communication frequency if an
                                                              unusual situation occurs after the aircraft has been
                                                              changed from tower frequency.

336.18                                                        336.18 Phraseology:
Inform a departing aircraft of the reason for a delay         NEGATIVE, HOLD SHORT WAKE TURBULENCE (type
                                                              and position of wake-creating aircraft);
and the type and position of the preceding departing
                                                              — or —
aircraft if: (P)(R)                                           LINE UP AND WAIT, WAKE TURBULENCE, (type and
                                                              position of wake-creating aircraft).
                                                              336.18 Reference:
                                                              Wake Turbulence — General; 181.
                                                              Wake Turbulence — Airport Control; 182.
                                                              Wake Turbulence — Terminal and En Route Control; 183..
A.   the requested take-off clearance is being denied
     solely because of wake turbulence separation
     requirements; and
B.   a pilot-requested waiver can be granted. (R)             336.18 B. Reference:
                                                              Wake Turbulence — Airport Control; 182.

If a requested clearance has been withheld or
delayed, issue a clearance as soon as conditions
permit without waiting for a further request from
the aircraft.

Give the “time off” if the aircraft requests it.

                                                   ATC 3-35

337.1                                                        337.1 Phraseology
If circumstances require, cancel a previously issued         If a clearance to take off is cancelled:
                                                             A. before the aircraft has started to roll —
take-off clearance and, when appropriate, inform
                                                                   TAKE-OFF CLEARANCE CANCELLED;
the aircraft of the reason. (P)(N)                           B. after the aircraft has started to roll —
                                                                   ABORT TAKEOFF.
                                                             337.1 Note:
                                                             An aborted takeoff is an emergency procedure employed in
                                                             situations where to continue would present a grave hazard
                                                             to the aircraft. A controller-initiated abort of takeoff should
                                                             be viewed as an extreme measure to be used only where
                                                             there is no clear alternate course of action.

Obtain approval from the appropriate IFR unit if an
IFR aircraft specifically requests:
A. permission to depart and maintain VFR until
    an IFR clearance is received; or
B. an IFR clearance to fly in accordance with VFR
    until a specified time, altitude, or location.

338.2                                                        338.2 Reference:
Inform the appropriate IFR unit if an IFR aircraft           Closing and Canceling IFR Flight Plans or Flight
closes its IFR flight plan. (R)                              Itineraries; 404.

                                                  ATC 3-36

343.1                                                           343.1 Phraseology:
Issue a further clearance, to an aircraft that reports          FOLLOW THE (aircraft type) ON RIGHT (OR LEFT)
at the limit of its initial clearance, in the following         BASE.
                                                                EXTEND DOWNWIND.
form: (P)(N)                                                    MAKE A LEFT (OR RIGHT) THREE SIXTY.
                                                                343.1 Note:
                                                                An aircraft that reaches the limit of its clearance without
                                                                further clearance being issued can be expected to continue
                                                                with the circuit.
A.    (Aircraft identification).
B.    NUMBER (sequence).
C.    (Approach instructions, such as position, type,
      and, if significant, the color of the aircraft to
      follow, if not number one on approach).

343.2                                                           343.2 Phraseology:
Do not clear an aircraft for a simulated approach.              SIMULATED       (type) APPROACH              APPROVED.
                                                                MAINTAIN VFR AT ALL TIMES.
You may, however, approve a simulated approach
provided: (P)
A. VFR conditions exist at the airport;
B. traffic permits; and
C. you instruct the aircraft to maintain VFR at all


You should issue landing clearance:
A. 1. when you are satisfied that the aircraft is
        on approach to the correct runway; or
    2. before the aircraft turns final if it is doing
        an overhead break; and
B. you determine that the prescribed runway                     344.1 B. Reference:
    separation will exist. (R)                                  Arrivals and Departures; 352.

Issue a landing clearance without waiting for a
request from the aircraft.

                                                     ATC 3-39
    Issue a landing clearance in the following form:
    A. (Aircraft identification).
    B. (Unit identification if required). (R)                     344.3 B. Reference:
                                                                  Unit Identification; 215.
*   C. (Special    information,   such     as traffic
       information, a hazard or obstruction).
    D. (Control instruction, such as a runway exit                344.3 D. Phraseology:
       instruction). (P)                                          MAKE FULL-STOP LANDING.
                                                                  EXIT ON (taxiway identification)
    E.   (Wind information, if required). (R)                     344.3 E. Reference:
                                                                  Issuing Wind; 344.12 and 344.13.
    F.   CLEARED (operation) RUNWAY (number).                     344.3 F. Phraseology:
         (P)(N)(E)                                                CLEARED TO LAND RUNWAY (number).
                                                                  CLEARED FOR TOUCH-AND-GO RUNWAY (number).
                                                                  CLEARED FOR LOW APPROACH RUNWAY (number).
                                                                  CLEARED FOR STOP-AND-GO RUNWAY (number).
                                                             *    344.3 F. Note:
                                                                  A stop-and-go clearance permits the aircraft to conduct the
                                                                  procedure without interruption.
                                                             *    344.3 F. Example:
                                                                  UNABLE STOP-AND-GO DUE TRAFFIC, MAKE FULL-
                                                                  STOP LANDING, CLEARED TO LAND RUNWAY

    344.4                                                         344.4 Reference:
    You may authorize ground traffic to cross the                 Traffic Information; Definitions.
                                                                  Visual Scanning – Manoeuvring Area; 308.
    landing runway after a landing clearance has been
                                                                  Possible pull-up; 344.10.
    issued provided: (R)
    A. the conditions in 308.2 are met; (R)                       344.4 A. Reference:
                                                                  Landing Clearance; RAC 4.4.3, TC AIM.
    B.   an operational advantage will be gained;
    C.   you consider:
         1. the type and performance of ground and
             airborne traffic;
         2. the runway condition;
         3. other factors that may have an impact on              344.4 C. 3. Note:
             the operation; and (N)                               Other factors may include:
                                                                  A. the crossing point;
                                                                  B. the weather or visibility;
                                                                  C. night-time operations;
                                                                  D. the requested crossing activity, i.e., towing, runway
                                                                       check, etc.
    D. the landing aircraft is advised of the location            344.4 D. Phraseology:
       and the type of the crossing traffic if the                (A/C ident), (type of ground traffic) CROSSING AT
       activity will take place in such a manner to               (location).
                                                                  344.4 D. Note:
       warrant the aircraft's attention. (P)(N)                   Traffic information should be provided so as to minimize
                                                                  disruptions during a critical phase of flight.

                                                       ATC 3-40
Subject to the prohibition in 344.6, you may clear an
aircraft for a low approach to a runway whose
surface is occupied provided:
A. specific instructions and/or restrictions are              344.5 A. Note:
     issued when required; and (N)                            The GMFIR or local management may issue directives for
                                                              controllers to issue an altitude or turn restriction to
                                                              aircraft operating over an occupied runway. Consideration
                                                              should be given, but not be restricted, to turbulence and jet
                                                              blast generated by heavy aircraft operating over
                                                              unprotected personnel or small aircraft.
B.   relevant   traffic   information   is exchanged.         344.5 B. Phraseology:
     (P)(N)                                                   To the aircraft:
                                                              (aircraft ident), (unit ident, if required), (instructions/
                                                              restrictions),    TRAFFIC      AIRCRAFT/         VEHICLE/
                                                              PERSONNEL (location), CLEARED LOW APPROACH
                                                              RUNWAY (number).
                                                              To the person on or near the runway:
                                                              (aircraft type) ON LOW APPROACH RUNWAY (number),
                                                              (other information).
                                                              344.5 B. Note:
                                                              It is mandatory that traffic be passed to both the aircraft
                                                              doing the low approach and the aircraft, vehicle or
                                                              personnel on or near the runway. In some cases, where the
                                                              aircraft, vehicle or personnel on the ground will not be in
                                                              continuous communication with the tower, exchange of
                                                              information on anticipated traffic should be made in

344.6                                                         344.6 Reference:
Do not clear an IFR aircraft for a low approach if            ILS Operation; 192.
the ground vehicles, on or near the runway, are
within interference range of the functioning ILS
transmitter being used by the aircraft. (R)

344.7                                                         344.7 Phraseology:
You may clear an aircraft for the option provided:            CLEARED FOR THE OPTION RUNWAY (number).
                                                              344.7 Note:
                                                              Normally this clearance is used during light traffic
                                                              344.7 Reference:
                                                              Cleared for the Option; Definitions..
A.   the aircraft requests it; and
B.   traffic permits.

If an aircraft is doing a radar approach:
A. issue the appropriate clearances, control
     instructions, and other pertinent information
     through the precision controller; and
B. provide landing clearance or alternate                     344.8 B. Note:
     instructions before the aircraft reaches 2 miles         If a military precision radar controller does not receive a
                                                              landing clearance or other instruction from the tower by
     from the end of the runway. (N)
                                                              the time an aircraft doing a radar approach is one mile
                                                              from the end of the runway, instructions to execute a missed
                                                              approach will be issued.

                                                   ATC 3-41
344.9                                                           344.9 Note:
If an aircraft is doing an emergency surveillance               Depending on the weather conditions and the nature of the
                                                                emergency, it is expected that controllers will use their
approach, issue a landing clearance to the IFR
                                                                judgment in notifying emergency services unless such
controller before: (N)(R)                                       services are requested by the aircraft.
                                                                344.9 Reference:
                                                                Surveillance Approaches; 670.
A.    the aircraft is 2 miles from the end of the
      runway; or
B.    when requested by the IFR controller.

344.10                                                          344.10 Phraseology:
Advise the aircraft to continue approach but to be              CONTINUE APPROACH, POSSIBLE PULL-UP.
prepared for a possible pull-up if it appears that the
runway may not be clear. (P)

344.11                                                          344.11 Phraseology:
Instruct the aircraft to pull-up if necessary. (P)(N)           PULL-UP AND GO AROUND, (reason).
                                                                344.11 Note 1:
                                                                This instruction is to be issued regardless of whether a
                                                                landing clearance has been issued.
                                                                344.11 Note 2:
                                                                Unless otherwise instructed by ATC, a VFR aircraft, or an
                                                                IFR aircraft conducting a visual approach, should overfly
                                                                the runway while climbing to traffic pattern altitude and
                                                                enter the traffic pattern on the crosswind leg. An aircraft
                                                                conducting an instrument approach should execute the
                                                                published missed approach procedure unless alternate
                                                                missed approach instructions have been issued by ATC.

344.12                                                          344.12 Reference:
If the wind speed is 15 knots or greater, issue the             Altimeter Settings and Wind Information; 135.
                                                                Units of Measurements; 214.
direction and speed when the aircraft is
approximately 2 miles from the end of the runway.

Broadcast the wind direction and speed periodically
for the benefit of all aircraft on final approach if
traffic prevents you from giving this information to
individual aircraft.


345.1                                                           345.1 Note:
Issue landing clearances to subsequent aircraft on              Multiple landing clearances can only be used where
                                                                approved by the Director, ATS Operational Support.
the same runway if: (N)
A. you or the aircraft will gain an operational                 345.1 A. Note:
    advantage; (N)                                              Industry has advised that cockpit management is
                                                                simplified by receiving landing clearance early.
B.    the aircraft are observed on final approach; (N)          345.1 B. Note:
                                                                You need not have sighted the aircraft if it is observed on
                                                                radar and the unit radar procedures are complied with.
C. the preceding aircraft has not received a stop
   and go or clearance for the option; and
D. the prescribed runway separation will exist.

345.2                                                           345.2 Note:
Issue traffic information to the succeeding aircraft if         Succeeding aircraft does not have to sight the preceding
it has not previously been issued. (E)
                                                                345.2 Example:
                                                                If the aircraft has already been instructed to follow
                                                                preceding traffic for a visual approach, do not repeat traffic

                                                     ATC 3-42

Use the following rationale when applying
paragraphs in this section:
A. Consider an aircraft doing a touch-and-go as an
    arriving aircraft until it lands and thereafter as
    a departing aircraft.
B. Consider an aircraft doing a stop-and-go as an
    arriving aircraft until it stops and thereafter as
    a departing aircraft.
C. Consider an aircraft doing a low approach as an
    arriving aircraft until it crosses the runway
    threshold or discontinues the approach and
    thereafter as a departing aircraft.

Separate an arriving aircraft from a preceding
aircraft using the same runway by ensuring that
the arriving aircraft does not cross the landing
threshold until one of the following conditions
A. the preceding aircraft has landed and taxied off            352.2 A. Diagram:
     the runway; (D)

B.    the preceding aircraft has landed or is over the         352.2 B. Diagram:
      landing runway; and (D)

                                                                              NORMAL STOPPING
                                                                             DISTANCE OF SECOND

                                                    ATC 3-47
     1.   is at a distance from the threshold                  352.2 B. 1. Reference:
          sufficient to allow the arriving aircraft to         Wake Turbulence; 180.
          complete     its   landing   roll   without
          jeopardizing safety; (R)
     2.   will leave the runway at a suitable exit             352.2 B. 2. Note 1:
          without stopping or backtracking and; (N)            Controllers are cautioned to take into consideration the
                                                               aircraft types, their performance, the runway condition,
                                                               available exits and other factors that may impact on the
                                                               352.2 B. 2. Note 2:
                                                               The sufficient distance depicted in 352.2 B. Diagram need
                                                               not be equal to the anticipated stopping distance of the
                                                               second aircraft, provided the second aircraft is a light
                                                               aircraft and you are satisfied no danger of collision exists.
     3.   the arriving aircraft is advised of the              352.2 B. 3. Phraseology:
          preceding     aircraft's position   and              (type of aircraft) (location) EXITING TO THE RIGHT/ON
          intentions; (P)                                      A TOUCH-AND-GO/(other), CLEARED TO LAND
                                                               RUNWAY (number).
C.   the preceding aircraft is airborne; and
     1. is at a sufficient distance from the                   352.2 C. 1 Diagram:
         threshold that the arriving aircraft will not
         overtake it during the landing roll or
         conflict with it in the event of a missed
         approach; or (D)

     2.   has turned to avoid any conflict with the            352.2 C. 2 Diagram:
          arriving aircraft in the event of a missed
          approach. (D)

                                                    ATC 3-48
B.   a preceding arriving aircraft has: (D)                  352.5 B. Diagram:




     1.   taxied off the landing runway;
     2.   completed the landing roll and will hold           352.5 B. 2. Note:
          short of the intersection; (N)                     The preceding aircraft need not be stopped as long as:
                                                             A. it has decelerated to taxi speed before the succeeding
                                                                 aircraft begins the take-off roll; and
                                                             B. it will not enter the runway or cross the flight path
                                                                 being used by the departing aircraft.
     3.   passed the intersection; or
     4.   crossed over the departure runway. (R)(D)          352.5 B. 4 Reference:
                                                             Wake Turbulence — Airport Control; 182.
                                                             352.5 B. 4 Diagram:


                                                  ATC 3-53
You may authorize simultaneous landings or a
landing and a takeoff simultaneously on
intersecting runways provided:
A. use of this procedure is approved in unit
    directives that specify:
    1. which runways may be used;
    2. the stopping distances available; and (N)                  352.6 A. 2. Note:
                                                                  Stopping distances are not to be used for the purpose of
                                                                  avoiding obstructions beyond the applicable intersection.
     3.   the aircraft stopping distance groups that              352.6 A. 3. Reference:
          can be accommodated; (R)                                Stop Group; Air Traffic Designators, Part 1.
B.   the weather conditions are not less than a                   352.6 B. Note:
     ceiling of 1,000 feet and visibility of 3 miles; (N)         In some cases this may require weather minima that are
                                                                  higher than a ceiling of 1,000 feet and visibility of 3 miles.
                                                                  For example, when IFR aircraft are simultaneously
                                                                  approaching intersecting runways they may, depending on
                                                                  the angle between the runways, run out of radar separation
                                                                  while beyond 3 miles from the airport and above 1,000 feet
C.   an arriving aircraft is restricted from entering             352.6 C. Note 1:
     the runway to be used by the other aircraft and,             When circumstances permit, apply the restriction to that
                                                                  aircraft which is normally better able to comply with the
     except if it is a helicopter, is advised of the
     stopping distance available; (N)(E)                          352.6 C. Note 2:
                                                                  Stopping distance information need not be issued with
                                                                  each landing clearance if:
                                                                  A. an ATIS message containing the information has been
                                                                       acknowledged by the aircraft;
                                                                  B. an aircraft is performing repetitive operations on the
                                                                       same runway; or
                                                                  C. an Agreement has been negotiated with a local
                                                                  352.6 C. Example:
                                                                  For landing aircraft:
                                                                  HOLD SHORT OF RUNWAY THREE TWO (number)
                                                                  FEET AVAILABLE TO THE INTERSECTION, TRAFFIC
                                                                  (type, location) LANDING/DEPARTING RUNWAY
                                                                  THREE TWO, CLEARED TO LAND RUNWAY TWO
                                                                  TRAFFIC (type, location) LANDING RUNWAY TWO FIVE
                                                                  WILL HOLD SHORT OF RUNWAY THREE TWO,
                                                                  CLEARED TO LAND RUNWAY THREE TWO.
                                                                  For a departing aircraft:
                                                                  TRAFFIC (type, location) LANDING RUNWAY TWO FIVE
                                                                  WILL HOLD SHORT OF RUNWAY THREE TWO,
                                                                  CLEARED FOR TAKE-OFF RUNWAY THREE TWO.
D. you obtain an accurate readback when issuing a                 352.6 D. Reference:
   HOLD SHORT clearance to a landing aircraft;                    General - Application; 201.
                                                                  Taxi Information; RAC 4.2.5. TC AIM.
E. that, except for helicopters, the stopping                     352.6 E. Note:
   distance group of the aircraft restricted to hold              Where an Agreement between the ATS unit and the aircraft
   short is known and is in accordance with unit                  operator has been negotiated, STOL aircraft may hold
                                                                  short in distances which are less than those shown in the
   directives; (N)                                                stopping distance table.

                                                       ATC 3-54
F.   the runway to be used by the restricted aircraft            352.6 F. Note:
     is bare; (N)                                                During winter operations, only the centre 100 feet (50 feet
                                                                 either side of the centreline) of the runway must be bare.
G. there is no standing water, slush, snow or ice                352.6 G. Note:
   (including frost), on the runways; (N)                        These conditions may be reported by personnel qualified to
                                                                 perform runway surface condition inspections or by pilots.
                                                                 If a pilot who has just used the runway informs you that
                                                                 the runway is contaminated, you should request a runway
                                                                 surface condition report by authorized personnel.
H. for aircraft landing on any runway with a “hold
   short” restriction (LAHSO):
   1. there is no tailwind other than a calm                     352.6 H. 1. Note:
        wind; or (N)                                             A tailwind is considered to exist whenever the surface wind
                                                                 exceeds an angle of 90o to the runway in use, thus adding to
                                                                 the ground speed of an aircraft using that particular
     2.   there is no crosswind component exceeding              352.6 H. 2. Note:
          25 kts (including gusts). (N)                          To assist in the application of sub-paragraph 352.6 H. 2.
                                                                 concerning the selection of one or more runways, the angle
                                                                 between wind direction and runway, and the wind speeds
                                                                 that fall within the limits of crosswind components, are
                                                                 listed in the following table:
                                                                             CROSSWIND COMPONENT
                                                                                    25 KNOTS
                                                                               LAND & HOLD SHORT
                                                                              RESTRICTED ARRIVALS
                                                                                      ON A
                                                                                  DRY RUNWAY
                                                                    ANGLE BETWEEN                     MAXIMUM
                                                                    WIND DIRECTION                   ACCEPTABLE
                                                                     AND RUNWAY                      WIND SPEED
                                                                         DEGREES                         KNOTS

                                                                              20                            73
                                                                              25                            59
                                                                              30                            50
                                                                              35                            44
                                                                              40                            39
                                                                              45                            35
                                                                              50                            33
                                                                              55                            31
                                                                              60                            29
                                                                              65                            28
                                                                              70                            27
                                                                              75                            26
                                                                            80-90                           25
I.   traffic information is issued to both aircraft;
J.   the conditions specified in D. and I. are met at            352.6 J. Note:
     the time, or before, landing clearance is issued            If a pilot prefers to use the full length of a runway or a
     and in sufficient time for the pilots to take other         different runway the pilot is expected to advise ATC in
                                                                 sufficient time to permit other arrangements.
     action if desired; and (N)

                                                      ATC 3-55
K. if the restricted aircraft is a helicopter, the               352.6 K. Note:
   point of landing is separated, as measured                    Helicopters normally land without ground roll. When a
                                                                 pilot indicates, or a controller otherwise determines, that a
   perpendicularly, by at least 700 feet from the
                                                                 landing will be accompanied by a ground roll, the actual
   centreline of the other runway. (N)(R)(D)                     point of landing must be adjusted, as necessary, to ensure
                                                                 that the helicopter will stop short of the other runway by
                                                                 the appropriate distance.
                                                                 352.6 K. Reference:
                                                                 Wake Turbulence — General; 181.
                                                                 Helicopters; 353.
                                                                 352.6 K. Diagram:


You may authorize simultaneous landings or a
landing and a takeoff simultaneously on
intersecting WET runways provided:
A. use of this procedure is approved in unit
    direction including the stopping distances for
    wet runways;
B. the weather conditions are not less than a                    352.7 B. Reference:
    ceiling of 1,000 feet and visibility of 3 miles; (R)         Weather Conditions; 352.6 B. Note.
C. you do not conduct simultaneous operations if
    the braking action is reported less than good;
D. there is no standing water, slush, snow or ice                352.7 D. Note:
    (including frost), on the runways; (N)                       These conditions may be reported by personnel qualified to
                                                                 perform runway surface condition inspections or by pilots.
                                                                 If a pilot who has just used the runway informs you that
                                                                 the runway is contaminated, you should request a runway
                                                                 surface condition report by authorized personnel.

                                                      ATC 3-56
E.   for aircraft landing on any runway with a “hold
     short” restriction (LAHSO):
     1. there is no tailwind other than a calm                352.7 E. 1. Note:
          wind; or (N)                                        A tailwind is considered to exist whenever the surface wind
                                                              exceeds an angle of 90o to the runway in use, thus adding to
                                                              the ground speed of an aircraft using that particular
     2.   there is no crosswind component exceeding           352.7 E. Note 2:
          15 kts (including gusts). (N)                       To assist in the application of sub-paragraph 352.7 E. 2.
                                                              concerning the selection of one or more runways, the angle
                                                              between wind direction and runway, and the wind speeds
                                                              that fall within the limits of crosswind components, are
                                                              listed in the following table:
                                                                          CROSSWIND COMPONENT
                                                                                 15 KNOTS
                                                                            LAND & HOLD SHORT
                                                                           RESTRICTED ARRIVALS
                                                                              ON WET RUNWAY
                                                                 ANGLE BETWEEN                     MAXIMUM
                                                                 WIND DIRECTION                   ACCEPTABLE
                                                                  AND RUNWAY                      WIND SPEED
                                                                      DEGREES                         KNOTS

                                                                          20                             50
                                                                          30                             32
                                                                          40                             24
                                                                          50                             22
                                                                          60                             18
                                                                          70                             17
                                                                         80-90                           15
F. you do not instruct Group 6 aircraft to HOLD
   SHORT of an intersecting runway: and
G. traffic information is issued to both aircraft.

You may authorize simultaneous landings or a
landing and a takeoff simultaneously on
intersecting runways in tailwind conditions that are
greater than four knots provided:
A. you suggest it and the aircraft accepts it; or (N)         352.8 A.Note 1:
                                                              A request to an aircraft to land and hold short with a
                                                              tailwind should be considered only for tactical purposes
                                                              and not be advertised or planned as a routine procedure.
                                                              352.8 A. Note 2:
                                                              Clearly indicate the wind direction and speed to the
                                                              aircraft at the time you suggest the landing AND with the
                                                              landing clearance.
B. the aircraft requests a landing on a runway in
   which a “hold short” restriction will be issued;
C. the restricted aircraft's stop group category is
   compatible with the reduced runway length
   available to the pilot; and
D. the tailwind speed does not exceed ten knots;
E. the runway that requires a “hold-short”
   restriction is dry.

                                                   ATC 3-57
Hold a taxiing aircraft, until traffic using the
runway has passed the point at which the aircraft is
A. at a taxi holding position, if one has been
B. at least 200 feet from the edge of the runway,
    unless other holding positions are established
    by markings or signs; or
C. at a sufficient distance from the edge of the
    runway to ensure that no hazard is created to
    arriving or departing aircraft, if it is not
    practicable to comply with A. or B.


353.1                                                           353.1 Note 1:
Issue take-off or landing clearance to a helicopter             Because of their operational characteristics, it is not always
                                                                necessary that helicopters adhere to the standard traffic
provided the operation takes place on the
                                                                circuit, land or take off on the same runway or follow the
manoeuvring area. (N)(R)                                        flight path used by fixed-wing aircraft. In IMC, however,
                                                                helicopters conducting IFR flights are expected to climb out
                                                                from or approach to an instrument runway. They may, of
                                                                course, originate from or terminate at other locations on the
                                                                airport via airborne or ground taxiing.
                                                                353.1 Note 2:
                                                                An area other than a runway or taxiway may be designated
                                                                as manoeuvring area by the Airport Operator if it has been
                                                                approved by the responsible Regional authorities.
                                                           *    353.1 Note 3:
                                                                A helicopter may be permitted to land on the threshold of a
                                                                runway while an aircraft is taxiing on the opposite end of
                                                                the runway, provided traffic is exchanged and appropriate
                                                                restrictions are applied.
                                                                353.1 Reference:
                                                                Take-off Clearance; 336.

353.2                                                           353.2 Phraseology:
If a helicopter intends to take off or land outside the         (aircraft identification)(unit identification, if required)
                                                                (special information, such as traffic, hazard or
manoeuvring area: (P)(E)(R)
                                                                obstruction)(control instructions, such as departure routing
                                                                or turn after takeoff)(wind information, if required) TAKE
                                                                OFF AT YOUR DISCRETION (location)
                                                                — or —
                                                                (Control instructions)(traffic or other information) LAND
                                                                AT YOUR DISCRETION.
                                                                353.2 Example:
                                                                GOLF JULIETT ALFA DELTA, TRAFFIC CHEROKEE
                                                                DEPARTING RUNWAY 31, HOLD SHORT OF RUNWAY
                                                                31, WIND 300 AT 15 TAKE OFF AT YOUR DISCRETION
                                                                FROM APRON 4.
                                                                353.2 Reference:
                                                                Take -off Clearance; 336.
A.    provide instructions and traffic information, as
      necessary, for control purposes; and
B.    inform the aircraft that landing or takeoff will
      be at the pilot's discretion.

                                                     ATC 3-58
353.3                                                          353.3 Reference:
Include the specific route in a clearance to or from           Wake Turbulence — Airport Control; 182.
the landing area to ensure safe conformance with,
or avoidance of other airport traffic, as necessary.

353.4                                                          353.4 Phraseology:
Clear helicopters to air taxi unless: (P)(N)                   CLEARED TO AIR TAXI or AIR TAXI, VIA (route), TO
                                                               (location), (restrictions and special instructions as
                                                               necessary), (traffic information, wake turbulence and other
                                                               hazards), (wind information if required).
                                                               353.4 Note 1:
                                                               Due to the possible absence of visual cues to the pilot,
                                                               caution is required when authorizing helicopter taxi
                                                               operations at night or during daylight periods when ceiling
                                                               or visibility is below VFR minima. It may be preferable in
                                                               these circumstances for the helicopter to operate in the
                                                               hover mode over lighted portions of the movement area.
                                                               353.4 Note 2:
                                                               Air taxi is the preferred method for helicopter movements
                                                               on airports provided ground operations and conditions
                                                               permit. Air taxi authorizes the pilot to proceed above the
                                                               surface either via hover taxi or flight at speeds more than
                                                               20 knots. Unless otherwise requested or instructed, the pilot
                                                               is expected to remain below 100 feet AGL. The pilot is solely
                                                               responsible for selecting a safe airspeed and altitude for the
                                                               operation being conducted.
A.   the aircraft has specifically requested clearance
     to hover taxi or taxi on the surface; or
B.   the unit manager has directed that helicopters
     are to taxi only via the hover mode in specified

Do not issue an air taxi or hover taxi clearance that
will knowingly require a helicopter to pass over
persons, vehicles, or aircraft.

Include explicit route details in an air taxi or hover
taxi clearance, if necessary, due to traffic or known
ground hazards.

At those locations where air taxi or hover taxi
routes have been designated, clear helicopters along
these routes in accordance with direction issued for
their use.

Avoid requiring frequency changes by helicopters
known to be single-piloted while air taxiing,
hovering or flying at low level.

                                                    ATC 3-59

354.1                                                           354.1 Reference:
Keep ground traffic, such as pedestrians, vehicles,             Wake Turbulence; 180.
or construction equipment, away from taxiing                    Coordination; 360.
aircraft. (R)

Hold ground traffic:
A. at least 200 feet from the edge of an active
    runway, unless other holding positions are
    established by markings or signs; or
B. at a sufficient distance from the edge of the
    runway to ensure that no hazard is created to
    arriving or departing aircraft, if it is not
    practicable to comply with A.

354.3                                                           354.3 Note:
Inform concerned aircraft of the circumstances if:              This may be necessary during certain operations, such as
                                                                construction, maintenance, or flight checks.
                                                                354.3 Reference:
                                                                Airport Conditions; 322.
A.    ground traffic is located less than 200 feet from
      the edge of the runway in use, unless other
      holding positions are established by markings
      or signs closer than 200 feet; and
B.    it is not practicable to close the runway.

Take extra care at night and during periods of
restricted visibility to ensure that:
A. the runway is clear for use when required; and
B. information concerning the location of ground
    traffic is maintained by restricting vehicle
    movements to a particular runway, taxiway or
    other specific area on the airport.

Do not use words and terms “go ahead”, “clear” or
“cleared” in radiotelephony communications for
ground vehicle operations.

Respond to a radio call from a vehicle operator in
the following form:
A. (Vehicle identification).
B. Unit function.

                                                     ATC 3-60
362.5                                                            362.5 Reference:
You may assume responsibility for control of an                  Separation; 471.2.
                                                                 362.5 Waiver:
arriving IFR or CVFR aircraft provided: (R)(W)
                                                                 Control Transfer Between Vancouver ACC and Kelowna
A.   the aircraft has been cleared for an approach;
B.   a ceiling of not less than 1,000 feet and              *    362.5 B. Waiver:
     visibility of not less than 3 miles are reported at         Control transfer for speed adjustments.
     the airport; (W)
C.   you have: (W)                                          *    362.5 C. Waiver:
                                                                 Control transfer for speed adjustments.
     1.   sighted the aircraft and are satisfied that it
          will remain in sight and not have to return
          to IFR conditions; or
     2.   observed the aircraft on radar on final leg,           362.5 C. 2. Note:
          and determined that the aircraft is                    A confirmation from the pilot may be obtained if any doubt
                                                                 exists as to the ceiling and visibility conditions at the
          operating in VMC; (N)
                                                                 control transfer point.
D. the aircraft intends to land and not continue on              362.5 D. Note:
   an IFR clearance; (N)                                         Control transfer cannot be effected if the aircraft
                                                                 conducting the approach has indicated no intention of
                                                                 landing upon completion of the approach and will continue
                                                                 to operate on an IFR clearance, i.e., the aircraft will execute
                                                                 a missed approach, perform another instrument approach
                                                                 or proceed to another location.
E.   the aircraft is within the control zone:
     1. at a position agreed upon by you and the
         IFR controller when you requested control;
     2. established on final leg and transfer of                 362.5 E. 2. Note:
         control occurs in accordance with an                    In order for the Arrangement to include automatic transfer
         arrangement; and (N)                                    of control to the tower, both units require adequate radar
                                                                 coverage at the transfer point and until the aircraft can be
                                                                 sighted by the airport controller.
F.   you ensure the aircraft remains in the control              362.5 F. Reference:
     zone. (R)                                                   Control transfer; 139.2.

362.6                                                            362.6 Reference:
Forward a control transfer time in the following                 Reports; 361.
form: (R)
A. (Aircraft identification).
C. NOW/AT (specific time).

                                                      ATC 3-65

363.1                                                              363.1 Phraseology:
When a change of frequency is required, instruct                   CONTACT/MONITOR             (unit/function/agency) ON
the aircraft to contact or monitor: (P)(N)                         (frequency) NOW/AT (time) AT/OVER (location/fix).
                                                                   363.1 Note:
                                                                   During an emergency, the aircraft may be required to
                                                                   contact the ARFF on the DEF or change to the ECC
                                                                   frequency as outlined in an Agreement.
A.    a specified unit/function/agency; (R)                        363.1 A. Reference:
                                                                   Unit Identification; 215.
B.    on   a specified frequency; and
C.    1.    now;
      2.    at a specified time;
      3.    at a specified location on the airport; or (N)         363.1 C. 3. Note:
                                                                   The term “holding short” can be used as a location for the
                                                                   purpose of communication transfer and does not require a
      4.    over a specified fix.

Normally, do not release a VFR aircraft from the
tower frequency while operating in the control zone.

You may release a VFR aircraft from tower
frequency without specifying another frequency
provided the aircraft is leaving the control zone.

363.4                                                              363.4 Phraseology:
Change an IFR or CVFR aircraft to the frequency of                 CONTACT (name) DEPARTURE (frequency) NOW/AT
the IFR unit or to the frequency specified in the IFR              (time)/OVER (location).
                                                                   CONTACT (name) CENTRE (frequency) NOW/AT (time)/
or CVFR clearance if: (P)                                          OVER (location).
A.    direct communication can be established on the
      IFR frequency; and
B.    the aircraft is at a point agreed upon by both

You may release an IFR or CVFR aircraft from
tower frequency without specifying another
frequency provided:
A. the aircraft is leaving the control zone and                    363.5 A. Phraseology:
    direct communications cannot be established on                 CHANGE TO EN ROUTE FREQUENCY NOW/AT
    an IFR frequency; or (P)                                       (time)/OVER (location).
B. a     SID    was    assigned   that    contains
    communications transfer instructions.

                                                        ATC 3-66


421.1                                                     421.1 Note 1:
At least 5 minutes before an aircraft reaches its         If a clearance is not received, the aircraft is expected to hold
                                                          in a published holding pattern or if there is no published
clearance limit, issue: (N)(R)
                                                          pattern, a standard pattern on the inbound track to the
                                                          clearance limit and to request further clearance or an
                                                          approach clearance. If communication cannot be
                                                          established with ATC, the aircraft is then expected to
                                                          proceed in accordance with communication failure rules
                                                          and procedures described in the Canada Air Pilot and the
                                                          Canada Flight Supplement , Section F8.
                                                          421.1 Note 2:
                                                          An arriving aircraft, which has filed a STAR, is expected to
                                                          fly this route, as cleared, to the terminal area entry fix
                                                          (bedpost) or fix associated with the STAR. If no further
                                                          clearance has been received upon reaching that point, the
                                                          pilot is expected to fly the lateral route of the STAR for the
                                                          instrument approach serving the runway in use, as
                                                          specified on the ATIS, maintaining the last assigned
                                                          In the event of a communication failure in IMC, the pilot is
                                                          expected to squawk 7600, fly the STAR as published,
                                                          including the vertical and speed requirements as depicted
                                                          in the procedure, intercept the final approach, fly inbound
                                                          and land as soon as possible.
                                                          421.1 Reference:
                                                          Two-way Radio Failure in IFR Flight; 602.137, CARs.
                                                          STAR; RAC 9.2., TC AIM.
A.    a further clearance;
B.    an approach clearance; or
C.    a holding clearance. (N)(R)                         421.1 C. Note:
                                                          A late clearance may cause an aircraft to overshoot the
                                                          holding fix.
                                                          421.1 C. Reference:
                                                          Holding Clearances; 454.

421.2                                                     421.2 Note:
You should inform a high-performance aircraft if          Aircraft require time to make any necessary adjustments
you anticipate that it may be required to hold            needed to prepare for a restriction. For example, an aircraft
                                                          could overshoot the holding area if it enters the holding
en route or during descent. (N)                           pattern at a speed exceeding the applicable maximum
                                                          holding speed.

                                               ATC 4-15

    422.1                                                             422.1 Example:
    If a SID is not issued, specify the name of the                   TERRACE VICTOR THREE ZERO ONE HOUSTON,
    departure airport as the first element of the route               FLIGHT PLANNED ROUTE.
                                                                      SEPT ILES, DIRECT BAIE COMEAU, FLIGHT
    when you issue a departure clearance: (E)(R)                      PLANNED ROUTE.
                                                                      422.1 Reference:
                                                                      Standard Instrument Departure; 442.
    A.    through an FSS/FIC; or
    B.    directly to an aircraft on the ground using

*   422.2                                                             422.2 Note:
    Issue a full route clearance to an aircraft on initial            A change in the aircraft’s originally filed route or centre
                                                                      stored route is indicated to the controller by an F (full route
    departure if there is a change in the aircraft’s
                                                                      clearance) in the flight plan category.
    originally filed route or centre stored route, except
    as specified in 422.4. (N)

    422.3                                                             422.3 Phraseology:
    Issue a detailed route description as necessary. (P)              VIA (airway designators).
                                                                      VIA (North American Route designator).
                                                                      VIA (fix) AND (fix).
                                                                      (Fix) DIRECT (fix).
                                                                      CROSS/JOIN (airway designator)(number)                 MILES
                                                                      (direction) OF (fix).

    When you issue the initial clearance to a departing
    aircraft, you may use the phrase “flight planned
    route” to describe a filed route or portion of a filed
    route provided:
    A. the previously filed route has:
         1. not been changed; or
         2. been changed; and (E)(R)                                  422.4 A. 2. Example:
                                                                      AIR CANADA 173,          ROUTING CHANGE, NOW
                                                                      CLEARED TO THE EDMONTON AIRPORT VIA
                                                                      OTTAWA TWO DEPARTURE, FLIGHT PLANNED
                                                                      ROUTE        PRINCE     ALBERT    THEN   DIRECT
                                                                      WAINWRIGHT V350 RYLEY DIRECT.
                                                                      or —
                                                                      TGO956 ROUTING CHANGE, ADVISE READY TO
                                                                      COPY(aircraft advises ready) then……… ATC CLEARS
                                                                      TGO956 TO THE TORONTO AIRPORT VIA HALIFAX
                                                                      THREE DEPARTURE J506 MILLENOCKET THEN
                                                                      FLIGHT PLANNED ROUTE.
                                                                      422.4 A. 2. Reference :
                                                                      Amendments; 415.2.
              a.   the changed portion is clearly
                   identifiable on the flight progress strip;
               b. you notify the aircraft that the
                   clearance contains changes to the
                   originally filed route; and
               c. you specify the changed portion in the
    B.    the flight plan is not an “airfile”; and
    C.    1. the clearance specifies sufficient routing
               detail to establish the aircraft on the
               cleared route; or
          2. the aircraft will be radar-monitored until
               established on the cleared route.

                                                           ATC 4-16
    432        DIRECTION OF FLIGHT

*   432.1                                                         432.1 Reference:
    Except as detailed in 432.2 and 432.3, assign a               Cruising Altitudes and Cruising Flight Levels; 602.34,
    cruising altitude appropriate to the aircraft track.          CARs.
                                                                  432.1 Waiver:
    (R)(W)                                                        Assignment of altitudes inappropriate to direction of flight
                                                                  to Polar Flights.

*   432.2                                                    *    432.2 Note:
    Assign cruising altitudes to aircraft in RVSM, as             Transport Canada has granted a exemption to CAR 604.34
    follows: (N)                                                  to permit these altitude assignments.

          If the track is:         If the track is:
              000 - 179                180 - 359
                290                      300
                310                      320
                330                      340
                350                      360
                370                      380
                390                      400

*   432.3                                                         432.3 Waiver:
    You may assign an altitude inappropriate to the               Assignment of altitudes inappropriate to direction of flight
    direction of flight provided: (W)                             to Polar Flights.
*   A. no alternate separation minima can be applied
        1. the altitude has been approved by affected
             sectors/units; and
        2. the aircraft will be cleared to an
             appropriate altitude as soon as possible;
*   B. the airspace is structured for one-way traffic
*   C. an aircraft is transitioning to or from oceanic
        airspace within 200 NM along the aircraft track
        from the oceanic entry or exit point;
*   D. an aircraft requests it because of icing,                  432.3 D. Note:
        turbulence, or fuel considerations and: (N)(R)            “Fuel considerations” means that an aircraft will make a
                                                                  request only to avoid a fuel situation that might cause an
                                                                  otherwise unnecessary technical stop short of flight
                                                                  planned destination.
                                                                  432.3 D. Reference:
                                                                  Airframe Icing; MET 2.4, TC AIM.
                                                                  Turbulence Reporting Criteria Table; MET 3.7, TC AIM.
                                                                  Altitudes and Direction of Flight; RAC 8.7.2, TC AIM.
          1.   the aircraft informs you of the time or       *    432.3 D. 1. Phraseology:
               location at which it can be cleared to an          AT WHAT TIME OR PLACE ARE YOU ABLE AN
               appropriate altitude; and (P)(N)                   ALTITUDE APPROPRIATE TO DIRECTION OF
                                                                  432.3 D. 1. Note:
                                                                  If the information provided is not precise, obtain sufficient
                                                                  information to determine with which sectors/units
                                                                  approval must be coordinated.
          2.   the altitude has been approved by affected
               sectors/units; or

                                                       ATC 4-23
    E.   an aircraft is:
         1. holding, arriving, or departing;
         2. conducting a flight check of a NAVAID;
         3. operating within an altitude reservation; or
         4. engaged in an aerial survey, mapping flight            432.3 E. 4. Reference:
             or test flight. (R)                                   Cruising Altitudes and Cruising Flight Levels; 602.34,
*   F.   an aircraft in uncontrolled airspace requests             432.3 F. Reference:
         clearance to cross an airway at an altitude below         433.2 Note applies to this paragraph.
                                                                   432.3 F. Diagram:
         the MEA; and (R)(D)(I)


                                                                                                MOCA 12,600
                                                                                                MEA 14,000


         1.   the aircraft requests it for operational             432.3 F. 1. Example:
              reasons; and (E)                                     The aircraft is unable to operate at an altitude appropriate
                                                                   for the direction of flight due to pilot or aircraft limitations.
         2.   its track crosses the airway at an angle of
              45 degrees to 135 degrees inclusive.

    432.4                                                          432.4 Phraseology:
    Issue radar vectors or offset tracks to establish an           ADVISE IF ABLE TO PROCEED PARALLEL OFFSET.
    aircraft at least 5 miles from the centreline of the           PROCEED OFFSET (number) MILES (right/left) OF
                                                                   centreline (track/route) FROM (significant point/time)
    airway or published track otherwise authorized if:             UNTIL (significant point/time).
    (P)(N)(R)                                                      CANCEL OFFSET.
                                                                   FOR VECTORS (direction) OF (airway/track) TURN
                                                                   (left/right) TO HEADING (degrees).
                                                                   432.4 Note:
                                                                   This procedure is intended to maintain controller
                                                                   involvement and provide an additional margin of safety
                                                                   while aircraft are operating on wrong way altitudes. This 5
                                                                   mile spacing does not exempt controllers from applying the
                                                                   appropriate radar minima between aircraft.
                                                                   432.4 Reference:
                                                                   Minima; 542.
                                                                   Parallel Offset Procedures; 506.
    A.   applying 432.3 A. or 432.3 D. in high level
         radar-controlled airspace; and
    B.   the airway or published track is displayed on
         the radar.

    432.5                                                          432.5 Phraseology:
    If you are unable to approve the aircraft's request            UNABLE        (altitude)  (reason).    ADVISE       YOUR
    made under 432.3 D., provide the reason and
                                                                   432.5 Waiver:
    request the aircraft's intentions. (P)(W)                      Assignment of altitudes inappropriate to direction of flight
                                                                   to Polar Flights.

                                                        ATC 4-24
432.6                                                          432.6 Note:
You may approve a block altitude provided: (N)                 When this information is passed electronically, verbal
                                                               coordination is also required.
A.   1.   the aircraft requests it as per 432.3 D.; or         432.6 A. 1. Note:
          (N)                                                  The provisions in 432.3 D. are not required for approving
                                                               special military activity operating within block altitudes.
     2.  the aircraft making the request is an IFR
         training flight, MEDEVAC flight or is
         flight-checking NAVAID; or
     3. the aircraft is an aerial survey, mapping
         flight or test flight.
B.   the procedures contained in paragraphs 432.4              432.6 B. Note:
     and 432.7 through 432.9 are adhered to. (N)               Except for sub-paragraph 432.7 B., paragraphs 432.4,
                                                               432.7 and 432.9 may be waived for the purpose of
                                                               approving an aerial survey or mapping flight or special
                                                               military activity.

432.7                                                          432.7 Note:
If a cruising altitude inappropriate to the direction          For strip marking purposes, the following abbreviations
                                                               may be used:
of flight is assigned: (N)(W)
                                                               A. For separation — “WW (altitude) SEP”.
                                                               B. At pilot's request due to:
                                                                    1. icing — “WW (altitude) ICNG”;
                                                                    2. turbulence — “WW (altitude) TURB”;
                                                                    3. fuel considerations — “WW (altitude) FC”;
                                                                    4. flight check of a NAVAID — “WW (altitude)
                                                                         FLTCK”; and
                                                                    5. test flight — “WW (altitude) FLTST”.
                                                               432.7 Waiver:
                                                               Assignment of altitudes inappropriate to direction of flight
                                                               to Polar Flights.
A.   instruct aircraft to make position reports;
B.   identify an altitude as “Wrong Way” when:                 432.7 B. Note:
     (N)(E)(R)                                                 When this information is passed electronically, verbal
                                                               coordination is also required.
                                                               432.7 B. Example:
                                                               ACA185, WRONG WAY, FLIGHT LEVEL 370.
                                                               432.7 B. Reference:
                                                               Coordination; 490.
     1.  passing and receiving a control estimate;
     2.  giving and receiving a radar hand-off; or             432.7 B. 2. Reference:
         (R)                                                   Hand-off – Transferring Sector/Unit; 512.
     3. coordinating with an adjacent sector/unit;
C.   post warning indicators by:
     1. circling the altitude in red on the
         appropriate flight progress strip; and
     2. using the wrong-way altitude alerting                  432.7 C. 2. Note:
         function, if practicable. (N)                         Either manual or automated indication of wrong-way
                                                               altitude is acceptable.

Do not use the words “Wrong                 Way”   in
communication with an aircraft.

432.9                                                          432.9 Reference:
If an altitude inappropriate to direction of flight is         Control Transfer; 139, 495 and 593.
assigned, inform the receiving controller prior to
transfer of control whether the assignment was
pilot or controller initiated and the reason for the
assignment. (R)

                                                    ATC 4-25

433.1                                                         433.1 Reference:
Do not approve or assign any altitude that is below           Minimum IFR Altitude; Definitions.
the minimum IFR altitude. Inform an aircraft if a             Cruising Altitudes and Cruising Flight Levels; 602.34,
requested altitude is below the minimum IFR                   ATC Assignment of Altitudes; RAC 8.7 TC AIM.
altitude. (R)

433.2                                                         433.2 Note:
You may clear aircraft operating on an airway/air             MEAs are applicable to aircraft that have been cleared via
                                                              airways/air routes. When aircraft operate below the MEA
route below the MEA, but not below the MOCA,
                                                              the required signal coverage may not exist requiring an
provided it is specifically requested by an aircraft:         increase in the lateral airspace to be protected.
(N)(R)                                                        433.2 Reference:
                                                              Direction of Flight; 432.
                                                              Cruising Altitudes and Cruising Flight Levels; 602.34,
A.    in the interest of flight safety; (N)                   433.2 A. Note:
                                                              Flight safety may be jeopardized by such conditions as
                                                              icing or turbulence.
B. flight checking a NAVAID;
C. on a MEDEVAC flight; or
D. if the navigation method used is GNSS. (N)(I)              433.2 D. Note:
                                                              Since GNSS does not require ground-based NAVAID
                                                              signal coverage to provide navigation accuracy, additional
                                                              protected airspace is not required.
                                                              433.2 D. Interpretation:
                                                              Operation below MEA by GPS aircraft.

433.3                                                         433.3 Note:
You may clear aircraft traversing airways/air routes          Aircraft are considered to be “traversing an airway/air
                                                              route” when the airspace to be protected for the track of the
below the MEA but not below the applicable
                                                              aircraft infringes on the airspace to be protected for the
minimum IFR alitude. (N)(R)                                   airway/air route. An aircraft cleared “via direct” on a track
                                                              that is coincident with an airway/air route is considered
                                                              traversing the airway/air route.
                                                              433.3 Reference:
                                                              Direction Of Flight; 432.
                                                              Cruising Altitudes and Cruising Flight Levels; 602.34,

Issue a revised clearance without waiting for a
request from the aircraft if an aircraft has been
cleared at an altitude that is below the minimum
IFR altitude for a subsequent portion of the route.

                                                   ATC 4-26
470       SEPARATION


471.1                                                           471.1 Note 1:
Apply lateral, longitudinal or vertical separation              The primary responsibility of controllers is to separate
                                                                aircraft. Separation is applied regardless of weather
between aircraft operating in accordance with an
IFR or CVFR clearance, through consistent                       471.1 Note 2:
reference to and use of, the following three elements           To ensure an expeditious flow of traffic, you are expected to
that are fundamental to safe, orderly and                       operate as closely to the prescribed minimum as
expeditious control: (N)(R)                                     circumstances permit.
                                                                471.1 Note 3:
                                                                Any VFR aircraft, including a glider that operates in
                                                                accordance with CARs 601.6 or 601.7 in class A or Class B
                                                                airspace above 12,500’ is CVFR and must be separated
                                                                from IFR and other CVFR aircraft.
                                                                471.1 Reference:
                                                                Civil IFR and CVFR Formation Flights; 702.
                                                                Military IFR Formation Flights; 843.

A.    Planning — determine the appropriate
      separation minimum required.
B.    Executing — implement the selected standard.
C.    Monitoring — ensure that the planned and
      executed separation is maintained.

You need not apply separation provided:
A. an aircraft has been authorized to maintain “at              471.2 A. Reference:
    least 1,000 feet on top”, except: (R)                       One Thousand on Top; 435.
    1. at night, apply separation between an
         aircraft maintaining “at least 1,000 feet on
         top” and other aircraft if any of the aircraft
         are holding; and
    2. between an aircraft maintaining “at least                471.2 A. 2. Reference:
         1,000 feet on top”, and an aircraft                    Separation; 832.
         operating on an ALTRV APVL; (R)
B. a VFR restriction has been applied to an                     471.2 B. Reference:
    aircraft climbing or descending en route or to a            VFR Climb/Descent; 436.
                                                                VFR Release of an IFR Aircraft; 444.
    departing aircraft; or (R)
C. control of an arriving aircraft has been                     471.2 C. Reference:
    transferred to the tower, except as specified in            Control Transfer; 495.
    576.1 D. 3. c. (R)

471.3                                                           471.3 Reference:
Apply greater separation than the specified                     Provision of IFR Control Service; 401.2 B.
                                                                Separation Between Flight Levels and Altitudes ASL; 434.
minimum if exceptional circumstances call for this
                                                                Radar Minima; 542.1.
extra precaution. (R)                                           Separation from Non-Radar or Class F Airspace; 542.6.

                                                     ATC 4-49
471.4                                                             471.4 Note:
If the type of separation or the minimum used to                  For example, if two aircraft are on converging tracks,
                                                                  ensure that vertical or longitudinal separation exists before
separate aircraft cannot be maintained, take action
                                                                  the second aircraft passes the point on its route at which
to ensure that another type of separation exists, or              the appropriate lateral separation would be infringed.
another minimum is established, before the
previously used separation becomes insufficient.

471.5                                                             471.5 Note 1:
Predicate control on ATC estimates based on                       CAATS generated times are considered ATC estimates.
                                                                  471.5 Note 2:
aircraft performance as verified by position reports
                                                                  Although estimates are produced by automated means,
over fixes, determined by radio aids, radar, RNAV,                controllers are not relieved of the responsibility for
or visual means that accurately define the position               ensuring estimates are accurate, in accordance with 470.
of the aircraft. (N)(R)                                      *    471.5 Note 3:
                                                                  Obtain simultaneous DME and/or GNSS readings from
                                                                  aircraft at frequent intervals to ensure the minimum will
                                                                  not be infringed.
                                                                  471.5 Reference:
                                                                  Vertical Separation; 472.
                                                                  Lateral Separation; 473.
                                                                  Longitudinal Separation; 474.

471.6                                                             471.6 Note:
Use aircraft estimates to verify ATC estimates. If a              The requirement to use pilot estimates as a cross check of
                                                                  ATC estimates will vary depending upon the traffic density,
discrepancy exists between an aircraft's and an ATC
                                                                  the type of operations: arrival/departure, enroute, radar,
estimate for the same reporting point, and                        and if there is a known and valid wind component. In
separation could be affected: (N)                                 situations where there is limited opportunity to obtain
                                                                  position reports, ATC should obtain pilot estimates for a
                                                                  cross check (eg. an IFR flight, where the arrival fix is the
                                                                  only position after departure).
A.   check the accuracy of the ATC estimate;
B.   if a discrepancy remains, request the pilot to
     check the aircraft estimate; and
C.   if following this action a discrepancy still exists,
     take appropriate action to ensure separation
     will not be compromised.

Do not base separation on the assumption that the
estimated time is correct if a position report is not
received within a reasonable length of time after the
estimated time over a reporting point. Take action
to obtain the position report:
A. as soon as practicable; or
B. not later than 5 minutes after the estimated
     time over the reporting point, if flight safety is
     likely to be affected.

                                                       ATC 4-50
473.3                                                         473.3 Diagram:
Separate aircraft laterally by ensuring that the
following protected airspaces do not overlap. (D)

                                                                              HOLDING AREA

                                                                                              PROTECTED AIRSPACE

A.   Holding areas.
B.   1. low-level airways; and
     2. the airspace to be protected, including
          additional protected airspace for change of
          direction, for:
          a. high-level airways; and
          b. off-airway tracks.
C.   Initial, intermediate, final, missed approach
     and departure areas.

473.4                                                         473.4 Note:
If applying separation based on the airspace-to-be-           Airway design is predicated on the assumption that
protected concept, protect the airspace as depicted           aircraft will follow the intended track/airway centreline
                                                              using the appropriate navigation systems. If the pilot or
by the airspace planners, or determine the                    ATC wants the aircraft to follow a different flight path,
appropriate protected airspace dimensions in                  then the aircraft is no longer considered to be following the
accordance with direction from unit management.               airway and the appropriate minimum IFR altitude –
(N)                                                           excluding the airway MEA or MOCA – for the airspace
                                                              involved is to be taken into account.

                                                   ATC 4-55
Protect tracks transitioning to or from areas of
signal coverage, beyond the basic width of 8 or 8.68
miles, as follows:
A. for tracks inbound to signal coverage: (D)                473.5 A. Diagram:




     1.   draw parallel lines 45 miles each side of
          track centreline until they intercept the
          area of signal coverage; and
     2. join the points of intercept, as determined
          above, to the NAVAID;
B.   for tracks outbound from signal coverage: (D)           473.5 B. Diagram:

                                                                                    45°   45NM


     1.   draw lines from the NAVAID diverging at
          4.5 degrees or 5 degrees as appropriate to
          points where they intercept the limit of
          NAVAID coverage; and
     2.   draw lines from the points determined
          above at an angle of 45 degrees until they
          intercept parallel lines drawn 45 miles
          each side of track centreline;

                                                  ATC 4-56
C.   for tracks departing controlled airspace while             473.5 C. Diagram:
     within signal coverage, draw lines diverging                              UNCONTROLLED
     from the NAVAID at 4.5 degrees or 5 degrees                                 AIRSPACE
     either side of track to the boundary of
     controlled airspace; (D )

                                                                               4.5° / 5°            AIRSPACE

D. for inbound tracks entering controlled airspace
   while within signal coverage:
   1. determine and depict the airspace as                      473.5 D. 1. Diagram:
        described in C. above, provided the                                     UNCONTROLLED
        clearance clearly indicates the position at                               AIRSPACE
        which the aircraft is to enter controlled
        airspace; or (D)

                                                                               4.5° / 5°             AIRSPACE

                                                                                                    SPECIFIED POINT
                                                                                                       OF ENTRY

     2.   if the point at which the aircraft will enter         473.5 D. 2. Diagram:
          controlled airspace cannot be accurately
          determined, protect 45 miles each side of                                   AIRSPACE         ESTIMATED
          the intended track until the aircraft is                                                   POINT OF ENTRY
          established on a NAVAID; (D)


                                                                                    AIRCRAFT ESTABLISHED

Geographical separation is a form of lateral
separation positively indicated by position
information derived from radar, NAVAIDs, RNAV or
visual reference to the ground.

                                                     ATC 4-57
473.7                                                            473.7 Reference:
Consider aircraft geographically separated if one                Fix Tolerance Area; Definitions.
aircraft is over a location whose fix tolerance area
does not overlap: (R)
A. the fix tolerance area for other aircraft over                473.7 A. Diagram:
     different geographical locations; or (D)


                                                                                           RADAR OBSERVED POSITION

B.   the protected airspace for other aircraft. (D)              473.7 B. Diagram:

                                                                     PROTECTED AIRSPACE

                                                                                                           DME FIX TOLER-
                                                                                                           ANCE AREA

                                                                            FIX TOLERANCE AREA

If applying geographical separation, determine the
appropriate fix tolerance area in accordance with
the following:
A. If position information is derived from radar,                473.8 A. Note:
     use the appropriate radar separation minimum.               This does not apply if both aircraft are radar identified.
                                                                 473.8 A. Reference:
                                                                 Fix Tolerance Area; 473.7 A.
B. If position information is derived from
   NAVAIDs, use the values as depicted by the
   airspace planners or in accordance with
   direction from unit management.
C. If position information is derived from RNAV
   and you are controlling RNPC or CMNPS
   airspace, use the minima in sections 480 and
   740 respectively.
D. If position information is derived from visual                473.8 D. Reference:
   reference to the ground, use caution to ensure                Lateral Separation; 473.
   that the aircraft's position is accurately defined.

                                                      ATC 4-58
    473.9                                                           473.9 Diagram:
    Consider an aircraft that is proceeding away from
    protected airspace to be geographically separated                                                              5°
    when it has reported crossing a radial that: (D)                   THE EASTBOUND AIRCRAFT
                                                                         MUST BE VERTICALLY                             RADIAL “A”
                                                                        SEPARATED UNTIL PAST
                                                                              RADIAL “A”
                                                                                                                  45° OR MORE

    A.   provides at least 5 degrees clearance from the
         area of overlap; and
    B.   intersects the track of the traversing aircraft at
         an angle of at least 45 degrees.

*   473.10                                                          473.10 Diagram:
    Separate converging aircraft by ensuring that their
    protected airspaces do not overlap. This may be
    accomplished by issuing: (D)

                                                                                                   HOLDING AREA

*   A.   a holding instruction; or
*   B.   a restriction and, if necessary, an alternate         *    473.10 B. Note:
         instruction. (N)(R)                                        Protection for potential holding airspace, should a climb or
                                                                    descent restriction not be met, is a necessary buffer to
                                                                    ensure protected airspace does not overlap and is required
                                                                    as part of the planning process.
                                                                    Although alternate instructions may replace the
                                                                    requirement to issue a holding clearance they do not
                                                                    eliminate the requirement to protect for a possible hold. An
                                                                    alternate instruction may not be required if there is no
                                                                    doubt that the aircraft will comply with the restriction.
                                                                    473.10 B. Reference:
                                                                    Alternate Instructions; 413.

                                                         ATC 4-59
*   473.11                                                  *    473.11 Note 1:
    In the application of 473.10, you may use one of the         These distances are meant to be used on an ad hoc basis
    following along track DME/GNSS fixes as the point            and, as such, are predicated on worst case scenarios. Lesser
                                                                 distances based on slower speeds and lower altitudes may
    to effect a restriction: (N)                                 be used, if they are confirmed through plotting or developed
                                                                 in accordance with the Holding Criteria Document and
                                   DME/GNSS                      published in a unit directive.
                                 Restriction to be          *    473.11 Note 2:
       Aircraft Altitude
                                 added to point of               Track overlap table:
                                  track overlap                                        OVERLAP CEASES
     12, 000 & BLO             15 DME/miles                      ANGLE BETWEEN
                                                                   TRACKS IN           4 MILE WIDTH       4.34 MILE WIDTH
     13, 000 – FL250           25 DME/miles                         DEGREES
     FL260 & ABV               35 DME/miles                               9                  N/A*                N/A*
                                                                          10                  46                 N/A*
                                                                          11                  42                  46
                                                                          12                  39                  42
                                                                          13                  36                  39
                                                                          15                  31                  34
                                                                          17                  28                  30
                                                                          20                  24                  25
                                                                          25                  19                  21
                                                                          30                  16                  17
                                                                          35                  14                  15
                                                                          40                  12                  13
                                                                          45                  11                  12
                                                                          50                  10                  11
                                                                          55                   9                  10
                                                                          60                   8                   9
                                                                          65                   8                   9
                                                                          70                   7                   8
                                                                          75                   7                   8
                                                                          80                   7                   7
                                                                          85                   6                   7
                                                                          90                   6                   7
                                                                     * No divergence exists until reaching airway midpoint

                                                      ATC 4-60
    492.5                                                         492.5 Reference:
    Where control estimates are effected by a                     Reduced vertical separation minimum (RVSM); 408.
                                                                  Direction of flight; 432.
    functioning CAATS data link, coordinate the
                                                                  Altitude readouts; 503.
    following data verbally: (R)                                  Transponder operations; 521.
    A. Loss of RVSM certification due to an equipment
       failure in flight.
    B. Status of a non–RVSM aircraft authorized to
       operate in RVSM airspace.
    C. Identification of an altitude as wrong way.
    D. Identification of block altitudes.
    E. Identification of altitude readouts that are
       invalid or not validated.
    F. Automatic altitude reporting turned off.
    G. Aircraft        transponder        unserviceable,
       malfunctioning, set to standby or turned off.
    H. The separation minima being applied in
       procedural airspace if less than 10 minutes
    I. Aircraft     operating    within   an    altitude
       reservation or engaged in an aerial survey
       mapping flight, formation flight or test flight.

    Flight data received from another unit via a
    functioning data transfer link, shall be processed by
    the receiving unit without any changes being made
    to the data, unless the change is depicted on all
    affected controllers' flight progress strips.

*   492.7                                                    *    492.7 Note:
    Forward the following to an IFR unit or sector:               This may be accomplished electronically.
    (N)(R)                                                   *    492.7 Reference:
                                                                  Radar and automated systems; 441.2, ATSAMM.
*   A.   revisions to previously passed data; and
*   B.   control estimate time revisions of 3 minutes or

    Forward the position report over the last fix within
    the control area if:
    A. the report indicates that only minimum
         separation exists at that point; or
    B. the report differs from the previously passed
         estimate by 3 minutes or more.

    492.9                                                         492.9 Note:
    Specify the separation minimum being applied if               When this information is passed electronically, verbal
                                                                  coordination is also required.
    less than 10 minutes longitudinal separation will
    exist between aircraft entering a receiving unit's
    area. (N)

    In RVSM airspace, where there is a vertical sector
    split, and Non-RVSM aircraft will be operating less
    than 2000 ft from the vertical sector boundary,
    coordinate with the vertically adjacent sector.

                                                       ATC 4-97
    493        IFR UNIT — TOWER AND FLIGHT

    493.1                                                      493.1 Note 1:
    Forward the following data concerning arriving IFR         This time requirement may be modified by Arrangement.
                                                               493.1 Note 2:
    aircraft to the tower or FSS 15 minutes or more
                                                               This may be accomplished electronically.
    before the aircraft contacts the unit: (N)
    A. Aircraft identification.
    B. Type of aircraft, prefixed by the number of
         aircraft if more than one.
    C. Point of departure.
    D. An estimate over: (N)                                   493.1 D. Note:
                                                               The point for which the estimate is calculated need not be
                                                               stated if it is specified in an Arrangement.
          1. an adjacent en route navigation facility;
          2. the navigation facility serving the
             approach procedure to be used;
          3. the airport; or
          4. a point specified in an Arrangement.
    E.    Other information.

*   493.2                                                 *    493.2 Note:
    Forward the following to the tower or FSS: (N)             This may be accomplished electronically.
*   A. revisions to previously passed data; and
*   B. control estimate time revisions of 3 minutes or

    Forward to the tower or FSS, the position report
    over the approach aid if it differs from the
    previously passed estimate by 3 minutes or more,
    unless you are aware that the tower or FSS has the

    Forward to towers or FSSs, the following data
    concerning departing IFR or CVFR aircraft as soon
    as practicable:
    A. Flight plan data if other than a scheduled air
        carrier flight.
    B. Anticipated delay to a departing aircraft.

                                                    ATC 4-98


Apply separation between the centres of PPS and do
not permit PPS to touch.

You may apply separation between an aircraft
taking off or executing a missed approach and other
radar controlled aircraft provided:
A. in your judgment, the departing or missed
    approach aircraft will be radar identified
    within 1 mile of the end of the runway;
B. radar separation will be established at that
C. continuing separation from all known IFR or
    CVFR aircraft will be assured.

You may apply radar separation between a radar
identified aircraft and an aircraft that is not radar
identified provided the following conditions are met:
A. One aircraft is cleared to climb or descend
    through the altitude of the other aircraft.
B. The performance of the primary radar system is             541.3 B. Note:
    adequate and primary radar targets are being              Collocated primary and secondary surveillance radars
    displayed on the radar display being used. (N)            without known operating deficiencies are considered
C. The airspace in which the separation is applied
   is 10 miles or more from the extremity of
   reliable primary radar coverage provided on the
   radar display being used.
D. The non-identified aircraft is a type that can be
   expected to give an adequate primary radar
   return in the airspace in which the separation
   is being applied.
E. If both aircraft are proceeding in the same
   direction, the identified aircraft is vectored,
   before climb or descent, to the extent necessary
   to ensure its target has not obscured that of the
   non-identified aircraft.
F. Radar separation is maintained from all
   observed targets until non-radar separation is
   established from the non-identified aircraft.

                                                   ATC 5-27
542        MINIMA

542.1                                                             542.1 Note 1:
Separate aircraft by using one of the following                   These minima do not apply when you separate an arriving
minima: (N)(R)                                                    aircraft from a departing aircraft in accordance with
                                                                  542.1 Note 2:
                                                                  The Range Bearing Line (RBL) and Halo function can be
                                                                  used to assist in determining the separation between PPS.
                                                                  The distances provided by RBL are measured from centre
                                                                  to centre of the PPS. The radius of the halo is user
                                                                  selectable and does not vary with range.
                                                                  542.1 Reference:
                                                                  Wake Turbulence — Terminal and En Route Control; 183.
                                                                  Application; 471.3.
A.    5 miles provided the surveillance source is
      either RSE or ADS-B;
B.    3 miles provided: (I)                                  *    542.1 B. Interpretation:
                                                                  Release of successive IFR departures.
      1.   terminal control service is being provided;
      2.   a maximum range of:
           a. 60 miles is displayed on the radar
               display; or
           b. 120 miles from left to right is displayed           542.1 B. 2. b. Note 1:
               when utilizing a RSiT, CSiT or NARDS               Aircraft target information derived from either a primary
                                                                  or a secondary radar source, in a mosaiced radar
               display. (N)
                                                                  environment may be used.
                                                                  542.1 B. 2. b. Note 2:
                                                                  3 mile separation may only be applied with the situational
                                                                  display and not with the use of an inset window.
      3.   aircraft are no further than 80 miles from a           542.1 B. 3. Note:
           radar antenna; and (N)                                 When operating within a mosaiced environment a
                                                                  preferred or supplemental RSE may be used.
      4.   a    altitude readouts for both aircraft are
                displayed; or
           b.   both aircraft are at or below 15,000 feet

                                                       ATC 5-28
C.   where approved by the Director, ATS                        542.1 C. Reference:
     Operational Support, 2.5 miles between aircraft            Wake Turbulence — Terminal and En Route Control; 183.
                                                                Provision of Service; 501.
     established on the same final approach course
     within 10 miles of the landing          runway
     provided: (R)
     1. the leading aircraft is not a heavy;
     2. the following aircraft's wake turbulence
         category is the same or heavier than that of
         the leading aircraft; and
     3. the runway is bare. (N)                                 542.1 C. 3. Note:
                                                                During winter operations, only the centre 100 feet (50 feet
                                                                either side of the centreline) of the runway must be bare.
D. 1 mile provided: (R)                                         542.1 D. Reference:
                                                                Conflict Resolution; Definitions.
                                                                Wake Turbulence; 180.
                                                                Wake Turbulence — Airport Control; 182.
                                                                Wake Turbulence — Terminal and En Route Control; 183.
                                                                Separation - Application; 541.
                                                                Separation; 382.
                                                                Conflict Resolution; 394.
     1.   you operate in a mosaiced environment;                542.1 D. 1. Note:
          and (N)                                               Due to equipment limitations i.e., mosaicing, it is necessary
                                                                to maintain a minimum of 1 mile between the centres of the
                                                                PPS when providing conflict resolution.
          a.  at least one of the aircraft is VFR;
          b.  a maximum range of:
              i. 40 miles is displayed on the radar
                   display; or
              ii. 80 miles from left to right is
                   displayed when utilizing a RSiT,
                   CSiT or NARDS display;
          c. altitude readouts are displayed for both
              aircraft; and
          d. the position of the centre of the radar
              display is such that the maximum
              range this service can be provided, does
              not exceed 120 miles from the preferred
              or supplementary radar.
     2.   you operate       in    a    non     mosaiced
          environment; and
          a. at least one of the aircraft is VFR;
          b. a maximum range of:
              i. 40 miles is displayed on the radar
                   display; or
              ii. 80 miles from left to right is
                   displayed when utilizing a RSiT,
                   CSiT or NARDS display;
          c. altitude readouts are displayed for both
              aircraft; and
          d. the position of the centre of the radar
              display is such that the maximum
              range this service can be provided, does
              not exceed 60 miles from the RSE.

                                                     ATC 5-29
E.   Target resolution provided; (R)                            542.1 E. Reference:
                                                                Separation; 382.
                                                                Conflict Resolution; 384.
     1.   at least one of the aircraft is VFR;
     2.   a maximum range of: (R)                               542.1 E. 2. Reference:
                                                                Minima; 383.
          a.  40 miles is displayed on the radar
              display; or
         b. 80 miles from left to right is displayed
              when utilizing a RSiT, CSiT or NARDS
     3. altitude readouts are displayed for both
     4. PPS size is selected at 2 or greater;
     5. the position of the centre of the radar
         display is such that the maximum range
         this service can be provided, does not
         exceed 60 miles from the RSE.
F.   10 miles, provided:
     1. the radar source is not an RSE; or (N)                  542.1 F. 1. Note 1:
                                                                RSE source consists of either a TSR or ISSR.
                                                           *    542.1 F. 1. Note 2:
                                                                DND TRACS radar has been certified by Engineering and
                                                                OSR as RSE-equivalent within 100 NM; beyond 100 NM,
                                                                it is certified for 10 miles separation. FAA ATC radars, e.g.,
                                                                Spokane, are RSE-equivalent for normal radar separation.
     2.   the non-RSE radar has been made either                542.1 F. 2. Note:
          the preferred or supplementary radar for              If the non-RSE radar becomes unserviceable, a lower
          one or more tiles, as indicated by an                 separation minimum can then be utilized in areas of radar
                                                                coverage where only RSE radars would provide the
          overlay map. (N)                                      remaining coverage.

A terminal control sector may hand-off an IFR
aircraft to the adjacent en route sector with 3 miles
radar separation provided:
A. the display range selected in the en route sector
     is not greater than 60 miles, or 120 miles left to
     right if using RSiT, CSiT or NARDS;
B. aircraft are on tracks or assigned headings that        *    542.2 B. Interpretation:
     diverge by at least 10 degrees; or (I)                     Release of successive IFR departures.
C. the RDPS ground speed of the leading aircraft
     is faster than the following aircraft;
D. 5 miles or another form of separation is
     established before the aircraft reaches a
     distance of 80 miles from the radar antenna;
E. this procedure is authorized in local unit
     procedures or as specified in Arrangements.

                                                     ATC 5-30

    553.1                                                            553.1 Note:
    Vector aircraft by using one of the following                    These provisions do not apply if you are using “no-gyro”
    methods: (N)                                                     techniques, as explained in 553.2.
    A. Specify the heading to be flown. (P)                          553.1 A. Phraseology:
                                                                     FLY HEADING (number).
                                                                     DEPART (fix) ON HEADING (number).
                                                                     MAINTAIN PRESENT HEADING.
    B.    Specify the direction of the turn and the                  553.1 B. Phraseology:
          heading to be flown after completion of the                TURN LEFT/RIGHT HEADING (number).
          turn. (P)
    C.    Specify the direction of the turn and the                  553.1 C. Phraseology:
          number of degrees to turn. (P)                             TURN LEFT/RIGHT (number) DEGREES.

    If an aircraft does not have a serviceable directional
    gyro, take the following actions:
    A. Determine whether the aircraft's desired rate of              553.2 A. Note:
         turn is rate one or rate one half. (N)                      A rate one turn is a turn at the rate of 3 degrees per second.
    B. Instruct the aircraft to make turns at the                    553.2 B. Phraseology:
         agreed rate and to start and stop turns as                  DISREGARD YOUR GYRO, MAKE ALL TURNS AT
         directed. (P)                                               RATE ONE/RATE ONE HALF. START AND STOP ALL
                                                                     TURNS ON THE COMMAND “NOW”.
    C.    Vector the aircraft by specifying the direction of         553.2 C. Phraseology:
          turn and when to start and stop turn. (P)                  TURN LEFT/RIGHT NOW.
                                                                     then —
                                                                     STOP TURN NOW.

*   553.3                                                       *    553.3 Note:
    When vectoring aircraft north of 70 degrees North,               Due to uncertainty of compass performance in this area,
    use the method described in 553.1 C. (N)                         assignment of a heading for control purposes is considered

    554       SPEED ADJUSTMENT

    554.1                                                            554.1 Reference:
    Instruct a radar controlled aircraft to adjust its               Clearances, Instructions and Readbacks; 133.1 Note.
                                                                     Aircraft Speed Limitations; 602.32, CARs.
    speed, provided this action is necessary to achieve
    or maintain required spacing or to minimize
    vectoring. (R)

    Express a speed adjustment:
    A. in units or multiples of 10 knots, based on IAS,              554.2 A. Note:
        or; (N)                                                      Aircraft complying with speed adjustments are expected to
                                                                     maintain a speed within plus or minus 10 knots of the
                                                                     specified speed.
    B.    by the assignment of specific Mach number to
          be maintained provided the aircraft is a
          turbojet operating in high level airspace.

                                                          ATC 5-39
554.3                                                             554.3 Note:
Instruct an aircraft to do one of the following: (N)              Use the following table as a guideline when making speed
                                                                      IF THE
                                                                                   AND IF THE                        THEN
                                                                   DISTANCE TO                    AND IF THE
                                                                                    AIRCRAFT                       MINIMUM
                                                                   DESTINATION                    ALTITUDE IS
                                                                                     TYPE IS                       SPEED IS

                                                                                                   10,000 ASL         250
                                                                                                  AND ABOVE           IAS
                                                                    20 MILES OR
                                                                                                    BELOW             210
                                                                                                   10,000 ASL         IAS

                                                                   LESS THAN 20

                                                                  Some aircraft may be unable to maintain a speed as high
                                                                  or as low as those specified in this table. Turbojet aircraft
                                                                  conducting straight-in approaches in IMC should not be
                                                                  requested to maintain a speed in excess of 160 knots if less
                                                                  than 10 miles from the runway.
A.   State its speed/Mach number. (P)                             554.3 A. Phraseology:
                                                                  SAY AIRSPEED.
                                                                  SAY MACH-NUMBER.
B.   Maintain its present speed/Mach number or a                  554.3 B. Phraseology:
     speed/Mach-number equivalent to or less than                 MAINTAIN PRESENT SPEED or MACH NUMBER.
     that of a preceding or succeeding aircraft. (P)              MAINTAIN SPEED (specified speed) KNOTS.
                                                                  MAINTAIN MACH (specified MACH).
                                                                  REDUCE TO MINIMUM APPROACH SPEED.
C.   Increase or decrease its speed to a specified                554.3 C. Phraseology:
     speed/Mach number. (P)(N)                                    INCREASE/REDUCE SPEED TO (specified speed in
                                                                  knots or Mach number).
                                                                  Speed reduction prior to descent —
                                                                  REDUCE SPEED TO (specified speed by number of knots),
                                                                  THEN DESCEND TO (altitude).
                                                                  Speed reduction following descent —
                                                                  DESCEND TO (altitude), THEN REDUCE SPEED (to
                                                                  specified speed/by number of knots/to Mach number).
                                                                  554.3 C. Note 1:
                                                                  Use of “TO” with “INCREASE/REDUCE SPEED”
                                                                  instruction is not mandatory and may be omitted in cases
                                                                  where it is considered redundant or might be mistaken for
                                                                  the number “TWO”.
                                                                  554.3 C. Note 2:
                                                                  Simultaneous descent and speed reduction can be a
                                                                  difficult manoeuvre for some types of turbojet aircraft. It
                                                                  may be necessary for the pilot to level off temporarily and
                                                                  reduce speed, prior to descending. Specifying which action
                                                                  is to be accomplished first, will remove any doubt the pilot
                                                                  may have concerning controller intent or priority.
D. Increase or decrease its speed by a specified                  554.3 D. Phraseology:
   amount or to an assigned Mach-number. (P)                      INCREASE/REDUCE SPEED BY (specified number of
                                                                  knots or Mach number).
E.   Avoid exceeding a specified speed. (P)                       554.3 E. Phraseology:
                                                                  DO NOT EXCEED SPEED (speed) Knots.
                                                                  DO NOT EXCEED MACH (Mach number).

554.4                                                             554.4 Phraseology:
Do not assign speeds that are lower than those                    ARE YOU ABLE TO MAINTAIN (specified speed)?
                                                                  — or —
specified in 554.3 Note without prior coordination
                                                                  WHAT IS YOUR MINIMUM APPROACH SPEED?
with the aircraft. (P)                                            followed by —
                                                                  REDUCE TO (specified speed).

                                                       ATC 5-40

561       GENERAL

Use standard departure routings, altitudes, and
procedures to reduce coordination if practicable.

561.2                                                          561.2 Note:
Base an initial departure clearance on non-radar               This provision does not apply if aircraft will be radar
                                                               separated in accordance with 541.2.
separation minima and non-radar routes, to provide
for radar or communication failure. (N)

Include the following instructions in a departure
clearance as applicable:
A. The initial heading to be flown, if the aircraft is         561.3 A. Note:
    to be vectored immediately after takeoff. (N)              Aircraft instructed to “climb runway heading” or a SID, or
                                                               departure procedure for which no specific heading is
                                                               published, are expected to fly the heading that corresponds
                                                               with the extended centreline of the departure runway until
                                                               otherwise instructed. Drift correction will not be applied;
                                                               e.g. Runway 04, magnetic heading of the centreline is 044
                                                               degrees, aircraft will fly heading 044 degrees.
B.    The appropriate instructions concerning                  561.3 B. Phraseology:
      transponder operation, if a secondary radar              SQUAWK (number) JUST BEFORE TAKEOFF.
      reply is required immediately after takeoff. (P)

561.4                                                          561.4 Note:
In section 560, you may assign: (N)                            Track, in this case, means a bearing RNAV SID track,
                                                               radial, ILS course or other path not subject to wind.
A.    two headings or two tracks that diverge by the
      required standard;
B.    a track and a heading that diverge by 45° or
      more; or
C.    a track and heading that diverge by less than            561.4 C. Diagram:
      45° provided drift correction is applied to the
      aircraft on the heading to ensure the required
      divergence. (D)

                                                                                      Less than 45°

                                                                                             WIN                     ing
                                                                                                 D           As
                                                                                                            h e sign
                                                                                                               a d ed

561.5                                                          561.5 Reference:
Where approved by the Director, ATS Operational                Successive IFR Departures — Visual Separation; 335.
Support, initial separation, based upon visual
observation by the airport controller, shall be in
accordance with a unit directive or Arrangement.

                                                    ATC 5-45

*   562.1                                                            562.1 Interpretation:
    A controller providing terminal control service may              IFR Training Flights.
    permit a departing aircraft to take off in a direction           Departure versus arrival.
    that differs by 45 degrees or more from the
    reciprocal of the track of an arriving aircraft
    provided: (I)
    A. The arriving aircraft is on final approach.
    B. The arriving aircraft is radar identified.
    C. 1. The departing aircraft is airborne when the                562.1 C. 1. Diagram:
             arriving aircraft is not less than 2 miles
             from the threshold of the landing runway;

                                                                                 2 MILES

          2.   The departing aircraft has commenced its              562.1 C. 2. Note 1:
               take-off roll when the arriving aircraft is           This separation is determined at the time the departing
               not less than 2 miles from the threshold of           aircraft commences its take-off roll.
                                                                     562.1 C. 2. Note 2:
               the landing runway provided: (N)(D)                   You are expected to consider the prevailing weather and the
                                                                     effect of the runway surface conditions on the aircraft's
                                                                     ability to commence take-off roll in a timely manner.
                                                                     562.1 C. 2. Diagram:

                                                                                  2 MILES

               a.   separation will increase to a minimum
                    of 3 miles (5 miles if more than 60 mile
                    range is displayed on the radar display,
                    or 120 miles left to right when using
                    RSiT, CSiT or NARDS) within 1
                    minute after takeoff;
               b.   the tower is equipped with a display
                    upon which radar track data, including
                    aircraft ground speed, is being

                                                          ATC 5-46
563.2                                                          563.2 Diagram:
You may authorize simultaneous takeoffs for
aircraft departing from non-intersecting runways
provided: (D)

                                                                                               15 DEGREES OR MORE

A. the runway centrelines diverge by 15 degrees or
B. radar identification of both aircraft will be
   established within 1 mile of the runway used
   for takeoff;
C. a maximum of 60 miles is displayed on the
   radar display or 120 miles left to right when
   using RSiT, CSiT or NARDS;
D. when required, a wake turbulence minimum is                 563.2 D. Reference:
   applied; and (R)                                            Wake Turbulence — Airport Control; 182.
                                                               Wake Turbulence — Terminal and En Route Control; 183.
E.   neither aircraft is cleared nor permitted to turn
     towards the other, unless another form of
     separation has been achieved.

563.3                                                          563.3 Diagram:
You may authorize a succeeding aircraft to take off
from an intersecting runway provided: (D)(I)

                                                                                                15 DEGREES OR MORE

                                                               563.3 Interpretation:
                                                               Departure versus departure.
A.   the runway centrelines diverge by 15 degrees or
B.   the previous aircraft has passed the point of the
     runway intersection;
C.   when required a wake turbulence minimum is                563.3 C. Reference:
     applied to the succeeding aircraft; (R)                   Wake Turbulence — Airport Control; 182.
                                                               Wake Turbulence — Terminal and En Route Control; 183.
D. radar identification of both aircraft will be
   established within 1 mile of the runway used
   for takeoff;

                                                    ATC 5-51
    E.    a maximum of 60 miles is displayed on the
          radar display or 120 miles left to right when
          using RSiT, CSiT or NARDS; and
    F.    neither aircraft is cleared nor permitted to turn
          towards the departure path of the other, unless
          another form of separation has been achieved.


*   564.1
    A controller providing terminal control service may
    separate successive aircraft departing from the
    same, or parallel runways that are separated by less
    than 2,500 feet by 1 mile provided:
    A. radar identification of both aircraft will be
        established within 1 mile of the end of the
        runway used for takeoff;
    B. a maximum of 60 miles is displayed on the
        radar display or 120 miles left to right when
        using RSiT, CSiT or NARDS;
    C. both aircraft are assigned tracks that diverge               564.1 C. Note:
        immediately after takeoff as follows: (N)                   Where a turn is required after takeoff normally the aircraft
                                                                    will climb straight ahead until reaching at least 400 feet
                                                                    before commencing the turn.
          1.   if the speed of the following aircraft will
               exceed that of the leading aircraft;
               a. turn the leading aircraft 30 degrees or
                    more; and
               b. if you turn the following aircraft to the         564.1 C. 1. b. Diagram:
                    same side of the runway centreline,
                    ensure that the angle between their
                    tracks equals 30 degrees or more, and
                    do not turn the following aircraft                                                        30 DEGREES
                    further than the leading aircraft, and;                                                    OR MORE
                                                                                             1 MILE

                do not authorize the following aircraft
                to depart until the leading aircraft has
                commenced the turn;
       2. if the speed of the following aircraft will not
           exceed that of the leading aircraft, turn
           either aircraft or turn both aircraft
           immediately after takeoff such that the
           angle between their tracks equals 15
           degrees or more;
    D. successive departing aircraft are assigned track
       divergence until another form of separation has
       been achieved;

                                                         ATC 5-52
    570     ARRIVALS

    571     GENERAL

    Use standard arrival routings, altitudes and
    procedures to reduce coordination, if practicable.

    571.2                                                         571.2 Phraseology:
    Except as provided in 571.3 and 571.4, clear an               CLEARED TO (fix) MAINTAIN or DESCEND TO
    arriving aircraft to a fix from which an instrument
                                                                  571.2 Note:
    approach can be carried out. (P)(N)(R)                        It is expected you will assign the final approach course fix,
                                                                  or the initial or intermediate approach fix, for the
                                                                  anticipated approach.
                                                                  571.2 Reference:
                                                                  Holding Fixes; 452.

    571.3                                                         571.3 Reference:
    You may, in a terminal radar environment, omit                Clearance Limit; 463.
    issuing a clearance limit to arriving aircraft                Vectoring — General; 551.
                                                                  Radar Arrivals; RAC 9.7, TC AIM.
    provided the radio and radar systems meet the
    requirements of 572.2 B. (R)

    571.4                                                         571.4 Reference:
    You may omit clearing an aircraft to a published              Clearance Limit; 463.
    approach fix, from which an instrument approach
    can be carried out, if the aircraft has been cleared
    for a STAR. (R)

    571.5                                                         571.5 Example:
    The arrival controller shall inform the aircraft of           RUNWAY 24 LEFT.
    the landing runway on initial contact if the aircraft
    has been cleared for a conventional or RNAV STAR.


    Apply vertical separation between successive
    arriving aircraft if they are in such proximity to
    their clearance limit and to each other, that less
    than the required radar separation could occur in
    the event of a communications or radar failure.

*   572.2
    A controller providing terminal control service need
    not apply vertical separation between successive
    arriving aircraft provided one of the following
    conditions is met:
    A. radar separation is established from the
        preceding aircraft and the preceding aircraft is:
        1. established on the final approach course; or
        2. cleared for a visual approach in accordance
             with 576.1.

                                                       ATC 5-55
    B.    both aircraft are provided terminal control               572.2 B. Note:
          service in a terminal area by a controller whose          “Terminal area” means the airspace under the jurisdiction
                                                                    of a terminal sector or terminal unit. It may or may not be
          radar and radio systems meet the following
                                                                    designated in the DAH.
          requirements: (N)
          1. A TSR is the prefered radar source. (N)                572.2 B. 1. Note:
                                                                    With a mosaiced-radar display, failure of the designated
                                                                    preferred radar will result in automatic switching to the
                                                                    designated supplementary radar. The RDPS will
                                                                    redesignate it as the new preferred radar. If a further
                                                                    radar source is available, this can be brought on-line as the
                                                                    new supplementary radar. Unless advised otherwise,
                                                                    mosaiced-radar presentations will have at least one
                                                                    automatic back-up radar available.
          2.  Radio System:
              a. primary frequencies connected to a
                  UPS; or
              b. primary frequencies backed up with
                  emergency battery-operated trans-
                  ceivers with external antennas.
    C.    you have issued instructions to ensure that
          separation will be maintained in the event of a
          communication failure.

*   572.3                                                           572.3 Note:
    A controller providing terminal control service may             This provision does not apply to an aircraft that is cleared
    clear a succeeding aircraft for an approach provided            for a visual approach in accordance with 576.1.
                                                                    572.3 Reference:
    the preceding aircraft has been cleared for                     Final Approach Course; Definitions.
    approach; and (N)(R)                                            Transition; Definitions.
    A. is established on the final approach course;
    B. is established on the intercept heading to the
        final approach course; or
    C. has passed the IF on the assigned transition if
        conducting an RNAV RNP approach.


    573.1                                                           573.1 Note:
    When an aircraft is on the final approach course, or            You may omit 573.1 A. and B. if the aircraft is flying an
                                                                    RNAV STAR.
    immediately before the turn on to the final
                                                                    573.1 Example:
    approach course, issue the following to the aircraft:           FLY HEADING ONE TWO ZERO TO INTERCEPT
    (N)(E)                                                          FINAL APPROACH COURSE. FOUR MILES FROM
                                                                    THE HALIFAX NDB, CLEARED FOR STRAIGHT-IN ILS
                                                                    RUNWAY ONE FIVE APPROACH. CONTACT HALIFAX
                                                                    TOWER ON ONE ONE EIGHT DECIMAL FOUR NOW.
                                                                    — OR —
                                                                    TURN RIGHT HEADING TWO SEVEN ZERO TO
                                                                    INTERCEPT FINAL APPROACH COURSE, EIGHT
                                                                    MILES FROM AIRPORT. CLEARED TO THE
                                                                    EDMONTON AIRPORT FOR STRAIGHT-IN ILS
                                                                    RUNWAY THREE ZERO APPROACH. CONTACT
                                                                    EDMONTON TOWER ON ONE ONE EIGHT DECIMAL
                                                                    — OR —
                                                                    TURN LEFT HEADING THREE ZERO ZERO TO
                                                                    INTERCEPT FINAL APPROACH COURSE, EIGHT
                                                                    MILES FROM THE THRESHOLD. CLEARED TO THE
                                                                    VICTORIA AIRPORT FOR STRAIGHT-IN ILS RUNWAY
                                                                    TWO SEVEN APPROACH. CONTACT VICTORIA
                                                                    TOWER ON ONE ONE NINER DECIMAL SEVEN.
    A.    the vector to intercept the final approach course
          if required;

                                                         ATC 5-56
579.3                                                         579.3 Note 1:
If the aircraft is flying an open STAR, provide               3 miles allows sufficient time for the pilot to connect the
                                                              RNAV STAR to the IFR approach. Once approach
further clearance or radar vectors if you are unable
                                                              clearance is received, the aircraft is expected to follow the
to issue approach clearance at least 3 miles prior to         RNAV route to the DTW, thence to the FACF and conduct a
the DTW. (N)(D)                                               straight-in approach. The aircraft is required to comply
                                                              with all published altitude and speed restrictions unless
                                                              specifically cancelled by ATC. If approach clearance is not
                                                              received by the DTW, the aircraft is required to fly the
                                                              published heading and expect radar vectors.
                                                              579.3 Note 2:
                                                              Description of a STAR as “open” or “closed” is a technical
                                                              description of the procedure. “Close the STAR” is not
                                                              recommended phraseology when issuing approach
                                                              clearance. Acceptance of the approach clearance is
                                                              indication that the pilot will fly the approach as described
                                                              in 579.3 Note 1.
                                                              579.3 Note 3:
                                                              Information to consider regarding the RNP short
                                                              transition approach:
                                                              A. In order to fly the RNP short transition, the aircraft
                                                                   requires approach clearance approximately 10 miles
                                                                   prior to the IF.
                                                              B. If the pilot has selected the RNP short transition and
                                                                   that transition is subsequently cancelled or not
                                                                   available; then the aircraft may no longer be able to
                                                                   navigate from the DTW to the FACF and, if so, will
                                                                   require radar vectors to the final approach course.
                                                              579.3 Note 4:
                                                              Clearance for a visual approach automatically cancels the
                                                              RNAV STAR.
                                                              579.3 Note 5:
                                                              The phrase “straight-in” may be omitted, as it is part of the
                                                              RNAV procedure.
                                                              579.3 Diagram:

                                                                          OPEN RNAV PROCEDURE

                                                                          DTW     3 NM




579.4                                                         579.4 Note:
Clear an aircraft flying an RNAV STAR for descent             The published altitude at the FACF allows the aircraft to
in sufficient time to be at the published minimum             intercept the glide path from below.
altitude, prior to crossing the Final Approach
Course Fix (FACF). (N)

579.5                                                         579.5 Note:
Do not clear an aircraft flying an RNAV STAR, to an           The published altitude at the FACF meets noise abatement
altitude below the FACF altitude. (N)                         requirements and is the lowest altitude contained in the
                                                              RNAV STAR.

                                                   ATC 5-63
    579.6                                                           579.6 Example:
    You may clear an aircraft flying an RNAV STAR to                CLEARED DIRECT (fix) DESCEND TO                      (altitude)
                                                                    EXPECT VECTORS TO FINAL APPROACH.
    fly direct to any fix or waypoint contained within
                                                                    569.6 Diagram:
    the STAR, provided: (E)(D)

                                                                                             DTW                         HDG



    A.   you or the aircraft gain an operational
         advantage, or the aircraft requests it and traffic
         conditions permit;
*   B.   you clarify the vertical profile if required; and          579.6 B. Note:
         (N)(E)                                                     If an amended route bypasses a fix over which a published
                                                                    altitude restriction exists, then the altitude restriction at
                                                                    that fix is automatically cancelled. However, this does not
                                                                    change the requirement to assign only altitudes at or above
                                                                    the minimum IFR altitude for the airspace concerned.
                                                                    579.6 B. Example:
                                                                    PROCEED DIRECT ROCTO, CROSS ROCTO AT ONE
                                                                    ONE THOUSAND.
    C.   you determine that the shorter route still allow           579.6 C. Note 1:
         an acceptable descent profile for the aircraft.            A request for direct routing indicates that the required
                                                                    descent profile is acceptable.
                                                                    579.6 C. Note 2:
                                                                    An acceptable descent profile may vary with aircraft type or
                                                                    operator; however, a 3 degree descent profile is generally
                                                                    considered desirable and a formula of 3 times the altitude
                                                                    is easy to follow. Therefore, 30 track miles would be
                                                                    considered an acceptable distance for descending 10,000
                                                                    feet. If in doubt regarding the profile, you may confirm with
                                                                    the aircraft that the available track miles are sufficient
                                                                    before initiating the shortcut.
                                                               *    579.6 C. Example:
                                                                    ARE YOU ABLE DIRECT GORAG, DISTANCE TO
                                                                    GOREG IS TWO FIVE MILES.

                                                         ATC 5-64

*   625.1                                                          625.1 Note:
    If an ELT signal is heard or reported that does not            This testing is restricted to the first five minutes of any
                                                                   hour UTC and to a duration of not more than five seconds.
    conform to the duration and time for testing,
    process an ELT report in accordance with the
    Aviation    Occurrence     Reporting    Procedures
    document. (N)

*   625.2
    If the ELT source cannot be identified:
    A. Coordinate with adjacent ATS units;
    B. Request aircraft in the area to listen on the
         distress frequencies and to report on the signal;
    C. Forward all reported information as it is

    If recording an aircraft's report of an ELT signal,
    obtain the following information:
    A. Position, altitude and time when the signal was
         first received.
    B. ELT signal strength when first received and
         when last received.
    C. Position, altitude and time when the signal was
         last received.

    625.4                                                          625.4 Note:
    When an automatic pilot ejection (bailout) signal is           Modern military aircraft squawk 7700 and emit a bailout
                                                                   signal after the aircrew has ejected. The bailout signal
    heard: (N)
                                                                   differs from an ELT signal and has a distinct repeating
                                                                   "ping" which descends in tone. All Canadian and other
                                                                   modern military aircraft bailout signals are transmitted
                                                                   on 243.0 MHz.

    A.    record the time the signal was first and last
          heard and the aircraft position if available on
          radar; and
    B.    notify the RCC or ACC, as appropriate.


    626.1                                                          626.1 Note:
    If practicable, inform the operator before notifying           The RCC is notified first in the case of an aircraft that has
                                                                   entered the distress phase.
    the RCC of an aircraft that has entered: (N)
    A. the uncertainty phase; or
    B. the alert phase.

    626.2                                                          626.2 Reference:
    If practicable, give the operator all the information          Release of Information; 122.
    that is given to the RCC. (R)

                                                        ATC 6-15

627.1                                                         627.1 Note:
ACCs should post MANOTs in the flight planning                An initial MANOT, identified by a reference number and
                                                              the name of the RCC originating the message, will contain
section. (N)(R)
                                                              information on the missing aircraft, such as:
                                                              A. identification;
                                                              B. type;
                                                              C. color;
                                                              D. markings;
                                                              E. date;
                                                              F. intended route;
                                                              G. emergency radio equipment; and
                                                              H. particulars of the search area.
                                                              A final MANOT, issued when the search is terminated, will
                                                              be identified by the same reference number and originator
                                                              as the initial MANOT.
                                                              627.1 Reference:
                                                              Missing Aircraft Notice (MANOT); Definitions.

Personnel accepting flight plans, should provide
MANOT information to aircraft planning to over-fly
any part of the search area.

Towers should provide MANOT information to an
aircraft if its route overlies any part of the search

627.4                                                         627.4 Reference:
Forward any response related to a MANOT to the                Dissemination of Information; 623.
appropriate RCC without delay. (R)

                                                   ATC 6-16


741.1                                                       741.1 Reference:
The control procedures may be applied to CMNPS              Designated Airspace Handbook.
                                                            CMNPS Airspace; RAC 12.5, TC AIM.
certified aircraft operating within CMNPS airspace
and the CMNPS transition area. (R)

You may authorize non-certified aircraft to operate
within CMNPS airspace provided:
A. an altitude reservation has been approved;
B. there will be no penalty to CMNPS certified
    aircraft; or
C. the aircraft declares an emergency. (R)                  741.2 C. Reference:
                                                            Aircraft Navigation Equipment for CMNPS; RAC 12.5.3,
                                                            TC AIM.

741.3                                                       741.3 Note:
Do not provide a non-certified aircraft with the            For domestic traffic, an appropriate equipment suffix
                                                            denoting certification is recorded on the flight plan.
reduced separation criteria that apply only to
                                                            Foreign carriers over-flying Canada may be considered
certified aircraft. (N)                                     certified, on the basis that they have flight planned into the
                                                            airspace and their route of flight indicates the use of RNAV
                                                            equipment. If for any reason (aircraft type, route, track
                                                            keeping etc.) you suspect an aircraft may not be certified,
                                                            you should query the pilot and, depending upon the
                                                            response, take appropriate action.


742.1                                                       742.1 Note:
You may reroute aircraft operating on random                A series of tracks and laterals have been established in the
tracks to established ACA and NCA tracks if traffic         ACA and the NCA to facilitate the application of reduced
                                                            separation minima and Mach number technique. During
warrants. (N)(R)                                            certain periods, flight planning via these tracks may be
                                                            made mandatory.
                                                            742.1 Reference:
                                                            En Route High Altitude Charts; Flight Information

                                                 ATC 7-15
743       SEPARATION

743.1                                                      743.1 Note:
Separate CMNPS certified aircraft using area               If applicable, separation minima in Part 4 may be used in
navigation systems and operating off airways as            conjunction with these procedures.
follows: (N)
A. Base control on projected tracks and estimates          743.1 A. Note:
     as substantiated by position reports. (N)(R)          Position reports derived from on board navigation systems
                                                           of CMNPS aircraft may be used for control purposes.
                                                           743.1 A. Reference:
                                                           Separation - Application; 471.
B.    Separate aircraft based on the minima and            743.1 B. Note 1:
      procedures specified in this section. (N)(R)         Vertical separation may be established or discontinued
                                                           where the aircraft crosses the nearest full or half degree of
                                                           latitude or longitude that will provide the required
                                                           743.1 B. Note 2:
                                                           Lateral separation exists until the time that an aircraft on
                                                           one track reaches a point:
                                                           A. 60 miles, as measured perpendicularly, to the other
                                                                 track; or
                                                           B. determined by latitude or longitude as follows:
                                                                 1. 1 degree of latitude; or
                                                                 2. the required degrees of longitude that provide at
                                                                      least 60 miles between tracks.
                                                           743.1 B. Note 3:
                                                           In the case of intersecting tracks, determination of the point
                                                           where 60 miles exists between centrelines may be based
                                                           upon the point where protected airspace overlaps, versus
                                                           measuring 60 miles perpendicularly from the other track.
                                                           RNAV distances may be used in applying vertical
                                                           separation to identify the point where protected airspace
                                                           overlap, by using the information in 743.1 B. Note 4 and
                                                           744.5 Note.
                                                      *    743.1 B. Note 4:
                                                           Track Overlap table:
                                                              ANGLE BETWEEN                 AREA OF OVERLAP
                                                                 TRACKS                         CEASES

                                                                        10°                       344 MILES
                                                                        15°                       230 MILES
                                                                        20°                       173 MILES
                                                                        25°                       139 MILES
                                                                        30°                       116 MILES
                                                                        35°                       100 MILES
                                                                        40°                       88 MILES
                                                                        44°                       80 MILES
                                                           743.1 B. Reference:
                                                           Vertical Separation; 744.
                                                           Lateral Separation; 745.
                                                           Longitudinal Separation; 746.

                                                ATC 7-16
    1040    UNIT LOG

    1041    GENERAL

    A. TO BE COMPLETED BY: Shift Managers,
        Supervisors and controllers as appropriate.
    B. PURPOSE: To record occurrences during a                     1041.1 B. Note:
        shift. (N)                                                 Below weather minima aircraft occurrences are recorded
                                                                   only in the Aviation Occurrence Report.
    C. WHEN REQUIRED: Make entries as soon as
       possible after an occurrence takes place and
       indicate whether and with whom an AOR has
       been filed.
    E. DISTRIBUTION: Unit file — 1.
    F. RETENTION: 6 years. (N)                                     1041.1 F. Note:
                                                                   Records may be kept longer than 6 years if an occurrence
                                                                   has resulted in litigation.

*   1041.2                                                   *     1041.2 Note 1:
    Record an entry to indicate routine operations if no           Acceptable entries are “Routine Operations,” ROP, or
    unit log entries are required during the day. (N)              ROPS.
                                                                   1041.2 Note 2:
                                                                   An entry of “Routine Operations” is not required for the
                                                                   National Electronic Log.

    If practicable, record each entry in time sequence,
    together with the pertinent time.

    1041.4                                                         1041.4 Note:
    Initial each entry upon completion of entry. (N)               Initials are not necessary if using the National Electronic

    If the space provided for entries is insufficient,
    securely attach a separate sheet to record the
    required information.

    Do not use the unit log to record personal comments
    or administrative items, such as, leave or overtime

                                                       ATC 10-17

         ATC 10-18