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					Art lesson plans for: T. Stoll                                                   April 26-30, 2010 Mexican/Mexican American Art and Artists (Cinco de
How do artists communicate through visual art?                                   mayo) MULTICULUTRAL ART
Featured artists for the unit: Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo
       Grade Level:                     Objectives /                                      Procedure / Activity:                             Materials:
                                      Competencies:
Kindergarten                     Program practice during                Program practice during activity class                       Program practice during
                                 activity class                                                                                      activity class

1st grade                                                               Activity: create a group painting (Zapotec style rug)        Heavy brown paper
                                1. Develop fundamental skills in
                                using art media and processes to        using tempera paints. The teacher will provide               Tempera paints
Vocabulary:                     produce                                 background knowledge about Cinco de mayo and                 White crayons
                                works of art. (a-h)
Basic Shapes                    2. Apply color, line, shape, texture,   Mexican style artwork. Students will view pictures of        Paint brushes
Geometric Vs Free form          balance, and pattern in works of        Zapotec weavings. Students will evaluate the pictures and    Yarn
                                art to
and organic shapes              communicate ideas. (a,c,d)              discuss elements of art and principles of design found in    Pictures of Zapotec style
Negative space                  4. Understand and use basic art         the weavings (colors, shapes, lines, balance, pattern…).     weavings and rainbow
                                vocabulary. (a-b)
Positive space                  5. Know that different works of art     Students will use the color wheel to complete the acronym    striped blankets
Color wheel                     that evoke various descriptions         ROY G BIV. The teacher will encourage students to
                                and
acronym                         responses.(a,b,c)                       make connections to the play dough color wheel they          http://www.rosengren.net
ROY G BIV                       6. Recognize that art varies            created earlier during the school year. Students will use    /artisansinfocus/zapotech
                                throughout cultures, times, and
                                places. (a,b)                           the color wheel to infer and determine which colors to       istory.htm
                                7. Know that similar subject matter     mix in order to make a desired color. Students will draw     biographical information
                                is found in works of art and design.
Zapotec weavings                (b)                                     and paint Mexican designs on heavy paper. The teacher        symbolism
                                10. Recognize differences in how        will demonstrate blending colors to create a sunset effect   http://www.princetonol.c
                                people value art. (a,b,c)
Connections: The tale of        11. Recognize ways the visual           on individual stripes and students will practice this        om/GROUPS/IAD/LESS
Arachne and Athena (the         arts are used as a part of everyday     technique. Teacher and students will create tassels out of   ONS/middle/zapotec.htm
                                life. (c,d)
weaving contest) from the                                               yarn to create a fringe for the bottom of the blankets.      United Streaming: The
Greek Period;                                                           Students will evaluate their blanket mural and               Pot That Juan Built
                                                                        complete a thinking map listing the elements of art          Literature:
                                                                        they have included in their design. Blanket murals will      http://www.sierramadretr
                                                                        be used for Spanish class.                                   ading.com/Zapotec_Wea
                                                                                                                                     ving_Galleries/Floor_Ru
                                                                                                                                     gs/floor_rugs.html
2nd and 3rd grade                 How do artists communicate                  Activity: Self portrait creation (create a self portrait                Tempera paint
                                  through visual art?                         in the style of Frida Kahlo)                                            Paint brushes
                                  Second: 1. Begin to develop
                                  craftsmanship in a variety of               http://staff.potsdam.k12.ny.us/~abenton/frida/                          Heavy paper (11x 16)
Vocabulary:                       additional media and                        http://www.phoenixarises.com/spirits/symbols.htm                        Pencils
                                  processes to produce works of art.
Portrait                          (a-e) 2. Demonstrate emerging               The teacher will provide biographical information on                    Markers
Self Portrait                     understanding of the use of the             Frida Kahlo and introduce some of her artwork. The                      Mirrors
                                  elements of art and
Symbols                           principles of design in works of art        teacher will briefly introduce the artists-Diego Rivera.                Animal drawing guides
Symbolism                         to communicate ideas and                    Students will observe and discuss what they see in
                                  emotions. (a,b,d) 3. Identify
Mural                             different effects in works of art and       Kahlo’s paintings especially those with animals. Students               Literature:
Culture                           the media, techniques, or                   will create a self portrait of themselves. The teacher will             A Weekend with Diego
                                  processes used to achieve them.
unique                            (a,b,c) 4. Understand and use               provide a written list with the following steps                         Rivera by Barbara Braun
Connections:                      basic art vocabulary while creating         Step 1) Use a mirror to draw your self-portrait with brown or tan oil   Diego Rivera by Sarah
                                  works of art. (a,b) 5. Describe how         pastel. Step 2) Draw your pet, dream pet or symbolic animal. Step
Diego learned from famous                                                                                                                             Tieck
                                  different works of art evoke
artists like Paul Cezanne;        individual responses. (a-e) 6.
                                                                              3) Create a background that tells where you are from or what you
Diego went to Spain and           Identify the contributions of artists       like. Step 4) Write your name neatly on the back. Step 5) Color         Frida by Johan Winter
France to study art; He           in schools, homes, and                      your artwork with oil pastels and tempera paints.                       illustrated by Ana Juan
                                  communities. (a) 7. Recognize
created fresco paintings (paint
                                  similar subject matter and symbols          Using the words perimeter and area, the teacher will demonstrate
on wet plaster) like Leonardo     found in works of art and                                                                                           United Streaming video
and Michelangelo                                                              utilizing all most of the negative space within the piece of paper.
                                  design in other cultures and                                                                                        The Pot That Juan Built
                                  places. (a,b) 8. Recognize that
                                  environment and/or culture affects          Students will write about items included in their portraits (the
Future reference:                 the characteristics of                      animal and the background or setting).
Cubism-Picasso                    works of art. (a,b) 9. Recognize
                                  differences in the way individuals
                                  respond to art. 10. Understand that
                                  people may value art in different
                                  ways.
                                  11. Understand that visual arts
                                  concepts and skills are
                                  represented in areas of
                                  everyday life.
                                  Third: 1a-f; 2 a,b,c,f,g,h,i; 3a,c; 4a,b;
                                  5a,b; 6a,b,c,d; 7b; 8a,b,c; 9a,b,c; 10a,b
4th and 5th grade                  Fourth grade:
                                   1a-d; 2a-h; 3a-c; 4a-c; 5a-c; 6a-b;
                                                                           Activity: Paint a Mexican print design that will be           Tempera paint
Elements of Design:                7a,b,c; 8c,d; 9a,b; 10a-g; 11a-d;       used for an activity in Spanish class.                        Paint brushes
(line, shape/form, space, value,   Fifth Grade: 1. Describe and use
color, pattern/texture)            fundamental skills related to
                                                                                                                                         Heavy paper (8x11)
Principles of Composition:         media, techniques, and                  The teacher will provide background information on cinco Pencils
(emphasis, contrast. balance,      processes to create and study           de mayo along with Mexican artists Frida Kahlo and            Mexican clip art
repetition, unity)                 works of art. A-d 2. Use basic skills
                                   to apply the elements and               Diego Rivera. The teacher will read excerpts from various
                                   principles of design through media,     books. Students will view artwork created by the artists.     Literature:
Symbols/symbolism
                                   techniques, and processes to
Rhythm                             communicate ideas, actions, and         The teacher and students will discuss why each artist         A Weekend with Diego
Warm or cool palette               emotions. a,b,c 3. Increase             created the type of artwork produced (examples:               Rivera by Barbara Braun
Symbols                            knowledge and use of various
                                   media, techniques, and processes        expressions of physical pain or political views). The         Diego Rivera by Sarah
Symbolism                          in creating different effects in        teacher and students will discuss symbolism in the            Tieck
Mural                              works of art. a,b,c 4. Develop
                                   perceptual skills and use               artwork presented. Students will create a symbol from         Frida by Johan Winter
Culture                            increased visual arts vocabulary to     examples of clip art or create an original to use for his or  illustrated by Ana Juan
Unique                             make judgments while creating
                                   and studying works of art. A,b,c        her artwork. The teacher will demonstrate using all of the
Political                          5. Recognize critical processes         area within a given perimeter to create the design,           United Streaming video
Communism                          (response, description, analysis,
Connections:                       interpretation, and evaluation)         encouraging students to think about pattern and repetition The Pot That Juan Built
                                   used in the examination of works        to create a sense of balance within the design. Students
Diego learned from famous          of art and design through
artists like Paul Cezanne;         reading, writing, and speaking.         will sketch the design on paper and use the watercolor
Diego went to Spain and            A,b,c,d 6. Recognize roles,             resist technique to add color to their artwork. They will use
                                   functions, and purposes of artists,
France to study art; He                                                    these in Spanish class the following week.
                                   works of art, and visual
created fresco paintings (paint    arts careers in cultures, times, and
on wet plaster) like Leonardo      places. A,c 7. Recognize                Students will create a personalized symbol and write a
and Michelangelo                   similarities in subject matter,         description of it and the meaning behind the symbol.
                                   symbols, and forms in works of art
                                   and design across cultures, times,
                                   and places. B,c 8. Know that
                                                                           http://www.spiritpathways.com/5suns.html legend of the
                                   cultural traditions, historical         five suns
                                   periods, and aspects of place
                                   influence characteristics of works
                                   of art and design. A,b,c 9. Know
                                   factors that influence opinions
                                   about what constitutes art. A,b
                                   10. Understand the different
                                   ways people respect, value, and
                                   derive meaning
                                   from art. A,c
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    Cinco de Mayo (the "Fifth of May" in Spanish) commemorates Mexico's victory over French forces in the Battle of Puebla
     on May 5, 1862. Unfortunately, this initial victory was short-lived. The French onslaught continued, and French forces
                      ultimately succeeded in gaining control of the country and occupying it until 1867.

Cinco de Mayo is not Mexico's Independence Day, as some assume. Mexico had officially gained its independence from
Spain some four decades before the conflict with France . Mexico celebrates September 16 -- the anniversary of the start
            of its War for Independence from Spain -- as its Independence Day (called "Grito de Dolores").

     In fact, Cinco de Mayo ranks as only a regional holiday in Mexico. It is not celebrated as a national holiday. But in the
              United States and in other parts of the world, it has developed into a celebration of Mexican heritage.


These weavings are made with vibrant colors, which are then woven into both traditional and modern rugs, wall hangings, and other
pieces. The Zapotec people work very hard to bring life to each of their weavings, which is very apparent by the quality of work.

This ancient tribe were originally hunters but over the years, transitioned into craftsman, often working with pottery. Then sometime
around 500 BC, the Zapotec people settled in small communities in the Oaxaca valley of Mexico and by 450 AD, the population had
expanded to around 25,000 with an empire so large it would easily cover Mexico City as we know it today. Then as 900 AD rolled
around, the Mixtecs defeated the Zapotecs and then hundreds of years later, were themselves defeated by the Aztec Indians.

Today, you still find Zapotec people in Mexico, although the total population is only around 500,000. These people still hold onto
their ancient beliefs, maintain a traditional type of culture, and speak their own language, although there are a variety of dialects.
While the Zapotecs now work in more modern type jobs, the weavings continue to thrive. That means this style of weaving can be
traced back between 200 and 800 AD and is still going strong today, a unbroken line of talent seldom seen.

For Zapotec weavings, the people use Merino wool that is grown locally or they will purchase sheep from Indians living in Mitla. The
first step involves carding the wool, which means to remove any sticks, seeds, leaves, and other type of debris. Once the wool is
clean, it is spun, usually on an ancient wooden spinning wheel that turns the wool into yarn. For just a small weaving, the Zapotec
would need to spin wool for about two to three days. The warp, which are threads running lengthwise in the loom are placed on the
loom first. Then, the Zapotec would pass the threads horizontally, which is what creates the unique and detailed designs. These
horizontal threads are called “woof” or “weft.”

After the wool is spun, it is then colored with natural dyes that come from special formulas passed down from one generation to
another. Interestingly, each Zapotec family will have their own way of mixing the dyes, which is why you see so many variations
within the same community. For the dye to be made, several natural resources are used.

First, the color red comes from the cochineal insect, blue comes from indigo, black is made from the ink of the sea snail or huisache
tree, and for the colors yellow or brown, rock moss is used. What makes this so fascinating is that by using these resources, the
Zapotec people can produce more than 40 different colors/tones.

For the design, the Zapotec people use a combination of pre-Columbian and regional, which is what you would find in the tapetes, a
highly collectible type of weaving. Keep in mind that for the Zapotec people to create just one small weaving - something around four
by five feet - the process could very well take an entire month. Then for the large weavings, which are often used as rugs or bedding,
the weaver would require at least a year, if not longer. We are fortunate in that Zapotec weavings from Mexico live on, allowing us
today to enjoy a valuable part of history!
http://www.myrustica.com/servlet/the-MEXICAN-TILES-cln-mexican-tile-murals/Categories

Mexican tile murals
http://www.lafuente.com/product.php?sid=139&pg=0

				
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