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					   St. Robert C.H.S.




                                            12 University Poetry
 Sp ec ial po in ts
 o f i n te re st:
 ALLEGORICAL VERSE

 FREE VERSE                                Volume 1, Issue 1                                                                  2010
 LYRICAL VERSE

 DRAMATIC MONOLOGUE
                                        Thoughts on Poetry
                                                                         simple, self-contained, and
 SONG LYRICS                           APOET IS LIMITED in       the    unpretentious
                                        materials he can use in
                                        creating his works: all he       Fortunately, the English
Inside this issue:                                                       language contains a wide
                                        has are words to express
The Sound of Words                 2    his ideas and feelings.          range of words from which      “Words mean more than what is
                                        These words need to be           to choose for almost every     set down on paper.    It tae the
                                        precisely right on several       thought, and there are also    human voice to infuse them with
The Meaning of Words               3                                     numerous plans or methods
                                        levels at once:                                                 deeper meaning.”
                                                                         of arrangement of these                         ~Maya Angelou
The Arrangement of Words           4    • they must sound right to the   words, called poetic de-
                                        listener even as they delight
                                                                         vices, which can assist the    poet has created his work.
                                        his ear
The Arrangement of Words           5    • they must have a meaning       writer in developing cogent    Words or portions of words
cont.                                   which might have been unan-      expressions pleasing to his    can be clustered or juxtaposed
                                        ticipated, but seems to be       readers.                       to achieve specific kinds of
The Images of Words                6    the perfectly right one          Even though most poetry        effects when we hear them.
                                        • they must be arranged in a     today is read silently, it     The sounds that result can
                                        relationship and placed on the   must still carry with it the   strike us as clever and pleas-
Poetry Explication Essay           7
Structure                               page in ways that are at once    feeling of being spoken        ing, even soothing. Others we
                                        easy to follow and assist the                                   dislike and strive to avoid.
                                                                         aloud, and the reader
Allegorical Verse: Because I       8    reader in understanding                                         These various deliberate ar-
could not Stop for Death                                                 should practice “hearing” it   rangements of words have
                                        • they must probe the depths
                                                                         in order to catch all of the   been identified.
                                        of human thought, emotion,
Free Verse:                        9    and empathy, while appearing     artfulness with which the
I, Icarus
Lyric Poetry:                      10
Summer Night
Song Lyrics:                       11
                                        Avoid the Unnecessary Use of the
Afternoons and Coffeespoons
Dramatic Monologue: The Love       12
                                        Verb "to be" (CONSIDER USING THE FOLLOWING INSTEAD:)
Song of J. Alfred Prufrock              dramatizes              asserts                  asserts                  addresses
Dramatic Monologue: The Love       13   presents                posits                   posits                   emphasizes
Song of J. Alfred Prufrock cont.        illustrates             enacts                   enacts                   stresses
Dramatic Monologue: The Love       14   characterizes           connects                 connects                 accentuates
Song of J. Alfred Prufrock cont.
                                        underlines              portrays                 portrays                 enables
Personal Notes                     15

Publication Information            16
        Page 2

                       THE SOUNDS OF WORDS
                       Words or portions of          Alliteration: Repeated con-    Asso na nce : Repeated
                       words can be clustered        sonant sounds at the begin-    vowel sounds in words
                       or juxtaposed to              ning of words placed near      placed near each other, usu-
                       achieve specific kinds        each other, usually on the     ally on the same or adjacent
                       of effects when we            same or adjacent lines. A      lines. These should be in
                       hear them. The sounds         somewhat looser definition     sounds that are accented, or
                       that result can strike us     is that it is the use of the   stressed, rather than in
                                                     same consonant in any part     vowel sounds that are unac-
                       as clever and pleasing,       of adjacent words.             cented.
                       even soothing. Others
                       we dislike and strive to      Example: Peter and Andrew      Example: He‟s a bruisin‟
                       avoid. These various          patted the pony at Ascot       loser
                       deliberate arrange-
 "A poem               ments of words have
 should not            been identified.
 mean but
 be."
                       Consonance: Repeated          Euphony: A series of musi-     Rhythm: speech rhythms
 ~ Archibald           consonant sounds at the       cally pleasant sounds, con-    (verbal stresses) into a regu-
 MacLeish              ending of words placed near   veying a sense of harmony      lar pattern of accented syl-
 American Poet         each other, usually on the    and beauty to the language.    lables separated by unac-
 (1892-1982)           same or adjacent lines.                                      cented syllables. Rhythm
                       These should be in sounds     Example: Than Oars divide      helps to distinguish poetry
                       that are accented, or         the Ocean,                     from prose.
                       stressed, rather than in      Too silver for a seam—
"The true phi-         vowel sounds that are unac-                                  Example: i THOUGHT i
losopher and           cented. This produces a       Onomatopoeia: Words that       SAW a PUSsyCAT.
                       pleasing kind of near-        sound like their meanings.
the true poet are      rhyme.                                                       Meter: is measured by the
one, and a                                           Example:     boom,    buzz,    number of feet. A line with
beauty, which is       Example: boats into the       crackle                        five feet is called pentame-
truth, and a           past                                                         ter; thus, a line of five
truth, which is                                      Repetition: The purposeful     iambs is known as “iambic
                       Cacophony A discordant        re-use of words and phrases    pentameter”
beauty, is the         series of harsh, unpleasant   for an effect.
aim of both."          sounds helps to convey dis-                                  The most common line
                       order. This is often fur-     Example: I was glad; so        lengths are:
Ralph Waldo Emerson    thered                        very, very glad.
American Poet (1803-   by the combined effect of                                    monometer: one foot
1882)                  the meaning and the diffi-                                   tetrameter: four feet
                                                     Rhyme: Words that
                       culty of pronunciation.       have different beginning       heptameter: seven feet
                                                     sounds but whose endings       dimeter: two feet
                       Example: My stick fingers     sound alike                    pentameter: five feet
                       click with a snicker                                         octameter: eight feet
                       And, chuckling, they          Example: time, slime, mime     trimeter: three feet
                       knuckle the keys                                             hexameter: six feet




           12 University Poetry
Volume 1, Issue 1                                                                                                    Page 3




THE MEANING OF WORDS
                                     Allegory: A representation of       Ambiguity: A word or phrase
M     ost words convey several       an abstract or spiritual meaning.
                                     Sometimes it can be a single
                                                                         that can mean more than one
                                                                         thing, even in its context. Poets
meanings or shades of meaning        word or phrase, such as the         often search out such words to
at the same time. It is the poet‟s   name of a character or place.       add richness to their work. Of-
job to find words which, when        Often, it is a symbolic narrative   ten, one meaning seems quite
used in relation to other words      that has not only a literal mean-   readily apparent, but other,
in the poem, will carry the pre-     ing, but a larger one understood    deeper and darker meanings,
cise intention of thought. Often,    only after reading the entire       await those who contemplate
some of the more significant         story or poem                       the poem.
words may carry several layers
or “depths” of meaning at once.      Allusion: A brief reference to      Example: Robert Frost‟s „The
The ways in which the mean-          some person, historical event,      Subverted Flower‟
ings of words are used can be        work of art, or Biblical or                                               "Poetry lifts
identified.                          mythological situation or char-
                                                                                                               the veil from
                                     acter.
                                                                                                               the hidden
                                                                                                               beauty of
                                                                                                               the
Analogy: A comparison, usu-          what distinguishes the precisely    Metonymy: A figure of speech          world, and
ally something unfamiliar with       correct word from one that          in which a person, place, or
something familiar.                  is merely acceptable.               thing is referred to by something
                                                                                                               makes famil-
Example: The plumbing took a                                             closely                               iar objects
maze of turns where even water       Denotation: The dictionary          associated with it.                   be as if they
got lost.                            definition of a word                Example: The White House stated       were not fa-
                                                                         today that... Example: The Crown
                                                                         reported today that...                miliar."
Apostrophe: Speaking directly        Euphemism: An understate-
to a real or imagined listener or    ment, used to lessen the effect     Oxymoron: A combination of            Percy Bysshe
inanimate object; addressing         of a statement; substituting        two words that appear to contra-      Shelley
that person or                       something innocuous                 dict each other.                      English Poet
thing by name.                       for something that might be         Example: a pointless point of         (1792-1822)
Example: O Captain! My Cap-          offensive or hurtful.               view; bittersweet
tain! our fearful trip is done…      Example: She is at rest.
                                                                         Paradox: A statement in which
                                     (meaning, she‟s dead)
                                                                         a seeming contradiction may
Cliché: Any figure of speech
                                                                         reveal an unexpected truth. Ex-
that was once clever and origi-      Hyperbole: An outrageous ex-        ample: The faster I go the more
nal but through overuse has          aggeration used for effect.         behind I get.
become outdated. If                  Example: He weighs a ton.
you‟ve heard more than two or                                            Personification: Attributing
three other people say it more       Irony: A contradictory state-       human characteristics to an in-
than two or three times, chances     ment or situation to reveal a       animate object, animal, or ab-
are the                              reality different from what ap-     stract idea.
phrase is too timeworn to be         pears to be true.                   Example: The days crept by
useful in your writing.              Example: Wow, thanks for ex-        slowly, sorrowfully.
Example: busy as a bee               pensive gift...let‟s see: did it    Synecdoche: Indicating a per-
                                     come with a Fun Meal or the         son, object, etc. by letting only a
Connotation: The emotional,          Burger King                         certain part represent the whole.
psychological or social over-        equivalent?                         Example: All hands on deck.             William
tones of a word; its implications
and associations apart from its                                                                                Shakespeare
literal meaning. Often, this is
          Page 4

                          The Arrangement of Words
                          Words follow each other in       Point of View: The au-            • 1st Person: the speaker is
                          a sequence determined by         thor‟s point of view concen-      a character in the story or
                          the poet. In order to discuss    trates on the vantage point       poem and tells it from his/
                          the arrangements that result,    of the speaker, or “teller” of    her perspective (uses “I”).
                          certain terms have been          the story or poem. This may
                          applied to various aspects                                         • 3rd Person limited: the
                                                           be considered the poem‟s
                          of that arrangement process.                                       speaker is not part of the
                                                           “voice” — the pervasive
                          Although in some ways                                              story, but tells about the
                                                           presence behind the overall
                          these sequences seem arbi-                                         other characters through the
                                                           work. This is also some-
                          trary and mechanical, in                                           limited perceptions of one
                                                           times referred to as the per-
                          another sense they help to                                         other person.
                                                           sona.
                          determine the nature of the
"Poets are                poem.
masters of us
ordinary men,
in knowledge of
the mind,                 • 3rd Person omniscient: the     series of metrical feet. Gen-     There is a natural tendency
because they              speaker is not part of the       erally, but not always, the       when reading poetry to
drink at                  story, but is able to “know”     line is printed as one single     pause at the end of a line,
streams which
                          and describe what all char-      line on the page. If it occu-     but the careful reader will
we have not yet
                          acters are thinking.             pies more than one line, its      follow the punctuation to
made accessi-
                                                           remainder is usually in-          find where natural pauses
ble to science."          Line: The line is funda-         dented to indicate that it is a   should occur.
                          mental to the perception of      continuation.
~Sigmund Freud
                          poetry, marking an impor-                                          In traditional verse forms,
                          tant visual distinction from                                       the length of each line is
"Poetry is an             prose. Poetry is arranged                                          determined by convention,
orphan of si-             into a series of units that do                                     but in modern poetry the
lence.                    not necessarily correspond                                         poet has more latitude for
The words                 to sentences, but rather to a                                      choice.
never quite
equal the ex-
                          Verse: One single line of a      Stanza: A division of a           lines that are all of the same
perience be-
                          poem arranged in a metrical      poem created by arranging         length and meter, nor even
hind them."
                          pattern. Also, a piece of        the lines into a unit, often      the same number of lines in
Charles Simic             poetry or a particular form      repeated in the same pattern      each stanza. Stanzas created
American Poet             of poetry such as free verse,    of meter and rhyme                by such irregular line
born in 1938
                          blank verse, etc., or the art    throughout the poem; a unit       groupings are often dictated
                          or work of a poet. The           of poetic lines (a                by meaning, as in para-
                          popular use of the word          “paragraph” within the            graphs of prose.
                          verse for a stanza or associ-    poem). The stanzas within a
                          ated group of metrical lines     poem are separated by
                          is not in accordance with        blank lines.     Stanzas in
                          the best usage. A stanza is a    modern poetry, such as free
                          group of verses.                 verse, often do not have

                12 University Poetry
Volume 1, Issue 1                                                                                                    Page 5

Stanza Forms: The names                Enjambment: The continua-           Form: The arrangement or
given to describe the number of        tion of the logical sense —         method used to convey the
lines in a stanzaic unit, such as:     and therefore the grammati-         content, such as free verse,
couplet (2), tercet (3), quatrain                                          ballad, haiku, etc. In other
                                       cal construction —beyond                                                "Poetry
(4), quintet (5), sestet (6), septet                                       words, the “way-it-is-said.” A
                                       the end of a line of poetry.                                            should be
(7), and octave (8). Some stan-
                                       This is sometimes done with         variably interpreted term,          great and
zas follow a set rhyme scheme                                              however, it sometimes applies       unobtru-
and meter in addition to the           the title, which in effect be-
                                                                           to details within the composi-      sive, a
number of lines and are given          comes the first line of the
                                                                           tion of a text, but is probably     thing
specific names to describe them,       poem.                                                                   which en-
                                                                           used most often in reference to
such as, ballad meter, ottava                                                                                  ters into
                                                                           the structural characteristics of
rima, rhyme royal, terza rima,                                                                                 one's
                                                                           a work as it compares to (or
and Spenserian stanza.                                                                                         soul,
                                                                           differs from) established
                                                                                                               and does
                                                                           modes of conventionalized           not star-
                                                                           arrangements.                       tle it or
                                                                                                               amaze it
                                                                                                               with it-
SOME FORMS:                            scribed pattern or structure —       Quatrain: a four-line stanza,
                                                                                                               self, but
                                       the poet determines all the vari-     or a grouping of four lines of
Open: poetic form free from
                                                                                                               with its
                                       ables as seems appropriate for        verse                             subject."
regularity and consistency in          each poem
elements such as rhyme, line
                                                                                                               John Keats
length, and metrical form              Couplet: a pair of lines, usually                                       English Poet
                                       rhymed; this is the shortest                                            (1795-1821)
Closed: poetic form subject to a       stanza
fixed structure and pattern
                                       Heroic Couplet: a pair of
Blank Verse: unrhymed iambic           rhymed lines in iambic pen-
pentameter (much of the plays          tameter (traditional heroic epic
of Shakespeare are written in          form)
this form)

Free Verse: lines with no pre-



Lyric: derived from the                (usually single) emotional
Greek word for lyre, lyric             element predominates. Rang-
poetry was originally de-              ing from complex thoughts to
signed to be sung. One of the          the simplicity of playful wit,
three main groups of poetry            the melodic imagery of skill-
(the others being narrative            fully written lyric poetry
and dramatic), lyric verse is          evokes in the reader‟s mind
the most frequently used               the recall of similar emo-
modern form, including all             tional experiences.
poems in which the speaker‟s
ardent expression of a
        Page 6


                        The Images of Words
                        Imagery: The use of vivid      the concrete things       so   through imaginative use and
                        language to generate ideas     brought to mind.               combinations of diction.
                        and/or evoke mental im-
                        ages, not only of the visual   Poetry works it magic by       In addition to its more tan-
                        sense, but of sensation and    the way it uses words to       gible initial impact, effec-
                        emotion as well. While         evoke “images” that carry      tive imagery has the poten-
                        most commonly used in          depths of meaning.             tial to tap the inner wisdom
                        reference to figurative lan-                                  of the reader to arouse
                                                       The poet‟s carefully de-       meditative and inspirational
                        guage, imagery can apply to
                                                       scribed impressions of         responses.
                        any component of a poem
                                                       sight, sound, smell, taste
                        that evoke sensory experi-
                                                       and touch can be transferred
                        ence and emotional re-
"There's no                                            to the thoughtful reader
                        sponse, and also applies to
money in
poetry, but
then there's
no poetry               Related images are often       Sound: Tom placed his ear      Synesthesia: An attempt
in money,               clustered or scattered         tightly against the wall; he   to fuse different senses
either."                throughout a work, thus        could hear a faint but dis-    by describing one kind of
                        serving to create a particu-   tinct thump thump thump.
Robert Graves                                                                         sense impression in
English Poet            lar mood or tone. Images of
(1895-1985)                                            Touch: The burlap wall         words normally used to
                        disease, corruption, and
                                                       covering scraped against the   describe another.
                        death, for example, are re-
                        current patterns shaping our   little boy‟s cheek.
"A poem is                                                                            Example: The sound of
never fin-              perceptions of Shake-
                                                       • Taste: A salty tear ran      her voice was sweet.
ished, only             speare‟s Hamlet.
                                                       across onto her lips.
aban-                                                                                 Example: a loud aroma, a
                        Ex: Sight: Smoke mysteri-
doned."                                                Smell: Cinnamon! That‟s        velvety smile
                        ously puffed out from the
                                                       what wafted into his nos-
Paul Valery             clown‟s ears.
                                                       trils.
French Poet
(1871-1945)

                        Tone, Mood: The means by       and attitudes. Tone can        as interpreted through inflec-
                        which a poet reveals atti-     also refer to the overall      tions of the voice; in poetry,
                        tudes and feelings, in the     mood of the poem itself, in    this is conveyed through the
                        style of language or expres-   the sense of a pervading       use of connotation, diction,
                        sion of thought used to de-    atmosphere intended to         figures of speech, rhythm
                        velop the subject. Certain     influence the readers‟ emo-    and other elements of poetic
                        tones include not only irony   tional response and foster     construction.
                        and satire, but may be lov-    expectations of the conclu-
                        ing, condescending, bitter,    sion. Another use of tone is
                        pitying, fanciful, solemn,     in reference to pitch or to
                        and a host of other emotions   the demeanour of a speaker

              12 University Poetry
Volume 1, Issue 1                                                                                         Page 7




Poetry Explication Essay Structure
                                    Paragraph #2 – literal              Last Paragraph – the
                                    summary of the poem.                title on a connotative     "A poet who
                                    Last sentence of para-              level, auditory devices    makes use
                                    graph is the thesis                 (sound devices), discuss   of a worse
                                                                                                   word in-
                                    statement (the theme                the meaning of the last
                                                                                                   stead of a
                                    and the tone – positive             line of the poem.          better, be-
                                    or negative)                                                   cause the
Paragraph #1 – Back-                                                                               former fits
ground to the author (if Paragraph #3-? – full                                                     the rhyme or
you know anything)       connotation analysis of                                                   the meas-
                         the poem…remember                                                         ure, though
                         to use the lit devices                                                    it weakens
                                                                                                   the sense, is
                                                                                                   like a jew-
TP-CASTT                                                                                           eler, who
Title: What does the title          overtones of diction. Con- stanza division, changes in
                                                                                                   cuts a dia-
mean?       Consider carefully      sider figurative language.   line and or stanza length,        mond into a
the title’s connotation before                                   irony, (which sometimes           brilliant, and
reading a selection or poem.        Attitude: the poet's (TONE) hides shifts), effects of struc-   diminishes
                                    Basic analysis of Tone: ture on meaning.
                                                                                                   the weight
Paraphrase: Translate the           DIDLS or PDIDLS. Look for
poem into other easily under-       speaker’s attitude toward Title: Examine title again,          to make it
standable words. Literal/           self, other characters, and this time on an interpretative     shine more."
denotative meaning only,            the subject. Observe both level.
resist the urge to interpret.       the speaker’s and the poet’s                                   Horace Walpole
Look for syntactical units,         (TONE) attitude. Do not con- Theme: Determine what the         English Poet
complete sentences and en-          fuse them.                   poet is saying. List what the     (1717-1797)
jambment.                                                        poem is about (the subjects),
                                    Shifts: in speakers and in then determine what the
Connotation: Extend be-             attitudes. Look for occasion poem is saying about each of
yond the literal level men-         of poem (time and place), these subjects (purpose,
tioned above.      Emotional        key words, punctuation, theme, message).


PDIDLS for Tone
Point of View: the narrative‟s      Details: facts included or omit-    Sentence Structure:
perspective. First, third person,   ted based on speakers perspec-      how structure affects
limited or omniscient.              tive.                               the reader‟s attitude.
                                                                        Determine what the
Diction: the connotation of the     Language: The overall use of        poet is saying..
word choice.                        language such as formal, clini-
                                    cal, jargon, emotional. These
Images: vivid appeals which         words describe force or quality
create understanding through        of diction, images, and details--
the senses using figurative lan-    they qualify how the work is
guage.                              written .
         Page 8


                       Allegorical Verse
                       An allegory is a                  Edmund Spenser,
                       narrative having a                Pilgrim's Progress
                       second     meaning                by John Bunyan
                       beneath the sur-                  and Young Good-
                       face one - a story                man Brown by Na-
                       with two mean-                    thaniel Hawthorne.
                       ings,    a   literal
                       meaning and a
                       symbolic meaning.
                       Examples of alle-
"Each memora-          gories are the
ble verse of a         Fairie Queen by
true poet
has two or three
times the written
content."
                       Because I Could Not Stop for Death
                       ~Emily Dickinson
Alfred de Musset
French Romantic Poet   Because I could not stop for Death,
(1810-1857)            He kindly stopped for me;
                       The carriage held but just ourselves
                       And Immortality.

                       We slowly drove, he knew no haste,
 "Poets utter          And I had put away
 great and wise        My labor, and my leisure too,
 things which          For his civility.
 they do not
 themselves un-        We passed the school, where children strove
                       At recess, in the ring;
 derstand."            We passed the fields of gazing grain,         Emily Dickinson was born in Amherst, Massa-
                       We passed the setting sun.                    chusetts, to a family well known for educa-
 Plato                                                               tional and political activity. Her father was
                       Or rather, he passed us;                      an orthodox Calvinist who was a lawyer and
                       The dews grew quivering and chill,            served for a time in Congress. Emily studied
                       For only gossamer my gown,                    at Amherst Academy (1834-47) and a cou-
                       My tippet only tulle.                         ple of years after finishing her education she
                                                                     began writing poetry. At the age of 23 Emily
                                                                     withdrew more and more into a secluded life,
                       We paused before a house that seemed          rarely venturing out into social circles. Emily
                       A swelling of the ground;                     spent most of her time in her room often com-
                       The roof was scarcely visible,                posing poetry. Although Emily led a reclusive
                       The cornice but a mound.                      outer life, she did correspond with writers
                                                                     such as John Keats, John Ruskin, and Sir Tho-
                       Since then 'tis centuries, and yet each       mas Browne. However although her outer life
                       Feels shorter than the day                    was one of great simplicity the poetry of
                       I first surmised the horses' heads            Emily Dickinson offers a wealth of spontane-
                       Were toward eternity.                         ity and creativity.



             12 University Poetry
Volume 1, Issue 1                                                                                            Page 9




Free Verse
                                  does not conform to any             translations of the biblical
                                  regular metre: the length of        Psalms and in some poems of
                                  its lines is irregular, as is its   Blake and Goethe, but estab-     "He who
                                  use of rhyme—if any. Instead        lished itself only in the late   draws no-
                                  of a regular metrical pattern       19th and early 20th centuries
                                                                                                       ble de-
                                                                                                       lights from
                                  it uses more flexible cadences      with Walt Whitman, the
                                                                                                       senti-
                                  or rhythmic groupings, some-        French Symbolists, and the
                                                                                                       ments of
                                  times supported by anaphora         poets of modernism. Free         poetry is a
                                  and other devices of repeti-        verse should not be confused     true poet,
                                  tion. Now the most widely           with blank verse, which does     though he
Free verse (or, in French, vers   practised verse form in Eng-        observe a regular metre in its   has never
libre), a kind of poetry that     lish, it has precedents in          unrhymed lines.                  written a
                                                                                                       line in all
                                                                                                       his life."
I, Icarus ~Alden Nowlan                                                                                George Sand
                                                                                                       Female
There was a time when I could fly. I swear it.                                                         French writer
Perhaps, if I thing hard for a moment, I can even tell you the year.                                   who used the
                                                                                                       pseudonym
My room was on the ground floor at the rear of the house.                                              George Sand
My bed faced a window.                                                                                 (1804-1876)
Night after night I lay on my bed and willed myself to fly.
It was hard work, I can tell you.
Sometimes I lay perfectly still for an hour before I felt my body
rising from the bed.
I rose slowly, slowly until I floated three or four feet above the
floor.
Then, with a kind of swimming motion, I propelled myself toward
the window.

Outside, I rose higher and higher, above the pasture fence, above
the clothesline, above the dark, haunted trees beyond the
pasture.
And, all the time, I heard the music of flutes.
It seemed the wind make this music.
And sometimes there were voices singing.
Alden Nowlan left school before graduating and during his adolescent years worked at a variety of
jobs, all of them menial, manual, or both. He was a pulp cutter, a farmhand, a sawmill worker, a
night watchman, a ditch digger and a logger. Primarily self-educated, he later went on to work as a
newspaperman, and published poetry, plays, short stories, and novels. Born on January 25, 1933
at Windsor, Novia Scotia, he is widely recognized as one of the most important poets to appear in
Canada in the last thirty years. His poetry collection Bread, Wine and Salt won the Governor’s Gen-
eral award in 1967. Much of his work reflects his regional roots and an affection for the ordinary
people. He died in Fredericton June 27, 1983.
        Page 10


                         Lyric Poetry
                         Lyric Poetry consists of a poem, such as a sonnet or an ode, that ex-
                         presses the thoughts and feelings of the poet. The term lyric is now com-
                         monly referred to as the words to a song. Lyric poetry does not tell a
                         story which portrays characters and actions. The lyric poet addresses the
                         reader directly, portraying his or her own feeling, state of mind, and per-
                         ceptions.




                       Summer Night ~Langston Hughes
"When critics
disagree, the
artist is in ac-
cord with him-
self."

Oscar Wilde

(1854-1900)




 "From Mozart I
 learnt to say im-
 portant things in
 a conversational
 way."                                                              Langston Hughes was born in 1902
 George Bernard Shaw                                                and died in 1967 of cancer. He was
                                                                    a great poet that inspired many lives.
 (1856-1950)
                                                                    He had many experiences traveling
                                                                    the world and living in Harlem that
                                                                    influenced his writing. Hughes was
                                                                    known as Harlem’s Poet”(Langston).
                                                                    Hughes inspired many through the
                                                                    depression giving motivational
                                                                    speeches and writing. He kept black
                                                                    American life a reality in front of a
                                                                    wide audience of readers.

               12 University Poetry
        Page 11

                              Song Lyrics
                              Verse or poem that can, or supposedly can, be sung to musical accompani-
                              ment (in ancient times, usually a lyre) or that expresses intense personal emo-
                              tion in a manner suggestive of a song. Lyric poetry expresses the thoughts
                              and feelings of the poet and is sometimes contrasted with narrative poetry
                              and verse drama, which relate events in the form of a story.

Bradley      Kenneth
"Brad"       Roberts
(born January 10,
                             Afternoons and Coffeespoons
1964,      W i n ni p e g,
Manitoba) is the lead        What is it that makes me just a little bit queasy?
                             There's a breeze that makes my breathing not so easy
                                                                                  ~Brad Roberts
singer and guitarist for
the Canadian folk-rock       I've had my lungs checked out with X rays
band Crash Test Dum-         I've smelled the hospital hallways
mies. He sings in the
bass-baritone range.
                             Someday I'll have a disappearing hairline
His musical career           Someday I'll wear pyjamas in the daytime
began with a Bache-
lor's degree with Hon-       Times when the day is like a play by Sartre
ours from University
of Winnipeg in 1986.         When it seems a bookburning's in perfect order -
Roberts began per-           I gave the doctor my description
forming in a house           I tried to stick to my prescriptions
band for the Blue Note
Cafe in Winnipeg un-
der the moniker Bad          Someday I'll have a disappearing hairline
Brad Roberts and the         Someday I'll wear pyjamas in the daytime
St. James Rhythm
Pigs. The band gradu-        Afternoons will be measured out
ally evolved into The        Measured out, measured with
Crash Test Dummies.          Coffeespoons and T.S. Eliot
While studying at uni-
versity and working as
a bartender at The           Maybe if I could do a play-by-playback
Spectrum Cabaret,            I could change the test results that I will get back
Roberts began writing        I've watched the summer evenings pass by
his own songs and in-
troducing them to the        I've heard the rattle in my bronchi …
band. After attending a
                             Someday I'll have a disappearing hairline
songwriters' workshop
with Lyle Lovett at the      Someday I'll wear pyjamas in the daytime
Winnipeg Folk Festi-
val, Brad wrote              Afternoons will be measured out
"Superman's Song."           Measured out, measured with
                             Coffeespoons and T.S. Eliot




              12 University Poetry
Page 12
           Dramatic
           Monologue
             A dramatic monologue is a
             combination of the words
             dramatic and monologue
             (obviously). The "dramatic"
             says that it could be acted
             out, and is a form of drama,
             while the "monologue" de-
             fines it as a speech that one
             person makes, either to
             themself or to another. A
             dramatic monologue is writ-
             ten to reveal both the situa-
             tion at hand and the charac-
             ter herself.




            Biography:
            Thomas Stearns Eliot (September 26,
            1888 – January 4, 1964) was born in St.
            Louis, Missouri, the youngest of seven
            children raised as a Unitarian. He stud-
            ied at Harvard University where he was
            recognized as a brilliant student and      (1) A passage from Dante Alighieri's
            where he began work on his poem "The
                                                       Inferno (Canto 27, lines 61-66) spo-
            Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock," one of
            his best-known works. After graduating,    ken by Guido da Montefeltro in re-
            he continued his studies in Germany,       sponse to the questions of Dante,
            France and at       Oxford University.
                                                       who Guido supposes is dead, since
                                                       he is in Hell:. The flame in which
                                                       Guido is encased vibrates as he
             Poem                                      speaks: "If I thought that that I was
             Introduction                              replying to someone who would
             S'io credesse che mia risposta fosse
                                                       ever return to the world, this flame
             A persona che mai tornasse al mondo,      would cease to flicker. But since no
             Questa fiamma staria senza piu scosse.
             Ma perciocche giammai di questo fondo
                                                       one ever returns from these depths
             Non torno vivo alcun, s'i'odo il vero,    alive, if what I've heard is true, I will
             Senza tema d'infamia ti rispondo. (1)
                                                       answer you without fear of infamy."


   12 University Poetry
 Volume 1, Issue 1                                                                                         Page 13




   The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock ~T. S. Eliot
Let us go then, you and I,                                  And indeed there will be time
When the evening is spread out against the sky              To wonder, "Do I dare?" and, "Do I dare?"
Like a patient etherized (2) upon a table;                  Time to turn back and descend the stair,
Let us go, through certain half-deserted streets,           With a bald spot in the middle of my hair--
The muttering retreats                                      [They will say: "How his hair is growing thin!"]
Of restless nights in one-night cheap hotels                My morning coat, my collar mounting firmly to the chin,
And sawdust (3) restaurants with oyster-shells:             My necktie rich and modest, but asserted by a simple pin--
Streets that follow like a tedious argument                 [They will say: "But how his arms and legs are thin!"]
Of insidious intent                                         Do I dare
To lead you to an overwhelming question . . .               Disturb the universe?
Oh, do not ask, "What is it?"                               In a minute there is time
Let us go and make our visit.                               For decisions and revisions which a minute will reverse.

In the room the women come and go                           For I have known them all already, known them all:--
Talking of Michelangelo. (4)                                Have known the evenings, mornings, afternoons,
                                                            I have measured out my life with coffee spoons;
The yellow fog that rubs its back upon the window-panes,    I know the voices dying with a dying fall
The yellow smoke that rubs its muzzle on the window-panes   Beneath the music from a farther room.
Licked its tongue into the corners of the evening,          So how should I presume?
Lingered upon the pools that stand in drains,
Let fall upon its back the soot that falls from chimneys,   And I have known the eyes already, known them all--
Slipped by the terrace, made a sudden leap,                 The eyes that fix you in a formulated phrase,
And seeing that it was a soft October night,                And when I am formulated, sprawling on a pin,
Curled once about the house, and fell asleep.               When I am pinned and wriggling on the wall,
                                                            Then how should I begin
And indeed there will be time                               To spit out all the butt-ends of my days and ways?
For the yellow smoke that slides along the street,          And how should I presume?
Rubbing its back upon the window-panes;
There will be time, there will be time                      And I have known the arms already, known them all--
To prepare a face to meet the faces that you meet;          Arms that are braceleted and white and bare
There will be time to murder and create,                    [But in the lamplight, downed with light brown hair!]
And time for all the works and days of hands                Is it perfume from a dress
That lift and drop a question on your plate;                That makes me so digress?
Time for you and time for me,                               Arms that lie along a table, or wrap about a shawl.
And time yet for a hundred indecisions,                     And should I then presume?
And for a hundred visions and revisions,                    And how should I begin?
Before the taking of a toast and tea.
                                                            ...
In the room the women come and go
                                                            Shall I say, I have gone at dusk through narrow streets
Talking of Michelangelo.
                                                            And watched the smoke that rises from the pipes
                                                            Of lonely men in shirt-sleeves, leaning out of windows?
Page 14


      The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock cont.
                                                                                   .....
     I should have been a pair of ragged claws
     Scuttling across the floors of silent seas.
                                                                                   No! I am not Prince Hamlet, (9) nor was meant to be;
                                                                                   Am an attendant lord, one that will do
     ...
                                                                                   To swell a progress, start a scene or two,
                                                                                   Advise the prince; no doubt, an easy tool,
     And the afternoon, the evening, sleeps so peacefully!
                                                                                   Deferential, glad to be of use,
     Smoothed by long fingers,                                                     Politic, cautious, and meticulous;
     Asleep . . . tired . . . or it malingers,                                     Full of high sentence, but a bit obtuse
     Stretched on the floor, here beside you and me.                               At times, indeed, almost ridiculous--
     Should I, after tea and cakes and ices, (5)                                   Almost, at times, the Fool.
     Have the strength to force the moment to its crisis?
     But though I have wept and fasted, wept and prayed,                           I grow old . . .I grow old . . .
     Though I have seen my head [grown slightly bald] brought in upon a platter,   I shall wear the bottoms of my trousers rolled.
     (6)
     I am no prophet--and here's no great matter;                                  Shall I part my hair behind? Do I dare to eat a peach?
                                                                                   I shall wear white flannel trousers, and walk upon the
     I have seen the moment of my greatness flicker,
                                                                                   beach.
     And I have seen the eternal Footman hold my coat, and snicker,
                                                                                   I have heard the mermaids singing, each to each.
     And in short, I was afraid.
                                                                                   I do not think that they will sing to me.
     And would it have been worth it, after all,
     After the cups, the marmalade, the tea,                                       I have seen them riding seaward on the waves
     Among the porcelain, among some talk of you and me,                           Combing the white hair of the waves blown back
     Would it have been worth while,                                               When the wind blows the water white and black.
     To have bitten off the matter with a smile,
     To have squeezed the universe into a ball                                     We have lingered in the chambers of the sea
     To roll it toward some overwhelming question,                                 By sea-girls wreathed with seaweed red and brown
     To say: "I am Lazarus, (7) come from the dead                                 Till human voices wake us, and we drown.
     Come back to tell you all, I shall tell you all"--
     If one, settling a pillow by her head,
     Should say: "That is not what I meant at all.                                 (2) Anesthetized with ether; but also sug-
     That is not it, at all."                                                      gesting "made etherial," less real.
                                                                                   (3) Cheap bars and restaurants used to
     And would it have been worth it, after all,                                   spread sawdust on the floor to soak up
     Would it have been worth while,                                               spilled beer, etc.
     After the sunsets and the dooryards and the sprinkled streets,                (4) The great Renaissance Italian artist.
     After the novels, after the teacups, after the skirts that trail along the    (5) Cookies and ice cream.
     floor--                                                                       (6) Like John the Baptist (see Matthew 14: 1-
     And this, and so much more?--                                                 12)
     It is impossible to say just what I mean!                                     (7) A man raised from death by Jesus (see
     But as if a magic lantern (8) threw the nerves in patterns on a screen:       John 11: 1-44). Eliot may also have had in
     Would it have been worth while                                                mind the Lazarus in the parable told by Jesus
     If one, settling a pillow or throwing off a shawl,                            in Luke 16:19-31, in which case the poetical
     And turning toward the window, should say:                                    Lazarus would have returned to deliver a
     "That is not it at all,                                                       message which the Biblical Lazarus could not.
     That is not what I meant, at all."                                            (8) Early form of slide projector.
                                                                                   (9) Shakespeare's sensitive hero known
     .....                                                                         for procrastination.



             12 University Poetry
Volume 1, Issue 1            Page 15




                    NOTES:
                             St. Robert Catholic High School was the first high
                             school in the York Catholic District School Board.
                             The high school was first established in 1975 on the
                             original site of St. Robert Elementary School. In
                             January 1989 the final addition was added to the
                             school to complete the high school, as it exists to-
St. Robert C.H.S.            day. Over the years St. Robert Catholic High School
                             has developed a reputation in the community for
8101 Leslie Street
                             academic excellence, exuberant school spirit, and
Thornhill, Ontario
                             commitment to the needs of others. Our staff, stu-
L3T 7P4                      dents and parents work hard to maintain the 29-year
Phone: 905-889-4982          tradition that has enabled our graduates to contrib-
                             ute both personally and professionally to their com-
English is the backbone of   munities. One of our most gratifying accomplish-
                             ments is the number of graduates who have entered
every job!                   the teaching profession, many of them returning to
                             teach for the Y.C.D.S.B.

				
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