The Industrial Revolution

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					The Industrial
What is meant by the
Industrial Revolution?

The  Industrial Revolution refers
 to the process of shifting from
 hand tools to the use of power
 machinery to do work and
 produce goods
How Was Work Done
Before the Industrial

 Hand  tools with power supplied by
  human muscle or animal muscle and
  harnessed by ropes, pulleys, water and
 After 1800, power will be supplied by
  steam, electricity, combustion of gasses
  and or the use of atomic materials
What are the
Drawbacks to Using
Hand Tools and
Human Power?
 Very slow
 Very inefficient
 Very costly production costs
 Very high prices for products
The Agricultural
 England   was an agricultural nation by
  the start of the 18th century
 Thousands of small, private farms
  littered England
 Wealthy landowners began to buy up
  these small farms and consolidate them
  into larger, commercial farms
 Wealthy   landowners closed in their
  farms with fences and farms were called
 Large farmers experimented with new
  ways to farm to make farming more
  efficient and more productive
 One of the first farmers to do this was
  Jethro Tull who invented the seed drill
 Seed drill was designed to use less
  seed and produce more of the crop
Tull’s Seed Drill
Other    techniques in the
    Agricultural Revolution
 The use of fertilizer
 Scientific breeding techniques for
  animals to produce bigger,
  stronger, healthier animals
 Crop rotation to give a part of the
  farm a rest every year without
  losing production
Results of the Agricultural
 Fewer   small farms left in England
 A dramatic increase in food production
 A large growth in England’s population
 A large demand for products
 A large, mobile population that could
  move to the cities and work in the
  factories that were being developed
Why did the Industrial
Revolution Begin in Britain?
    It had all of the right ingredients!!
1.   A mobile population from the
     Agricultural Revolution
2.   Plenty of water (oceans and
     rivers) and access to it
3.   Plenty of coal & iron
4.   A large, strong colonial empire
5. A   large, strong navy

6. Economic & political stability

7. Separation from continental
1.   Mobile population: plenty of
     people available to leave
     the farms and come to the
     cities to work in the
     factories in poor conditions
     for long hours and low
2. England has access to the
   Atlantic Ocean and the North
   Sea via numerous rivers
   throughout the country.
   England built a canal system
   to take advantage of the rivers.
3. Plentyof coal and iron needed
   for power to run the factories
   and for the production of steel

4. An expansive colonial empire
   where they could get their raw
   materials and where they
   could have a guaranteed
   market to sell their products at
   high prices without competition
5. A strong navy to protect
 the colonial empire and the
 ships bringing in raw
 materials from the colonies.
6. England had their
 revolution back in the 1640s
 and had moved to a
 constitutional democracy by
 1688. France & the rest of
 Europe were not politically
 stable & could not focus on
7. England’s separation from
 continental Europe and
 Napoleon’s wars allowed
 England to focus on becoming
 industrialized and building an
 empire. England also did not
 have to worry about the wars of
 nationalism that effected so
 many other nations.
    The Factors of
The land to
 build on and
 the land from
 which the
 come that
 are needed
 in the
The  people that
 are required to
 do the actual
 work in the
 factories and
 other places
 that keeps the
 Money that is
 required to start
 up a business &
 to keep going.
 Money for
 labor, buildings,
 resources, etc.
The Role of the Entrepreneur
 This is the person who is willing to
  take his money, and that of others,
  and put a business together,
  manage it and assume all of the
  risks involved.
 Entrepreneurs do not invent
  products, but are more the money
  makers in a business.
       The Need for
The  agricultural Revolution
 increased the population of
 England as well as the amount
 of cotton being produced
 In order to keep up, and to take
 advantage of the availability of
 cheap labor, inventions were
 created to help workers work
 Most  inventions were the result of
  refining a previous invention which
  would make a worker more
 Making a worker more productive in
  the same amount of time increases
  the profit that the owner is making
  at the worker’s expense.
James Hargreaves’ Spinning
John Kay’s Flying Shuttle
Spinning Jenny
Water Frame
         Other Inventions
 EliWhitney’s Cotton Gin made it
  possible for one person (a slave) to
  do the work of eight people and
  turn cotton production into a very
  profitable business
Cotton Gin
James   Watt’s improved & more
 efficient steam engine
 revolutionized transportation as
 well as manufacturing in
Had effects on transportation as
Watt’s Steam Engine
    The Railroad Is Born
George     Stephenson’s improved
 locomotive design was used in
 the construction of the world’s
 first railroad line in 1821.
 Transportation was now
 Effects of Rail Development
Faster & cheaper to move
Thousands of new jobs created
 in RR industry
Easier & cheaper to travel –
 new industry develops
Easier to control colonies
George Stephenson’s Rocket
     Steam on the Water
Robert Fulton, an American,
 harnessed steam on the water
 & created the first steamboat
 1807. Thousands of miles of
 canals would be dug in the US
 and in England.
Robert Fulton’s Clermont
   The Industrial Revolution
 Changes How & Where People
 The  changes in agriculture forced
  people off of farms & into the cities
  where they were available for
  factory work.
 The movement of people to, and
  the growth of cities is known as
Cities  that were designed to
 handle 300,000 people quickly
 had to expand to deal with
 500,000 or a million people.
What could be some of the
 problems that faced the people
 living in these cities?
    What Will the Effects of
Industrialization Be on England?

            1.                    Classes of
        Upper Class               Industrial
     Landowners, aristocrats
  2. Upper Middle Class

    Factory owners, merchants,
    doctors, lawyers, managers

   3. Lower Middle Class
Factory overseers, skilled workers

     4. Working Class
    Workers in factories, mines
                                     continued . . .
Social Conditions of Industrial
 Middle class splits into 2 groups,
  the upper and lower middle class
 Tension developed between the
  upper classes and and the upper
  middle class
 Standard of living improved for all
  in general, but at the expense of
  the working classes who received
  few benefits from their labors
        Living Conditions
 Over-crowded   cities unable to
  handle large numbers of people
  moving to cities for factory work
 Shortage of adequate housing
 No building codes (laws that
  require housing be made safe)
 Inadequate sanitary facilities
 Inadequate    police protection
 Inadequate medical facilities
 Little to no running water or indoor
 Cramped conditions made
  epidemics of diseases
 Eventually conditions will improve,
  but will take much time
In London it is thought 7000
 people died of the disease
 cholera in the 1831-32 outbreak
 which represented a 50% death
 rate of those who caught it.
 15,000 people died in London in
 the 1848-49 outbreak. The
 disease usually affected those
 in a city’s poorer areas, though
 the rich did not escape this
Typical English Street During
    Industrial Revolution
Crowded City Street
      Working Conditions
 Thousands   of people needed jobs
  & were desperate to work
 Conditions did not have to be good
  for people to take the job
 Wages did not have to be good for
  people to take the job
 Hours were long for low pay in the
 Factories  were dark, noisy, poorly
  ventilated and doors were locked
 Workers got ½ hour break for 14
  hour shift
 Women & children worked in
  factories for the same hours as
  men but received lower wages
 No safety equipment on the
  machines so injuries were frequent
 Workers   had no insurance in case
  of injury
 Beatings were frequent in factories,
  including children
 Over time, wages would increase,
  hours would decrease and
  conditions would improve. It would
  take many years and many deaths
  & injuries first.
Exterior of Factory
Woman Working
Working in Factory
Early Band Saw
Power Loom
Power Looms
Wood Lathe
          Political Effects
 Politicalpower kept in the hands of
  the upper classes (the factory
  owners and aristocrats)
 Reforms movements were slow in
 Women still denied the vote
 Working classes, rural and urban,
  denied right to vote until late 1800s
        Economic Effects
 The rich got richer and the poor got
 Gap between social classes expanded
 Middle class grew in size
 England as a whole became much more
Adam Smith
Responses to Industrialization
Should   we change the way
 things are?
Should the factory system
 continue as it is or should
 changes be made?
Should the workers share in the
 profits that they have created?
No!! We should NOT Change!
             • Should be no
             change in the
             way business is
             •Gov’t should not
             interfere with the
Adam Smith
             •Believed in
Idea  that factory owners alone
 should set working conditions &
 wages without government
Wrote Wealth of Nations (1776)
 & argued “Economic liberty
 guaranteed guaranteed
 economic progress.”
“Economic  liberty guaranteed
 guaranteed economic
What does this mean?
It means that if an entrepreneur
 has the freedom to do what is
 right for the business, then
 businesses will grow and
 develop new products and the
 economy as a whole will benefit
Thomas Malthus   David Ricardo
       Malthus & Ricardo
Laissez-Faire capitalists
Supported Smith’s ideas
Believed food supplies would not
 meet growing population’s needs
Without wars & diseases, most
 people would be poor &
       Malthus & Ricardo
Believed  there would be a
 permanent underclass
Improving life of poor would hurt
 rest of society
Minimum wage laws and
 working condition laws would
 hurt owners’ profits & businesses
  YES! We Should Change!!
The  system is
Gov’t should
 manage economy
 to benefit all
Believed in
Karl Marx
           Karl Marx
Wrote  the Communist
 Manifesto (1848) w/ Friedrich
Introduced world to radical form
 of socialism called Marxism
History is full of class war
Conflict is result of tension
 between haves and have-nots
           Karl Marx
The  haves are the Bourgeoisie
 and the have-nots are the
 Proletariat (workers)
The Bourgeoisie have profited
 enormously at the expense of
 the workers who are treated
 poorly and have no share of the
 profits of their own labors
           Karl Marx
The  result of the class tension
 would be bloody revolution in
 which the proletariat would
 overthrow and destroy the
The next phase would be a
 dictatorship of the proletariat
 where the workers would control
 the gov’t and there would be no
 private property
           Karl Marx
After an UNSPECIFIED period of
 time the government would “
 wither & die”
Before gov’t dies, people would
 learn to live & work as equals
 without classes
Final phase is called communism
           Karl Marx
Communism    is an
Revolution was to spread around
 the world
“Workers of the world unite! You
 have nothing to lose but your

    Capitalism                      Marxism
Supported                         Factors of
individual              Both      production
freedom;                          owned by
opposed              Economic     people;
government         arrangements   governmental
intervention;        central to   control of
guided by profit       society    factories, mines;
motive; individual                predicted
ownership of                      proletariat
private property                  revolution
                                              continued . . .
     Capitalism Vs Marxism
 Capitalist   Ideas    Communist

 Progress  results     All great
 when individuals        movements in
 follow their own        history are the
 self-interest           result of
                         economic class
     Capitalism Vs Marxism
 Capitalist   Ideas    Communist
 Competition is        Workers are
 good because it         exploited by
 produces better         employers
 products and
 lower prices           The labor of
                        workers creates
                        profits for
     Capitalism Vs Marxism
 Capitalist   Ideas    Communist
 The market        The capitalist will
  should determine destroy itself.
  price, wages and  The state will
  quality of         wither & die as a
  products           classless society
     Capitalism Vs Marxism
 Capitalist   Ideas    Communist
                     The Means of
 Private money
  used for            Production
  investment yields   should be
  private gains       controlled by the
                      gov’t for the
                      benefit of all
          Factory Reform
 Workers   formed organizations
  called unions
 Unions are voluntary groups that
  speak for the membership and
  protect them from exploitation by the
 Unions could engage in collective
  bargaining whereby they could get
  wages, working conditions, hours
  etc in writing to protect the members
          Factory Reform
 Ifthe collective bargaining
  agreement was violated by the
  owners, the union could strike or
  refuse to report to work.
 Poor working conditions & the
  growing power of the unions led to
  reform laws being passed in the mid
  and late 19th century
Other Reform Movements
        of Slavery
Women’s Rights

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