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					       New Dorp High School                                           Social Studies Department
       AP Global                                                       Mr. Hubbs & Mrs. Zoleo

                                       The Industrial Revolution

A major upheaval in the way people live, work and think began about two hundred years ago and in
many ways is still going on today. The is change is called the Industrial Revolution, and it accomplished
on a massive scale the replacement of human power and animal power with the power of machines. The
Industrial Revolution began in England in the 1750s and involved vast changes in the production of
goods. These changes were: from handmade goods to machine-made goods; from production at home to
production in factories (from the domestic system to the factory system); from producing small amounts
to producing large amounts (mass production); and the increased use of science and new forms of
energy (steam power, electricity) to speed up production and meet human needs. The use of science in
these ways is referred to as technology.

1. What were some major changes of the industrial Revolution?

The Agricultural Revolution
        Before industrialization started in England, there were dramatic changes in the way agriculture
was practiced. In the early 1700s, the “enclosure movement” saw wealthy landowners purchase land
from small farmers. Enclosing their land with fences or hedges, the holders of these large plots of land
then had opportunities to experiment with new farming methods. It also enclosed common areas used
by the public to graze their animals. The enclosure movement required small farmers to either take up
tenant farming or move to cities and become part of the urban labor force.
        Among agricultural improvements were crop rotation, scientific breeding of animals, and more
sophisticated farm implements. The increase in food supply boosted population growth and the desire
for new products. Population growth also resulted in a migration of large numbers of former landholders
from the southeastern portion of England to the northwest, where conditions were especially suitable for
the growth of factories.

1. What was the enclosure movement?

2. What were some changes made during the agricultural revolution?

Industrial Revolution in England
        The Industrial Revolution began in England because of a combination of fortunate conditions
that existed at the time.
    o Natural Resources: Britain was fortunate to have large amounts of coal and iron ore to support
        the Industrial Revolution.
    o Geography: England had many good harbors, and coastal river trade was well developed.
        England also had relatively good roads and numerous canals for the cheap transport of raw
        materials and finished goods.
    o Investment Capital: Entrepreneurs and other private individuals had money that they, as
        capitalists, were willing to invest and risk in business ventures.
    o Labor Supply: There were large numbers of skilled workers in the population.
    o Increased Demand: There was a great demand for British products, both in the domestic market
        (within the nation) and in foreign markets.
       New Dorp High School                                            Social Studies Department
       AP Global                                                        Mr. Hubbs & Mrs. Zoleo

   o Transportation and Colonial Empire: Britain had a good navy and built up a strong shipping
     industry. Its expanding colonial empire furnished raw materials and markets for goods.
   o Agricultural Changes: An agricultural revolution that occurred in the 1700s brought changes in
     farming that made the Industrial Revolution possible. These changes resulted in the production
     of more food and required fewer farmers to produce it. Many people left the farms and went to
     the cities to find work in factories.
   o Role of Government: Britain had a stable government that had established a good banking
     system, promoted scientific experimentation, and passed laws to protect business.
   o Inventions: The changes in production came first in the cotton textile industry. Several inventors
     devised inventions that sped up and improved the manufacturing of textiles.

 1. Which of these reasons for the Industrial Revolution in England is most important and why?

Inventions of the Industrial Revolution
        Many inventors thought to improve the textile industry. John Kay’s flying shuttle greatly
accelerated the speed at which weaving could be performed by allowing the shuttle carrying the weft to
be passed through the warp threads more quickly and over a greater width of cloth. The spinning jenny
is a multi-spool spinning wheel. It was invented by James Hargreaves in England. The device
dramatically reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with a single worker able to work
eight or more spools at once. Created by Richard Awkright the water frame is derived from the
adaptation of a water wheel to the spinning frame. The water wheel provided more power to the
spinning frame than human operators, reducing the amount of human labor needed and increasing the
spindle count dramatically. However, unlike the spinning jenny, the water frame could only spin one
thread at a time until Samuel Crompton combined the two inventions into his spinning mule. The cotton
gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibers from the seedpods and the sometimes
sticky seeds. The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney in 1793 and served to reinvigorate the slave
economy in the United States, adding decades to its life.
        Textiles were not the only area that was improved. Henry Bessemer improved the steel process,
which lowered the cost of producing steel. The dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of
delivering power for industry. The steam engine was used as the prime mover in locomotives, steam
ships, traction engines; steam lorries and other road vehicles. They were essential to the Industrial
Revolution and saw widespread commercial use driving machinery in factories and mills. The
production of the steam engine led to the most important invention of the Industrial Revolution, the
railroad. The railroad allowed for fast shipping of goods which allowed for the success of more
industries during the revolution. Many other inventions were created during this time such as electricity,
the telegraph, the telephone, the refrigerator, new medicines like anesthesia and antiseptics, and the
typewriter, all of which allowed for a new time period in world history, industrialization.

1. How was the textile industry improved by the Industrial Revolution?

2. What other areas did the Industrial Revolution make improvements in?
       New Dorp High School                                             Social Studies Department
       AP Global                                                         Mr. Hubbs & Mrs. Zoleo

        When the industrial revolution first came to Britain and the U.S., there was a high demand for
labor. Families quickly migrated from the rural farm areas to the newly industrialized cities to find work.
Once they got there, things did not look as bright as they did. To survive in even the lowest level of
poverty, families had to have every able member of the family go to work. This led to the high rise in
child labor in factories. Children were not treated well, overworked, and underpaid for a long time
before anyone tried to change things for them.

Wages and Hours:
        Children as young as six years old during the industrial revolution worked hard hours for little or
no pay. Children sometimes worked up to 19 hours a day, with a one-hour total break. This was a little
bit on the extreme, but it was not uncommon for children who worked in factories to work 12-14 hours
with minimal breaks. Not only were these children subject to long hours, but also, they were in horrible
conditions. Large, heavy, and dangerous equipment was very common for children to be using or
working near. Many accidents occurred, injuring or killing children on the job. Not until the Factory Act
of 1833 did things improve. Children were paid only a fraction of what an adult would get, and
sometimes factory owners would get away with paying them nothing. Orphans were the ones subject to
this slave-like labor. The factory owners justified their absence of payroll by saying that they gave the
orphans food, shelter, and clothing, all of which were far below par. The children who did get paid were
paid very little.

           1. Explain life in the factory for the children in this work system.

        The treatment of children in factories was often cruel and unusual, and the children's safety was
generally neglected. The youngest children, who were not old enough to work the machines, were
commonly sent to be assistants to textile workers. The people who the children served would beat them,
verbally abuse them, and take no consideration for their safety. Both boys and girls who worked in
factories were subject to beatings and other harsh forms of pain infliction. One common punishment for
being late or not working up to quota would be to be "weighted." An overseer would tie a heavy weight
to worker's neck, and have them walk up and down the factory aisles so the other children could see
them and "take example." This could last up to an hour. Weighting could lead to serious injuries in the
back and/or neck. Punishments such as this would often be dispensed under stringent rules. Boys were
sometimes dragged naked from their beds and sent to the factories only holding their clothes, to be put
on there. This was to make sure the boys would not be late, even by a few minutes.

           1. Describe the treatment of the children in factories.

        Child labor: Movements to Regulate
        There were people in this time period that strongly advocated the use or the abolishment of child
labor, or at least the improvement of conditions. Factory owners loved child labor, and they supported
their reasoning with ideas that it was good for everything from the economy to the building of the
children's characters. Parents of the children who worked were almost forced to at least approve of it
because they needed the income. There were, however, some important figures that fought for the
regulation, improvement, and/or abolishment of child labor. The first step to improving conditions was
in 1833 with the Factory Act passed by Parliament. This limited the amount of hours children of certain
       New Dorp High School                                               Social Studies Department
       AP Global                                                           Mr. Hubbs & Mrs. Zoleo

ages could work. Specifically, children 9 to 13 years of age were only allowed to work 8 hours a day.
Those 14 to 18 years of age could not work more than 12 hours a day. Children under 9 were not
allowed to work at all. Also, the children were to attend school for no less than two hours during the
day. Perhaps the most important part of this act was the part that said the government would appoint
officials to make sure the act was carried out and complied with. Later, in the early 20th century,
activists went even further to protect children's rights in labor. Among these figures was Jane Addams,
founder of the Hull House. Activists in the U.S. made the government set up the Children's Bureau in
1912. This made it the U.S. government's responsibility to monitor child labor.

           1. How was child labor regulated over the years of the Industrial Revolution?

                                     The Second Industrial Revolution

       The Second Industrial Revolution is a phrase used by some historians to describe an assumed
second phase of the Industrial Revolution. This period includes the rise of industrial powers other than
Great Britain, such as Germany and the USA. The Second Industrial Revolution occurred in the late
1800s and many countries began to rapidly industrialize to become a world power.

The United States
        The Industrial Revolution quickly spread to the textile industry of the United States, which
enjoyed the same factors of production as England. The stable legal and political systems that had
encouraged enterprise and rewarded initiative in Great Britain also did so, with minor variations, in the
United States. No nation was more open to social mobility. Railroads played a major role in
industrialization in the United States, especially after the conclusion of the Civil War in 1865.
Industrialization led to the rise of large corporations owned by stockholders who shared in the profits but
assumed very little risks. The United States was relatively open to change. It quickly adopted many of
the technologies, forms of organization, and attitudes shaping the new industrial world, and then
proceeded to generate its own advances.

       1. What technological advance allowed the U.S to successfully industrialize?

Continental Europe
         Railroads were also a key factor in the expansion of the Industrial Revolution throughout
Europe. With Belgium taking the lead, other nations followed, frequently bringing the factory system to
small regions rather than entire nations. Germany began to industrialize in the 1830s, and by the end of
the nineteenth century, became a strong industrial and military power. The German Empire came to
replace Great Britain as Europe's primary industrial nation during this period. This occurred as a result
of three factors: firstly, Germany, having industrialized after Britain, was able to model its factories after
those of Britain thus saving a substantial amount of capital, effort, and time. Secondly, while Germany
made use of the latest technological concepts, the British continued to use expensive and outdated
technology and therefore were unable (or unwilling) to afford the fruits of their own scientific progress.
And lastly, in the development of science and pure research, the Germans invested more heavily than the
         New Dorp High School                                             Social Studies Department
         AP Global                                                         Mr. Hubbs & Mrs. Zoleo

         The Industrial Revolution came to France in the 1850s because of a network of canals that were
built, so that coal and other bulk goods could be cheaply transported by barges. Soon after this shipment
of resources began, the government began building railroads. However, not all of Europe was able to set
up factories. Obstacles such as mountainous terrain that prevented adequate construction and insufficient
waterways kept empires like Austria-Hungary and countries such as Spain from early industrialization.

            1. What allowed Germany to replace Great Britain as the major industrial power?

            2. Why couldn’t all countries experience industrialization?

        Industrialization came to Egypt as a result of the ottoman ruler Muhammad Ali (1769-1849). In
addition to improving communication in Egypt, he also set up factories to produce cotton cloth, refined
sugar, and glass. Turning to commercial agriculture in order to realize huge profits, he forced farmers to
leave their own plots and work instead on commercial plantations, growing cash crops for sale to
European markets.

        The Russian czars encouraged industrialization by promoting the building of railroads.
Especially significant was the trans-Siberian railroad, completed in 1904, which linked Moscow and the
ports along the Pacific Ocean. Russian railroads also linked Western Europe with East Asia. Russian
industrialization also reached the armaments industry, which received government support. Even with its
early success, Russian industrialization was far behind many countries. It wasn’t until Stalin in the
1930s that Russia was fully industrialized and producing mass goods.

       The Japanese Meiji government also encouraged industrialization, hiring foreign industrial
experts to instruct the Japanese. Railroads, business and technological schools, and banks received
government support. When businesses were stable enough to function on their own, the Japanese
government sold them to private owners. By 1900, Japan was the most highly industrialized nation in

            1. How did Egypt become industrialized?

            2. How did Russia industrialize its nation?

            3. What did the Japanese do to industrialize their country?

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