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Stimulating Simulations

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					Stimulating
Simulations



      Gary Simons
      Thousand Islands Secondary School
      2510 Parkedale Ave
      Brockville, ON K6V 3H1
      <gary.simons@ucdsb.on.ca>
The Problem with how History is taught
Many students have not enjoyed their past experiences in History because their teachers were not
able to find a way to make it interesting - too many topics to cover - with no understanding or
personal interest in them. Many teachers teach History as if everything was pre-destined. Their
students see History as a procession of names, dates, and events. History becomes too cut and too
dried. This takes the interest and energy out of the subject and gives people a distorted view of
the past. When we make decisions today, we do not know what will happened next. Have we
make good choices or poor ones? We don't know - and we won't know for years to come. I like to
present history in the same way. In my introduction to my 12U Canadian History course I wrote:
   As much as possible you will have events presented to you as people of that time saw them.
   In retrospect, everything in History appears to be obvious and pre-determined. To people of
   the time period, however, nothing was clear or obvious. History is the story of the challenges
   people faced, the tough decisions they made, and the consequences - good, poor, expected or
   unexpected.. History looks very different when you have to live through it rather than just
   read about it.

As well, History teaching methodologies have often appealed primarily to good readers and
listeners with little appeal to students with visual and tactile learning styles. Many students
respond better to other teaching styles. They need visual or tactile stimulation to learn. Having
objects for students to handle, to feel, to smell, as well as to see, hear or read is essential. History
should also have emotional appeal - because real life is full of emotion. Good history teaching, in
part, is a theatrical experience, rich in sensory appeal. I want to present history as if the student
was there at the place and time we are studying, as if the student had to face the same choices and
feel the same uncertainty as people at that time and place.

Students do not have the same perspective on history and historical objects that we do. Words
and phrases such as "D-Day", "Nazism", "Dieppe", "Holocaust" set off a cascade of ideas,
images, and emotions to us, because of all the knowledge we have absorbed. As students of
history we also have a rich historical imagination and empathy with people of the past. As a
result, simply seeing a helmet from Vimy Ridge, or a letter by a D-Day participant, can fascinate
us. Students new to the study of history obviously will not have the same response. They have no
store of background knowledge, no perspective, and no empathy with these objects and the
owners. Our mission is to help students build up their historical imagination, their appreciation
and empathy with people in the past. We need to win then over by making history as alive and as
fascinating as possible.
What is a Historical Simulation?

One way to make History come alive for students is to put them in a historical situation, as
people of the time saw things, and to give them the information and the choices people back then
had. In other words to make them feel as if they were there. Once you feel as if you were living
History, experiencing what people of the time experienced, facing the same choices they faced -
then seeing an historical object, viewing historical photos or film, or reading a letter, becomes
much more meaningful.
A historical simulation is simply a recreation in a classroom of an actual historical problem.
Students are given the maximum possible information about the setting and background to the
problem. Then they are given time to study the problem, analyze it, brainstorm ideas, and
develop and present their solutions. I like to give students the relevant information available at
the time ( plus some fascinating minutiae, if possible ) and then present them with the
problems or choices actual people at the time had to face. This brings history alive because the
students are interacting with it. They start asking me the key questions because they want to
know what to do, or how best to solve a problem.

Why use Simulations?
i. Simulations put students right into a historical situation. They see the issues, complexities,
   problems, and fears that people of the time faced. They begin to understand the situation as
   people of the time did and to appreciate the choices people made at that time.

ii. As students go over the same details repeatedly during their problem-solving they gain a better
    understanding of the historical situation by repeatedly manipulating the data.

iii. Simulation work promotes better learning skills, including problem-solving and analysis,
better     team work, and better communications skills.

iv. Simulations can help promote hands-on and multiple-intelligence learning styles. Students
can    go beyond words and reading by doing hands-on work, building models, or actual
        demonstrations.

v. Simulations make History come alive. Just like today, in a good simulation, students do not
   know what the right answer is, and they do not know what will happen because of their
   choices.

vi. Simulations are simply fun to do!
How to Prepare and use Simulations?
i. Research and prepare the simulation task.
As the Areality master@, the teacher must know the key details of the historical problem and he
or she must be able to determine whether the suggestions the class comes up with are actually
feasible for that time and place. The teacher may also need to break the larger task down into a
series of smaller tasks that are easier for the students to focus on.

ii. Give the class any necessary background to the task.
The teacher must give the class essential background information. Where and when the problem
existed. What resources and challenges the actual people faced. Are there any constraints on the
type of answer that is permitted due to limitations on the technology available at the time.

iii. Explain the task to the class.
The teacher explains the historical situation to the students. What are the specific challenges the
team must deal with? The teacher also explains the problem-solving process the class will use -
the team size, how many days to work on it, any hands-on resources, models, available for use,
how the answers will be presented and how the winner will be determined.

iv. Move the students into groups. Give them time to study and solve the problem.
Students may get time to study the problem individually, or they might move directly into
groups. The teacher monitors their efforts. Teacher might offer further stimulation as needed
when a team ( or the entire class) is stumped. This help could include model answers ( but flawed
or incomplete ), video clips, hands-on demonstrations, or simply verbal clues.

v. Teams present their answers to the class.
Every team presents their answers - either putting their work on large sheets of newsprint or by
doing a short presentation. The teacher leads a discussion about the merits of each answer, and a
possible analysis of the strengths/weaknesses of each answer.

vi. Presentation of the actual answers.
After the team presentations the class learns about what the people of the time to solve the
problem and how well their solution worked, or failed to work. This information could be
conveyed by a video, an assigned reading or a teacher-centered lesson. The teacher could also
call upon the students to make an assessment of the adequacy of the actual participants= solution.

vii. Next Steps - Follow-up after the exercise
Students reflect on what they learned from doing the simulation - any wider comprehension of
the historical event? Any greater appreciation for the choices the actual participants made? Any
self-knowledge about their abilities as problem-solvers? With their enhanced understanding of
the historical situation, students can critically assess different historical interpretations or
arguments related to the problem. Which historian=s arguments are most consistent with the
facts? Which historians interpretation is the most accurate or the most balanced? Which
interpretations simply do not stand up to close scrutiny? Students demonstrate their enhanced
understanding of the historical problem by completing assigned questions on their team work.


The Simulations in this package:
I=ve included some of my favourite simulations on a CD, but it=s easy to create your own.
Simply start by thinking of a historical situation that you want your students to examine in depth.
Then think of the questions that the people of the time had to solve in order to be successful. The
rest is a matter of preparing the background information for the class and determining how to
break the larger task into a series of smaller challenges.

Grade Ten Canadian History                           Grade Eleven Civilizations in History

The Challenges of Wilfrid Laurier                    Survival Simulation

Victory at Vimy Ridge                                Building Stonehenge

Surviving a Depression Today                         Pyramid Building

D-Day Simulation                                     The Greek Economic Revolution

Do Your Own Thing                                    Greek Cultural Olympics

Effective Presentations                              Designing a Roman Town

Yes, Prime Minister
                  Building Stonehenge!
Here are some facts about Stonehenge:

- Stonehenge was built in three stages, beginning around 3000 B.C. and ending around 1500 B.C
  The site was abandoned at least twice, possibly for as long as 500 years.

- Archeologists have not found any evidence of ancient roads, ramps, cranes, or villages near the
  Stonehenge site. There is almost no evidence of how the stones were moved or put into place.

- The great Sarsen stones come from a natural quarry 20 km to the north. They can weight as
  much as 50 tons (equivalent to 25 cars). Some of the smaller 2-3 ton "bluestones@ came from
  the Preselli Mountains of Wales. This is a 300 km journey over rough terrain and across a
  major ocean estuary.

- Stonehenge is one of hundreds of Megalithic ( "giant stone" ) rings and constructions scattered
  from northern Ireland and Scotland, across western England and down the west coast of France
  and Spain and into the Mediterranean. The designs include barrow tombs, long avenues of
  standing stones, rings of stones, and large man-made mounds. Some have stones that are even
  larger and heavier than the ones at Stonehenge.

- Archeologists have not found the remains of any large towns, roads, bridges, near any of these
  sites. They have not found any writing or major drawings or large carvings near any of these
   sites. They have found huge amounts of pottery and remains of wood and bone tools, and a few
   copper tools. They have also found beautiful stone axes and ornaments that were traded, or
   exchanged between communities in England, France, and Germany.


                                               Stonehenge When Constructed
                                                           Stonehenge Today
CHW 3M                        Stonehenge Assignment
Answer these questions in proper sentence form. Include plenty of specific examples to earn full
marks.

1. a) What were the most difficult problems you and your team had to face in trying to build a
       model of Stonehenge?
    b) What new appreciation did you gain for the abilities of Neolithic people after our
       Stonehenge simulation?                                                        ( 7 marks )

2 From the evidence you have seen in the videos and read about in the handouts make eight
  good deductions or Aguesstimates@ about the culture of the Stonehenge builders.
  e.g What does the evidence suggest about:
              Their way of life ( typical jobs, daily routines, clothes, shelter, villages. etc )
              Level of technology ( what they could make and how they made it, what they
               could achieve and how they achieved it )
              Degree of organization and unity ( their type of government, how large a group
               worked together, how well organized they were )
              Contacts with other tribes ( did they have any contact with other tribes, if so,
              from how far away, what was the nature of the connection - trade, war, simply
               saying Agreetings@ )
  Explain the specific evidence and/or logical arguments that supports each of your deductions.
                                                                                       ( 8 marks )

3. a) Briefly summarize the conclusions made in the videos ( Secrets of Lost Empires:
     Stonehenge, and Who Built Stonehenge ) about how and why Stonehenge was constructed.
    b) How convincing do you find these conclusions?                              ( 8 marks )

4. Why does Stonehenge remain such a
mysterious place? After trying to build it
yourself, what
   struck you as the most mysterious aspects of
                                                                                    S
                                                                                    t
                                                                                    o
                                                                                    n
                                                                                    e
                                                                                    h
                                                                                    e
                                                                                    n
                                                                                    g
                                                                                    e
                                                                                    ?
                                                                                          (2
                                                                                    marks )


5. Hand in a self-evaluation form for your work and that of your team.              ( 15 marks )



Total Marks:              40

Date Due:




                   Building Stonehenge!
Here are your key tasks to solve as a team:
1. How to move the Sarsen Stones to the site?

  The stones are lying on their side on a field about 20 - 25 km north-west of the Stonehenge
site. The largest stones are over 30 feet long and weigh over 30 tons (that=s the same as 15
crushed cars! ). The terrain has low, gently rolling hills and valleys. The ground is soft, chalky
soil - easy to dig. There is a plentiful supply of wood and other typical forest resources. The
Avon River is a few kilometres away and it flows
by the Stonehenge site and downstream past the
Sarsen field to the Bristol Channel. You have 66
major stones to move, but you can take several
years to complete the task.

Questions for you to solve:

  What=s your main method or methods for
moving the stones?
  What will you have to build or make to help
you move the stones?
 What=s your power source for moving the stones?
 What tools and other materials will you need to get the job done?
 How will you keep everyone safe? Once the stone gets moving downhill it has a lot of
 momentum, while to could easily slide backwards while going uphill.

2. How to raise the upright stones in exactly the right locations?

  It=s easy to dig pits. The soil is very soft. The problem is to get the huge stones upright, in just
the right position. Once the big stones start sliding, you only have one chance to do it right.

Questions for you to solve:

 What=s your main method or methods for moving the stones?
 What will you have to build or make to help you move the stones?
 What=s your power source for moving the stones?
 What tools and other materials will you need to get the job done?
 How will you keep everyone safe? Once the
 stone gets moving downhill it has a lot of
 momentum




3. How to raise the lintel stones up into position, so one end rests on each supporting stone?

  These stones weight 10 tons and your tribe has to raise them 20 feet into the air and then slide
  them into position on top of pairs of upright stones.

Questions to Answer:

  What=s your main method or methods for raising the stones?
  What will you have to build or make to help you raise them?
  What tools and other supply materials will you need to get the job done?
  How will you keep everyone safe? Once the stone gets moving it has a lot of momentum,
  and it could easily slide backwards while
going up, or it could get pushed too far - right
over
  the far side.

4. List all of the resources and materials
your tribe will need to build Stonehenge

 Your tribe can have thousands of people.
You can have any agricultural product a typical
  farming society would have ( sheep, cows, horses, different crops, vegetables, etc). You can
  have any wood, stone or other natural resource typically found in or around local forests.

 Make lists of:

 All the tools and materials you will need at the site ( stone axes, rope ? )
 Any special clothing needs ( leather gloves? )
 Any day-to-day items needed ( water jugs? )

 All the jobs necessary to get the stones moved
 All the jobs necessary to supply the workers with
 what they need




Major Types of Buildings
You=d find in a Roman City
Circus Maximus - This would be the huge chariot
racing track. The grandstands could hold 100,00 to
300,000 people - almost every man in town! The
track had very sharp turns to increase the number of
crashes. Betting on the races was a huge business.

Forum - These were paved open air courtyards in
the city. They would be surrounded by covered
walkways called arcades. Forum often had major temples or government offices at one end.
Romans loved to do things in the open air, so on a good day the forum court yard might have
open air trials, government officials doing business, bankers and merchants doing deals, and even
luxury shopping.

Baths - This was the Roman term for what we=d call a Ahealth club@. Baths included swimming
pools, hot tubs, ice cold tubs, gyms or exercise rooms, steam rooms, lounges to sit and talk in,
and even a wine bar. Romans would stop off at a Abath@ on the way home to clean up or unwind
before having diner. Some baths were open to the entire public, some were very exclusive private
clubs.

Colosseum - This was the main sports arena in a town. This is where gladiators, or wild animals
or condemned criminals died for the entertainment of spectators. A Colosseum had many rows
for seats - from exclusive private boxes, to the cheap seats at the top for women and slaves.
Colosseum had many entrances and exits, snack bars, washrooms, walkways, and ramps - just
like modern stadiums.

Temples - Romans were very tolerant of foreign religions. As long as the followers of a religion
kept the peace, Roman authorities didn=t mind what you worshiped. Roman towns always had
beautiful temples to the Roman gods - Jupiter, Mercury, Venus, Neptune, Pluto, Minerva, etc -
but there could also be temples to Egyptian gods, Gaulish gods, gods from Asia Minor - or any
other part of the empire. Roman temples often looked like Greek ones, but they were sometimes
circular, not rectangular, and the largest ones even had domed roofs - like the Parthenon

Theatres - Romans had a wide mix of tastes in theatre. The theatres themselves looked like Greek
ones - with many semi-circular rows of seats facing a wide stage. Some Romans enjoyed ballet or
Greek dramas, other Romans loved bloodthirsty melodramas ( like soap operas ) or slapstick
comedy.




Can you                                                                 design a
Roman                                                                   town?
1. Pick a town                                                          site, with a river near
town or running                                                         through the town
2. Draw a fortified wall around the town site, include a deep trench

3. On each major side of the town, include a fortified gate into the town

4. Draw straight major roads running from the gates to the centre of the city

5. Put shops and snack bars along the sides of the major streets

6. Add in a grid of side streets running between the major streets - these are the nighbourhoods
   of the town

7. Pick one part of town to put the large private homes in This is the fancy part of town
   ( far away from smelly businesses )

8. Pick a neighbourhood for the smellier businesses: butcher, blacksmith, leather tanner, fish
   seller, cloth dyer, stables etc.

9. Put the poor people in apartment buildings in the poor region of town

10. Put public fountains at most major street corners

11. Put in two or three aqueducts bringing water into the town. Pipes will distribute the water
    around the town

12. Put a forum at the centre of the city - and maybe another one or two in the downtown area

13. Put temples around the town - usually where two roads meet

14. Put several theatres downtown

15. Put several bath complexes around town

16. Put the gladiators= Colosseum near the center of town

17. Put the Circus Maximus on the edge of town

18. Put an underground sewer system in to flush sewage into the local river




What=s missing in a Roman town?
Roman towns did not have schools, colleges, universities - rich families hired private tutors, poor
families sent their children to a local one-teacher walk-in school - just a shop along the side of a
street

Roman towns did not have hospitals. You hired a doctor to come to your home.

Roman towns did not have shopping malls. Stores were along the sides of streets, or along the
sides of a forum. No supermarkets or department stores.

Parks were rare. Most green spaces were outside the town=s walls - if you felt like walking that
far!


Question:
Yesterday we examined Brockville and did a judgement about how civilized or barbaric
Brockville was. Do the same exercise for a Roman town - put your main reasons in point form
below the scale. But first read about the Roman social structure! This is included in your
assessment.

0 _____________ 1 _____________2___________3___________4_________________5
Totally     Mostly Equal parts          Mostly    Entirely
Barbaric           Barbaric     Civilized and     Civilized         Civilized
                                 Barbaric
                    Greek Cultural Olympics!
Four Challenges for Each Team:

1. Architecture:


Brockville needs a new city hall. Using Greek concepts of
simplicity, balance and reserve, geometry, and beauty design our
new city hall. You may even make a model of it.


2. Drama:

Create and act out a 5 - 10 minute drama that obeys the Greek conventions or rules:
1. The action takes place at one time in one place. No jumps
2. The action focuses on the key defining moment for the hero
3. Only three or four speaking roles. Actors wear masks and simple robes.


                       3. Fine Art:

                       Create a drawing of a single person that obeys the Greek concepts of
                       balance, perfection, nobility of character, and beauty. You may use a real
                       person or an imagined one as your model.




4. Philosophy:

Write a philosophical response to this question:
What is an ideal definition of Ajustice@ - one that has no loose ends?




Teams have until mid-period tomorrow to produce their works. Viewing and
judging takes place starting at mid-class tomorrow.
Mystery of
the Pyramids!
Imagine you are in ancient Egypt in 2700 B.C. You want to become Grand Vizier of the Two
Lands. Your beloved pharaoh has given you the greatest task any human has ever been asked to
do - to build the world's greatest pyramid! To build the pyramid you need to overcome a series of
challenges. Here are some facts to help you:

* Your workers have granite hammers and copper chisels. These are hard enough to chip out the
  stone blocks for the pyramids.
* Each block weights one to two tons. You will need to cut out and move two million of these to
  build your pyramid. Modern archaeologists believe most of the blocks came from quarries at
  the base of the pyramids so they only had to be moved a kilometre or two to the building site.
* You can have as many workers as you need. Ancient Egypt was a rich farming area with a
   population of at least ten million - so you have two to three million adult males as potential
   labourers. ( Remember to leave a few people to do the farming!)
* You have a plentiful supply of rope - made from cat tails along the Nile's banks. You also have
   all the water, sand, and clay you need. You have a lot of short, soft timber pieces from the Nile
   palm trees, and you can import a small supply of good hardwood from the Lebanon.

Your Assignment:

Organize yourselves into a team of four or five. Assign one or two people to solve each of these
problems. Tomorrow you will have time to finish off your planning and put your results on
newsprint. There will be a prize for each member of the winning team. As a team work out a
solution to each of the problems listed below. Each one that you solve will advance you one step
towards becoming Grand Viziers.

1.( For promotion from slave to volunteer labourer) It's easy to use chisels and granite hammers
   to bash out the top and sides of a pyramid block, but how do you cut out the base to free the
   block from the quarry wall? If you tunnel under the block won't it fall on you?

2. ( For promotion from volunteer labourer to work crew boss ) Design a simple, labour efficient
    way to move blocks from the quarry to the base of the pyramid. What materials do you need
    to move each block? How many people or animals will you need to move each block? How
    long will it take to move one block two kilometres to the pyramid site?

3. ( For promotion from crew boss to crafts person ) To insure that the pyramid gets off to a good
   start you need to make sure the 65 hectare ( 250m X 250m ) base is perfectly smooth and
    level - with no bumps, undulations, or hollows more than .3 of a metre above or below
    perfectly level. How can you make sure the site is this level? Devise a survey and inspection
    system
4. ( For promotion to clerk/scribe ) You need to make sure the initial floor plan of the pyramid is
   correct. This means the four base lines must be perfectly straight ( the pyramid is over 250 m.
   on each side ) and each corner must be exactly 90 degrees - not 89.5 or 90.5 degrees.
   Devise a survey and inspection system to achieve this.
         Note - you cannot use a protractor - it's not accurate enough.
         Hint - Use geometry on a very large scale!

5. ( For promotion to Surveyor ) The sides of the pyramid must rise up at exactly 51 or 53
   degrees - with no deviation anywhere from bottom to top. Devise a system to make sure every
   outer block is at exactly the correct angle. For this problem you do have a protractor that can
    show you a 51 or 53 degree angle.

6. ( For promotion to Master Architect ) It's easy to get the first million blocks into place, but it
   becomes much harder to move the blocks up for the top half of the pyramid. Devise a system
   to move blocks up to the top half of the pyramid in a labour efficient manner. You need to
   raise them 60 to 140m (the very top one ton block is 140m above ground level ).
   Notes:      a) You cannot use pulleys - the Ancient Egyptians did not have them.
               b) You cannot stand on one "step" and raise the block to the next "step". The
                   ledge for each step is too narrow and the slope is too steep. Your workers
                   would fall off!
               c) You cannot build a straight ramp up the side of the pyramid - it would require
                   another 5 million blocks!

7. ( For promotion to Grand Vizier ) Work out the logistics of pyramid building.
        a) List all the jobs directly necessary in building a pyramid
        b) Estimate how many people you need doing each job each day ( on average ), in order
           to cut out, move, raise, and correctly position two million blocks in only 25 years.
           i.e How many blocks need to be cut each day and how many block cutters will you
            need each day.
        c) What materials, tools, supplies do you need to do the job? How much of each item do
            you need per year ? ( Assume each item will wear out after one year )
        d) List the support materials and labour ALL the workers will need per year.
            i.e How much food, what sort of pottery, what materials must be made by someone
                else for the workers use.
           Prepare a estimate of everything and every job needed to work on the pyramid
        e) Create an organizational structure showing who will oversee
what, and who will report
           to whom.


    Good Luck, and may the gods
      smile upon your efforts!
     Mysteries of the Pyramids - Assignment Questions
You need three sources of information to do this assignment:
       a) Your team experiences in pyramid building
       b) Pages 63 to 65 on the Old Kingdom and pp. 67 to 73 on Egyptian beliefs and rituals.
          in your text book, “Odyssey”
       c) The one hour video on pyramid building, “This Old Pyramid”
Using this information answer the following questions - to be handed in Monday (October 24th)

1. a) What was the key function of a pyramid in ancient Egypt?
   b) What was the significance of the pyramid shape in ancient Egyptian religion?
   c) Why did Old Kingdom pharaohs build such massive pyramids? What's the point in making
      them so large?                                                               ( 3 marks )

3. What were the most puzzling parts of the pyramid-building problem for your team. Which
   parts of the exercise were the most difficult for your group? Why?            ( 3 marks )

4. What do the Great Pyramids tell us about these aspects of life and culture in Old Kingdom
    Egypt? You must also explain what specific evidence or information led you to each
    conclusion. Do not mention information that we cannot learn or deduce from the pyramids
    themselves!                                                        ( 10 details = 10 marks )
   a) How powerful were the pharaohs in the Old Kingdom
   b) How good were the organizational abilities of the Old Kingdom government?
   c) What religious beliefs did the Old Kingdom Egyptians have. How powerful were these
        beliefs?
   d) What technological and engineering skills did the ancient Egyptians have?
      What are some skills a more advanced culture would have, that the Egyptians lacked?
   e) What were some of the Old Kingdom skills and occupations
   f) What sort of outlook do you think typical ancient Egyptians had about life, their
       relationship to the Pharoah, their gods, individual rights?

5. Overall, what impression do you get about the ancient Egyptians from our study of the
   pyramids. In what ways do they seem fairly “ advanced”? In what ways do they seem fairly “

   ”primitive” or “basic”.?                                                       ( 6 marks )

6. After looking at all the evidence we have studied in class, what remain the most puzzling or
   mysterious aspects of the pyramids for you? Do any pyramid questions remain unanswered
   for you?                                                                       ( 3 marks )

7. Hand in your team evaluation form.                                              ( 15 marks )
Total: 40 marks



Pyramid Bonus Work
Find as many possible references to ancient Egyptian beliefs and to pyramids in the classic song
"Stairway to Heaven".
HUNTER-GATHERER SURVIVAL GAME

SCENARIO:
   You and a team of friends are in the deep woods of northern Ontario in September. You have
no metals, plastics, any other man-made things other than the clothes you wear and one plastic
lighter. You have light summer clothes, a sweater, shoes and one windbreaker each. Your
environment consists of lots of pine and hardwood forests with typical wild animals of the region
such as birds, deer, racoons, bears, etc. You have freshwater streams and lakes in your region
stocked with typical fish and aquatic creatures. In several areas, the stream has carved a gorge,
with exposed rock walls.

THE CHALLENGE:

   You have agreed to live here, off the land, for one month. Explain how and what you would
do to survive for these two months. Use written explanations as well as sketches or drawings.
Include:    1) Your shelter plans - what kind of shelter will you use, how will you make it,
                                   - what tools must you make, what materials must you find, in
                                       order to make your shelter?
            2) How you will get food - explain all the ways you can think of, for getting food
                                    - describe the methods and weapons you will need to help you
                                    - Hint: Think of ways of getting food that do not require great
                                        skill or effort, once you get them set up
            3) Important tasks for your team - list all the major jobs your team will have to do
                            - include both important one time tasks and important daily
                                      tasks
            4) key things you will need to make, and how you will make them
                                    - include drawings or even try to make them at home for
                                      bonus marks
            5) how you will cope with bad weather, problems with predators, etc.

NOTES:

1. Every item listed above or proposed by your group must be something your team could
   actually make from local materials or any of the natural materials seen in the slides. If you
   like, even bring in a working model of it!

2. There are team bonus points for extra work such as:
   Answering the bonus survival questions
   How close you came to starting a fire using traditional methods
   Making working models of survival items and bringing them in to class
   ( you can use modern tools to help you )
   Success in our outdoor hunting challenge. Can you hit the target?

Evaluation:
1. For the Tribal Championship:       How many ideas did your tribe have in each category?
                                      How realistic is each idea?
                                      How clear and detailed are your answers?
                                      How many bonus points did your tribe get for trying to
                                      make fire, making models of tools, spear throwing contest .

2. For you as a student:              Mr. Simons= evaluation of the quality of your tribe=s work
                                      Your self-evaluation on your efforts in your tribe
                                      Questions to be answered and handed in



Bonus Survival Questions - One set of answers per tribe, please

1. What is a safe way to store food at a camp site to minimize visits by raccoons or bears?

2. What is a labour efficient way to catch fish?

3. Barring simple back luck, what is the number one danger in the bush - the problem that will
   most likely cause death if you don=t cope with it properly?

4. You have an eight foot tree limb that is two or three inches in diameter. What is the easiest
   way to turn it into one foot lengths of firewood?

5. You want to set a trap or an ambush for animals. Explain how you can know where the
   animals travel ( before you actually see them ) , or what specific thing will lure them to
   the trap.

6. What very specific tree bark will burn, even when wet. _____________ ___________ bark.




                                                                               CHW 3M -
Survival Simulation Assignment

Answer these question in proper sentence form. Provide plenty of details in your answers to help
you earn full marks.

1. Complete the self-evaluation sheet and hand it in with these answers.           ( 10 marks )

2. Explain briefly the largest problems your group faced in some of these areas, and the main
   ways your tribe dealt with each one:
   A) Food                                    B) Shelter
   C) Safety                                  D) Tool and utensil making
   E) Coping with weather problems                                                 ( 10 marks )

3. Many modern cultures can almost ignore their environment thanks to modern technology
   and transportation. Virtually every aspect of ancient hunter-gatherer life was shaped by the
   local environment. Explain how local conditions and resources would have an influence in
   each of these areas:                                                             ( 4 marks )
   A) Food
   B) Tools, artifacts, clothing
   C) How long the tribe stayed in one spot and how far the tribe travelled
   D) Shelter

4. What skills would be the most important and valued ones in a hunter-gatherer culture?
                                                                                 ( 4 marks )

5. Would you want to try this survival challenge for real?                         ( 4 marks)
   A) What would be the biggest problems for you?
   B) Why or why not try it for a month?

6. Modern technology has made our way of life much easier and healthier than that of a
   Hunter-gatherer culture, but in the process we have had to give up some aspects of life.
   What things have we and our culture likely lost or diminished in importance in the transition
   from hunter-gatherer culture to our modern culture?                             ( 3 marks )

_______________________________

TOTAL:      35 MARKS
CHW 3M - Survival Simulation Assignment

Answer these question in proper sentence form. Provide plenty of details in your answers to help
you earn full marks. Point-form answers will earn 1/2 marks, at best.

1. Complete the Self-Evaluation Sheet and hand it in with these answers.            ( 10 marks )

2. Based on your experiences and the demonstrations we did in class, what would have been
   your group=s greatest challenge or problem in these areas, if our Survival Challenge had
   been real:         A) Food               B) Shelter               C) Safety
                      D) Tool and utensil making                            ( 4 marks )

3. It was not enough for early humans to merely have the right general idea on how to do
   something.. Exact specific knowledge could make the difference between life or death for the
   tribe. Describe four specific skills or areas of knowledge that would be the most important
   and valued ones in a hunter-gatherer culture?                                   ( 4 marks )

4. Early humans did not enjoy the benefits of all of our technology, but they were very intelligent
   in their own way. They understood that they had to find ways to do things that did not use up
   too much of their energy -especially when food was scarce. Describe three energy-efficient
   ways to catch animals, birds, and fish                                           ( 3 marks )

5. Name three things that early humans invented that display a great deal of creativity and
   intelligence. For each one explain how it shows the intelligence of early humans. ( 3 marks )

6. Modern technology has made our way of life much easier and healthier than that of a
   Hunter-gatherer culture, but in the process we have had to give up some aspects of life.
   What things have we and our culture likely lost or diminished in importance in the transition
   from hunter-gatherer culture to our modern culture?                             ( 3 marks )

7. Put these in the correct order from earliest to most recent according the archaeological
   evidence of when hominids or humans first did these things:

        A. Controlled fire                     B. Made tools by chipping stone
        C. Hunted large animals                D. Walked upright
        E. Created art                         F. Became farmers
        G. First trained dogs or other animals

    Earliest: ____   3 million B.P,    _____    1 million B.P.,   ____ 300,000 B.P
,
    ____ 100,000 B.P.    ____ 30,000 B.P       ____      10,000 B.P.    ____     5,000 B.P.

_______________________________

TOTAL:       30 MARKS
CHW 3M - Survival Simulation Assignment

1. Complete the self-evaluation sheet and hand it in with these answers.          ( 15 marks )

2. After doing our survival simulation what did you learn about survival without modern
   technology?                                                     ( Total Value: 25 Marks )

   A. What were some of your most difficult problems to solve and how did your tribe
      solve them?

   B. How would your daily concerns and needs in the wilderness change compared to your
       concerns and needs living in Brockville?

   C. What specific objects would assume a much greater importance for you in the wilderness,
      than they do in your normal life?

   D. It was not enough for early humans to merely have the right general idea on how to do
      something.. Exact specific knowledge could make the difference between life or death
      for the tribe. Describe four specific skills or areas of knowledge that would be the most
      important and valued ones in a hunter-gatherer culture?

    E. What did you learn about early humans and their way of life by doing our survival
       simulation?

    F. Modern technology has made our way of life much easier and healthier than that of a
       Hunter-gatherer culture, but in the process we have had to give up some aspects of life.
       What things have we and our culture likely lost or diminished in importance in the


                                                                                           transiti
                                                                                           on
                                                                                           from
                                                                                           hunter-
                                                                                           gathere
                                                                                           r
                                                                                           culture
                                                                                           to our
                                                                                           moder
                                                                                           n
                                                                                           culture
                                                                                           ?
Hand in Your Self-Evaluation Sheet and the Answers to these Questions.
                                                Total Value 40 Marks

Then:

Read pages 39 to 43 in our text and answer this question in your notebook: ( Do not hand this in )
Describe the way of life of paleoloithic (Old Stone Age) and Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age)
humans in these areas:
  - relationship to the environment, climate, and natural resources ( including other forms of life )
  - most important tools and artifacts - types - use - and how they were made
  - shelter, clothing and food
  - social organization and leadership
  - daily activities
  - did all paleolithic and mesolithic cultures have similar ways of life around the world?
The Greek Economic Revolution - The Competition Begins!
Why did the Greeks become the greatest business people of the ancient world?

- Greek city-states are extremely competitive - crafts people from an early date are accustomed to
  competition, criticism and a drive for improvement
- Greek mainland is very resource poor - aggressive Greeks quickly turn to other ways to make a
  living
- no all-powerful rulers - city-state members are able to have more economic freedom than in
  Egypt, etc
- Greeks are first to exploit potential of iron - able to make many types of tools quickly and
  cheaply - this provides the tools for the artisans and craftspeople
- Greeks were very familiar with the sea from an early time - so going on trade runs develops
  quickly - exploration of new markets by sea is fairly easy for them



In our simulation - Your Challenge is:

Each team represents one Greek “polis” or city state. You are in competition with all the other
city-states to make as much money as possible. Every realistic idea your write down on how to
make money earned you points in the competition. The team with the most ideas wins - just like
in ancient Greece - the winner takes all - there’s no silver medal for second

Here are your resources:
- lots of wool, olive trees, grape vines, stone, clay, seafood, fish, iron ore,
- limited supplies of wheat ( to feed your people ), copper, tin, and silver
- you have basic pottery, carpentry, bronze and iron work skills
- you have basic hand-powered tools but no other power sources

Limitations:
- Everything you think up must be hand-made - no high technology
- Someone in your group must know how to make the item, or how to obtain it from natural
  materials
- Most of your travel and trading will be done via the sea, using small sailing ships
- You cannot transport fresh produce. Your ships are too slow. Everything will spoil
You have four main ways to make money. These include:

1. Match products with markets:
Look at the map of Europe and the Mediterranean. Listen to the clues about each culture. Figure
out which products each culture would be most interested in. Which other culture can supply this
item? Where can you buy an item cheaply, because it is plentiful, and where can you sell it for
the most money because it is rare and highly desired? Every trade connection is worth a point.

Buy things where they are commonplace and inexpensive, sell them where they are rare and
  desired:

 Middle East/Egypt - very ancient and sophisticated cultures - but short of some key resources

                      - wants / needs/ is short of . . .

                      - has lots of . . .

  Asia Minor - they are a major market for you!
                     - they have all the same resources as you - but you are much more
                        motivated to make money!

                       - wants / needs/ is short of . . .

                      - has lots of . . .

  Etruscans           - simple farmers - unsophisticated tastes
 ( Italy )
                      - wants / needs/ is short of . . .

                      - has lots of . . .

Celts/Gauls/Goths     - powerful warrior and farming tribes
                      - they have unsophisticated tastes

                      - wants / needs/ is short of . . .

                      - has lots of . . .


        Slavs         - simple farmers and horse breeders
( southern Russia )   - unsophisticated tastes

                      - wants / needs/ is short of . . .

                      - has lots of . . .
2. Develop new products:
What products can you make with your local resources? Who can you sell them to?
What new features can you add to a product to make it more desirable?
Each realistic idea on how to make your products more desirable is worth one point.

Always try to experiment and improve products, or adapt them to local tastes:
What products can you make:
                     from olives
                     from iron bars
                     from grapes
                     from wool
                     from clay and sand
                     from marble

How many different products can you come up with?
How can you make products from these things that would appeal to different cultures, to the rich
elite, to the middle classes, to the poor, etc

3. Using marketing strategies:
How can you convince people to buy your product rather than the competitions’? Think of the
sorts of marketing modern companies use to get people to buy their brands. What are some
common modern marketing ploys: two-for-one sales, extra give-aways, special packaging,
celebrity endorsements. Create ancient world versions of these

Warning! If you say you will sell your product for lower prices, then you will have to also
explain how you can do this and still make a profit.

4. Sell services, not products:
What sorts of activities can your team do for people that will earn money? ( Example: be
teachers, be bankers, run a communications network , be an entertainer )

Hint: think of skills that would be very important in the ancient world, where lazy people would
pay money to have this done for them, or one their behalf
The Greek Economic Revolution - What the Actual Greeks Did!
Why?

- Greek city-states are extremely competitive - crafts people from an early date are accustomed to
  competition, criticism and a drive for improvement
- Greek mainland is very resource poor - aggressive Greeks quickly turn to other ways to make a
  living
- no all-powerful rulers - city-state members are able to have more economic freedom than in
  Egypt, etc
- Greeks are first to exploit potential of iron - able to make many types of tools quickly and
  cheaply - this provides the tools for the artisans and craftspeople
- Greeks were very familiar with the sea from an early time - so going on trade runs develops
  quickly - exploration of new markets by sea is fairly easy for them


What/How?

1. Buy things where they are commonplace and inexpensive, sell them where they are rare and
   desired:

 Middle East/Egypt - wants furs, gold, northern slaves, horses, wood, quality wine,
                       quality olive oil, copper, tin, iron
                     - has lots of fine art, medicines, perfumes, cool linen and cotton clothing
                        has access to ivory, eastern spices

  Asia Minor - wants horses, northern slaves, gold, middle east/ egyptian luxuries, iron
                    - will pay for good quality wine, olive oil, pottery iron tools and weapons,
                       if the price is better than local prices, or if the packaging suits their tastes
                        in art - provides wool, horses, olive oil, wheat, slaves
                     - they are a major market for you!

  Etruscans            - simple farmers - unsophisticated tastes - will pay inflated prices for low
                          quality eastern luxuries, spices, fabrics and Greek art
                        - will buy medium to high quality wine at inflated prices, olive oil, pottery
                          iron tools and weapons
                        - provide wheat, olive oil, wine, and lots of gold in payment - a major
                          market for you!

Celts/Gauls/Goths      - they have unsophisticated tastes - but they don’t like olive oil!
                       - provide iron, swords, copper, tin, wheat, wood, slaves
                       - will pay high prices for eastern luxuries, medium to good textiles,
                          pottery, wine, gold

                                                                       More ------>
         Slavs           - provide horses, wood, furs, gold, and slaves
                         - want iron and bronze tools ,weapons,
                         - will pay high prices for low-medium quality wine, eastern luxuries,
                           textiles, good pottery


2. Always try to experiment and improve products, or adapt them to local tastes
   Examples:

  Olives - green and black olives, different qualities of olive oil from gourmet to bargain level
         - add flavourings to the oil - herbs, spices
         - create special pottery - local styles in art work , gods, heroes, etc
         - use oil in ointments, as a soap etc

  Iron     - different levels of quality of tools
           - improve tool design - new features
           - experiment with different types of iron - colouring, amount of flex etc
           - make tools, weapons to match local styles, uses
           - have high dollar signature lines by master craftsmen
           - find ways to lower costs by using labour more efficiently

 Same sort of thinking for wine, textiles, pottery etc

3. Marketing Ploys - sales - two-for-one - give-aways - special packaging
                   - endorsements - famous warrior, athlete, or a god
                   - create a colourful story behind the product
                   - make sure product meets local tastes, styles
                   - get support of local rulers - bribes, gifts
                   - encourage local rivalries - buy something your neighbours don’t have
                   - offer credit

4. Services:
                 - coin exchange, loans, insurance
                 - shipping, consignment sales
                 - mercenaries, piracy
                 - slavery
                 - Greek festivals - religious, theatre competition, sports, etc
5. Consequences:
             - social and political upheavals in city-states
             - political experimentation and many types of constitutions
             - powerful new social group in many cities: merchants/artisans/craftspeople

              - population explosion ->overcrowded cities -> plague
                -> hundreds of new Greek colonies throughout the Mediterranean: especially
                southern Italy and the south coast of France

              - beginnings of new humanist outlook - Thales and followers on Miletus
                Retired businessmen safely away from religious authorities start to question
                traditional answers and use logic to find answers. They begin with geometry
                and branch out into natural philosophy

              - Athens develops ego problems and begins to finance revolutions inside Asia
                Minor city states under Persian control - after quelling a bloody and costly
                Revolt, Persia retaliates and this starts the Persian Wars - circa 500 - 479 BC
Operation Overlord - The Allied Invasion of Europe - 1944
By 1944 the USSR has been battling against the Germans for three years. Almost 20 million
Russians have died in the battles. To the Russians, the western Allies - Britain, the USA, Canada,
etc have done very little. The Allies did invade Italy in 1943 but that attack has become bogged
down near Rome. The Russians want the western Allies to make a much larger effort - or the
Russians and the Germans might make their own peace plan.

Your mission is to plan a full scale invasion of German held territory somewhere along the coast
of France. You have up to 150,000 soldiers for the initial assault, with up to 2 million soldiers for
the follow-up. You have 3000 aircraft - fighters, bombers, transport planes and over 1000
warships ranging from huge battleships firing one ton shells, down to assault ships carrying
tanks, other vehicles and soldiers.

You have some major questions to answer. These include:

1. Where to attack? The shortest route across the English Channel is at Calais - it=s only 50 km
across - but this is where the Germans expect you to attack. You have over 500 km of coast line
to pick from, but the trip is much longer than at Calais.

2. You will need at least two good harbours for all the supply ships to dock, onve your inital
invasion is successful What=s the best plan: to attack existing French coastal towns that have
harbours - or to attack open beach areas and then somehow build new harbours instantly?

3. How do you avoid alerting the Germans to the location of your attack? If you spend a lot of
time and effort bombing any particular area, you=ll be telling the Germans where your attack will
be. If you don=t do enough bombing, the Germans will still have their defenses intact. The
Germans have a huge reserve of tanks waiting about 100 km inland. Once it=s clear where you
will attack the Germans will rush these tanks to the scene.

4. How do you deal with the formidable German beach defenses. Look at the diagram and photos
on the next page. The German plan is to keep the invaders on the beach and kill them before they
can break through the beach defences. How do you deal with this plan?

5. Once ( and if ) you break through the German beach defences what do you do next?
   What follow up plans do you have?
Operation Overlord - Your Attack Plan
You have some major questions to answer. These include:

1. Where to attack? The shortest route across the English Channel is at Calais - it=s only 50 km
across - but this is where the Germans expect you to attack. You have over 500 km of coast line
to pick from, but the trip is much longer than at Calais.

Our invasion location(s) will be:

We selected this place because:




2. You will need at least two good harbours for all the supply ships to dock, once your initial
invasion is successful. What=s the best plan: to attack existing French coastal towns that have
harbours - or to attack open beach areas and then somehow build new harbours instantly?

Our plan to acquire 2 harbours is:




3. How do you avoid alerting the Germans to the location of your attack? If you spend a lot of
time and effort bombing any particular area, you=ll be telling the Germans where your attack will
be. If you don=t do enough bombing, the Germans will still have their defenses intact. The
Germans have a huge reserve of tanks waiting about 100 km inland. Once it=s clear where you
will attack the Germans will rush these tanks to the scene.

My plan to get ready for the invasion without alerting the Germans is:
4. How do you deal with the formidable German beach defenses. Look at the diagram and photos
on the next page. The German plan is to keep the invaders on the beach and kill them before they
can break through the beach defences. How do you deal with this plan?

a) The actions we will take ahead of time to help your attackers be successful are:
       - What we=ll do in the three months leading up to the invasion
       - What we=ll do in the week before the invasion
       - What we=ll do in the last 24 hours before the invasion




b) The actions we will take during the attack to help your soldiers are:
       - To deal with the obstacles in the water we will:
       - To deal with the tank traps, barbed wire and other beach defences we will:
       - To deal with the German machine guns and cannons we will:
       - To deal with German aircraft and tanks coming in to stop us we will:




5. Once ( and if ) you break through the German beach defences what do you do next?
   What follow up plans do you have?

  Our follow up plan once we get off the beach is to tell our soldiers and tank squads to:
D-Day Assignment
1. Complete the self-assessment form                                                ( 15 marks )

2. What were the most difficult parts of the assignment for your team? Explain in detail which
   parts of the assignment were most difficult and why they were so difficult for your team.
                                                                                   ( 5 marks )

3. By doing the assignment, and hearing about the actual D-Day invasion, what did you learn
   about these topics ?                                                          ( 20 marks )

 A. How it felt to be part of the planning staff:
      - The challenges attack planners faced and the responsibility that lay on their shoulders
      - How difficult was it to plan a successful invasion
      - Where the planners did well, where they make mistakes or missed opportunities, where
        They had ideas you missed, where you had ideas they missed.

 B. How it felt to be a typical first wave line soldier going onto the beaches:
      - A front line soldier=s experiences and emotions before and during the invasion
      - How little control front line soldiers had over their chance of surviving an attack
        and how dependent front line soldiers were on the attack planners
      -Why we should be so proud and respectful of our soldiers who fought there.

 C. How was typical World War Two land fighting different than World War One fighting?

  D. Why was D-Day considered such a great risk or gamble? What was so risky about the
     actual invasion? Why was it considered to be the most important day in the war for the
     Western Allies. (Hint: how would the war have been different if the Allies had been
     defeated on the beaches )
                                           __________________________________________

                                             Total:                         40 Marks
Team Work Self Evaluation
Topic: D-Day Invasion                 Student:________________________________

Other Team Members: 1.______________________                 2.________________________

                        3.______________________             4.________________________

                        5._______________________            6.________________________


Answer each of the questions below by circling the number that best describes your achievement:
             0 = I was absent, or I was off topic and disruptive most of the time
             1 = I listened and generally paid attention but I did not make any contributions
                 or do any of the team=s work
             2 = I paid attention most or all of the time and I did some of the team=s work,
                 but less than the other team members
             3 = I did an average amount of the team=s work. I thought my work was adequate
                 but I did not make a special effort or contribution
             4 = I am proud of my effort. I contributed a lot. I tried to help others be successful.
                  I was a leader for my group
             5 = I feel I did the best work in the class. My effort and contribution was
                 outstanding!

Rate yourself and your group in these areas:

1. How well did you work? Did you stay on topic?
   Did you make a clear, positive contribution?  0           1       2       3      4       5

2. How much did you contribute to your group?
   How high was the quality of your contribution?    0       1       2       3      4       5

3. How good is your group=s work compared to the other
   groups= and to the actual solution?           0           1       2       3      4       5
ake a psychedelic poster with a Hippy Message :
      Love                             Peace
      Equality for all Races           Flower Power
      No Nukes/ Ban the Bomb           Turn On, Tune In, Drop Out
      Make love, not war

 Make a poster of Hippy phrases in psychedelic colours:
    Freak Out            Bummer             That’s Cool
    Do your own thing Heavy           Far Out
    Yeah, Man            Too much           What’s Happening?
     Getting stoned      Take a trip        Feeling groovy
    Turn On, Turn Off Make the scene        Are you hip?

 Create a hippy-style t-shirt design or an album cover for hippy music

 Look at late Sixties songs such as:
      Give Peace a Chance, All You Need is Love, Sunshine Superman,
      Blowing in the Wind, Treat Your Children Well, Mellow Yellow,
      Imagine, Hair - Age of Aquarius, C’mon People Now, Love One Another
      White Rabbit,
  By such singers, groups as:
      The Loving Spoonful, Donovan, The Momma’s and the Poppa’s,
      Grateful Dead, Bob Dylan, Crosby Stills Nash and Young
      Jimi Hendrix and the Experience, Beatles, Jefferson Airplane,
      Big Brother and the Holding Company, Country Joe and the Fish

   . . .and then make your own Hippy song

 Design a Hippy-style school:
   What would have to change from the way our school runs now?
   What changes to courses, rules, how classes are taught,
                  evaluation methods, etc

 Do something Hip - a dance, a mini-play, a dramatization, a happening
Could Your Family Survive a Depression Today
Imagine that Canada experienced an economic depression today as severe as the Great
Depression of the 1930's. What would this do to your family?

1. Here=s what happens to a typical family=s money today:

Total Family income ( for your parents= or guardians= jobs ):                 $60,000

Minus Federal and Provincial Income Tax, Canada Pension
and Employment Insurance                                :                   $25,000

Minus city property taxes                                               :     $ 2,000

Minus utilities - water, electricity, home heating                      :     $3,000

Minus home mortgage payments or rent                                    :     $ 9,000

Minus monthly car payments                                              :     $ 3,000

Minus car and home insurance                    : $ 1,000
_____________________________________________________________________

You cannot refuse to pay taxes, and if you stop payments on your home or car loan the bank will
try to get legal permission to repossess the car or house.

Your family has $17,000 left, or roughly $1,400 per month.

Typical car gasoline and repair cost per year                           : $ 1,500

Basic grocery money ( $100 per week?)                                   : $ 5,200

Telephone service and bills ( $50 per month )                           : $    600

Almost everything else you purchase has 15% GST and PST : $ 1,500
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Your family has $ 8,200 left, or roughly $680 per month.




                                                                                 There=s more ---->
More things you may wish to spend money on:

New clothes - $400 per family member per year = $ 2000
A family vacation                                            = $ 2000
Pizza and snack food every Friday $25 x 52 weeks = $ 1300
Lots of Christmas presents                                   = $ 1000
A new set of Hockey or Ski equipment ( $700 )
plus team player fees or ski lift tickets ( $300 ) = $ 1,000 per family member
Looking after a pet                                          = $ 500 to $1,000
Renting two videos a week, ( $6 x 52 )
plus cable tv for a year ( $30 x 12 )                       =      $ 672
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

You have now spent all of your money ( and a little extra!). As well, we have not given your
family any new appliances, a new car, any home renovations, or another family members
( like a new baby or a grandparent who moves in). We=ve also assumed that you have one car.

What happens when the Depression hits?

In a Depression your parents or guardians could easily be laid off or forced to take reduced hours
or lower wages. The average Canadian family lost 40% of their income from 1928 to 1933.
How would your family survive on 40% less money?

Your new family income becomes: $ 60,000 - 40% ($24,000) = $ 36,000
Minus Federal and Provincial Income Tax, Canada Pension
and Employment Insurance ( 40% of your income)            : $15,000
Minus city property taxes               ( no change!)     : $ 2,000
Minus utilities - water, electricity, home heating        : $3,000
                                        ( no change!)
Minus home mortgage payments or rent ( no change )        : $ 9,000
Minus monthly car payments              ( no change!)     : $ 3,000
Minus car and home insurance            ( no change!)     : $ 1,000
_____________________________________________________________________

                                                                                 $ 3,000

You cannot refuse to pay taxes, and if you stop payments on your home or car loan the bank will
try to get legal permission to repossess the car or house. Your family has $3,000 left, or roughly
$250 per month, and you haven=t even bought your basic groceries yet!
Could Your Family Survive a Depression? - Assignment:
1. Your family now has roughly $250 per month to live on - or $65 per week, your mission is to
   find out whether a modern family could survive for a week on this budget..
   Step 1 - Talk to an adult and ask them to help you draw up a shopping list for one week.
            Your aim is to buy enough filling food to keep the family going for the week.
   Step 2 - Get the adult to help you calculate how much of each item to buy for the week.
   Step 3 - Then go to a grocery store and see whether you can actually buy these items, in the
            right quantities, for $65.

  Then write an answer to these questions:
  What did you learn by doing this activity? What kinds of foods were the best ones to buy?
  What kinds of foods did your family have to give up because there wasn=t enough money?
  How would you feel if your family had to live on this same budget for five years?

  Example:
     You have to buy enough food for 14 meals minimum ( a lunch and dinner each day for
      everyone in the family )
      Spaghetti ( no sauce, no meat ) is a cheap filling food. A family might eat 500 gm in one
      meal. This would cost roughly $1.00 per meal.
      Potatoes are filling and inexpensive - and their skins even have some nutrients. Ten
      pounds of potatoes cost $3.00. This would be enough for 3 meals of boiled potatoes.
      Children have to have milk to drink. It=s essential. 4 litres of milk costs $3.85. This is
      enough for 8 meals.
      Adults can drink tea. Two tea bags per meal cost $0.20

 My family menu so far:
     7 family meals of plain spaghetti = 3.5 kg = $ 7.00
     7 family meals of plain potatoes = 20 lbs    = $ 6.00
     14 meals of milk for the children = 8 litres = $ 7.70
     14 meals of tea for the adults = 28 tea bags = $ 2.40
     ____________________________________________________________________
     You have spent $23.10 so far and you have bought only one item and a drink for each
      meal. Could a family live on nothing except spaghetti, potatoes and tea for five years?

2. Draw up an overall family survival plan. How will your family spending change in order to
   help you survive the Depression? Explain what you will cut back, and by how much.?

3. Explain how your family=s life change would change in these areas:
   a) food    b) sports and entertainment c) transportation    d) clothing

4. Explain how your life as a teenager would change due to these cuts.
        Victory at Vimy Ridge !
Here is the situation:

It is early 1917. You are on the
planning staff of the Canadian Corps,
working for General Currie.

The general has been ordered to attack
and capture Vimy Ridge within three
months.

Vimy Ridge is a long, low ridge that
the Germans have fortified to an
incredible extent. Over 200,000               Canadian artillery gunners firing at the ridge
French and British soldiers died
while trying to attack it, and the
Germans boast that anyone who
attacks it should first carve their
tombstone.

The diagram on the front board shows
you the key German defenses. There
are four powerful trench lines, with
concrete and steel bomb shelters.
The Germans have 5000 men, over
one hundred      machine guns in
 heavily protected positions, and 200
                                              h
                                              eavy cannon to support their troops. From the top of
                                              the ridge the Germans can     Canadian machine gun
                                              teams at Vimy Ridge
see everything that our soldiers are doing,
and their cannons can drop shells on us at
any time.

The ground is very soft.. It=s easy to dig trenches - not like our hard Ontario clay. However,
when it rains, or when the big guns fire their shells, No Man=s Land can become a swamp. Men
can drown in the quicksand that rain and shell explosions create.

You cannot go around the ridge -the trenches just keep going and going, all the way to the
mountains and the sea. The ridge extends for ten kilometres, and the battlefield is 5 kilometres
wide ( from your front trench to the back German trench )
Here are your resources:
        - No tanks ( sorry, the British won=t share them )
        - No attack aircraft or bombers - just a few air photo reconnaissance planes
        - You have 20,000 Canadian soldiers, plus help from British units on each side of your
           attack. All soldiers have full supplies, including rifle, extra ammo, grenades, etc
        - You have 1,000 long range cannon and over 1 million explosive shells
        - You have 200 machine gun crews with unlimited ammunition
        - You may use other typical World War One weapons - check with your Colonel

Your plan will have four stages:
      1. List and describe all the preparations you need to do in the three months before the
          attack day.
      2. List and describe all the actions your soldiers will do in the 24 hours immediately
         before the attack starts.
      3. Describe all the steps of your initial attack plan, up to the point where the German
          number one and two trenches are captured.
      4. Explain your follow-up attack plans to deal with German trenches three and four, and
        your plans for what to do once our soldiers have captured all four trenches.
Here are six key problems to solve:
      1. How to make sure that everyone ( all 20,000 ) knows their job - what to do, where to
           go, when to move, etc.
      2. How to hide or disguise the preparations for the attack. Germans on the ridge and
         German observation planes can see and photograph everything our side is doing.
      3. How to neutralize or silence the German machine guns and cannons
      4. How to get through No Man=s Land and attack the German front line trenches
         before the Germans start firing all their guns and call up reinforcements?
      5. How to keep the attack going when your first attackers get tired or run out of ammo?
      6. How to keep supplies and reinforcements moving safely up to the attack area?

You have two class periods to plan your attack. It is critical that you learn from the
mistakes of the Somme! Good Luck and God Save the King!




                              Canadian memorial at Vimy Ridge today
YES, Prime Minister!
If you were Prime Minister of Canada what would your policies be on these issues?

Canadian Identity:
      1. Put limits on how much Americans tv, movies, radio music is available for us to see.
         Require our tv stations, theatres, radio stations to have more Canadian content If we
         see and hear more Canadian content our pride and sense of identity will increase
      2. Use billions of tax dollars to promote Canadian pride. Use government money to help
         produce Canadian tv shows, movies, music, and sports teams
      3. Do nothing. This is not a problem area. Let people watch as much or a little Canadian
         or US programming as they want.

Economic co-operation with USA
     1. Let=s protect our industries and resources. Cancel the Free Trade deal with the USA.
        Put new taxes on US products sold in Canada - so we=ll buy Canadian ones instead.
        Don=t sell resources like water and energy to the USA until our needs are looked after
     2. Keep things as they are now. Continue the Free Trade deal, but also use tax money to
         help our businesses compete with the USA and other countries. Let the Americans buy
         our resources, but only if they pay more for them than Canadians do
      3. Let=s join our economy with the US one. Let=s use their dollar and get rid of the
         customs and immigration posts at the border. We=ll all be part of the US economy.

Social policy Investment
       1. Cut welfare and anti-poverty funding as low as we can. Force poor people to work. No
          job, no money - except for the handicapped or the sick. Keep our health care and
          education spending under control so that taxes can stay low. Give more financial help
          to our businesses so they can compete world-wide and help keep our economy strong
       2. Continue our current social spending, but no increases in our spending on anti-poverty
           programs, education or health care. Continue to give billions in help for our
           international trade businesses.
       3. Let=s make Canada a great place to live for everyone. The UN has dropped us from
           Number 1 ( in 2002 ) to number eight ( in 2003 ) on their list of best places to live.
           Let=s be number one again! We need to spend billions of tax dollars on anti-poverty
           programs, health care, and education - especially early years help and lower costs of
           college and university

Military Role
       1. Let=s build a Canadian armed forces we can be proud of. Let=s create an army, navy
          and air force that can be really useful in fighting in a war - like in Iraq. The Americans
          will be very happy and we=ll have more national pride. It will cost billions in taxes, but
          it will be worth it! Let=s increase our co-operation with the USA to help our economy.
2. Let=s make our armed forces a little larger and better equipped so they can do their
           current tasks better. Too much of the equipment is out of date and worn out. Our
           peacekeepers deserve better, and we might even be able to do something useful in war
        3. Let=s keep things as they are. We do not need a big, strong army, we don=t have many
           enemies. Let=s focus on keeping our peacekeepers equipped and on doing coast guard
           and search and rescue missions

Security and Borders
       1. The USA wants to take control over border security and entry into Canada. They will
          decide who is allowed into our country - and who should stay out. They would decide
          which newcomers are safe to be Canadian citizens, and which ones are security risks
        . If we co-operate with the USA we=ll help make them feel safer and the rest of us will
          have a much easier time entering the US.
       2. Let=s keep control over who is allowed into Canada, and who is allowed to be come a
          citizen. The USA should run our country. But let=s also spend much more on border
          security and screening to make sure terrorists or enemies are not sneaking into Canada
       3. There=s no need for any changes. We haven=t had any terrorist attacks in Canada and
           the Americans are always complaining about something. There=s no need for any
more
           spending or more security.

Rights and Multiculturalism
       1. Too many groups are claiming too many rights! Women, minorities, immigrants, the
           handicapped, gays - they all claim that they need more help from the government and
           the law because they aren=t receiving equal treatment. Too many groups are asking
for
           too much. Let=s stop any government funding or changes to our laws about rights.
           Leave things as they are.
         2. Canada is one of the very best countries in the world when it comes to treating all
            groups fairly - but we still aren=t perfect. Women, visible minorities, natives ,
            immigrants, the handicapped, gays - still need more help from the government and
            from the law because they still aren=t receiving equal treatment in jobs, pay, housing,
            the law, or government services. We need to do a little more to help these groups feel
             totally at home in Canada
        3. Even though Canada is one of the very best countries in the world when it comes to
            treating all groups fairly - we are still a long way from being perfect. Women, visible
            minorities, natives, immigrants, the handicapped, gays - need much more help from
            the government and from the law because they still aren=t close to receiving equal
            treatment in jobs, pay, housing, the law or government services. There is still far too
             much sexism, prejudice and racism in Canada. We need to do much more to help
             these groups feel totally at home in Canada


If I was Prime Minister of Canada my policies would be: ( circle your choices)
Canadian Identity:
      1. Put limits on how much Americans tv, movies, radio music is available for us to see.
     2. Use billions of tax dollars to promote Canadian pride.
     3. Do nothing. This is not a problem area.
Economic co-operation with USA
     1. Let=s protect our industries and resources.
     2. Keep things as they are now.
     3. Let=s join our economy with the US one.

Social policy Investment
       1. Cut welfare and anti-poverty funding as low as we can.
       2. Continue our current social spending, but no increases in our spending
       3. Let=s make Canada a great place to live for everyone. We need to spend billions of tax
          dollars on new programs

Military Role
       1. Let=s build a Canadian armed forces we can be proud of.
       2. Let=s make our armed forces a little larger and better equipped
       3. Let=s keep things as they are.

Security and Borders
       1. Let the USA wants to take control over border security and entry into Canada.
       2. Let=s also spend much more on border security and screening to make sure terrorists or
          enemies are not sneaking into Canada
       3. There=s no need for any changes.

Rights and Multiculturalism
       1. Too many groups are claiming too many rights! Let=s stop any government funding or
          changes to our laws about rights. Leave things as they are.
       2.We need to do a little more to help minority groups feel totally at home in Canada
       3. There is still far too much sexism, prejudice and racism in Canada. We need to do
          much more to help these groups feel totally at home in Canada

I think this package of policies is the best because . . .

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
The Greek Economic Revolution - Questions
1. Explain how the Greeks used each of the following concepts to built their trade empires:
  - exploration and risk-taking
  - multi-lateral trade: matching products to markets, buying low, selling high, meeting needs of
    different markets
  - experimenting with products and developing product features
  - effective promotion, advertizing, packaging techniques
  - efficient use of skilled labour and innovative methods of production              (10 marks )

2. a) What were the main products the Greeks could create out of their own resources?
   b) What were some of the main services the Greeks developed?
   c) What was the “dark side” of Greek trade?                                     ( 10 marks )

4. a) What lessons from this exercise could be applied to modern businesses, industries and
      trading?
   b) From your experiences in our simulation, would you be interested in a career in marketing
      or international trade?                                                         ( 5 marks )
5. From your text book explain five ways that Greek economic success changed their culture
   and society?                                                                       ( 5 marks )

6. Fill out and hand in the self-evaluation form.                                    (15 marks)
Total:   45 Marks

				
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