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					Basic Skills for the TOEFL® iBT

Listening - 3

           WORD     PARTS    KOREAN                       DEFINITION                                          SAMPLE SENTENCE                              SYNONYM          ANTONYM

UNIT 1

                                       something that provides a link or connection
bridge             n        다리                                                            London bridge connects the two sides of the Thames river.                     cliff
                                       between two things
                                       the profession of promoting a positive image of    Celebrities often work with public relations companies to
public relations   n        홍보(홗동)
                                       a company or person to the public                  improve their public images.
                                       the profession of presenting products in such a    Marketing companies often look at packaging to make a
marketing          adj      마케팅
                                       way as to make them desirable                      product look nicer.
                                       the different companies connected with the
                                                                                          As oil supplies are getting lower, the oil industry has to
industry           n        산업, 공업     making and selling of a particular product or                                                                 business
                                                                                          raise its prices.
                                       range of products
                            경력 (읷의                                                        In order to get good job, it is helpful to have some work
work experience    n                   experience you have gained in a certain field
                            경험)                                                           experience.
                                       to ask a specialist for advice or a professional When people are very ill, the will consult a doctor for
consult            v        상담하다                                                                                                                         ask advice
                                       for information                                  advice.
                                       to combine one thing with another so as to
incorporate        v        통합하다                                                        All cars incorporate many different moving parts.                integrate      exclude
                                       form a united whole
                            출석(참석)
attend             v                   to go to, or be present at, an event               Members of your family normally attend your wedding.                          skip
                            하다
                            전짂(짂행)                                                        If the crime has not been solved, the investigation would be
ongoing            n                   continuing now and for some time to come                                                                          continuing     completed
                            중                                                             ongoing .
                                                                                          Students should stick to the criteria of an exam to get the
criteria           n        조건         the standard for judging things by                                                                                requirements
                                                                                          best marks.
                            산업(의),                                                        Most cities have an industrial area where there are a lot of
industrial         n                   relating to industry or the people working in it                                                                  business
                            공업(의)                                                         factories.
                                                                                          Today, many of the textile used to make clothing are not
textile            n        직물(의)      cloth or goods produced by weaving                                                                                fabric
                                                                                          natural.
                                    a room or small building used for making and
workshop           n        작업장; 읷터                                                       My father has a workshop where he likes to fix things.         garage
                                    repairing things
fortune            n        부; 재산   a large amount of money                               Some people spend a fortune when they go shopping.
raw material       n        원료; 소재 natural unprocessed material                           Coal is a type of raw material .
                                    a complete change in ways of thinking and             Some people think we are in the middle of a technology
revolution         n        혁명, 대변혁                                                                                                                      reformation
                                    methods of working                                    revolution .
                                    when many people or animals move to another
migration          n        이주, 이동                                                        Many tribes follow the migration of animal herds.              voyage
                                    place
                                    the people who work in particular industry,           In today's economy, it's important for businesses to have an
workforce          n        전 종업원
                                    company, or country                                   educated workforce .
                                                                                          In most countries, there are laws that restrict people from
restrict           v        제핚하다       to limit or control something or someone                                                                        limit            allow
                                                                                          owning a gun.
export             v        수출하다       to sell goods to another country                   Australia exports beef to Asia.                                               import
Unit 2

                            사실은;
as a matter of fact                    actually                                             As a matter of fact , I left my ticket for the concert at home.   in fact
                            실제로
                                       an identification   card   with   a      student's   When a student first goes to university, he or she will
student card          n     학생증                                                                                                                           identification
                                       information on it                                    receive a student card .
                            (사실 등을)                                                         It is the job of the police to establish the truth about what
establish             v             to confirm the truth of something                                                                                     confirm
                            입증하다                                                            happened when a crime is committed.
                            탐나는;                                                            Members of the public often see the celebrity lifestyle to be
desirable             adj           worthy of having or doing                                                                                             attractive       undesirable
                            호감이 가는                                                          desirable.
                                    money given as a security against possible              When a rented apartment is damaged, the repairs will come
deposit               n     보증금                                                                                                                       down payment
                                    damage or loss                                          out of the occupant's deposit .
                            (물건의
locate                v     위치 등을) to discover where something is                           On a world map, you can locate countries all over the world. find              hide
                            발견하다
                                                                                            Computer programmers have to input a lot of data into
input                 v     투입하다       to enter data into a computer                                                                                          enter        delete
                                                                                            computers.
somewhat              adv   약간, 다소     to some extent or degree                             I didn't really like the movie; it was somewhat boring.           rather
                            처음에,                                                            The president was present at the initial meeting of the two
initial               adj              present at the beginning of an event or process                                                                        first        final
                            최초에                                                             countries.
                            관리하다,                                                           In an office, it is often a secretary's job to administrate
administrate          v                to oversee or organize the affairs of something                                                                        manage       delegate
                            운영하다                                                            office affairs.
focus                 v     초점     sharpness of image                                       The camera wouldn't focus properly on the object.                 centre
                                   the scenery, furniture, etc. used on a stage in a
set                   n     세트(장)                                                           Every play needs a set designer.                                  stage
                                   play or in the place where a film is made
                                   measuring only a small distance from one side
narrow                adj   좁은                                                              Narrow roads were common before cars became popular.              confined     wide
                                   to the other
choppy                adj   변동이 심핚 rough; jerky; shifting                                   During a storm, the waves at sea are choppy .                     rough        stable
                                   an unusual and artificial image or sound used in
special effect        n     특수 효과                                                           Horror movies usually have a lot of special effects .
                                   movies and TV shows
                                                                                            Most people didn't think the so-called movie of the year
so-called             adj   이른바        usually called
                                                                                            was that good.
                                                                                            There was widespread panic on the Titanic after it hit the
widespread            adj   널리 퍼짂      happening in many places or situations                                                                          common              limited
                                                                                            iceberg.
vision                n     시야 (시력)    the area that you can see                            If someone has 20/20 vision , they can see well.           sight
                                       the process of talking or working with other         There is often little interaction between teachers and
interaction           n     상호 작용
                                       people                                               students outside of class time.
                                                                                            The movie's progression was so slow that many people
progression           n     짂행         a gradual change, from one state to another                                                                     advancement         digression
                                                                                            found it boring.
Unit 3

                     사전에
prearrange     v     조정(합의)      to arrange or plan beforehand                     It is less expensive to prearrange air travel.                            last minute
                     하다
                            a subject or activity, often within a business or
field          n     붂야                                                         Mathematics is a hard field of study for a lot of people.        specialty
                            profession
                     대학                                                         In your junior year of university, you should try to get an
junior         n            a student in the third year of university
                     3학년생                                                       internship in the field you are interested in.
                                                                                Many people like to remain anonymous when they
anonymous      adj   익명의    unknown; nameless                                                                                                    unknown     identified
                                                                                complete surveys.
                                                                                Employers have their employees fill-out a form with their
fill out       v     작성하다   to supply information usually by form
                                                                                personal information so they can receive a paycheck.
                            a program that provides practical experience for It is typical for students to get an internship before they
internship     n     수련생 싞붂
                            beginners in an occupation or profession            graduate.
                                                                                Job convention usually display a number of different
convention     n     대회     the gathering of people for a common interest                                                                        assembly
                                                                                opportunities.
                                                                                It is good to confirm doctor appointments before the
confirm        v     확읶하다   to verify; to validate                                                                                               ratify
                                                                                appointment date.
                     감독자;   a person who oversees and guides the work of To be a supervisor, you have to be able to make a lot of
supervisor     n                                                                                                                                 manager     employee
                     지휘자    other people                                        decisions.
                                                                                At the beginning of the semester, a professor will often         calculate
estimate       v     추청     to make an approximation; to make a guess
                                                                                estimate how many students in the class will pass it.            roughly
                                                                                If we know the genome of an organism, we can know what
genome         n     게놈     a map of all the genes in a cell of an organism
                                                                                it will look like.
                            a part of a cell in a living organism that controls When someone is good looking, people usually say that
gene           n     유전자
                            how it looks and develops                           they have good genes .
chromosome     n     염색체    a rod-shaped structure that carries genes           Chromosomes contain genes and are usually found in pairs.
                                                                                We need sustainable bio-fuels as we are running out of
bio-fuel       n     생체연료   fuel made from something that was once living                                                                                    chemical fuel
                                                                                energy options.
toxin          n     독소     poison                                              If there are toxins in a lake, all life in the lake might die.   poison      medicine
                     교묘핚    the control or influence of someone or
manipulation   n                                                                Some criminals use manipulation to steal money.
                     처리; 조종 something
                     돋보이게   to emphasize a point; to make something easy
highlight      v                                                                People often highlight key words in their textbooks.             underline
                     하다     to notice or understand
dispose of     v     처리하다   to get rid of something                             You should dispose of your trash thoughtfully.                   rid of      keep
                                                                                Most modern buildings are fitted with a sensor that goes
detect         v     발견하다   to notice or discover something                                                                                      discover    miss
                                                                                off when smoke is detected .
                            a mechanical part of a machine; the assembled It is crucial that the brake mechanism of a car works
mechanism      n     기계장치                                                                                                                        device
                            moving part(s) of a machine                         properly.
Unit 4

                                                                                    The professor gave the students tips on how to do better
tip             n     조언, 힌트      a word of advice                                                                                                    advice
                                                                                    on the exam.
                                                                                    If you have never run in a race, your first time can be
intimidating    n     겁을 주는       discouraging through fear                                                                                           scare          comfort
                                                                                    intimidating .
                                                                                    The library is a good place to study, especially if you need
especially      adv   특히          particularly                                                                                                        notably
                                                                                    to study where its quiet.
                      준비가                                                           If you want to get a good grade in a class, you should go
prepared        adj               ready in advance; put together in advance                                                                           ready          unprepared
                      되어있는                                                          to class prepared every day.
gather          v     모으다         to collect; to compile                            It is good to gather information before you start a project.      collect
                      설문조사 /
                                                                                    The electric company sent a survey to all of their customers
survey          n/v   설문          a questionnaire (n); to ask questions (v)                                                                      poll
                                                                                    to learn how to better serve them.
                      조사하다
participant     n     참가자         a person who takes part in an event or activity   All the participants in the singing competition were talented.    competitor     spectator
                                                                                    The school needed parental consent for all students going
consent         n     승낙하다        permission; agreement                                                                                               agree          refuse
                                                                                    on the class trip.
                                                                                    Many people are afraid to hike Mount Everest because it is
intense         adj   강렬핚         involving great effort or much activity                                                                             fierce         mild
                                                                                    so intense .
                                  the ability to understand the meaning of          The final exam will show the comprehension level of all the
comprehension   n     이해                                                                                                                              understanding incomprehension
                                  something                                         students.
                                  the flesh inside your body that you use to move;
muscle          n     귺육                                                           Weight lifters have big muscles .                                  tendon         nerves
                                  flesh that connects your bones together
                                  relating to the bones inside a living thing;
skeletal        adj   골격의                                                          We use skeletal muscles when we move.
                                  relating to a skeleton
                      줄무늬가
striped         adj           having lines or bands of color                        A zebra looks like a striped horse.
                      있는
                      (귺육 등의)
twitch          n             a small, sudden movement                              An eye twitch is sometimes a sign that a person is nervous.       jerk
                      경련
                                                                                    At the beach, you can find stones that are worn smooth by
smooth          adj   매끄러운        having no rough parts                                                                                               sleek
                                                                                    sand.
imply           v     내포하다        to suggest something without saying it directly   As its name implies , One Tree Hill only has one tree on it.      suggest
                      (장소.시간의                                                       There is usually an interval between the first and second
interval        n                 the period of time between two events                                                                               intermission
                      ) 간격                                                          acts of the play.
                      그럼에도                                                          Winter is a very cold time of year. Nevertheless , it is also a
nevertheless    adv               however; nonetheless; but                                                                                           even so
                      불구하고                                                          very pretty time.
alternating     adj   교차하는        placed one after the other in a regular pattern   Zebras have alternating black and white stripes.
                      내부의;
internal        adj               inside your body                                  Lungs are an example of an internal organ.                        inner          external
                      체내의
Unit 5

                                                                                      When most people go to see the doctor, they make an
appointment      n     (만날) 약속   an arrangement to have a meeting                                                                                    rendezvous
                                                                                      appointment first.
                       요식 조달     the provision of food and drink for people at a
catering         adj                                                                  To serve at weddings, catering companies are often hired.                    cleaning
                       업         function
                                                                                      I am trying to eat more healthily, but I find it hard to be
disciplined      adj   훈련된       working in a controlled or systematic way                                                                                         undisciplined
                                                                                      disciplined .
                                 to devote time exclusively to an interest, skill, or My brother was a lawyer that used to specialize in divorce
specialize       v     전문화하다
                                 field of study                                       cases.
                                                                                      Before getting a job, many students must complete an
placement        n     배치        the act of an employment office filling a position                                                                  arrangement
                                                                                      unpaid work placement .
                                 to receive a degree or diploma from a school; to Many students like to travel once they graduate from
graduate         v     졸업하다
                                 complete one's studies                               college.
                                 at a later time or after an event that has been If you eat a big meal, it can be dangerous to go swimming
afterward        adv   후에                                                                                                                            later         before
                                 mentioned previously                                 afterward.
                                 having a keen enthusiasm or intense desire for I am passionate about model-making. I make them every
passionate       adj   정열적읶                                                                                                                          ardent        indecisive
                                 something                                            day.
                                                                                      We talked to each other on the phone before we met face-
face-to-face     adv   면대면       in the physical presence of someone
                                                                                      to-face .
                                 to place someone or something in a particular
                                                                                      We do not categorize milk as a vegetable because it comes
categorize       v     범주화하다     category and define or judge the person or                                                                          classify
                                                                                      from an animal.
                                 thing accordingly
                                                                                      The stock market can be risky; you might make a lot of
stock market     n     증권시장      a particular market where stocks are traded
                                                                                      money and you might lose a lot of money.
                                                                                      Being a majority share holder means you own a large
share            n     주식        a part into which a company is divided
                                                                                      percentage of a company.
trade            v     무역        to buy and sell goods or services                    When you trade , you buy or sell stocks.
stock            n     주식        a share in a company                                 The safest kind of stocks to buy are blue chip or low risk.
                                 a person whose job is to buy and sell stocks for If your serious about getting into the stock market, you will
broker           n     브로커                                                                                                                           dealer        buyer
                                 other people                                         need to get a broker .
                                                                                      Some people who travel to Korea are ignorant of Korean
ignorant         n     무지핚       lacking knowledge of something                                                                                      uneducated    educated
                                                                                      culture.
                                                                                      Historically , Australians have had close ties with Britain,
historically     adv   역사적으로     relating to the past
                                                                                      because they are a member of the Commonwealth.
                                                                                      Japan and Korea are industrialized countries, whereas
industrialized   adj   산업화핚      having a lot of companies
                                                                                      Cambodia is not.
                                 a period during which business, employment, and The employment depression caused many people to lose
depression       n     불경기                                                                                                                           recession
                                 stock market values decline severely                 their jobs.
                       도표로       to record information over time, to see how it A good way to see how your savings plan is working is to
chart            v                                                                                                                                   plot
                       만들다       changes or develops                                  chart your savings.
Unit 6

                                   unhealthy, often fatty food that does not form Eating junk food every day can cause damage to your
junk food        n     불량식품
                                   part of a healthy diet                          health.
obesity          n     비만          the state of being heavily overweight           If someone is overweight, they may suffer from obesity .
                                                                                   Sally has a strict and old-fashioned father; she thinks his
outdated         adj   구식의         no longer in fashion or popular
                                                                                   views are outdated .
                                                                                   People who are concerned about nutrition eat lots of fruit
nutrition        n     영양붂         sources of nutrients that keep the body healthy
                                                                                   and vegetables.
involuntary      adj   본의 아닌       exacted against someone's will or wish          When it is very cold and your teeth chatter, it is involuntary .
rational         adj   이성있는        reasonable and sensible                         If you get lost, it is important to be rational and not panic.
                       옹호(지지)
advocate         v                 to recommend or support something                      The workers could not advocate the closing of the factory.   recommend     command
                       하다
                       (누군가를)
behalf           n     대싞하는        as somebody's representative                           My brother thanked the generous donor on my behalf .
                       사람
                                   the freedom or authority to make a decision about The decision to hire a potential employee is often at the
discretion       n     결정권                                                                                                                     choice
                                   something                                            manager's discretion .
                                   based on personal feelings or perception rather The decision to go to that Chinese restaurant in particular
arbitrary        n     멋대로읶                                                                                                                                          logical
                                   than on objective facts or reasons                   was arbitrary .
                                   popular culture; music, films, etc. that are popular
pop culture      n     대중문화                                                             Britney Spears is part of today's pop culture .
                                   in a particular society
imitation        n     흉내; 모방      the act of copying or imitating                        Comedians often do good imitations of politicians.         copy
                                   fashion invented and worn by young people,             You can create your own street fashion by altering clothes
street fashion   n     길거리 패션
                                   not fashion designers                                  that you already have.
                                   relating to the relationship between different races   Racial discrimination remains a problem in many parts of
racial           adj   읶종의                                                                                                                           ethnic
                                   of people                                              the world.
dishonest        adj   부정직핚    not honest; deceiving                                      Dishonest people often lie and steal.                      deceitful       honest
                               more powerful, important, or noticeable than other
dominant         n     지배적읶                                                       Brown eye genes are usually dominant over blue eye genes.            prominent     minor
                               people or things
                               relating to groups of people sharing culture, The US has a lot of ethnic diversity, whereas Korea has very
ethnic           adj   읶종의                                                                                                                             cultural      global
                               religion, race, etc.                               little.
                               the practice of treating a member or members Gender discrimination remains a problem in many
discrimination   n     차별 대우                                                                                                                           discernment
                               of a group differently and unfairly                organizations today.
bias             n     선입관; 편애 an unfair preference for, or dislike of, something Parents usually have a bias for their own children.                  prejudice     impartiality
                       우연히     to meet somebody or something, usually
encounter        v                                                                People encounter new cultures when they travel.
                       만나다     unexpectingly
Unit 7

                       …을 맡고                                                      A shop manager is in charge of all of the other shop
in charge of     v                 having the care or supervision of something
                       있는                                                         employees.
                               an electronic fire alarm that senses smoke and It is important to check often that the smoke detector in
smoke detector   n     연기 탐지기
                               sounds an alarm in warning                         your home works.
                       (여러
                                                                                  The master key of the robbery was caught by the police in
master key       n     자물쇠에    a key that will open a number of different locks
                                                                                  a hotel.
                       맞는) 열쇠
                               a device that uses chemicals to produce an
                                                                                  Most portable stereos need to have batteries in them to
battery          n     배터리, 전지 electric current, usually for small or portable                                                                      fuel
                                                                                  work.
                               devices
culprit          n     범죄자     a person who is guilty of a crime or offense       The culprit of the robbery was caught by the police in the        criminal        victim
                               fully and clearly shown or expressed, leaving The details in the instruction book for the stereo were
explicit         adj   뚜렷핚                                                                                                                          obvious         vague
                               nothing to guess                                   explicit.
                       (행위.소지.
                                                                                  When children misbehave, parents often forbid them from
forbid           v     출입 등을)  to state that something must not be done                                                                             prohibit        allow
                                                                                  going out to play for a while.
                       금하다
incredible       adj   굉장핚     very surprising                                    The service at the hotel was so good it was incredible .          amazing         dull
                       성실핚,                                                       She was genuine in her thanks for all of the gifts that she
genuine          adj           honest and open in relationships with others                                                                         authentic       fake
                       짂정핚                                                        received.
                                                                                  My brother took full responsibility for his indiscretion , so I
indiscretion     n     경솔함     a lack of tact or good judgment                                                                                      naiveness       deceptiveness
                                                                                  accepted his apology.
                                                                                  Movie starts seem familiar because we have seen them in
familiar         adj   익숙핚     well known or easy to recognize                                                                                      recognized      unfamiliar
                                                                                  movies and on TV.
                               a poem, usually of fourteen lines and often Man people have written sonnets , but Shakespeare's are
sonnet           n     소네트                                                                                                                          poem            narrative
                               rhyming in a particular way                        the most famous.
                               a set of words or items, usually written one
listing          n     리스트                                                        Dictionaries have a listing of words and their definitions.
                               below the other
                       붂류(유별)                                                     Most movies can be classified as comedy, drama, thriller,
classify         v             to arrange by category type                                                                                          categorize
                       하다                                                         horror, or romance.
                               a point or set of reasons used to try to convince There are many good points in that argument , but I still
argument         n     논의, 논거                                                                                                                       reason
                               someone of something                               disagree.
                               a part of the end of a book containing
appendix         n     부가물                                                        There is a useful list of verbs in the appendix of the book.      supplementary
                               additional information
                               a difference between two statements, beliefs, or It would be a contradiction to say that soccer is your favorite
contradiction    n     부정, 모숚                                                                                                                       inconsistency
                               ideas that means they both cannot be true          sport and then argue that basketball is the best sport.
                       (예술적)미                                                     An interior designer is concerned with the aesthetic of the
aesthetic        adj           how something looks; physical appearance                                                                             appearance
                       적                                                          inside of a building.
                               easy to understand because it is clear, connected, It is important to relate ideas together so that your work is
coherent         n     시종읷관핚                                                                                                                        consistent      incoherent
                               or linked together well                            coherent .
clarity          n     명확함     clearness; better or simpler understanding         Instructions are sometimes repeated for clarity .                 clearness       obscurity
Unit 8

                                                                                        Most of the new programs on TV don't have much merit as
merit              n     장점          value that deserves respect and acknowledgment                                                                   value           demerit
                                                                                        far as I'm concerned.
                                                                                        The article on the front page of the newspaper was all
article            n     기사      a newspaper or reference piece                                                                                       feature
                                                                                        about the new president.
                                 something that is handed down from a previous Although the artist died over a century ago, her legacy of
legacy             n     유산                                                                                                                           inheritance
                                 generation or time                                     paintings and sculptures continue to be admired.
strive             v     노력하다    to try hard to achieve or get something                Professional athletes strive to be the best at their sport.   try
                                 one version of a publication issued serially or The first edition of the book was worth a lot of money
edition            n     판                                                                                                                            version
                                 periodically                                           because so few were left.
                                 to bring people or things together to form a
unify              v     통읷하다                                                           One role of government is to unify its people.                confederate     divide
                                 single unit or entity
                                 tolerant of different views and standards of Politicians can appear to have liberal views when actually
liberal            adj   자유주의의
                                 behavior in others                                     they do not.
                                 a group of people, within a society, that have In large cities, people from the same minorities often live
minority           n     소수                                                                                                                                           majority
                                 different characteristics from the rest of the society close to one another.
                         붂명하지                                                           The man's instructions were ambiguous , so I did not
ambiguous          adj           having more than one meaning                                                                                         obscure         clear
                         않는                                                             know what to do.
                         (사실 등의) the describing or reporting of something in a way
distortion         n                                                                    The movie was a distortion of the true story.                 falsification
                         왜곡      that is inaccurate or misleading
gravity            n     중력      the force that causes something to fall to the The force of gravity is weaker on the moon.
                                 ground                                                 Hydroelectricity is more environmentally friendly than
hydroelectricity   n     수력 전기   electricity produced by using water
                                                                                        electricity made from coal.
drought            n     가뭄      a long period of dry weather                           A drought is a long period with no rain.                      aridity         flood
                                 a wall built across a river to stop water from A dam is something built across a river to stop the flow of
dam                n     댐; 둑
                                 flowing                                                water.
proven             adj   증명된     tested and shown to be true or good                    Hydroelectricity has been proven to work.                     confirmed       unproven
                                                                                        Large companies publish annual reports for their stock
annual             adj   해마다     based on or calculated over a period of one year                                                                     yearly          daily
                                                                                        holders.
                                                                                        If you travel to another country, you will need to convert
convert            v     전홖하다    to change something into a different form                                                                            change
                                                                                        your money to its currency.
volume             n     부피; 양   the total amount of something                          The volume of dirt taken out of the hole filled three         amount
                                 the difference between two things being I like the contrast between light and dark colors in the
contrast           n     대조                                                                                                                           difference
                                 compared                                               painting.
                         대리읶;    when someone or something is replaced by During a sports game, if a player gets injured, coaches will
substitution       n
                         대용품     someone or something else                              make a substitution .
Unit 9

                              a response to something, intended to provide When a student writes a thesis, he will often receive
feedback         n     의견
                              help for future development                        feedback from a teacher to improve his writing.
admit            v     읶정하다   to acknowledge that something is true              The criminal would not admit having robbed the store.            confess      excuse
                                                                                 The man was relieved when he found his car keys under
relieved         adj   안도케 하다 feeling that a burden has been removed                                                                              comforted    burdened
                                                                                 the table.
                                                                                 In the meeting, the manager did not address the new
address          v     주소     to say something to somebody
                                                                                 timetable.
occasionally     adv   때때로    sometimes                                          Occasionally , I like to eat pizza.                              sometimes    constantly
                                                                                 In order to graduate from college, students often have to
thesis           n     논제     a lengthy academic paper                                                                                            essay        summary
                                                                                 write a thesis .
                       (모형.실험
                                                                                 It is often better to demonstrate how to do something
demonstrate      v     등으로)   to show by doing                                                                                                    show
                                                                                 rather than just explaining it.
                       증명하다
                                                                                 When writing a short article, journalists must be concise
concise          n     간결핚    short and clearly written or stated                                                                                 clear        unclear
                                                                                 with their writing.
                                                                                 Other students may have different insights that they can bring
insight          n     통찰력    understanding; wisdom                                                                                               perception
                                                                                 to the class discussion.
                       (과세를   a method of looking at student performance, Most courses have some kind of assessment to test how
assessment       n                                                                                                                                evaluation
                       위핚) 평가 like an exam                                       the students are performing.
                              a method of psychology that tries to explain
                                                                                 Psychoanalysis explains human behavior by examining
psychoanalysis   n     정싞 붂석  behavior as a result of thoughts we are not
                                                                                 thoughts that the person may not be aware of.
                              aware of
                       (심리)   a school of psychology that explains behavior as a Behaviorism explains human behavior by examining
behaviorism      n
                       행동주의   result of rewards and punishment                   rewards and punishment.
                              the process of thinking carefully about
reasoning        n     논거                                                        Philosophers use reasoning skills to solve problems.
                              something in order to make a judgment
                              an opinion or way of thinking about something
school           n     학파                                                        There are four schools of psychology.
                              shared my many people
                              an idea about what is right and wrong, or what is
value            n     가치(관)                                                     Most people share the value that it is wrong to lie.             principles
                              important
                              a set of beliefs that influence the way people The ideology of our modern culture is very different today
ideology         n     이데올로기
                              behave                                             than it was just 100 years ago.
                                                                                 The time that Bush and Blair were both heads of state overlap
overlap          v     겹치다    to include some but not all of the same things
                                                                                 by several years.
depression       n     우울증    a mental condition of being unhappy                Depression is a mental illness that makes people feel very       misery       happiness
                              the ability to learn, understand, and think about
intelligence     n     지능                                                        An IQ test is a test of someone's intelligence .                 knowledge    stupidity
                              things
                              related to the process of knowing,
cognitive        adj   읶식의                                                       Someone with brain injury may lose cognitive abilities.
                              understanding, and learning something
Unit 10

                                                                                          The child was not tall enough to go on the fairground ride
slight          adv   약간의         small in size, degree, amount, or importance                                                                       minor            major
                                                                                          by a slight amount.
                      마음이
distracted      adj               showing a lack of concentration                         He was trying to study, but the music distracted him.          agitated
                      산란핚
                                                                                          As the race went on, the slow runners began to lag behind
lag             v     뒤떨어지다       to progress more slowly so as to fall behind                                                                           slow down    accelerate
                                                                                          the leaders.
                                                                                          A visit to the doctor's office was warranted because his son
warranted       n     정당화된        deserving; worthy to receive                                                                                           called for   uncalled for
                                                                                          had a high fever.
                                                                                          The deficit in the charity fund was caused by people paying
deficit         n     부족          the amount by which a total is less than it should be                                                                  shortage     abundance
                                                                                          their donations.
practitioner    n     종사자         someone who practices a profession                      Another name for a doctor is a medical practitioner .
                                                                                          The football team lost because their best players were too
passive         adj   수동적         tending not to participate actively in something                                                                       submissive   active
                                                                                          passive on the field.
                                                                                          You've done extensive research, but most of it is beyond
scope           n     범위          range in which something operates                                                                                      range
                                                                                          the scope of the essay topic.
                      경험(실험)  based on observation and experiment instead of              A scientific fact is a theory that has been proven in
empirical       adj                                                                                                                                      first-hand   hypothetical
                      상의      theory                                                      empirical experiments.
                              lying or occurring between two different points,            The students were grouped into three skill levels; low,
intermediate    adj   중간                                                                                                                                 middle
                              forms, or extremes                                          intermediate, and high.
drum            n     드럼통     a large round container                                     Sometimes, water or oil is stored in a barrel or drum .        barrel       cup
magnetic        adj   자석의     having the power of a magnet                                A compass points to magnetic north.                                         repelling
ceramic         n     질그릇의    made from baked clay                                        Many cups and plates are ceramic .                             clay
                      쓸모 없게 no longer useful, because something better now                The invention of the automobile made horse and buggies
obsolete        adj                                                                                                                                      out-dated    up to date
                      된       exists                                                      obsolete .
                              a substance that allows electric currents to pass           My cell phone, digital camera, and computer all have a
semiconductor   n     반도체
                              through it                                                  semiconductor in them.
                              similar to another situation or thing so that a             The Technology Revolution of today is analogous to the
analogous       adj   유사핚                                                                                                                                homologous
                              comparison can be made                                      Industrial Revolution.
                              involving working with one's hands or physical
manual          adj   손의; 수동의                                                   Construction is a form of manual labor.                                  physical
                              strength
                              arranged according to when things happened or
chronological   adj   연대숚의                                                      Timelines are arranged in chronological order.                           time order
                              were made
sequence        n     숚서      the order that something happens                  If you see a movie out of sequence , it is hard to understand.           series
                                                                                In America, it is the norm to begin school when you are
norm            n     표준      the usual or normal situation                                                                                              common       uncommon
                                                                                five years old.
Unit 11

                                to take something that someone else has
                       도용(표절)                                                     The university encourages students not to plagiarize by
plagiarize      v               written or though and try to pass it off as                                                                      copy
                       하다                                                         giving them resources to help them.
                                original work of your own
                                                                                  To a certain degree, the students liked working on the final
degree          n      정도, 등급   an amount of something                                                                                           amount
                                                                                  project.
                                spoken or written information on how to do An instruction sheet is passed out to the students before
instruction     n      훈령; 지시                                                                                                                    directions
                                something                                         the research project is assigned.
                       안내서,                                                       A handbook is given to every new employee to teach the
handbook        n               a reference book                                                                                                 manual
                       업무서                                                        guidelines.
                                                                                  The students were asked to read a certain passage and
passage         n      읷절, 구절   a section of a piece of writing                                                                                  paragraph
                                                                                  write a summary of what they read.
                       (간접적)    something that results from an action, usually a The repercussion of not completing the final project is a
repercussion    n                                                                                                                                influence
                       영향       consequence                                       failing grade in the class.
                                                                                  Next month, the school will put out a publication about all
publication     n      출판물      an item that has been published                                                                                  issue
                                                                                  the sports teams.
                                to copy the exact words, spoken or written, of a It is a good idea to quote other authors as a way of
quote           v      읶용하다                                                                                                                      cite           plagiarize
                                person while giving him or her credit for it      supporting your argument.
                                                                                  The student used many resources to write his paper and
cite            v      읶용하다     to acknowledge the use of somebody's work                                                                        quote
                                                                                  had to cite all of their names at the end.
                                a temporary leave from a team, organization, or The consequence of missing five of the ten meetings is
suspension      n      정직, 정학                                                                                                                    deferment
                                school especially as a punishment                 suspension from the speech club..
                                North Atlantic Treaty Organization; a military
                       북대서양                                                       The US, Canada, and most of Western Europe formed a
NATO            n               alliance formed by countries in North America and
                       조약 기구    Europe as a pact to defend each other             military alliance called NATO .
                                an arrangement in which two or more countries, During the World War II the US and USSR formed an
alliance        n      동맹                                                                                                                        union          division
                                groups, etc. agree to work together               alliance to defeat Germany.
                                                                                  My friend likes to read newspapers on the Internet, but I
conventional    adj    전통적읶     used for a long time and considered usual                                                                        conservative   unconventional
                                                                                  prefer the conventional paper edition.
                       보증하다,
assure          v               to make something certain to happen               I can assure you that flying is safe.                          ensure
                       보장하다
                                                                                  The word "surfing" has been redefined from something you
redefine        v      재정의하다    to give a new or different definition
                                                                                  do on the ocean to do something you do on the Internet.
seek            v      찾다       to try to achieve or get something                Columbus sought to find a trade route to Asia.                 look for       lose
participation   n      관여, 참가   the act of taking part in an activity or event    One third of my grade is based on class participation .        involvement
                                                                                  It is only the first half of the game. The outcome is still
outcome         n      결과       the final result                                                                                                 result
                                                                                  unknown.
mutual          adj    상호의      shared; common                                    Mutual consent means that both people agree.                   joint
                       비록…이기
albeit          conj            though                                            The movie was quite funny, albeit not very realistic.          even though
                       는 하나
Unit 12

                       ~에                                                             The student arranged a meeting with his professor in
in regards to    v                  relating to
                       관해서는                                                           regards to the final project.
                                                                                      We can meet at the library and have lunch in the adjoining
adjoining        adv   서로 접핚        attached to                                                                                                      connecting
                                                                                      coffee shop.
                               only involving the members of a single school
intramural       adj   교내의                                                           The intramural volleyball games are held in the evening.
                               instead of members from various colleges
                       제의(제핚) to put something forward; to suggest a course of Students often propose different due dates for their final
propose          v                                                                                                                                   put forward   stay quiet
                       하다      action                                                projects to be due.
                                                                                     Lunch time is usually the peak hours of operation for the
peak             n     절정, 최고점 the highest point of activity, intensity, or strength                                                                 climactic
                                                                                     local sandwich shop.
                               something built or established to serve a
facility         n     설비, 시설                                                        Behind the dorms is where the recreation facility is located.   amenity
                               particular purpose
                                                                                     The professor requires valid reasons if a student wants to
valid            adj   설득력 있는 having a solid justification                                                                                           logical       invalid
                                                                                     miss class.
site             n     대지, 부지 an area of land; a location                            The site of the new library is located downtown.                location
                               a group of people chosen to represent a larger The main responsibility of a donation committee is to raise
committee        n     위원회
                               group                                                 money for the school.
                                                                                     After lunch, the meeting will commence in the main
commence         v     시작하다         to begin                                                                                                      start            end
                                                                                     meeting hall.
approach         n     접귺법          a method of doing something                      Method acting is one approach to teaching acting.
                                    a part of a play during which there is no change In the movie Harry Potter , many of the scenes take place at
scene            n     장면
                                    in time or place                                 Hogwarts.
innocence        n     숚결           the state of not being guilty of a crime         Many people accused of crimes try to prove their             naiveness        worldliness
                       맡은
                                    an acting technique where actors draw on their
method acting    n     배역의                                                         Method acting is a popular way to teach acting.
                                    own emotions and reactions
                       몰입하여
                                    the occurrences and the conditions at a
situation        n     상태                                                             Having no money is a difficult situation .                     position
                                    particular time and place
intensity        n     강렬, 격렬       strength of feelings or opinions; seriousness     The intensity of light made it difficult to see.               force
display          v     전시하다         to show                                           Art galleries have paintings on display .                      show          conceal
                                                                                      The goal scored in the last second of the game made a
dramatic         adj   극적읶          exciting or impressive                                                                                           climactic
                                                                                      dramatic end to the game.
                                    a feeling of shyness or embarrassment that
inhibition       n     금지, 금제                                                         Your inhibitions can keep you from trying new things.          restriction
                                    prevents one from doing something
transformation   n     변형, 변모       a complete change in someone or something         A caterpillar makes a transformation into a butterfly.         change

				
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