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501 immigration urbanization

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					Immigration &
 Urbanization
         Immigration
 1870-1910: 20 million
  immigrants entered
  the US
 Added to the labor
  pool
 Added to the demand
  for housing
 Added to the demand
  for goods
Eastern & Southern Europeans
   About 14 million
    immigrants from Italy,
    Greece, Poland, Russia,
    Slavic states
   Many were Catholic,
    Orthodox, or Jewish
   Came because of job and
    land availability, to
    escape religious
    persecution, to escape a
    fixed class system, and/or
    to live in a democracy
               Ellis Island
   New York Harbor
   Used from 1892 to 1954
    to process immigrants
   Immigrants were
    medically inspected
   Unhealthy quarantined or
    sent back to Europe (only
    about 2% were denied
    entry)
   Now part of the Statue of
    Liberty National
    Monument
Statue of Liberty (1886)
    The Know-Nothings
   The American Party
    (1849-1860)
   Nativists
   Anti-Catholic
   Opposed immigration
   Played on prejudices
    and fears that
    immigrants would
    take jobs
American Protective Association
   Founded in 1887 by Henry
    Bowers
   Opposed Catholicism because
    Catholics obeyed the Pope
    above all other powers,
    including the government
   Wanted to limit Catholic
    immigration, ban Catholics
    from teaching, holding public
    office
   Also wanted to make
    understanding English a
    requisite for citizenship
   Had faded out by 1900
Immigration Act of 1882
 $.50 tax on each
  immigrant entering
  US to help pay costs
  of regulating
  immigration
 Denied entry to
  “convicts, lunatics,
  idiots, and persons
  likely to become
  public charges”
    Asian Immigrants
 Chinese: looking to
  escape famine,
  unemployment, and
  violent rebellions
 Often excluded from
  regular American
  society, so developed
  their own in
  “Chinatowns”
 Some limited
  Japanese immigration
          Angel Island
 In use 1910 – 1940
 Processed over 1
  million immigrants
 Located in San
  Francisco Bay
 75% of immigrants
  were detained for at
  least 2 weeks, some
  for up to 2 years
Workingman’s Party of California
 1870s - 1900
 Founded by Irish
  immigrant Denis
  Kearney
 Opposed Chinese
  immigration and use
  of Chinese labor to
  build railroads
 “The Chinese Must
  Go!”
Chinese Exclusion Acts
   Passed in 1882
   Banned Chinese
    immigration for 10 years
   Chinese already here
    could not become citizens
   Renewed in 1892
   Made permanent in 1902
   Finally repealed in 1942
   Led to a decline in
    Chinese population in US
    Ethnic neighborhoods
   “Cultural pluralism”
   Immigrants preferred to
    stick together, form
    neighborhoods where it
    was safe to speak native
    language, continue ethnic
    customs, practice their
    religion
   These neighborhoods led
    to general distrust of
    immigrants by the native
    US population
“Melting Pot” or “Tossed Salad”?
 Melting pot =
  assimilation of
  multiple cultures into
  a new, blended
  “American” culture
 Tossed salad = many
  different cultures
  thrown together, but
  little blending – each
  culture stands out
              Urbanization
   Between 1870 -1900: US
    urban population soared from
    10 million to 30 million
   NYC: 800,000 in 1860, 3.5
    million in 1900
   Chicago: 109,000 in 1860, 1.6
    million in 1900
   Immigrants tended to stay in
    cities
   Many poor farmers moved to
    cities for better paying jobs
   Many freed slaves migrated to
    northern cities to seek new
    opportunities
     Appeal of Cities
 More jobs available
 Electric lighting
 Running water and
  sewer
 Abundance of
  goods
 Variety of leisure
  activities
    Adult Entertainment
 Vaudeville Theater: collection
  of acts, including dancers,
  singers, acrobats, comedians,
  etc. (similar to “America’s Got
  Talent” but without judges)
 Dance Halls: large venues
  with live bands playing dance
  music
 Cabarets: bars or nightclubs
  which offered musical
  entertainment
 Saloons: neighborhood bars
  where working men ate,
  drank, talked politics and
  discussed current events
    Family Entertainment
   Museums
   Libraries
   Amusement Parks: NYC’s
    Coney Island became a
    resort area after Civil
    War, first “attraction” was
    a carousel that opened in
    1876
   Spectator sports: Boxing,
    horse racing, wrestling,
    professional baseball
              Skyscrapers
   As cities became more
    crowded, space became
    more valuable
   Inventions like high-
    quality steel and the
    Otis elevator made
    going higher the most
    practical solution
   Chicago architect Louis
    Sullivan generally
    credited with
    pioneering the
    “skyscraper”
Home Insurance Building
   Chicago
   Built in 1885
   First to have a steel
    frame
   10 stories (138 ft.)
   2 floors added later
   Designed by William
    LeBaron Jenney (who
    trained Louis Sullivan)
   Demolished in 1931
    because it was too small
    and wasted space!
Tallest Modern Buildings
Public Parks
    Frederick Law Olmstead
   1822 – 1903
   Landscape architect
   Designed many major
    urban green-spaces,
    including Central Park in
    NYC and parks in
    Chicago, Washington DC,
    and other cities
   Also designed the
    grounds at Biltmore
    Estate in Asheville, NC
                Mass transit
   Horsecars: railroad car pulled
    along tracks by horses
   Cable cars: railroad car pulled
    along tracks by underground
    cables (San Francisco, 1873)
   Electric trolley car: developed
    in 1887 by Frank J. Sprague,
    first used in Richmond, VA
   Elevated railroads: Used in
    Chicago starting in 1892
   Subways: Boston in 1897, NYC
    in 1904
   Major bridges, such as NYC’s
    Brooklyn Bridge (1883)
    Changes in Shopping
   Bold new forms of
    advertising products,
    using large, illustrated
    ads in newspapers &
    magazines
   Department stores: John
    Wannamaker’s Grand
    Depot in Philadelphia
   Chain stores: Woolworth’s
    (1879)
   Mail-order catalogs:
    Montgomery Ward, Sears
    Roebuck
           Upper Class
 “High Society”
 Wealthiest families,
  primarily
  industrialists like the
  Rockefellers and
  Vanderbilts
 Built palatial houses,
  clustered in
  downtown districts
    Middle-Class Gentility
   Doctors, lawyers,
    engineers,
    architects,
    managers, teachers
   Lived in “streetcar
    suburbs” on edges
    of cities
   Average salary =
    $1100/year
    The Working Class
 75% of urban
  population
 Lived in tenement
  housing within
  easy walking
  distance of the
  industrial district
 Average salary =
  $445/year
       Urban problems
 Violent crime: murder rate
  jumped 400% between
  1880 and 1900; rate today
  is about ½ the rate of US in
  1900
 Pollution: especially of
  drinking water, but also of
  land and air
 Disease: cholera, typhoid
 Fire: Chicago (1871),
  Boston (1872), Baltimore
  (1904), San Francisco
  (1906, caused by
  earthquake)
              Tenements
 Small, extremely crowded
  apartment buildings
 Whole families often lived
  in just one room,
  sometimes with only a
  single window for air
 Up to a dozen families
  might share a single
  bathroom
 Buildings were unsafe –
  hard to escape in a fire,
  little fresh air and close
  quarters led to spread of
  disease
                Jacob Riis
   1849 – 1914
   Danish immigrant, social
    reformer, journalist,
    photographer
   Wrote How the Other
    Half Lives (1890)
   Documented horrors of
    life in the slums &
    tenements
   Blamed alcohol for many
    of society’s ills
Jane Addams & the Social Gospel
   1860 – 1935
   Founded Hull House, a
    settlement house in
    Chicago
   First woman to win the
    Nobel Peace Prize
   “Social Gospel”: idea that
    Christians have a moral
    responsibility to fix
    society’s problems &
    help the less fortunate
     Settlement Houses
 Most famous settlement
  house = Chicago’s Hull
  House
 Middle class “settlers”
  moved into working
  class neighborhoods to
  help provide education,
  meals, childcare,
  medical care, and
  general advice to
  immigrants and poor
  workers

				
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