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					   Chapter 2
Family & Personal
Relationships (1)
         Focal questions
 1. What are the traditional expectations of
  marriage in Britain? (Pp19, 22, 23)
 2. How do you visualise the typical family in
  modern Britain? (Pp 19)
 3. What changes in the family and marriage
  have occured since the Second World War?
  Which are the most significant? How do you
  explain them? (Pp 19, 20, 24, 25, 26)
 4. What do you understand of the term "youth
  culture"? Can you give some specific
  examples of youth subcultures or cults? Do
  all youth subcultures have certain common
  features? (P21)
     A 1 The Family
Diverse  families
Nuclear family
Lone-parent family
Cohabiting couple
Common-law/de facto marriage
Civil partnership
       A 1 Family            cont.
 Marriage: half—fail;   rate—lowest since
  records in 1840
 Divorce: rate—highest in Europe;
  1+child/4 before age 16—divorce of
  their parents
 Lone parenting: increased three-fold in
  the last 20 years, 1/10 families
 4/10 people: born outside marriage
 1/10: cohabiting
             Family size
 Complete   family size of 2 kids: 1/3
 Childlessness: 1/5 women
 Causes:
 Falling infant death rates fell
 The expense of having children
 Career vs. children
 Darren Hayes
Savage Garden
        Darren on the
civil partnership ceremony
  "Ican honestly say it was the
   happiest day of my life," writes Hayes
   of the civil partnership ceremony,
   which took place in London. "I feel
   lucky to live in an era where my
   relationship can be considered legally
   legitimate, and I commend the U.K.
   government for embracing this very
   basic civil liberty."
        Darren on the
civil partnership ceremony
  Britain  legalized civil partnerships in
   December 2005.
  Civil Partnership Act 2004
  Same-sex couples
 the most popular region within the UK
  in which to register a partnership in
 The London Borough of Westminster
 Brighton and Hove Unitary Authority
Living in Britain General Household Survey 2002
Living in Britain General Household Survey 2002
           A 2 Youth
 Youth:  an age group?
 A social organization
 The 1950s: about ten years after
  the end of WWII
 A rise in the birth rate
 Music, films, fashion
 ‗Youth subculture‘—teenagers
  A5        50 Years of Change
The   1950s – a time of great changes
 in fields of economy, culture, politics.
The 1960s – a decade of rebellious
 young generation of great expectation
  A5       50 Years of Change
The 1970s – a decade of strikes and
The 1980s – a decade of
The 1990s – a decade of great
           A2 Youth (1970s)
           Youth Subcultures
 Subculture : a ‗cultural group within a larger
  culture often having beliefs or interests at
  variance with those of the larger culture
 A distinct individual style – certain ways of
  dressing, speaking, listening to music and
  gathering in similar places
 The way of life
 Inevitable products of affluent society
 To leave: usu. at the point of marriage
   A2 Youth—Teddy Boys
 Rock  'n' Roll: black origin, white
  musicians like Elvis
 Teenage cults
 Music of the Teddy Boys or 'Teds'
 Slicked-back ‗quiffs‘ or ‗DA‘ (ducktail)
 Narrow ‗drainpipe‘ trousers
 ‗Drape‘ jackets, fancy shirts
 ‗Bootlace‘ ties
             A 2 Youth
      Teddy Boys: Characteristics
 Group-mindedness – a reaffirmation of traditional
  working class values and the strong sense of
 Extreme touchiness (over-sensitivity) to insults
 Conditions for its formation – extensive welfare
  provision (social security, health, housing),
  European economic boom with Marshall plan,
  abolishing of draft, introduction of hire purchase
 Drastical and fundamental alteration of the
  concept of the adolescent
  A 2 Youth cont.
Teddy Boys in the 1950s
            A 2 Youth cont.
              The Beatniks
 The ―beat‖ movement in the US in the 1950s
 Rejection of traditional middle-class
  American values, customs
 The ―Beat generation‖—beatitude
 Sputnik I
 Their visual symbols - jazz, poetry,
  marijuanna, the Beatles
 Counter-cultural, anti-materialistic, bettering
  the inner self
               A 2 Youth
        Beatniks: Characteristics
 Extremely pessimistic about future &
  possibilities of progress
 Aspired for freedom and the anguish of being
  alone, undecided and separate
 No popularity in Britain until mid-1960s; the
 The Simpsons episode
 A 2 Youth
The Beatniks
A 2 Youth
The Beatles
   A 2 Youth
The Rolling Stones
        A 2 Youth (The 1960s)
          Mods and Rockers

 A new mood of optimism and change
 Rockers: rock 'n' roll & big motorbikes; 'dressed
  down' (in leather jackets and denim); working
  class, masculinity driven
 Mods: American rhythm and blues music &
  scooters; 'dressed up' (in sharp suits and ties—
  Italian style); working-class, non-traditional
  clerical or service jobs
         A 2 Youth
Rockers and their motor-bikes
     A 2 Youth
Mods and their scootors
                  A2 Youth
                 The Hippies
 ‗Hippie‘: bohemian, student and radical
 Being critical of growing dominance of
  technology & bureaucracy of capitalist
 Distrust of establishment
 Criticism of inequality and affluence of society
 Search of social change through peaceful
 Contradictions:
 Anti-materialistic, yet lived to share the fruits
  of affluence
 Pro-egalitarian, but reactionary
               A 2 Youth
            Skinheads cont.
 The unskilled working-class community
 Working-class activities: pubs, football and
  streets, associated with football hooliganism
 The end of the 1960s, relative worsening of
  situation of working-class
 Dress – big industrial boots & jeans rolled up
  high to reveal them
 Appearance –hair cut to the skull
 Emphasis on collectivity, physical toughness,
  and local rivalry; targets for the aggression—
       A2 Youth cont.
Hippies (left) Skin heads (right)
           A2 Youth (1970s)
 The 1970s:   Punk, Heavy Metal
 Punk: youth culture in the extreme
 Spiked hair, ripped and outlandishly
  customized clothing
 Obscene language (much-publicized)
 To both cut themselves off from society
  and to shock it into action
 Heavy Metal music: grew in the 1970s;
A 2 Youth cont.
   The punks
   Taxi Driver

 Travis Bickle
 Jodie Foster
 John Hinckley
 President Reagan
  A2 Youth (1970s)
                  Rastafarianism:
                   a philosophy
                   and a religion
                   originating in
                   Jamaica; black
                   Britain; the
                   reggae music of
                   Bob Marley.
 The Influence of Reggae on Punk
 Search for authenticity
 The romanticization of petty criminality
 ―white translation of black ethnicity‖ (Hebdige
  p.64)—Elvis Presley: ―white nigger‖
 Reggae music
     Non-mainstream
     Working class credentials
     Political awareness
     Music of the ―outsider”
            A 2 Youth (1980s)
               The Ravers
 the New Romantics— wearing flamboyant
  clothes often like those of the 18C 'dandies'
 Hip Hop, the black communities of the USA, rap
  music, graffiti art, sportswear-based dress and
  other cultural elements
 Rave, grew out of the 'acid house' cult of 1988.
  American 'house' music, baggy colourful clothing
  drugs like LSD and Ecstacy. All night dancing
  events called raves in remote out-of-the-way
Graffiti—art or vandalism?
       A 2 Youth (the 1990s)
          Ragga & Jungle
 Predominantly black,  ragga music, a
  dance-oriented form of reggae
  commonly with the lyric spoken or
 Young Asians born in Britain:
  'bhangramuffin‗, the Asian music,
 Jungle, elements of house music and
  rave culture; the most innovative,
  original youth culture of the mid-1990s
   60后 70后 80后 90后
 1、关于工作
 60后:他们要么狂工作,要么不工作,
 70后:工作狂基本上都是70后的。
 80后:拒绝加班!
 90后 :拒绝上班!
       60后 70后 80后 90后
 2、 关于穿着
 60后:买衣服要么去购物广场,要么去
 70后:喜欢穿中等价位牌子的衣服,价钱
 80后: 喜欢潮流品牌,搭配出FEEL的都
 90后:个性服饰,穿衣基本靠冲动.
    60后 70后 80后 90后
 3、关于K歌
 60后:一般只喝不K,即使K,也是喝了酒之后,
 70后:唱k的时候只会乱吼——例如2002年的
 80后:Mic霸。
 90后 :不止会唱,还会跳!
                  A 2 Youth
             Millennial Tension
 Young   males – postmodernity destroyed
  traditional social role, respect, authority
 Erosion of ‘masculine’ forms of work,
  sources of self-respect
              A 2 Youth
           Suicide Solution
 increases in
 amongst young
 males in UK
 (5X higher than
 young women)
                A 2 Youth
 Commercial consumption
 Blurring ofupper and lower boundaries
 More escapist than oppositional
 Absorption into mainstream
 Reinforced expectation that youth will
  generate consumer ideals
 Childhood—modernist optimism, youth—
  postmodernist freedom and possibility
 The real problems
            Samuel Erman

   Youth is not a time of life, it is a
 1.
 state of mind, it is not a matter of
 rosy cheeks, red lips and supple
 knees, it is a matter of the will, a
 quality of the imagination, a vigor of
 the emotions, it is the freshness of
 the deep spring of life.
              Youth         cont
 2. Youth means a temperamental
  predominance of courage over timidity, of the
  appetite for adventure over the love of ease.
  This often exists in a man of 60 more than a
  boy of 20. Nobody grows merely by a number
  of years; we grow old by deserting our ideas.
 3. Years may wrinkle the skin, but to give up
  enthusiasm wrinkles the soul. Worry, fear, self-
  distrust bows the heart and turns the spirit
  back to dust.
            Youth        cont
 4. Whether 60 or 16, there is in every
  human being‘s heart the lure of wonders,
  the unfailing childlike appetite of what‘s
  next and the joy of the game of living. In
  the center of your heart and my heart
  there is a wireless station: so long as it
  receives messages of beauty, hope,
  cheer, courage and power from man and
  from the Infinite, so long as you are
          Youth     cont
 5.When the aerials are down, and
 your spirits are covered with snows
 of cynicism and the ice of
 pessimism, then you‘ve grown old
 even at 20, but as long as your
 aerials are up to catch waves of
 optimism, there‘s hope you may die
 young at 80.
      A 4 Marriage & Divorce
 Marriage and cohabitation
 In 2000 :
 54% of men & 52% of women aged 16 and over:
 10% of men & nine% of women: cohabiting
 27% of men & 18% of women: single
 3% of men & 12% of women: widowed
 6% of men & 9% of women: divorced or
          A 4 Marriage & Divorce

    Sociological Explanations of the
          Increase in Divorce
 The value of marriage
 Conflict between spouses
 The ease of divorce
 Women, paid employment and marital
 Income and class
 Age
 Marital status of parents
 Background and role expectations
 Occupation
        All the lonely people
 40  years ago,the Beatles asked the world a
  simple question,they wanted to know where
  all the lonely people come from.
 Grey’s Anatomy
 All the lonely people, where do they all
  come from? All the lonely people, where do
  they all belong?
 Eleanor Rigby, Beatles
A 1 The Family        cont.
One-parent families & their
   dependent children
         A 1 Family            cont.
 The traditional family: in decline?
 The Soul of Britain survey:
 80% of Britons: marriage is not out-dated 
 76% of Britons: marriages to last for life 
 46% of Britons: lone parenting as a lifestyle
  choice 
 Columnist Melanie Phillips: the traditional
  nuclear family—at the root of democracy
  (secure, stable, inner-directed and self-
  confident, a sense of duty and responsibility)
       A 1 Family              cont.
 Traditional families are better for children
 Bob Rowthorne (professor of economics
  at Cambridge University): step families
  are very dangerous places for children to
  be—Higher rate of child murder
 Lone-parent families or cohabiting
  families  — not stable
 Lone-parent families: poverty and social
  problems related to poverty
      A 1 The Family
  Home is Where the Heart is
 Stable marriage – a happy home life in
  Millennium Britain (a new Alliance &
  Leicester public opinion poll by MORI)
 1,938 people: what would be the most
  important ingredient to family life in 25
  years time
 Stable marriage and less divorce: more
  than one in four people (26 per cent)
 Consistent across all age groups
Towards a More Civilised Society
 European economies:    joint taxation
 In Britain: family commitments—largely
  irrelevant to tax assessment
 Call for approbation and support from
  the state
 The married family & the nurture of
  children -- Center for Policy Studies

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