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					                                        California State University, Northridge
                                             Health Sciences Department
                                                  Health Science 237
                                                      Spring 2009
                                                Mid-Term Study Items



MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers
the question.
       1) Which of the following phrases best describes the authors' view of 1) _______
          health education? Health education is
            A) an applied discipline.
            B) a process.
            C) an emerging profession.
            D) a coordinated professional effort.
            E) a profession.

      2) The body of knowledge, principles, and concepts used in health             2) _______
         education come from a variety of fields. Which one of the following is
         NOT one the major fields supporting health education?
           A) behavioral sciences
           B) medical sciences
           C) biology
           D) sociology
           E) physics

      3) Which one of those below is NOT used to define a profession? A             3) _______
         profession
           A) has an association that represents the profession.
           B) provides an income.
           C) has a code of ethics.
           D) provides a unique and essential social service.
           E) makes its own decision regarding entry to the field.

      4) During the 1850s to 1950s, the primary focus of the public health effort   4) _______
         in the United States was to
           A) establish health education as a profession.
            B) control chronic diseases.
            C) reduce health care costs.
           D) develop national health care coverage.
            E) control infectious diseases.

      5) The potential for reducing morbidity, saving lives, and reducing health    5) _______
         care costs in the United States through health promotion occurred by
         the
           A) late 1950s.                          B) early 2000s.
           C) mid 1970s.                          D) early 1900s.

      6) The federal government's 1980 document that presented a blueprint of       6) _______
         the health promotion and disease prevention strategy is know as
           A) Code Blue.
            B) Healthy People 2010.
     C) The Presidential Commission's Report on Health Promotion and Disease
        Prevention.
     D) Quality of Life in the United States.
     E) Promoting Health/Preventing Disease: Objectives for a Nation.

 7) The number of deaths per 100,000 population is known as                    7) _______
      A) the mortality rate.
      B) crude rate.
      C) life expectancy.
      D) the morbidity rate.
      E) a specific rate.

 8) The death rate is sometimes referred to as                                 8) _______
      A) mortality.
      B) Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL).
      C) the crude rate.
      D) life expectancy.

 9) The average number of years of life remaining is known as the              9) _______
      A) death rate.
      B) life expectancy.
      C) Disability-Adjusted Life Years [DALY].
      D) Years of Potential Life Lost [YPLL].
      E) mortality rate.

10) Which rate would be the most appropriate to use when evaluating the        10) ______
    impact of a disease or an unintended injury upon society?
      A) Years of Potential Life Lost [YPLL]
      B) infant mortality rate
      C) Health-Related Quality of Life [HRQOL]
      D) mortality rate
      E) Disability-Adjusted Life Years [DALY]

11) The primary difference between the health education profession and         11) ______
    other helping professions in achieving the goals and objectives of the
    profession is
      A) that the cost of health education is much less than other helping
         professions.
      B) that other professions do not have stated goals and objectives.
      C) that the cost of health education is much higher than other helping
         professions.
      D) the use of the teaching-learning process by the health education
         profession.
      E) the establishment of written objectives by health educators.

12) The primary role of a health educator includes                             12) ______
      A) writing, teaching, and evaluating health education programs.
      B) assessing the needs, diagnosing medical problems, and curriculum
         development.
      C) developing, planning, implementing, and evaluating health
         education programs.
      D) assessing the needs, identifying health problems, and creating an
intervention      for the target population.
               E) serving as a resource person, communicating with the public, and
                  marketing health education programs.

      13) The primary role of a health educator includes                             13) ______
            A) program planning.
            B) program evaluation.
            C) program delivery.
            D) program development.
            E) all of the above.

      14) According to the best available estimates, behavioral patterns impact      14) ______
          what portion of the population's early death?
           A) 15%           B) 70%         C) 30%         D) 10%           E) 40%

      15) The use of the DTP vaccine is an example of which level of prevention?     15) ______
            A) community prevention
            B) tertiary prevention
            C) secondary prevention
            D) primary prevention
            E) none of the above

      16) The use of condoms to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted           16) ______
          infections (STI) is an example of which level of prevention?
            A) secondary prevention
             B) community prevention
             C) tertiary prevention
            D) primary prevention
             E) none of the above

      17) Providing education to a diabetic on how to use his/her insulin is an      17) ______
          example of which level of prevention?
            A) secondary prevention
            B) community prevention
            C) primary prevention
            D) tertiary prevention
            E) none of the above

      18) Teaching high school students how to perform a breast self-examination     18) ______
          or a testicular self-examination is an example of which level of
          prevention?
            A) primary prevention
             B) secondary prevention
            C) community prevention
            D) tertiary prevention
             E) none of the above

      19) The use of a sports physical examination as a requirement to participate   19) ______
          in high school athletics is an example of which level of prevention?
            A) community prevention
             B) secondary prevention
             C) primary prevention
      D) tertiary prevention
      E) none of the above

20) Which one of the following disciplines and professions was NOT               20) ______
    identified by the authors as contributing to the principles and concepts
    of health education?
      A) education
       B) epidemiology
       C) anthropology
      D) medicine
       E) none of the above

21) The history of health education as an emerging profession is only a little   21) ______
    over ________ years old
      A) 100
      B) 500
      C) 1,000
      D) 5,000
      E) 10,000

22) It is assumed that the earliest humans initially learned to distinguish      22) ______
    those things that were good for them and would enhance health from
    those that were harmful and would impair health by
       A) instinct.
        B) inherited knowledge.
       C) divine intervention.
       D) medicine men.
        E) trial and error.

23) The oldest excavated sites, dating back 4000 years, that indicate            23) ______
    bathrooms and drains were found at
      A) Mycenea.
      B) Spartica.
      C) Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa.
      D) Minoa.
      E) Syria.

24) The ________ is the oldest written document related to health care           24) ______
    dating from around 1600 BC.
      A) Biblical transcript
      B) Smith Papyri
      C) Code of Hammurabi
      D) Greek Hospital Code
      E) Egyptian Health Manifesto

25) The ________ is the earliest written record concerning public health.        25) ______
      A) Egyptian Health Manifesto
      B) Greek Hospital Code
      C) Smith Papyri
      D) Code of Hammurabi
      E) Biblical transcript
26) Which book of the Bible is considered to be the world's first written     26) ______
    hygienic code?
      A) Habakkuk
      B) Zephaniah
      C) Obadiah
      D) Leviticus
      E) Lamentations

27) The Egyptians were considered to be                                       27) ______
      A) far more advanced in public health matters than the Romans.
      B) far more advanced in public health matters than the Greeks.
      C) the founders of modern surgery.
      D) the writers of the earliest health care documents.
      E) the healthiest people of their time.

28) The first people to put as much emphasis on prevention of disease as on   28) ______
    the treatment of disease conditions were the
      A) Hebrews.
       B) Egyptians.
      C) Greeks.
      D) Christians.
       E) Romans.

29) By the beginning of the 8th Century BC, Greek mythology had endowed       29) ______
    ________ as the god of medicine.
      A) Mercury
      B) Asclepius
      C) Hygeia
      D) Apollo
      E) Zeus

30) The Greek physician credited as being the first epidemiologist and the    30) ______
    father of modern medicine was
      A) Asclepius.
       B) Panacea.
       C) Caduceus.
       D) Hippocrates.
       E) Plato.

31) The staff and serpent symbol, which also marked early Greek temples of    31) ______
    healing, is known as
      A) Asclepius.
      B) Panacea.
      C) Plato.
      D) Hippocrates.
      E) Caduceus.

32) Hippocrates' theory that all things were composed of different            32) ______
    combinations of particles too small to be seen is known as the
      A) Hemo Theory.
      B) Atomic Theory.
      C) Physiological Theory.
      D) Caduceus Theory.
      E) Field Theory.

33) The early society most famous for building sewage systems, water        33) ______
    supply systems, baths, and other health facilities was the
      A) Greeks.
      B) Romans.
      C) Saxons.
      D) Hebrews.
      E) Egyptians.

34) During what era were criminals dissected alive to improve medical       34) ______
    knowledge?
      A) Age of Enlightenment
      B) Egyptian
      C) Roman
      D) Middle Ages
      E) Greek

35) Which of the following built the most extensive aqueduct system to      35) ______
    bring fresh water to its subjects?
      A) Saxons
       B) Romans
      C) Hebrews
      D) Greeks
       E) Egyptians

36) Entire libraries were burned, and knowledge about the human body        36) ______
    was seen as sinful during the
      A) Egyptian era.
      B) Middle Ages.
      C) Greek era.
      D) Renaissance.
      E) Roman era.

37) Which great epidemic during the Middle Ages resulted in the most        37) ______
    discrimination and isolation of its victims?
      A) diphtheria
       B) syphilis
      C) bubonic plague
      D) leprosy
       E) smallpox

38) One of the prevailing beliefs of the origin of ________ was that dead   38) ______
    bodies of diseased soldiers were catapulted into a besieged city.
      A) smallpox
      B) leprosy
      C) bubonic plague
      D) diphtheria
      E) syphilis

39) "Water casting" was a                                                   39) ______
      A) method for diagnosing syphilis during the Roman era.
      B) means of casting out demons by throwing water on the inflicted
         individual.
      C) procedure for locating water sources during the Egyptian era.
      D) condition in which water was retained by the body when infected
         with leprosy.
      E) major means of diagnosing a patient's condition by examining the
         urine for changes in coloration.

40) During the Renaissance period, much surgery and dentistry was             40) ______
    performed by
      A) barbers.
      B) professionally trained nurse midwifes.
      C) general practitioners.
      D) professionally trained physicians and dentists.
      E) surgeons trained only by apprenticeship.

41) The development of a well-considered philosophy provides the              41) ______
    underpinnings that support the bridge between
      A) esoteric and practice.
      B) theory and practice.
      C) practice and patience.
      D) ethereal and theory.
      E) patience and understanding.

42) Which one of the following is not included in the topics studied by a     42) ______
    philosopher in an academic setting?
      A) aesthetics
      B) ethics and logic
      C) metaphysics
      D) scatology and astrology
      E) politics and theology

43) Convictions, ideas, learning, values, experiences, and attitudes in the   43) ______
    areas applicable to life are the building blocks that make up a
      A) dilemma.
       B) viewpoint.
      C) probability.
      D) notion.
       E) philosophy.

44) Using slogans to identify products is analogous to knowing a person's     44) ______
    philosophy by analyzing the person's
      A) sayings (quotes).
      B) hearing and voice quality.
      C) ability to read.
      D) hobbies.
      E) occupation.

45) Loren Bensley describes a philosophy that can be built on                 45) ______
      A) influential people.
      B) hobbies.
     C) pessimism.
     D) A and C.
     E) none of the above.

46) Select the phrase that does not describe philosophy.                      46) ______
      A) a body of knowledge that defines the parameters for the living and
          the dead
      B) an integration of the past, present, and future into a coherent
          whole that is a guide through life
      C) a perception of the world and how and why it seems to work
      D) a comprehension of nature and of reality
      E) a wisdom of the nature of things

47) A philosophy that is synchronous means the philosophical viewpoint a      47) ______
    person holds is applicable only
      A) at home, at school, and in the workplace.
      B) as part of a religious practice.
      C) at work and at school.
      D) in the workplace.
      E) at home, at school, in the workplace, and at play.

48) The practice former Surgeon General C. Everett Koop used to               48) ______
    demonstrate his belief that HIV/AIDS was a health problem and not a
    moral issue was to
      A) disseminate needles to inner city addicts.
      B) deny education about high risk behaviors for the infection of HIV.
      C) limit condom use for sexually active couples.
      D) deny education about infected body fluids.
      E) none of the above.

49) Tamayose et al. found that the two most cited reasons student chose a     49) ______
    career in public health were
      A) enjoyment of the profession and the potential for high salaries.
       B) the opportunity for advancement and working conditions.
      C) providing a service to other and the work conditions.
      D) enjoyment of the profession and providing a service to others.

50) Which factors were found to have a major influence on students to         50) ______
    pursue a career in public health?
       1) enjoyment of the profession
       2) income potential
       3) provide a service to others
       4) opportunity for advancement
      A) 3 and 4         B) 1 and 3        C) 1 and 2         D) 2 and 4

51) The philosophy espoused by health educators who seek to motivate          51) ______
    their students or clients toward a balance among the physical,
    emotional, spiritual, and social components is termed
      A) holistic.
       B) humanism.
      C) wellness.
      D) symmetry.
      E) eclectic.

52) The philosophy espoused by health professionals who acknowledge            52) ______
    that the human is a unified integrated organism is termed
      A) holistic.
       B) humanism.
      C) wellness.
      D) symmetry.
       E) eclectic.

53) The philosophy espoused by health educators who promote the basic          53) ______
    premise of the worth of human life and the ability of individuals to
    achieve self fulfillment is termed
      A) holistic.
      B) humanism.
      C) wellness.
      D) symmetry.
      E) eclectic.

54) The philosophy subscribed to by health educators who believe that          54) ______
    achieving optimal health is the development and of the spiritual,
    intellectual, physical, emotional, environmental, and social dimensions
    is termed
       A) holistic.
        B) humanism.
       C) wellness.
       D) symmetry.
        E) eclectic.

55) The leading health educator whose philosophical viewpoint is that the      55) ______
    health educator's function is to awaken learners to their own capacities
    and provide learning experiences for making decisions.
      A) Marian Hamburg
      B) Joyce Fetro
      C) John Seffrin
      D) Loren Bensley
      E) Lorraine Davis

56) The leading health educator who describes health education as an           56) ______
    ongoing process with content and process changing as individuals and
    current health issues change.
      A) John Seffrin
      B) Marian Hamburg
      C) Joyce Fetro
      D) Loren Bensley
      E) Lorraine Davis

57) The leading health educator who believes health education                  57) ______
    programming includes inter-sectoral cooperation, coalition-building,
    and networking.
      A) Lorraine Davis
      B) Joyce Fetro
      C) Loren Bensley
      D) John Seffrin
      E) Marian Hamburg

58) The leading health educator who believes that the most fundamental          58) ______
    outcome of health education is the enabling of individuals to achieve a
    level of freedom, avoiding unnecessary encumbrances to make
    enlightened choices.
      A) John Seffrin
       B) Marian Hamburg
       C) Joyce Fetro
      D) Lorraine Davis
       E) Loren Bensley

59) One way that a philosophy is NOT formed is by                               59) ______
     A) experiencing every aspect of life.
      B) having mentors and role models.
     C) considering both the advantages and disadvantages of certain
         actions.
     D) reading and thinking about what is important.
      E) learning about the experiences of friends and relatives.

60) The concept from the vignette about the flea circus that can be             60) ______
    incorporated in a personal philosophy is
      A) that people accurately determine their own abilities.
       B) that fleas can jump higher for their size than any living creature.
      C) never to compare yourself with others.
      D) that life dishes out bumps.
       E) that people too often set their sights and dreams too low.

61) A systematic arrangement of fundamental principles to explain events is     61) ______
    known as a
      A) variable.      B) model.        C) theory.           D) concept.

62) Which of the following are designed to provide a framework on which         62) ______
    health education/promotion can create plans for a program?
      A) theories                           B) constructs
      C) concepts                           D) models

63) The best model for planning health promotion programs is                    63) ______
      A) PRECEDE-PROCEED.
      B) PRECEDE.
      C) Model for Health Education Planning.
      D) Generic Health/Fitness Delivery System.
      E) There is no best model.

64) The planning model that is best known and has been most often used in       64) ______
    health promotion is
      A) Generic Health/Fitness Delivery System (Patton et al.).
      B) Model for Health Education Planning and Resource Development
         (Bates and Winder).
      C) PRECEDE-PROCEED (Green & Kreuter).
     D) Comprehensive Health Education Model (Sullivan).
     E) Model for Health Education Planning (Ross and Mico).

65) The three evaluation phases are generally associated with which portion   65) ______
    of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model?
      A) PROCEED                             B) PRECEDE

66) Which of the planning following models attempts to use the strengths of   66) ______
    the other models?
      A) Multilevel Approach to Community Health
       B) PRECEDE-PROCEED (Green & Kreuter)
      C) Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships
          (NACCHO)
      D) CDCynergy (CDC)
       E) Social Marketing Assessment Response Tool (Neiger)

67) Which model was designed to be used when behavioral and                   67) ______
    environmental risk and protective factors are generally known?
      A) Multilevel Approach to Community Health
      B) Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships
         (NACCHO)
      C) CDCynergy (CDC)
      D) Social Marketing Assessment Response Tool (Neiger)
      E) PRECEDE-PROCEED (Green & Kreuter)

68) Which of the following planning models begins with the phase of goal      68) ______
    selection?
      A) Multilevel Approach to Community Health
       B) PRECEDE-PROCEED (Green & Kreuter)
       C) Model for Health Education Planning (Ross and Mico)
      D) CDCynergy (CDC)

69) Which of the following planning models begins with the phase/step         69) ______
    initiate?
      A) Planning Program Development, and Evaluation Model
          (Timmreck)
       B) PRECEDE-PROCEED (Green & Kreuter)
       C) Model for Health Education Planning (Ross and Mico)
      D) Multilevel Approach to Community Health

70) Which of the following planning models supports intervention activities   70) ______
    aimed at a variety of objectives and individuals?
      A) Multilevel Approach to Community Health
      B) Model for Health Education Planning (Ross and Mico)
      C) Social Marketing Assessment Response Tool (Neiger)
      D) CDCynergy (CDC)

71) The components of the PRECEDE model place emphasis on                     71) ______
      A) evaluation.                   B) assessment.
      C) implementation.               D) epidemiology.

72) The components of the PROCEED model place emphasis on                     72) ______
     A)   predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors.
     B)   the target population.
     C)   evaluation.
     D)   assessment.

73) Which of the following models focuses on programs delivered by public      73) ______
    health professionals with responsibility for health communication?
      A) CDCynergy (CDC)
      B) Multilevel Approach to Community Health
      C) Model for Health Education Planning (Ross and Mico)
      D) Social Marketing Assessment Response Tool (Neiger)

74) Which of the following planning models identifies the market analysis      74) ______
    as one of its phases?
      A) CDCynergy (CDC)
       B) Multilevel Approach to Community Health
       C) Social Marketing Assessment Response Tool (Neiger)
      D) Model for Health Education Planning (Ross and Mico)

75) Which of the following planning components was identified in all the       75) ______
    planning models?
      A) learning activities              B) review of self-help materials
      C) needs assessment                D) policy commitment

76) Which of the following is considered a stage theory?                       76) ______
     A) Social Cognitive Theory
     B) Health Belief Model
     C) Theory of Planned Behavior
     D) Precaution Adoption Process Model

77) What six components seem to be common to all planning models?              77) ______
     A) needs assessment, definition of problem, planning, implementing
        the intervention, evaluation
     B) understanding the community and engaging the target population,
        needs assessment, goal and objective setting, creating an
        intervention, implementation, evaluation
     C) needs assessment, goal and objective setting, planning,
        implementation, process evaluation
     D) initiate, goal setting, objective writing, planning, implementation,
        outcome evaluation
     E) social diagnosis, goal setting, planning, implementation, process
        evaluation, outcome evaluation

78) Which of the following is NOT considered one of the steps used in the      78) ______
    Generalized Model for Program Planning?
     A) developing a marketing plan
      B) creating an intervention
      C) evaluating the results
      D) assessing the needs of the target population

79) A major reason why health educators should plan and use programs           79) ______
    based on theory is
      A)   because it sounds good.
      B)   to help improve the chances for a successful program.
      C)   because other disciplines use theory.
      D)   none of the above.

80) In the Health Belief Model, the reduction of the threat of a disease is      80) ______
    made up of
      A) perceived benefits and severity.
       B) perceived susceptibility and severity.
       C) perceived susceptibility and barriers.
      D) perceived benefits and barriers.

81) To help determine whether it is right or wrong to end a person's life,       81) ______
    one would have to apply which one of the following areas of
    philosophy?
      A) ethics
      B) epistemology
      C) metaphysics
      D) physiology
      E) none of the above

82) The study of knowledge is known as                                           82) ______
      A) physiology.                          B) metaphysics.
      C) ethics.                              D) epistemology.

83) The study of the nature of reality is known as                               83) ______
      A) ethics.                              B) metaphysics.
      C) epistemology.                        D) physiology.

84) What are the three major areas of philosophy?                                84) ______
     A) epistemology, metaphysics, and ethics
     B) metaphysics, religion, and human secularism
     C) Christianity, Islam, and Judaism
     D) ethics, religion, and law
     E) nonmaleficence, The Golden Rule, and transcendentalism

85) The expected norms of a person who practices health education are            85) ______
    found in
      A) job advertisements.
      B) Mellert's ethical decision making model.
      C) a professional code of ethics.
      D) none of these.

86) Which one of the explanations below was NOT used to explain why              86) ______
    health education professionals should act ethically?
      A) Health educators must aspire for a reputation that reflects a life of
         personal integrity.
      B) Ethical behavior tends to lead to a healthier life.
      C) Ethical behavior brings purpose to the life of an individual.
      D) Other professional expect ethical behavior.

87)
If you    87)                                                                        ___
believe                                                                              ___
individu
als
should
always
have the
right to
choose
what
happens
to their
own
bodies
(i.e.
abortion
or
euthanas
ia should
be legal
choices),
your
decision
making
is based
upon
which
ethical
theory?
            A)   values clarification
            B)   formalism
            C)   teleological
            D)   consequentialism
            E)   capitalism

      88) If you believe abortion should be legal only in cases of rape or incest,   88) ______
          your decision making is most likely based upon which of the ethical
          theory?
             A) values clarification
             B) beneficence
             C) consequentialism
             D) deontological
             E) formalism

      89) Consequentialism can best be summarized as                                 89) ______
            A) do unto others as you would do unto yourself.
            B) the end does not justify the means.
            C) if it feels good, do it.
            D) the end does justify the means.
            E) none of the above.

      90)
When a 90)                                                                        ___
health                                                                            ___
educator
decides
to
encourag
ea
specific
behavior
because
its
benefits
far out
weight
the
potential
harm,
which
ethical
principle
has been
applied?
          A)   honesty
          B)   consequentialism
          C)   justice
          D)   nonmaleficence
          E)   value of life

     91) Which one of the following health education professional organizations   91) ______
         has a written code of ethics?
           A) American Public Health Association
           B) Eta Sigma Gamma
           C) American School Health Association
           D) Society for Public Health Education
           E) all of the above

     92) The first step of Mellert's ethical decision making model is             92) ______
           A) self-reflection.
           B) choose your alternative.
           C) consider all possible consequences.
           D) define the nature of the problem.
           E) apply the categorical imperative.

     93) The final step of Mellert's ethical decision making model is             93) ______
           A) define the nature of the problem.
           B) choose your alternative.
           C) apply the categorical imperative.
           D) consider all possible consequences.
           E) self-reflection.

     94) What are the two techniques used to protect the privacy of program       94) ______
         participants?
            A)   confidentiality and anonymity
            B)   informed consent and self-determination
            C)   honesty and anonymity
            D)   nonmaleficence and beneficence
            E)   informed consent and justice

      95) The obligation for health educators to provide service to all citizens is   95) ______
          based upon which one of the following principles?
            A) honesty
            B) justice
            C) nonmaleficence
            D) goodness
            E) beneficence

      96) Which of the following was NOT one of the procedures identified by the      96) ______
          authors that a profession can put into place to help ensure ethical
          behavior by all?
            A) graduation for academic programs
            B) requiring the completion of an internship
            C) retention standards to remain in academic programs
            D) signing a loyalty pledge
            E) a credentialing process

TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
    97) Ethics is the study of philosophy.                                            97) ______

      98) A distinction can be made between ethics and morals.                        98) ______

      99) There are three major areas of philosophy.                                  99) ______

     100) There is a relationship between ethical behavior and one's health.          100) _____

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers
the question.
     101) The process whereby an individual or a professional preparation    101) _____
          program meets specific established standards.
            A) licensure
            B) certification
            C) registration
            D) accreditation
            E) credentialing

     102) The process by which an agency or government (usually a state) grants       102) _____
          permission to individuals to practice a given profession by certifying
          that those individuals have attained specific standards of competence.
            A) certification
             B) registration
            C) credentialing
            D) accreditation
             E) licensure

     103)
The       103)                                                                        ____
process                                                                               _
by which
a
recogniz
ed
professio
nal body
evaluates
an entire
college
or
universit
y
professio
nal
preparati
on
program.
            A)   credentialing
            B)   registration
            C)   licensure
            D)   certification
            E)   accreditation

    104) A process by which a professional organization grants recognition to an      104) _____
         individual who, upon completion of a competency-based curriculum,
         can demonstrate a predetermined standard of performance.
           A) certification
           B) registration
           C) accreditation
           D) licensure
           E) credentialing

    105) Health educators typically receive what type of credential upon              105) _____
         completion of a national exam?
           A) Ph.D.
           B) accreditation
           C) licensure
           D) registration
           E) certification

    106) During which decade did the role delineation project begin?                  106) _____
          A) 1980s       B) 1960s       C) 1990s        D) 1950s           E) 1970s

    107) The health educator most responsible for initiating the Role Delineation     107) _____
         Project that eventually led to certification of health educators was
           A) Marion Pollock.
           B) Betty Mathews.
           C) Thomas Hatch.
           D) Herb Jones.
           E) Helen Cleary.
108) A conference held in February, 1978, to determine the commonalities         108) _____
     and differences in the function of health educators practicing in
     different settings was the
       A) Birmingham Conference.
        B) Role Delineation Conference.
       C) Bethesda Conference on Commonalities and Differences.
       D) Second Bethesda Conference.
        E) Health Education Specialist Conference.

109) The first official group that oversaw the Role Delineation Project and      109) _____
     eventually a credentialing system for health educators was the
       A) National Task Force on the Preparation and Practice of Health
          Educators.
       B) Role Delineation Committee.
       C) Society of Public Health Educators.
       D) National Commission for Health Education Credentialing.
       E) American Association of Health Educators.

110) The individual hired as project director for the Role Delineation Project   110) _____
     was
       A) Herb Jones.
       B) Alan Henderson.
       C) Warren Schaller.
       D) Marrion Pollock.
       E) Betty Mathews.

111) To make the initial curriculum guide less prescriptive, it was              111) _____
     transformed into
        A) a model curriculum.
        B) curriculum recommendations.
        C) a curriculum framework.
        D) a scope and sequence.
        E) course-specific lesson plans.

112) At this conference, participants were divided into five groups and asked    112) _____
     to respond to several predetermined questions. Results were that four of
     the five groups favored some type of certification for individuals and
     some form of credentialing for professional preparation programs.
       A) Bethesda Conference on Commonalities and Differences
        B) Role Delineation Conference
        C) Health Education Specialist Conference
       D) Birmingham Conference
        E) Second Bethesda Conference

113) Which of the following groups was hired to develop the initial health       113) _____
     education certification exam?
       A) National Task Force on the Preparation and Practice of Health
          Educators
       B) Professional Examination Service
       C) Society of Public Health Educators
       D) National Commission for Health Education Credentialing
       E) Role Delineation Committee

114) Which of the following was established to continue the work of the        114) _____
     National Task Force and establish a more permanent structure to
     coordinate and oversee the certification process?
       A) The Consortium of Professional Health Education Organizations
       B) National Commission for Health Education Credentialing
       C) Professional Examination Service
       D) Role Delineation Committee
       E) National Task Force on the Preparation and Practice of Health
          Educators

115) The 1992 Joint Committee for Graduate Standards was established by        115) _____
     the
       A) American Association of Health Educators.
        B) Association for Worksite Health Promotion.
       C) American School Health Association.
       D) Society for Public Health Education.
        E) American Public Health Association.

116) A project conducted to reverify the competencies and sub-competencies     116) _____
     of a health educator is known as the
       A) Responsibilities Update Project (RUP).
        B) SABPAC Project.
        C) Competencies Update Project (CUP).
       D) AAHE/SOPHE Update Project (ASUP).
        E) Dallas Project.

117) The Competencies Update Project (CUP) was initiated to                    117) _____
       A) introduce the concept of health education certification to
          employers.
       B) improve the process for obtaining continuing education hours.
       C) introduce the concept of health education certification to health
          educators.
       D) reverify the initial competencies and sub-competencies of a health
          educator.
       E) to eliminate all sexist and racist language in the original
          competencies document.

118) Health education programs that are affiliated with a college of           118) _____
     education and train students for positions in school health would most
     likely be accredited through the
        A) Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH).
        B) National Commission for the Accreditation of Teacher Education
           (NCATE).
        C) National Commission for Health Education Credentialing
           (NCHEC).
        D) American School Health Association (ASHA).
        E) Society of Public Health Education/Association for the
           Advancement of Health Education. (SOPHE/AAHE).

119)
Schools 119)                                                                      ____
of public                                                                         _
health,
public
health
program
s in non-
schools
of public
health,
and
master's
degree
program
s in
commun
ity health
educatio
n may be
accredite
d by the
           A) American School Health Association (ASHA).
           B) Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH).
           C) National Commission for Health Education Credentialing
              (NCHEC).
           D) National Commission for the Accreditation of Teacher Education
              (NCATE).
           E) Society of Public Health Education/Association for the
              Advancement of Health Education (SOPHE/AAHE).

     120) Undergraduate programs in school or community health may obtain         120) _____
          accreditation/approval through the
            A) Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH).
            B) National Commission for the Accreditation of Teacher Education
               (NCATE).
            C) National Commission for Health Education Credentialing
               (NCHEC).
            D) Society of Public Health Education and the Association for the
               Advancement of Health Education (SOPHE/AAHE).
            E) American School Health Association (ASHA).

     121) Which of the following is not one of the four major settings in which   121) _____
          health educators usually work?
            A) insurance companies
            B) community/public health agencies
            C) business/industry
            D) hospitals/clinics
            E) schools

     122) Instructing school age children about health and health-related         122) _____
          behaviors would most likely be done by someone with professional
          preparation in
       A)   community/public health education.
       B)   college/university health education.
       C)   worksite health education.
       D)   hospital/clinic health education.
       E)   school health education.

123) The initial impetus for school health stemmed from the terrible            123) _____
     epidemics of the 1800s and the efforts of the
       A) American Cancer Society.
       B) American Public Health Association.
       C) American School Health Association.
       D) Women's Christian Temperance Movement.
       E) American Association for Health Education.

124) When one compares what was taught in health education in the 1920s         124) _____
     with the 1990s it is obvious that
       A) the level of sophistication has remained unchanged over time.
       B) the level of professional training needed to teach has remained the
          same.
       C) the level of sophistication has decreased over time.
       D) the health problems of the 1920s mirror the health problems of
          today.
       E) the level of sophistication has increased over time.

125) "An integrated set of planned, sequential, school-affiliated strategies,   125) _____
     activities, and services designed to promote the optimal physical,
     emotional, social, and educational development of students" best
     describes
       A) comprehensive school health education.
        B) action oriented school based health education.
       C) a wellness program.
       D) community oriented school based health education.
        E) a coordinated school health program.

126) ________ are created by concerned citizens to deal with health needs not   126) _____
     met by governmental agencies.
       A) Voluntary health agencies
       B) Community agencies
       C) State health agencies
       D) Private health departments
       E) Public health departments

127) Which of the following is not a voluntary agency?                          127) _____
      A) American Lung Association
      B) American Heart Association
      C) Food and Drug Administration
      D) American Cancer Society
      E) Kidney Foundation

128) ________ are official governmental health agencies usually financed        128) _____
     through public tax moneys.
       A) Voluntary health agencies
       B)   Community agencies
       C)   State professional associations
       D)   Public health agencies
       E)   Private health departments

129) A disadvantage to working in voluntary health agencies is that              129) _____
       A) some volunteers do not demonstrate the same level of
          commitment as might a paid employee, which makes working
          difficult.
       B) there is little focus on prevention.
       C) it is a low-profile job.
       D) there is no variety in the job.
       E) there is little job satisfaction.

130) "Healthy People in Healthy Communities" is the vision for                   130) _____
       A) the U.S. Public Health Service.
       B) Healthy People 2010.
       C) The National Institutes of Health.
       D) the U.S. Drug Administration.
       E) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

131) According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, in           131) _____
     2003 ________ percent of employers with 50 or more employees offered
     at least one health promotion activity.
        A) 10           B) 35         C) 80         D) 15        E) 50

132) According to the Wellness Councils of America, the benefits of worksite     132) _____
     health promotion programs
       A) are questionable.
       B) are unresearched.
       C) do not exist.
       D) are very soft and do not create dollar savings.
       E) are no longer a matter of speculation they have been proven.

133) Which of the following is typically not considered a disadvantage of        133) _____
     working as a health educator at a worksite setting?
      A) lack of upward mobility
       B) sub-contracting to outside vendors
      C) priority given to health promotion programs
      D) long irregular hours
       E) job satisfaction

134) Which of the following health care settings have been most receptive to     134) _____
     hiring health educators?
       A) health maintenance organizations (HMOs)
        B) large urban hospitals
       C) preferred provider organizations (PPOs)
       D) traditional insurance companies such as Blue Cross/Blue Shield
        E) free-standing medical care clinics

135) Which of the following would a health educator be least likely to do in a   135) _____
     health care setting?
       A) develop educational materials to be distributed by the health care
          setting
       B) provide health promotion programs for hospital employees
       C) provide patient counseling on insurance needs
       D) provide health promotion programs for the community
       E) provide health promotion programs for patients

136) A major limitation that has prevented health educators from being used    136) _____
     extensively in patient education is
       A) the lack of disease-specific training health educators receive.
        B) an unwillingness of doctors to utilize health educators.
       C) that most health educators do not want to work with sick people.
       D) the inconsistent professional preparation of health educators.
        E) that insurance companies do not typically reimburse for health
           education services.

137) Which professional health education organization has made third party     137) _____
     reimbursement its number one advocacy priority?
       A) Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE)
        B) American Public Health Association (APHA)
        C) American College Health Association (ACHA)
       D) American Association for Health Education (AAHE)
        E) Society for State Directors of Health Education (SSDHE)

138) Which of the following is not a typical job responsibility for a health   138) _____
     educator in a university health service or wellness center?
       A) planning programs
       B) developing and coordinating a peer education program
       C) one-on-one counseling with students
       D) maintaining a resource library
       E) conducting research

139) According to the text, one of the best ways to initiate a career in       139) _____
     international health is to
       A) double major in foreign language.
        B) be a foreign exchange student.
        C) spend vacations traveling in foreign countries.
       D) join the military.
        E) join the Peace Corps.

140) Establishing and maintaining a wide range of contacts in the field that   140) _____
     may be of help when looking for a job and in carrying out one's job
     responsibilities once hired. This is known as
       A) working the field.
        B) contact harvesting.
       C) networking.
       D) contact structuring.
        E) interpersonal organizing.

				
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