Between Athens and Rome by fjzhangxiaoquan


									The Hellenistic Age:
Intellectual developments from
Pericles to Alexander III to Cleopatra VII
                 Classical Period
                 ca. 480-323 BC

Archaic Period                      Hellenistic Period                     Roman Period
ca. 700-480 BC                        ca. 323-31 BC            Battle of    ca. 31 BC-500 AD
                         dies                                  Actium
                       323 BC                                  31 BC

                         359-323 BC                   146 BC
                        Rise of Macedonia        Roman Rule of Greece begins
             ca. 440-429 BC
            Age of Pericles
Ptolemaic Alexandria
Ptolemy I Soter: syncretism codified
Library at Alexandria: scholarship begins

                                         Ca. 300: Creation of the Bibliotheke
                                                          (“book warehouse”)
                                         in Alexandria adjoining the Musaion
                                                          (“home of the Muses)

Philologoi (“lovers of language, philologists”) combine textual criticism
and scientific methodology with
    epic poetry          music                 dance
    lyric poetry         comic poetry          astrology
    choral poetry        tragic poetry          history (Athens/Rome)

methods of collection of papyri; divisions of works
Pergamon, center of gymnastic life, 281-133

                                       •education of boys, young men, adults
                                       •focus on literature, athletics, music, agon
                                       •rise of gymnasiarchoi (sg. gymnasiarchos)
                                       •philanthropy on a large scale
                                       •allowed Greek cities some independence

 •Altar of Zeus 180-150: 100’ x 100’
 •gods vs. giants (gigantomachy)
 •life of Telephus son of Herakles
 •emphasis on stoic virtues:
       •harmony with nature
       •good vs. evil
        Key events in the Hellenistic era

 Ca. 290: Establishment of Achaean and Aetolian Leagues
 Ca. 275: Antigonid, Seleucid, Ptolemaic basileiai (sg. basileia)
 267-261: Chremonidean War
    Chremonides leads Athens, Sparta et al. vs. Antigonus II Gonatas
    loss of Athenian independence forever
 241: Attalus I of Pergamon founds the Attalid basileia
 229-222: Cleomenes of Sparta vs. Aratus of Sicyon/Achaean League
      Tory on revolutionary movements; Elyssa on Sparta
      Reforms: division of land; enfranchisement of perioikoi; restoration
       of agoge and syssitia; Macedon intervenes, annexes Sparta
Key events in the Hellenistic era

                       •Philip V controls nearly all of Greece
                       •allies with Carthage (2nd Punic War)
                       •Rome + Achaeans, Rhodes, Pergamum

                  •212-205, 197-188: Macedonian Wars
                       •Rome defeats Philip, conquers Greece

                  •196: Titus Quinctius Flamininus, victor
                        •Rome declares Greeks free at Isthmia
                        •aristocracies replace democracies

                  •168: Rome abolishes Antigonid monarchy

                  •149-146: last Macedonian rebellion
                       •Rome destroys Corinth & Carthage
                       •creates provinces – Macedonia, Africa
                       •ends Achaean/Aetolian Leagues
       Cultural & intellectual developments:
              from polis to cosmopolis
 democracy  oligarchy & monarchy: Plato’s philosopher-king
 duty to polis  individualism & introspection
 rise of urbanism, professionalism, hellenism and koine
 Athenian comedy shifts from the political to the personal
 Athens  university town and center for philosophical schools
      Academia      (369, Plato)
      Lyceum        (335, Aristotle)
      Epicureanism
      Stoicism
      Cynicicsm
      Scepticism
      Neo-Platonism
      Cultural & intellectual developments:
             from polis to cosmopolis
 Epicurus/Epicureanism (307/6): shift from public life to inner peace, life of
    pleasure & contemplation, avoidance of pain (ataraxia); Democritus’ atomic
    theory (absence of divine interest, not gods); mêden agan (“nothing in excess)
   Zeno/Stoicism (300): universe of logos (“divine reason”), brotherhood, and
    individual happiness as a response to alienation and fragmentation; virtue =
    harmony with gods and nature, reality based on perception
   Pyrrho/Scepticism (310): rejection of true knowledge, contradiction; embrace
    of change (“can’t step in the same river twice”), no happiness possible
   Diogenes/Cynicism (330): rejection of wealth, power, fame; embrace of
   Neo-Platonism: God as suprarational
    and accessible via ekstasis: mystery cults
      Isis & Osiris
      Mithras
      Eleusinian Mysteries
              Scientific developments
       fostered by the Library at Alexandria
 Ca. 300-250 floruit (“flourished”)
 Medicine: Herophilus (systematic anatomy)
  Erasistratus (circulation), Philinus (clinical)
 Astronomy: Aristarchus (heliocentrism,
  measurement of size/distance of sun/moon)
  Hipparchus (epicyclical studies; stars)
 Eratosthenes (librarian; circumference of earth)
  Antikythera Mechanism (2nd-1st c. BCE)
 Euclid of Alexandria (axiomatic theories; geometry,
  astronomy, optics, surfaces, mechanics; Elements)
  Archimedes’ tomb: topped with “a cylinder enclosing a sphere, with an inscription
     giving the proportion by which the containing solid exceeds the contained”
                             (Plutarch Life of Marcellus)
                  Εὕρηκα (Heureka) (attrib. Archimedes)
 Archimedes (287-212)
      Physics (screw pump, buoyancy)
      Mechanics (leverage)
      Siege-engines, claw; later, ballistae
      Astronomy
      Mathematics (“exhaustion” π)
       volumes, areas, surfaces: calculus
      Archimedes Palimpsest (πάλιν ψάω, “scrape again”): 10th c. CE, 1229 euchologion

                                             •Equilibrium of Planes
                                             •Spiral Lines
                                             •Measurement of the Circle
                                             •Sphere and Cylinder
                                             •On Floating Bodies
                                             •Method of Mechanical Theorems
                                             •Stomachion – angles and shapes
Making and reading the palimpsest
Panelists’ questions; slaves & baunasia
   John: Major cities in different parts of the Hellenistic world adopted scholars, poets and philosophers, who
    were sponsored and funded by rulers of these cities. Why were the rulers so willing to sponsor artists and
    scholars, or research on Homer or the creation of pastorals? Were these patrons looking for a way to define
    themselves and their cities in the wake of Alexander and, if so, why did they allow outsiders to provide the
    cultural output? Why did Alexandria and Pergamum focus on scholarship and poetry, while Athens focused
    on philosophy? Is this due to patronage or a separate reason?

   Matt: Did Hellenistic scientific, philosophical, and technological advancements occur naturally with the
    passing of time, or did these advancements came more rapidly due the new political and societal
    environment? What governmental, educational, and societal differences in the Hellenistic age helped
    facilitate these advancements?

   Peter: Where do you think future generations would have stood, and what sort of education would we have
    today, if these advances had not occurred? How long would it take for them to be discovered, if at all? Say, if
    Eratosthenes did not calculate the circumference of the earth in the third century BCE, how long might it take
    for it to happen in the future?

   Jillian: Walbank argues that technological progress depends on the “interplay of many factors” and that
    advancements in one field lead to advancements in another. The Greek outlook on technological
    advancement limited progress. Some would say that the U.S. is currently in a technological slump. Fewer
    Americans study and pursue science. Is there anything about the Greek outlook toward technology that is
    similar to the American outlook today?

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