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The Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution Daniel In the

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The Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution Daniel In the Powered By Docstoc
					 The Scientific Revolution




Daniel In the Lion’s Den   - Ruben
            Outline
I.     Pre-Revolution thought
II.    Causes of the Revolution
III.   Principles and Consequences
       of the Revolution
IV.    Main Scientists
VI.    Impact of the Revolution
           What is the Scientific
              Revolution?
It is the beginning of a great intellectual
transformation that leads to the modern world
concurrent with other major events
   Copernicus is making discoveries at the time of the
    religious wars are breaking out in Europe
   by the end of the Revolution Europe is about to
    embark on the Enlightenment, a cultural movement
    that largely rejected religion.
I. Before the Scientific Revolution

   Scientists seek to understand HOW
   things happen
      intent is to use science to “prove” God
       exists
      earliest Scientists are usually priests/monks
      earliest Scientists are astronomers
         easy access
         spiritually significant
        How things stood
Aristotle
   dominates how world is thought to work
      world at rest, motion caused by angels
Ptolemy
   astronomy based on Aristotle
    Ptolemy
   astronomy with
    perfect circles
    for planetary
    motion
       cycles and
       epicycles
   crystalline
    spheres fix each
    planet’s
    movement
   earth at center &
    sun orbits earth
                        Ptolemy’s Geocentric System
                Witchcraft

Middle Ages convicted witches do heavy
penance since they were misguided
View changes over time
   By Renaissance people began to believe that
    witches actually flew and ate babies
   witches must have committed a pact with the
    devil of their own free will
  Popular Images of witches (1600s)




Departing for the Sabbath   An Assembly of Witches
                 Witchcraft

Major witch hunts occur during the century from
1560 to 1660 (slowly peters out after)
   Crosses the Atlantic to Salem Massachusetts in
    1692
Witch hunts arise in areas experiencing
religious conflict
   Occurs in areas both Protestant and Catholic.
                  Witchcraft

Between 1450-1660
   approximately 110,000 went to trial
   approximately 60,000 were executed
   this is only for Church or government officiated trials -
    many instances are recorded of communities acting
    on their own
Women comprise 75% of those executed.
Examination of a Witch
               Magical Thought

Belief in magic was widespread
While most educated people professed not to
believe, many still held charms, like Queen
Elizabeth’s magic ring to ward off the plague
Magic was viewed as being either good (tied to the
church) or bad
   alternative was natural magic
       astrology
       alchemy.
     The Alchemist
- Jan Van der Straet
II. Causes of the Scientific
        Revolution
                Medieval Intellectual Life
                and Medieval Universities
                The Italian Renaissance
                Renewed emphasis on
                mathematics
                Renaissance system of
                patronage
                Navigational problems of
                long sea voyages
                Better scientific
                instruments
III. Principles of the Revolution
  Logic over faith: religion no longer the only
 possible explanation for events
  Observe, experiment & publish
  Verifiable: Use of mathematics to prove a
 point
  Money: Patronage
  Questioning: discrepancy between
 observation and expectations springboards
 into a search for truth
IV. Consequences of the Scientific
          Revolution
                   Rise of the “Scientific
                   Community”
                   --Royal Society of London
                   (1662)
                   --Academy of Royal
                   Sciences (1666)
                   The modern scientific
                   method
                   A universe ordered
                   according to natural laws
IV. Consequences of the Scientific
        Revolution (cont)
                   Laws discovered by
                   human reason
                   “De-Spiritualized” and de-
                   mystified the Universe
                   Mechanical View of the
                   Universe
                   Deistic View of God
                   --God as the cosmic
                   capitalist
Scientific Method
     V. Main Scientists
Astronomers: Copernicus, Kepler, Galilei
Scientific Method: Bacon, Descartes
Synthesis: Newton
       Nicholas Copernicus
           (1473-1543)
Polish priest studied in Italy
returns to Poland and works on
Astronomy
writes De Revolutionibus Orbitum
Coelestitum (On the Revolutions of
Heavenly Spheres)
Earth is just another planet with a 24
hour rotation
retains circular planetary motion
(perfection of the sphere).
                Johannes Kepler
                  (1571-1630)
Student of mathematics and astronomy
studied with Tycho Brahe
tested hypothesis after hypothesis until
he determined that planets move in
ellipses
Three Laws of Planetary Motion
1   planets move in ellipses with sun as one
    focus
2   velocity of a planet is not uniform
3   equal area of the plane is covered in equal
    time by the planets.
                     Galileo Galilei
                      (1564-1642)

Astronomy
   used a telescope, proved the heavens are not perfect (craters on moon)
   supported Heliocentric system
Laws of Motion
   dropping weights from the Tower of Pisa
   imagined motion without constraint!!!!
   Thought of inertia
Problems with the church
   argues for separation of science and theology because we are endowed
    with reason
   1633 banned by Church and house arrest
   must recant heliocentric system to save neck.
          Reactions to Galileo

Italy and Spain
More freedom in France, England and Holland
University of Padua was under Venice, the most anti-
clerical state in Europe; Copernicus, Galileo and
Harvey studied there
Protestants as hostile as Catholics on Biblical
grounds, less state control in Protestant nations and in
the end Protestant nations become more liberal than
at first.
    Methodology in Science
Some thinkers were concerned with the
Scientific Method
Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes were
significant, both decided that all previous beliefs
(outside religion) had to be ignored.
               Francis Bacon
                (1561-1626)

Proposed INDUCTION
   make a lot of observations then generalize rules of
    nature - this leads to scientific observation as a
    method
Promoted the modern idea of progress
because he wanted application of science
Problem of Induction
   there is no logical reason to go argue from any
    amount of experience to a general law.
               Rene Descartes
                (1596-1650)
Great mathematician - showed that any algebraic equation
could be plotted on a graph
In this manner he linked Greek with Hindu and Arabic
knowledge
Also looked at DEDUCTION - go from a theory to the facts
Only wants what is absolute “Cogito ergo sum” I think
therefore I am
leads to proof of God.
                     Isaac Newton
                      (1642-1727)
Possibly the greatest scientist who ever lived - born
on the day Galileo died
math/physics/astronomy
author of Principia Mathematica in 1687
   bringing together Galileo’s discoveries about
    motion on Earth and Kepler’s discoveries in the
    heavens
   to do so he had to develop calculus
explained heavenly motion that was tied to
observed motion on Earth.
                   Isaac Newton

                                                 1 Bodies move in
Provided a                                         straight lines
synthesis                                          unless impeded
superior to                                        (inertia)
Aristotle                                        2 Every action has
                                                   an equal and
notion of                                          opposite action
inertia - only                                   3 every body
have to                                            attracts every
explain                                            other body with a
change                                             force proportional
                                                   to the distance
Three Laws of                                      between
Motion
               Nature and nature’s laws lay hid in night
             God said, “Let Newton be.” and all was light     - Pope.
       V. Effect of Revolution
Social impact
   rich get richer
   not much immediate direct change for peasants
   widens intellectual gap
effect on navigation, map making and artillery
Science has innumerable social effects over
time: new guns, bigger armies, more taxes,
social discontent
   guns lead to European colonialism (more accurate
    cannon fire)
new way of observing the world.
Sight   - Jan Brueghel

				
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