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                                                                                                                                                           Middle Ages,
                                                                      Mesopotamia                     Greece                         Christianity           Feudalism
                    Exam Averages                                  5000 …2000 BCE                   600…300…BCE                  0…476…BCE               500-1350’s
                                                                                    Hebrews                Republic--- Rome----Empire… “Fall” 476
 • 56/70 = 80%
 • 7 A’s                                                                                                                        Imperialism
                                                                                            Revolution                                                         9/11, etc.
                                                                    Renaissance                                Sci. Rev. & Enlightenment
                                                                   1350--1500              1600’s              1700’s          1800’s               1900’s

                                                                                 Absolutism, Rise of Sates                  Napoleon                 WWII

                                                                                   Exploration               Industrial Revolution                                   2000’s

                                                                                  Mercantilism                                                              Cold war
                                                                                                            American Revolution
                                                                                                             French Revolution            Russian Revolution
                                                                                                                  (1789)                         1917

            What is a REVOLUTION?                                                  The Beatles “Revolution”
• A revolution (from the Latin revolutio, "a turn                  You say you want a revolution                         ah, ah, ah, ah, ah...
                                                                       Well, you know
  around") is a fundamental change in power,                           We all want to change the world
                                                                       You tell me that it's evolution
                                                                                                                            You say you'll change the constitution
                                                                                                                            Well, you know
  organizational and beliefs structures, that takes                    Well, you know
                                                                       We all want to change the world
                                                                                                                            We all want to change your head
                                                                                                                            You tell me it's the institution
  place in a relatively short period of time.                          But when you talk about destruction
                                                                       Don't you know that you can count me out
                                                                                                                            Well, you know
                                                                                                                            You better free you mind instead
                                                                       Don't you know it's gonna be all right               But if you go carrying pictures of chairman
• Revolutions can be cultural, scientific,                             all right, all right                                 Mao
                                                                                                                            You ain't going to make it with anyone
  technological, political, economic, religious, etc.                 You say you got a real solution
                                                                      Well, you know
                                                                                                                            Don't you know it's gonna be all right
                                                                      We'd all love to see the plan                         all right, all right
                                                                      You ask me for a contribution                         all right, all right, all right
                                                                      Well, you know                                        all right, all right, all right
                                                                      We're doing what we can
                                                                      But when you want money
                                                                      for people with minds that hate
                                                                      All I can tell is brother you have to wait
                                                                      Don't you know it's gonna be all right
                                                                      all right, all right

• Political:                        • Technological/Cultural
   –   Glorious Revolution (1688)      –   Renaissance
   –   American Revolution (1776)      –   Scientific Revolution
   –   French Revolution (1789)        –   Industrial Revolution    1500-1700: The use of
   –   Russian Revolution (1917)       –   Automobile Revolution    Reason, Observation, and
   –   Iranian Revolution (1979)       –   Television Revolution    Experimentation to study
                                       –   Internet Revolution
                                                                    and understand Natural
                                                                    laws !!


     Logic—The basis of Science                                                 Deductive v. Inductive
                                                                     • Deductive reasoning begins with a premise (known
 • Logic is the study of                                               facts or axioms) and works toward a valid conclusion,
                                                                       connecting all premises along the way
   methods of                                                           – Deductive argument example: ABC. A occurs, therefore
   reasoning and                                                          B occurs, and therefore C occurs.
                                                                     • In a deductive argument, the premises are intended to
   argumentation                                                       provide support for the conclusion that is so strong
                                                                       that, if the premises are true, it would be impossible
                                                                       for the conclusion to be false.
                                                                        – Example= All humans are mammals. I am a human.
                                                                          Therefore, I am a mammal.

                Deductive v. Inductive
 • Induction implies drawing knowledge from the natural
   world through observation & experience (empiricism),               • HW--complete page in HW packet titled
   experimentation, and testing of a hypothesis
 • An inductive argument is an argument in which the                  • "Three Theories of the Solar System"
   premises (or evidence) provide reasons for supporting
   the probable truth of the conclusion, but does not
   guarantee it.
    – Example = It has snowed in Chicago every December in
       recorded history.
       Therefore, it will snow in Chicago this coming December.
 • Induction is the basis for Modern Science and the Scientific
   Method because it focuses on Empiricism (Observation) in order
   to provide a theory to explain the observable data. This theory
   will be testable with predictable results.

             Some basic definitions
• Fact: an observation that has been repeatedly
• Law: a descriptive generalization about how the physical
  world behaves
• Hypothesis: a testable statement that can be used to                1500-1700: The use of
  build a theory (explanation).                                       Reason, Observation, and
   – A scientific hypothesis needs to be falsifiable. It is never     Experimentation to study
     “proved” just not rejected.
                                                                      and understand Natural
• Theory: a well-substantiated explanation of the
  observed data that incorporates facts, laws, and tested             laws!!
  hypotheses that has not been falsified.
• In science, you don’t get any better than a theory.
  Induction is typically used to create this theory.


                    Medieval “Science”         Scientific Revolution 1540s-1700s
   • How did Medieval Scientists answer
                                          • Outgrowth of the Renaissance
                                          • Challenged the Church and ancient beliefs
                                          • Based on a synthesis of inductive and deductive
                                            reasoning with a focus on induction and
                                            empiricism, which stressed careful observation,
                                            analysis, and experimentation,
                                          • Advances made in astronomy, physics, biology,
                                            and chemistry

For example, what were their theories
related to the plague??

                          Main Figures:       The OLD View of the Universe
• Copernicus—1543—Heliocentrism           The Geocentric theory = Ptolemaic system
• Kepler—1600—Elliptic planetary                            • Ancient and Medieval
  orbits within the heliocentric system                       belief: the Earth was at
                                                              the center of the
• Galileo—1610—openly challenged                              universe and heaven
  the Church’s acceptance of the                              was outside of stars
  Copernican theory.                                        • Greek thinkers
                                                              Ptolemy and Aristotle
• Newton—1687—Laws of motion and            Accepted by the
                                                              advanced this view
  gravity                                   Catholic church

                                              Biblical references to Geocentrism

                                          • Psalm 93:1, Psalm 96:10, and Chronicles 16:30
                                            state that "the world is firmly established, it
                                            cannot be moved."
                                          • Psalm 104:5 says, "[the LORD] set the earth on
                                            its foundations; it can never be moved."
                                          • Ecclesiastes 1:5 states that "the sun rises and
                                            the sun sets, and hurries back to where it rises."


                                                Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
                                                    Challenged Geocentrism

                                         Retrograde Motion: The Apparent Motion of
      RETROGRADE motion                  Planets on the Celestial Sphere –This is what the
                                         planets look like when viewing them

The retrograde motion of Mars in 2005.
                                            This movements of planets
                                              in this manner is called
                                               RETROGRADE motion
                                            --How can the geo-centric
                                                account for this?


                                        Retrograde Motion under the
                                        Geocentric worldview

                                     Retrograde Motion under the Geocentric
                                     worldview --(Ptolemy View)

Another View—Geocentric Retrograde
   Motion as Ptolemy Explained it

                                      Heliocentric View

                                      (Copernican Model)


Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)

On the Revolutions of the Heavenly   Heliocentrism and Retrograde Motion
         Spheres (1543)
                                     • How does the Copernican model better
                                       account for retrograde motion?

                                                    Retrograde motion under the
                                                  Copernican Model (Heliocentrism)


                                                                   Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
                                                                 • Built his own telescope in 1609
                                                                 • Supported the heliocentric theory
                                                                 • Wrote “Dialogue Concerning the Two
                                                                   Chief World Systems” --1632

Retrograde motion under Geocentrism    Retrograde motion under

           Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
                                                                           René Descartes (1596-1650)
• Stood trial before the Inquisition in 1633, where he was
  basically forced to sign a confession claiming Copernicus’
  ideas were false
• Lived under house arrest until he died in 1642                   French Philosopher and
   – 1992—Church apologized to Galileo
                                                                   Argued that all knowledge should
                                                                   be based of deduction and
                                                                   mathematical “proofs”.

                                                                         Rene Descartes, 1596 - 1650
                    Cogito Ergo Sum
                “I think therefore I am”
                                                                   Formulated a version philosophical argument for
• The “cogito” provides Descartes with a certain                     the existence of god.
  piece of knowledge (axiom) upon which other                      • 1. If there is a god it is a perfect being;
  pieces of certain knowledge can be build from.
• But, everything that stems from this axiom could                 • 2. A perfect being can possesses all possible
  be a trick perpetrated by an evil deceiver, and                    circumstances and qualities.
  thus, Descartes must proof the existence of God                  • 3. Existence is a circumstance and/or quality.
  in order to refute the possibility of everything
  form the axiom being deceitful.                                  • 4.Therefore, god necessarily possesses the
                                                                     quality of existence. Simply, god exists.


             Francis Bacon (1561-1626)                                                          Bacon—Renaissance Man
                                                                                        • English lawyer, statesman, essayist, historian,
                                         “Knowledge is                                    intellectual reformer, philosopher, and champion of
                                            Power”                                        modern science
                                                                                        • Advocate of induction and founder of the modern
                                                                                          scientific method
                                                                                        • “Prophet of Modern Science” –First modern empirical
                                                                                          scientists and philosopher.
                                                                                        • Argued that all claims must be held to empirical data
                                                                                          and scientific investigation.
                                                                                            – Would agree with Carl Sagan’s famous quote “Extraordinary
                                                                                              Claims Require Extraordinary evidence”

      James Randi—The application of Baconion                                                   Isaac Newton (1646-1727)
          Ideals to the “Psychic” Uri Geller
 • Clip 1                                                                            • English philosopher, scientist,
                                                                                       mathematician, astronomer, and
 • Clip 2
                                                                                     • One of the most significant
                                                                                       philosopher/scientist of the
                                                                                       modern era
                                                                                     • He showed that the motions of
                                                                                       objects on Earth and of celestial
                                                                                       bodies are governed by the same
                                                                                       set of natural laws thus removing
                                                                                       the last doubts about
 James Randi is best know as a skeptic and tester of pseudo-scientific and
                                                                                       heliocentrism and advancing the
 paranormal claims and if famous for offering $1 million to anyone capable of
 demonstrating supernatural ability under a controlled experimental circumstances.     scientific revolution

            Principia Mathematica (1687)                                                       Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey

• His treatise Principia
                                                                                     • “If I have seen further it is by
  Mathematica, published in 1687,
                                                                                       standing on the shoulders of giants”
  is said to be the greatest single
                                                                                     • “I do not know what I may appear to
  work in the history of science                                                       the world, but to myself I seem to
• In it, Newton described the laws                                                     have been only like a boy playing on
  of universal gravitation and the                                                     the sea-shore, and diverting myself
  laws of motion.                                                                      in now and then finding a smoother
                                                                                       pebble or a prettier shell than
                                                                                       ordinary, whilst the great ocean of
                                                                                       truth lay all undiscovered before