Draft Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Report by sdfgsg234

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									            L B Hackney Regeneration and Planning




            London Borough of Hackney




Draft Sustainability Appraisal
       Scoping Report

                          For the
       Site Allocations Development Plan Document
  Development Management Development Plan Document
Sustainability Standards Supplementary Planning Document
Waterfront Development Supplementary Planning Document




               November 2010
                       Version Control


CDM Ref      Version   Date          Drafted by   Reviewed by

1-3100891    No.1      22 Oct 2010   E Costello
1-3100891    No.2      10 Nov 2010   E Costello   Jo Gay
                                                  Keung Tsang
                                                  Parul Khandelwal
                                                  Helen Chen
2-3100891    No.3      16 Nov 2010   E Costello   R Dolata
2A-3100891   No.3      23 Nov 2010   E Costello




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Freepost NAT 18925, LDF Sustainability Appraisal Scope, Planning
Policy & Strategy, LB of Hackney, 2 Hillman Street, London, E8 1FB




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Contents

1         Introduction..............................................................................................7
    1.1      What is a Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Report ? ........................................................................................... 7
    1.2      Efficiency in the SA process.................................................................................................................................. 7
    1.3      The structure of this report.................................................................................................................................. 8
    1.4      Relevant plans and programmes......................................................................................................................... 8


2    Hackney’s emerging Development Plan Documents and Supplementary Planning
Documents .........................................................................................................9
    2.1      Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 9
    2.2      The Site Allocations Development Plan Document.............................................................................................. 9
    2.3      Development Management Development Plan Document ................................................................................. 9
    2.4      Sustainability Standards Supplementary Planning Document........................................................................... 10
    2.5      Waterfront Development Supplementary Planning Document ........................................................................ 10


3         The proposed methodology of the Sustainability Appraisal ...................11
    3.1      Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 11
    3.2      Sustainability Appraisal Framework .................................................................................................................. 11
    3.3      The proposed SA assessment matrices .............................................................................................................. 15


4         Social conditions in Hackney.................................................................17
    4.1      Population ......................................................................................................................................................... 17
    4.2      Health and wellbeing......................................................................................................................................... 18
    4.3      Poverty & social exclusion ................................................................................................................................. 20
    4.4      Crime and safety................................................................................................................................................ 21
    4.5      Education........................................................................................................................................................... 22
    4.6      Housing.............................................................................................................................................................. 23


5         Environmental conditions in Hackney....................................................25
    5.1      Biodiversity and open space .............................................................................................................................. 25
    5.2      Air quality .......................................................................................................................................................... 26
    5.3      Flood risk............................................................................................................................................................ 27
    5.4      Waste and recycling .......................................................................................................................................... 28
    5.5      Hackney’s historic assets and environment...................................................................................................... 29
    5.6      Transport and travel .......................................................................................................................................... 29




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6         Economic conditions in Hackney ...........................................................32
    6.1     Employment....................................................................................................................................................... 32
    6.2     Hackney’s Town Centres .................................................................................................................................... 33
    6.3     Arts and culture ................................................................................................................................................. 35




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We welcome your views
   We welcome your views. Please send your comments on this Joint SA Scoping Report by
   21 January 2011.

   The LBH also seek the views of the Environmental Consultation Bodies [Natural England, the
   Environment Agency and English Heritage] within this five week consultation period.

   The comments received will be made available to the public on the Council’s website
   alongside the final SA Scoping Report.

      Please submit your comments by post or via email to London Borough of Hackney:

             FAO:
             Bob Dolata
             Policy and Strategy
             Regeneration and Planning Division
             2 Hillman Street
             2nd Floor
             Hackney
             E8 1FB
             E: ldf@hackney.gov.uk




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1           Introduction

1.1         What is a Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Report ?
    1.1.1    A Sustainability Appraisal (SA) is an assessment process which aims to improve
             statutory planning policy documents. It identifies likely social, environmental and
             economic impacts and proposes changes to reduce negative and improve on positive
             effects. SA incorporates the requirements of the Strategic Environmental Assessment
             Directive EC/2001/42 (SEA Directive).

    1.1.2    A Scoping Report is the first stage of the SA process. The key social, environmental and
             economic evidence relating to the Local Development Document (LDD) is prepared to
             create a picture of the conditions in an area. The Sustainability Appraisal objectives
             which form the benchmark for the assessment are also developed. See Table 1 below for
             an overview of the SA process.

Table 1: The five stage approach to Sustainability Appraisal


Stage A
Assemble the evidence base to inform the appraisal                                Scoping Report
Establish a framework for undertaking the appraisal (in the form of               *This stage*
sustainability objectives)
Stage B
Appraisal the plan objectives, options and preferred options/ policies against
the framework taking into account the evidence base.
Propose mitigation measures for alleviating the plan’s adverse effects as well
as indicators for monitoring the plan’s sustainability
Stage C
Prepare a Sustainability Appraisal Report documenting the appraisal process       Sustainability Appraisal
and findings.                                                                     Report
Stage D
Consult stakeholders on the plan and SA
Stage E                                                                           Local Development
Monitor the implementation of the plan including its sustainability effects.      Framework Annual
                                                                                  Monitoring Report (AMR)




1.2         Efficiency in the SA process
    1.2.1    The London Borough of Hackney are striving to make the SA process as efficient and
             user friendly as possible so it can influence policy preparation in a positive way. Key
             principles to guide and steer the SA process are set out below.

     A practical approach to SPDs: Not all SPDs require an SA. Section 180 of the 2008 Act came into force
     in accordance with the Planning Act 2008 (Commencement No 1 etc.) Order 2009. It amended sections
     15, 17, 18 and 19 of the 2004 Act removing certain duties on LPA including the requirement to carry out
     an SA of SPDs. At the formulation of policy stage, a review will be undertaken of whether the SA effects
     have already been assessed under the Core Strategy SA and the associated recommended actions. At
     this juncture the Council will come to a view on whether further assessment work is required.




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  Avoiding reassessment: The SA of the emerging DPDs and SPDs will not reassess policy or elements
  of policy that have already been appraised in the overarching Core Strategy SA Report, February 2010.
  Alternatively appropriate cross referencing will be applied.

  Proportionate: The assessment matrices will be completed in the appropriate level of detail dependant
  on the scope of the policy it is assessing.

  Realistic: Only realistic options and will be assessed. For example the SA officer will be involved from the
  very start in the process of refining sites as part of the preparation of the site allocations DPD. However
  the full assessment of sites against the SA objectives will not be carried out where they have been
  discounted on legal/statutory planning policy grounds.

  Cross referencing: This Scoping Report does not repeat evidence already set out in other local
  documents. It cross references relevant documents as appropriate. It should be read alongside key local
  borough evidence including Hackney’s Annual Monitoring Report 2009/2010 and Updated Scoping
  Report, June 2009. to view these documents please follow the link to the Council’s evidence list:
  http://www.hackney.gov.uk/core_strategy_preferred_options.htm


1.3      The structure of this report
 1.3.1    This report contains five main sections. An overview of these is set out below.

          •   Section 2: Hackney’s emerging DPDs and SPDs
          •   Section 3: The proposed methodology of the Sustainability Appraisal
          •   Section 4: Social conditions in Hackney
          •   Section 5: Environmental conditions in Hackney
          •   Section 6: Economic conditions in Hackney


1.4      Relevant plans and programmes
 1.4.1    A comprehensive list of relevant plans and programmes is located on the LB of Hackney
          website at http://www.hackney.gov.uk/ep-evidence-base.htm Key new documents are
          noted in the sections 4- 6.




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2           Hackney’s emerging Development Plan Documents
            and Supplementary Planning Documents

2.1         Introduction
    2.1.1    Hackney’s Core Strategy was adopted on the 24th November 2010. This is the primary
             and Strategic Development Plan Document which sets out the spatial planning framework
             for the Borough. Two Development Plan Documents (DPDs) and two Supplementary
             Planning Documents (SPDs) are planned to provide more detailed policy guidance to
             support the implementation of the Core Strategy. The broad scope of these documents is
             summarised below.


2.2         The Site Allocations Development Plan Document
    2.2.1    The Site Specific Allocations DPD will set out site specific proposals to deliver the policy
             framework set out in the Core Strategy. This includes sites identified to deliver housing
             employment, retail, leisure and transport. It will contain brief profile of each site, maps and
             images.

Work Programme
Evidence Gathering                   August 2010 to January 2011
Public participation                 April to May 2011
Publication                          October to November 2011
Submission                           January 2012
Pre-Examination hearing              March 2012
Examination                          May 2012
Report                               September 2012
Adoption                             November 2012


2.3         Development Management Development Plan Document
    2.3.1    The Development Management (DM) DPD will contain policies which expand on the Core
             Strategy by setting locally based criteria against which planning applications are
             considered. The Core Strategy commits the Council to prepare DM policies on issues
             including: housing, economic development, retail, health and wellbeing, design,
             sustainability, energy, open space, education and social infrastructure, places of worship.
             Policies to address issues arising from the demographic growth of the Orthodox Jewish
             community, student residences, take away food shops, betting shops and the night time
             economy are also anticipated.

Work Programme
Evidence Gathering                  August 2010 to January 2011
Public participation                April to May 2011
Publication                         October to November 2011
Submission                          January 2012
Pre-Examination hearing             March 2012
Examination                         May 2012
Report                              September 2012
Adoption                            November 2012




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2.4       Sustainability             Standards             Supplementary                Planning
          Document
  2.4.1     The Sustainability Standards SPD will support the implementation of the Core Strategy
            policies particularly in relation to Policy 20 Affordable Housing, Policy 24 Design, Policy
            29 Resource Efficiency and Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Policy 30 Low
            Carbon Energy, Renewable Technologies and District Heating. The SPD will elaborate on
            the Code for Sustainable Homes and BREEAM standards for non residential
            developments, and it will identify particular Hackney based design standards that are
            additional to the housing design standards promulgated by the London Mayor.

Work Programme
Evidence Gathering                April 2009 – Nov 2010
Public Participation              April 2011
Adoption                          Sept 2011


2.5       Waterfront          Development                   Supplementary               Planning
          Document
  2.5.1     Nature conservation and biodiversity is protected along Hackney’s waterfront areas. In
            addition the Council seeks to promote these locations, and the canal itself for leisure,
            recreation education and economic activity. The Waterfront Development SPD aims to
            provide additional policy guidance for developers, development control officers,
            stakeholders and local residents on the standards and requirements in planning
            applications in waterside development areas. It is anticipated that the SPD will place a
            strong focus on the protection of the environment.

Work programme
Evidence gathering                April 2011 – Dec 2011
Public participation              Jan 2012 – Jun 2012
Adoption                          Oct 2012




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          3           The proposed methodology of the Sustainability Appraisal

          3.1         Introduction
              3.1.1    The section below provides an overview of the proposed methodology of the SA process which will be applied to emerging DPDs
                       and SPDs where they have not already been assessed in the Core Strategy, Feb 2010.


          3.2         Sustainability Appraisal Framework
              3.2.1    The SA Framework for Hackney contains 19 Sustainability Appraisal Objectives and decision making criteria set out in Table 2
                       below. These provide the benchmark in which emerging planning policy will be assessed.

          Table 2: The LB of Hackney’s Sustainability Appraisal Framework
    Sustainability Objectives       Criteria                                                       Key Borough Sensitivities

1   To protect and enhance the      • Will it impact on national, regional or local BAP habitats   Increases in air pollution, noise and waste arising from higher densities in development could
    biodiversity, flora and fauna     and/or species?                                              impact on the integrity of Walthamstow Marshes and Reservoirs SSSI are located within Lea
    of the borough                  • Will it impact on sites designated for their nature          Valley SPA.
                                      conservation interest?                                       Increases in urbanisation could create adverse impacts on Hackney’s SINCS (Hackney has six
                                                                                                   Sites of Metropolitan Importance, 8 Sites of Borough Importance and 11 Sites of Local
                                    • Will it impact on woodland cover and management?
                                                                                                   Importance.
                                    • Will it impact on native invasive species                    Increases in urbanisation could create adverse impacts on Hackney’s local and regionally
                                                                                                   important species, including Black Poplar which has been identified in Springfield Park and the
                                                                                                   Pipistrelle bats have been identified in Clissold Park.
2   To ensure efficient use of      • Does it optimise on the use of previously developed land,    Open space deficiency levels are high in Dalston, Hackney Downs, Cazenove, Hackney Central,
    land                              buildings and existing infrastructure?                       Lordship and New river wards in particular. Development on open space is likely to exacerbate
                                    • Does it impact on open space deficiency levels?              this in these locations.
                                                                                                   Local PTAL scores are a key factor in determining density levels. High density levels in
                                    • Does it impact on natural resources, soil and groundwater
                                                                                                   inaccessible locations can increase the use of the private car and generate air pollution.
                                      quality?
                                    • Does it impact on local density levels?
                                    • Will it impact on soil or groundwater quality?




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    Sustainability Objectives    Criteria                                                          Key Borough Sensitivities

3   To improve air quality by    • Will it impact on air quality in the short, medium or long      Levels of nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter are above recommended levels in
    reducing emissions of          term?                                                           Hackney.
    pollutants                   • Will it reduce emissions of pollutants particularly Nitrogen    Community facilities such as schools, old people’s homes and areas where there are protected
                                   Dioxide and fine particulate matter                             habitats and species are examples of locations that are particularly vulnerable to increases in air
                                                                                                   pollution.
                                 • Will it impact on locations that are sensitive to air
                                   pollution?                                                      All of Hackney falls within an Air Quality management Area.
4   To reduce noise, pollution   • Will it impact on noise levels in the short, medium or long     Hackney is characterised by a broad mix of coinciding uses such as light industry, housing, retail
                                   term?                                                           and community uses and industry in Shoreditch. Where residential developments does exist
                                 • Will it impact on locations that are sensitive to noise?        next to light industry or other employment uses it is particularly important impacts such as noise
                                                                                                   are considered.
                                                                                                   Community facilities as old people’s homes and areas where there are protected habitats and
                                                                                                   species are examples of locations that are particularly vulnerable to increases in noise levels.


5   To minimize flood risk and   • Will it impact on the risk of flooding to people and property   Hackney Wick which contains Flood Zones 3a is particularly sensitive to flooding.
    encourage Sustainable          in Flood Zones 2, 3a and 3b?                                    Surface water flooding is a risk with increases of urbanisation anticipated in the borough.
    Urban Drainage Systems       • Will it promote the sustainable urban drainage systems in
    (SUDS) for new                                                                                 Hackney Central and Stoke Newington are classified as areas at risk to groundwater pollution.
                                   the new developments?
    developments
                                 • Will it impact on of ground and surface water flooding?
6   To improve connectivity,     • Will it impact on traffic congestion?                           The New East London Line improves connectivity from Dalston Junction to New Cross.
    reduce the need to travel    • Will it encourage the public transport?
    and encourage use of
    public transport including   • Is it in a location with appropriate PTAL levels.
    walking and cycling          • Will it have a positive impact on climate change?
7   To reduce greenhouse gas     • Will it impact on the emission of green house gases by      The projected population growth for Hackney of 13.3% by 2008 ad 23.5% by 2030 may increase
    emissions and ensure           reducing energy consumption?                                emissions especially around the growth areas.
    efficient use of energy      • Will it impact on the incorporation of renewable technology According DEFRA in 2005, 45% of carbon emissions are from domestic uses, 32% industrial
                                   in new developments?                                        and commercial and 23% road transport. This highlights households are key sources of
                                                                                               emissions.
                                 • Is it in keeping with the principles of sustainable design
                                   and construction?
8   To protect and enhance the   • Does it promote heritage related tourism?                  There are large areas of archaeological importance in the growth areas. These are sensitive
    boroughs identified          • Does it impact on the boroughs identified heritage assets? areas that need to be considered as part of development.
    heritage assets, their                                                                    Views to the World Heritage Site of Tower of London should be protected.
    setting and the wider        • Does it impact on the boroughs wider historic environment




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    Sustainability Objectives   Criteria                                                          Key Borough Sensitivities

    historic environment and        i.e. undesignated areas of historic value?                    Hackney has 25 conservation areas including in our growth areas of Shoreditch, Hackney
    to preserve the             • Will it impact on archaeological remains?                       Central, Dalston and surrounding Woodberry Down as well as other pockets in the borough.
    archaeological aspects of                                                                     These may be vulnerable to effects stemming from traffic congestion, poor air quality and noise
    the borough.                • Will it impact on the management or restoration of the          associated with increased densities. These areas are also particularly sensitive to tall buildings
                                  boroughs identified historic assets and wider historic          and design impacts.
                                  environment?
                                                                                                  Hackney has undesignated areas of high quality landscape character which are also of historic
                                • Will it impact to views to the World Heritage site of St        value.
                                  Paul’s or the Tower of London?
                                                                                                  Hackney has areas of industrial heritage value especially along its railway corridors which will be
                                                                                                  subject to significant growth and may be vulnerable to the associated impacts upon this.
                                                                                                  Potential threat to the historic and archaeological environment from increases in densities in
                                                                                                  Hackney’s identified growth areas.
                                                                                                  Potential sensitivities around retrofitting of buildings of historic value.
9   To promote exemplar         •  Will it impact on the local character and appearance of the Employment uses in proximity to residential or community uses (especially along the boroughs
    sustainable design which      borough?                                                      railway corridors) are particularly sensitive and new development should be of high standards of
    enhances the visual         • Will it impact on local distinctiveness and sense of place in design.
    character in the borough      the borough?                                                  It is not just protected areas but the landscape character of wider historic environment and its
                                                                                                settings that are sensitive areas to new development.
                                • Will it impact on the satisfaction of people with their
                                  neighbourhoods as places to live?                             Potential sensitivities around retrofitting of existing buildings.
                                •   Will it impact on access to facilities especially for those
                                    with special needs/disabilities?
10 To reduce poverty and        • Will it reduce the poverty and social exclusion in those        Hackney is ranked in the top three of the most deprived boroughs in the indices of deprivation
   social exclusion and           areas most affected?                                            from 2004 – 2007.
   promote equalities and                                                                         The GLAs summary report shows that New River, Hackney Wick, Queensbridge, Chatham,
                                • Will it promote the culture diversity/social inclusion?
   diversity                                                                                      Hoxton and Dalston are some of London’s most deprived wards that warrant particular attention.
                                • Will it reduce light pollution?
                                                                                                  The Borough Profile of 2006 illustrates Hackney has the second highest proportion of children
                                • Will it reduce nuisance from artificial light?
                                                                                                  and older people income deprivation.
11 To maintain and enhance      • Will it impact on local open space deficiency levels?           There are open space deficiencies in Dalston, Hackney Downs, Cazenove, Hackney Central,
   Metropolitan Open Land       • Will it impact on existing open spaces or MOL?                  Lordship and New river wards.
   and open spaces                                                                                Not all of Hackney’s open spaces are actively managed.
                                • Will it improve the local landscape character?
12 To improve health in         • Will it impact on access to health facilities?                  Mortality rates from circulatory disease and cancer - the main cause of death in Hackney have
   Hackney’s local community    • Will it impact on death rates or life limiting illness?         been declining over the last 10 years but are higher than the London average.
   and promote healthy                                                                            Hackney has higher levels of people who are suffering from mental illness and tuberculosis.
                                • Will it encourage healthy life styles?




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    Sustainability Objectives    Criteria                                                     Key Borough Sensitivities

    lifestyles                                                                                HIV levels are higher in the City and in Hackney than the rest of London.
                                                                                              Teenage pregnancy has been declining since 1998 but Hackney is still the highest of the inner
                                                                                              London Boroughs.
                                                                                              Obesity is a significant issue in the borough particularly amongst young children.
13 To improve educational        • Will it improve qualifications and skills of the young     Residents in the Borough have a relatively low levels of educational attainment compared to the
   attainment and the skill        people?                                                    London average.
   level of the population       • Will it improve qualifications and skills of adult?        A high proportion of Hackney Residents have no qualifications compared to the London average
14 To reduce crime and fear of   • Will it reduce the actual crime level?                     Although crime has fallen in Hackney by over 30% in recent years incidents still remain higher
   the crime in the borough      • Will it reduce the fear of crime?                          than the London average.
                                                                                              Crime hotspots have been identified in the borough profile. These are sensitive areas.
                                                                                              Fear of crime is higher in Hackney than in England as identified in the Borough Profile (2006)
15 To increase the number of     • Will it increase the number of affordable homes built?     There is a significant disparity between the cost of housing and the average earnings in the
   decent and affordable         • Will it reduce the number of unfit homes?                  borough.
   homes                                                                                      There is a high demand for 3 bed family accommodation and one bed flats in the borough.
16 To improve access to an       • Will it improve accessibility to key local services?       The projected Population increase, estate renewal projects and economic development will
   adequate range of social      • Will it improve the level of investment in key community   increase the Borough’s requirements for social infrastructure significantly.
   infrastructure                  services?
17 To minimize waste and         • Will it reduce consumption of materials and resources?     The demand for waste management will increase as the population increases
   maximize recycling in the     • Will it reduce household waste?                            Fly tipping is a problem which needs to be adequately managed.
   borough
                                 • Will it increase waste recycling?
18 To maximise opportunities     • Will it improve business development?                      The global economic recession will restrict growth internationally.
   for sustainable economic      • Will it impact on the environmental economy?               The current economic recession is likely to adversely effect the growth of new sectors in the
   growth                                                                                     borough i.e. cultural, financial and business services.
                                 • Will it improve growth in key sectors?
                                                                                              Will the recession have this impact for the whole life of the plan?
19 To generate employment        • Will it increase employment opportunities?                 Employment in Hackney is predominately low skilled jobs.
   opportunities for everyone    • Will it increase training and skilled employment?          The weekly wages of those living in Hackney are significantly lower than those working in the
                                                                                              London area.




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3.3         The proposed SA assessment matrices
 3.3.1        The predicted effects of each option/policy are scored against each of the SA objectives.
              The type of effects (i.e. whether it is positive or negative) and the nature of the impact
              (i.e. its duration, and permanence) are analysed using a scoring system set out in table
              3 below.

           Table 3: Type of effect & nature of the impact



      Type of effect


      +                      Positive                   --     significant negative


      ++                     significant positive       0      neutral


      -                      Negative                   n/a    no relationship


      Nature of the impact


      Likelihood                 H: High                M: Medium                           L: Low


      Timescale                  S: Short               M: Medium                           L: Long


      Permanence                 T: Temporary           P: Permanent



 3.3.2        Appraisals are documented using an assessment matrix. The matrix includes space for
              commentary on the type and nature of effects. As discussed in section 1.2 the
              assessment matrix will be filled out in the appropriate level of detail dependant on the
              scope of the policy document it is assessing. The proposed matrix for the assessment of
              the emerging DM DPD and SPDs as appropriate is set out in table 5 below.

 3.3.3        The Site Allocations DPD will include site specific proposals to deliver the policy
              framework set out in the Core Strategy. For transparency it is considered important that
              the matrix shows clearly how all the reasonable site options fair against each of the SA
              objectives. The matrix in table 5 has been tailored to assist in illustrating this clearly. This
              is set out in Table 6.




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Table 4: DM DPD and SPD assessment matrix


         SA Objective



         Policy                 Significance/description of effect                                              Alternative           Avoidance/mitigation/




                                                                                                   Permanence
                                                                                                                                      enhancement




                                                                          Likelihood




                                                                                       Timescale
Table 5: Site Allocation DPD assessment matrix




         Site name & ref     Sustainability Appraisal Objectives                                                      Significance/        Alternatives/

                                                                                                                      Description     of   recommendation
                            1    2   3    4   5   6    7   8    9    10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19                    effect               s




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4           Social conditions in Hackney

4.1         Population
Key plans & policies
    4.1.1    Hackney’s Sustainable Community Strategy 2008 – 2018 priorities in regard to
             population are to: promote mixed communities in well-designed neighbourhoods, where
             people can access high quality affordable housing; and to be a sustainable community,
             where all citizens take pride in and take care of Hackney and its environment for future
             generations.

    4.1.2    The Greater London Authority’s (GLA)s Data Management and Analysis Group Briefing,
             2007-08 set out that Hackney’s population will increase by 15.6% by 2026. The population
             has grown by over 23,000 people over the last 20 years and is expected to continue to
             increase to approximately 252,100 by 2026. The GLA’s population projections also
             suggest the overall for London the population is predicted to increase by 20.8% in the
             same period. For outer London the predicted increase is 18.5%.

    4.1.3    LB of Hackney’s Estimating and Profiling the Population of Hackney, Mayhew
             Associates Ltd, 2008 is an independent report on the local population. The report find
             that 223.2k people lived in Hackney at June 30th 2007 as compared with 208.4k reported
             in the ONS 2006 mid-year estimates. There is a possibility the GLAs figures
             underestimate the future population increase.

Baseline data
    4.1.4     In 2008 the borough had the 3rd highest population density within London. The average
             density is around 1.75 times the Greater London average of 63.3 of persons per
             hectare,. However it should be noted the average density varies between each of the
             different wards. (ONS mid-year population estimates, 2008)

    4.1.5    Hackney’s social profile reflects one of the youngest and most ethnically diverse
             communities in the country. Approximately 27.8% of Hackney’s residents are under the
             age of 19, compared to 24% in London and 25% in England & Wales .(ONS, Population
             Estimates Unit, 2004)

    4.1.6    The diversity of population is also reflected in the fact that in 2008, 55% of primary
             school pupils and 48% of secondary school pupils were listed as speaking a first
             language other than English. 20% of households in the borough speak another language
             instead of, or in addition to, English. Other main languages spoken in the borough
             include Turkish, Yiddish, Bengali and Gujarati. (Hackney Facts and Figures, April 2010)

Likely future conditions
    4.1.7    Hackney’s population is forecasted to grow significantly - by approximately 15% over
             the next sixteen years. (GLA Population Projections 2009 & DMAG Update. April 2010)

    4.1.8    In additional to broad population increases, a significant increase in density is
             anticipated in Hackney’s key growth areas primarily: the railway corridors of the London
             Overground East and North London Line, Shoreditch, Hackney Wick, Woodberry Down,
             Dalston, Hackney Central and other district and local centres.


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     4.1.9      It is anticipated that Hackney will remain one of the most culturally diverse boroughs in
                London.

Issues and problems

     4.1.10     Projected population increases and higher densities place a greater demand on
                essential community facilities and infrastructure i.e. the provision of housing and social
                infrastructure such as schools and hospitals.

     4.1.11     A ethnically diverse population makes it important that the Council continues to provide a
                range of facilities to meet a wide set of needs across different faiths and communities.


4.2           Health and wellbeing
Key plans & policies
     4.2.1      Hackney’s Sustainable Community Strategy 2008-2018 core priority for health is to:
                Promote health and wellbeing for all, and support independent living. Key specific
                outcomes that are highlighted include: to reduce the rate of mental illness in hackney
                and close the gap in mental wellbeing between people from different backgrounds; and
                enable independent living and offer personalised support for people with support needs
                living in Hackney.

     4.2.2      Hackney’s Public Service Agreement, 2004 outlines national priorities for health. These
                are: to reduce the life expectancy gap between the 70 Local Authority areas with the
                worst health and deprivation indicators (known as the Spearhead Group)1 by at least
                10% by 2010; and to increase England average life expectancy at birth to 78.6 years for
                males and 82.5 years for females by 2010.

     4.2.3      ‘Planning for a Natural and Healthy Environment’ PPS consultation was carried out in
                March 2010. The document emphasises the principles of protecting the natural
                environment and providing open spaces as part of new developments.

     4.2.4      City & Hackney Nutrition and Healthy Eating Strategy, City and Hackney Teaching
                Primary Care Trust NHS, 2009 contains a number of targets to support local public
                services, and voluntary and community organisations to work together to reduce health
                inequalities.

Baseline data

       Although the average life expectancy for males and females in Hackney has increased between
       2001 and 2006 life expectancy ratings in Hackney are still slightly lower than the metropolitan and
       national average. Statistics show that women in the borough generally have a longer life
       expectancy than men. (ONS, Neighbourhood Statistics 2001 – 2006 figures)

       The level of mental illness such as schizophrenia and neurosis (e.g. depression) is the highest
       amongst the inner London Boroughs and very high compared to the national average. (The City
       and Hackney Public Health Profile 2004)



1
    See: www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4095413.pdf - accessed 23/8/10



                                                                                                                                 18
   The main causes of death for residents of Hackney are circulatory disease and cancer. Hackney
   also has higher proportion of people who are suffering from mental illness and tuberculosis.
   Anticipated to remain on current levels without continued investment. (SA Scoping Report, July
   2009)

   Asian people in Hackney have far less contact with health services for mental illness than the
   other ethnic groups. (The City and Hackney Public Health Profile 2004)

   There is significant ward variation on health and life expectancy standards in the borough i.e.
   Chatham’s average male life expectancy is 71.1 years in comparison to 79.4 in the New River
   ward. The gap in male/female life expectancy varies by 10.4 years between Stoke Newington
   and Victoria wards, as opposed to the Hackney average of 6.8 years. ( GLA, 2009 data)

   The incidences of HIV amongst Hackney’s population are much higher than the London average.
   By 2001, 266 out of 100,000 people were diagnosed HIV infection in the City & Hackney
   compared to 188 of London. (The City and Hackney Public Health Profile, 2004)

   Hackney’s local PCT area figures show a better average ratio of GP accessibility to patients than
   in other North London boroughs. (Hackney Infrastructure Assessment, Nov 2009)

   Obesity and being overweight is regarded as a significant health issue in the borough, in
   particularly amongst the young children (Hackney Infrastructure Assessment, Nov 2009).

Likely future conditions

  4.2.5    It is anticipated that life expectancy in Hackney will continue to increase in line with
           current trends.

  4.2.6    Mortality rates from circulatory disease and cancer have been falling in the past 10 years
           but are still high. Anticipated to continue to decrease in line with current trends.

  4.2.7    Hackney also has higher proportion of people who are suffering from mental illness and
           tuberculosis. Anticipated to remain on current levels without continued investment.

  4.2.8    The rate of HIV infections is anticipated to remain at current levels.

  4.2.9    Obesity and being overweight is regarded as a significant health issue anticipated to
           remain on current levels without education training and planning change.

Issues and problems

  4.2.10   Tackling Hackney’s health issues is rely and on better Section106 planning policy to
           ensure all opportunities to secure finding for new community facilities are maximised.
           This has yet to be developed.

  4.2.11   Continued funding and support into local support services is required to ensure current
           trends improve, however this is likely to be affected by the current global economic
           recession.




                                                                                                   19
4.3      Poverty & social exclusion
Key plans and policies


 4.3.1     Hackney’s Sustainable Community Strategy 2008-2018 core priority on reducing poverty
           is to: reduce poverty by supporting residents into sustainable employment , and
           promoting employment opportunities.

 4.3.2     The report ‘Reduce Poverty and Promote Sustainable Employment’ by The Joseph
           Rowntree Foundation’ (JRF), Feb 2010 focuses on the low-pay/no-pay cycle and
           examines relevant current UK policy and practice and suggests ways to create longer-
           lasting routes out of poverty, particularly in relation to job security and wage levels. It
           flagged that: entering work cannot provide a sustainable route out of poverty if job
           security, low pay and lack of progression are not also addressed; there are a number of
           implications for employers, governments and those providing support to individuals
           trapped in cycles of poverty. It set out four recommendations: improving rights and
           conditions for agency workers; raising pay through ‘living wage’ campaigns or the
           national minimum wage;        addressing the issues within public-sector purchasing
           decisions; ensuring job and careers advice covers security, pay and progression; and
           making childcare available and affordable for parents on low incomes

 4.3.3     The Child Poverty Bill Consultation, Ending child poverty: making it happen (HM
           Government: Child Poverty Unit, 2009) is a high-level strategy to address child poverty.
           It sets out that tackling child poverty is not just about minimum standards of living; it is
           about the kind of society we want to live in and what kind of future we want to build for
           our children. The Government aims to reduce the proportion of children in relative low
           income to 5-10% by 2020.

 4.3.4     The Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act was given Royal
           Assent in Nov 2009. It covers an amalgam of issues including the duty to carry out local
           economic assessments, the legal underpinnings for multi-area agreements. Hackney
           has taken the initiative on and the lead for the LEA is in the Strategic Policy and
           Research team.

Baseline

   The Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF), 2009 published its annual report on the state of poverty
   and social exclusion in the United Kingdom. It shows that poverty is now back at the same level
   as 2000; having risen every year since 2004/05; two million children are in low-income, working
   households - the highest figure since records began; since reaching a low point in 2005,
   unemployment has risen - now nearly 1 in 8 people of working age want, but lack, a job - the
   highest since 1997; repossessions are six times the level of 2004 and are now back at the level
   they were in 1994.

   The 2007 DCLG Indices of Multiple Deprivation ranked Hackney as the most deprived Local
   Authority in London and 2nd most deprived out of 354 in England and Wales

   71.5% of Hackney residents states they were generally content with their local area. (AMR,
   2009/2011)



                                                                                                     20
Likely future conditions
  4.3.5    The national campaign in England of tackling poverty has not delivered the intended
           results over the last 10 years. The current global economic recession will also inhibit
           these national objectives.

  4.3.6    According to the Indices of Deprivation 2004 and 2007, Hackney is ranked as one of the
           most deprived boroughs nationwide. This may continue with the current economic
           forecasts.

Issues and problems
  4.3.7    Hackney’s levels of deprivation may remain high if investment does not continue to be
           channelled in economic recovery and social reform.

  4.3.8    There are a variety of demands and a wide range of needs on health, education,
           community facilities and economic regeneration from the diverse population.


4.4       Crime and safety
Key plans & policies

  Hackney’s Sustainable Community Strategy 2008-2018 core priority on crime & safety is to:
  make the borough safer, and help people to feel safe in Hackney.

  4.4.1    Crimes Occurring and Prevented in New Deal for Communities Areas: An approach to
           estimating the economic costs and benefits, CLG, Jan 2010 estimates the cost of crime
           using a variety of recorded crime data. Across the country whole the net financial value
           of crime potentially prevented is estimated to be £124.9m. Hackney NDC experienced
           the largest total cost of crime between 2000/01 and 2004/05, at £138m, but did not have
           the highest per capita cost of crime.

  4.4.2    The LBH evidence Pack, Strategic Policy & Research Team 2009, combines an
           overview of local evidence with feedback from the Public Attitudes Survey 2006-2007. It
           made four main conclusions in relation to crime: Fear of crime is greatest among people
           under 35 primarily at night; Women, disabled and young residents feel most unsafe at
           night; BME residents (especially under 35s) feel most aspects of anti-social behaviour
           are a problem more so than white residents; and Residents in social housing report a
           higher level of concern about ASB than those in private accommodation.

Baseline

   Crime dropped by 39.5% during the 5 years from 2004/9, with a further 3% reduction recorded
   during the 12 months from August 2009 to July 2010. Over the last 12 months, 28723 recordable
   offences were committed, and this ranks the borough as having the 10th highest crime rate in
   2009/10, this is an improvement for as recently as 2006/07 the ranking was 5th highest. (LBH
   AMR 2009/2010)

   Across London, the average crime rate was 10.27 offences per 1000 population compared to
   Hackney’s 13.16. (LBH AMR 2009/2010)




                                                                                                 21
Likely future conditions

  4.4.3    It is predicted that crime will continue to fall in Hackney but remain above the London
           and national average due to the levels of poverty and deprivation experienced in the
           borough.

  4.4.4    It is predicted that fear of crime will remain high especially at night.

Issues and problems

  4.4.5    Crime levels are higher in Hackney compared to the other boroughs.

  4.4.6     It was noted people who live, work or visit Hackney don’t feel safe to walk on the street
           especially after dark.


4.5       Education
Key plans & policies
  4.5.1    Hackney’s Sustainable Community Strategy 2008-2018 core priority on education is to:
           help residents to become better qualified and raise educational aspirations.

  4.5.2    Hackney’s Investment Plans include the £67 million’ Building Schools for the Future’
           project where local schools are subject to improvement plans. Areas of the project that
           have been carried out so far include improvements at Stoke Newington School, Hackney
           Free and Parochial CE School, Cardinal Pole Catholic School, Our Lady’s Convent High
           School and      Haggerston School. Further details on progress are located at:
           http://www.hackney.gov.uk/xe-bsf.htm

Baseline data

   The percentage of residents of Hackney who hold Level 4/5 qualifications is slightly lower than
   the average of London but higher than the rest of the country. (ONS, Neighbourhood, 2007)

   The proportion of residents in Hackney who hold Level 1 and above qualifications is much lower
   than the London and national average. (ONS, Neighbourhood, 2007)

Likely future conditions

  4.5.3    It is anticipated that there will be continued improvements to local educational standards
           however these are likely to remain behind London standards without additional
           investment.

  4.5.4    Data sets which current show local trends of poor access to skilled jobs locally are
           anticipated to remain current levels unless further initiatives and investment is provided
           to assist people in obtaining higher skilled jobs.




                                                                                                        22
Issues and problems
 4.5.5     The Building Schools for the Future project is contractually committed and was therefore
           excluded from government cuts resulting from current recession.

 4.5.6     Residents of Hackney have a relatively low level of educational attainment when
           compared with London and the rest of the country.

 4.5.7     The weekly wages of those living in Hackney is lower than those working in London,
           which suggests that residents are short of skills to access employment, especially highly
           skilled jobs.


4.6      Housing
Key plans and programmes

 Hackney’s Sustainable Community Strategy 2008-2018 core priority on housing is to: promote
 mixed communities in well-designed neighbourhoods, where people can access high quality,
 affordable housing.

 4.6.1     London Plan (Consolidated with further alterations since 2004), requires Hackney to make
           sufficient land use provision for a minimum of 1085 net new additional dwellings per
           annum from 2007 to 2017. This is set out by policy 3A.2. However, the Draft
           Replacement London Plan, published October 2009 (see chapter 3) has proposed to
           increase this to 1160 per annum from 2011/12 onwards. Hackney Council has accepted
           that this target is attainable against current housing supply forecasts (albeit made before
           recent government announcement concerning availability of housing grant).

 4.6.2     The Council’s Affordable Housing Viability Study, BNP Paribas, May 2010 tested the
           viability of affordable housing delivery against both today’s values. The key findings were
           that 50% affordable housing is financially viable in many circumstances across all
           existing use value sites at peak 2007 sales values, and in a reduced number of cases
           with current values.

Baseline

  There is a strong correlation between social renting and high numbers of benefit claimants. At
  the time of the Census 2001, in each of the 10 Super Output Areas (SOAs) with the highest
  benefit claimant rates in Hackney between 34% and 39% of all working age adults were in receipt
  of state benefits. (Census, 2001)

  House prices in hackney are above the London average. In the early months of the monitoring
  year 2010/11 the upsurge in prices continued: by July 2010 the average London house would
  cost a prospective purchaser £343,730. The average price for Hackney was £361,722, a slight
  dip in value from the May average of £363,144. ( Land Registry website, August 2010)

  Hackney is exceeding the current London pan targets for housing delivery. The AMR 2009/2010
  projects that around 4,300 new additional homes of all tenures will be developed through the
  renewal of housing estates over the period 2011-2026. The Five Year Supply is comprised of
  2253 dwellings in outstanding permissions, a further 1822 dwellings which are under construction



                                                                                                    23
   with completion during timeframe, and 50 more dwellings which are outstanding UDP allocations.
   (LBH AMR 2009/2010)

Likely future conditions
  4.6.3   Continue to exceed the London Plan targets for housing delivery. On target to exceed
          target of 22460 by around 3000 units.

  4.6.4   House prices will continue to increase and remain above the London average.

  4.6.5   Continued demands for a wide mix of housing including affordable units and family
          housing.

Issues and problems
  4.6.6   Despite the increased delivery of new units, housing needs i.e. demands for affordable
          and family housing are not being fully addressed. (LBH AMR, 2009/2010)

  4.6.7   The continued high delivery of housing in this borough could be threatened by proposed
          cuts in affordable housing delivery grants with private housing delivery unable to fully
          make up any shortfall.




                                                                                                   24
5           Environmental conditions in Hackney

5.1         Biodiversity and open space
Key plans and policies

Hackney’s Sustainable Community Strategy 2008-2018 core priority on biodiversity is to: be
a sustainable community, where all citizens take pride in and take care of Hackney and its
environment for future generations.

    5.1.1    Hackney’s Strategy for Parks in Hackney, 2008 sets out the long term strategy and
             structured planning and management of the boroughs parks.

    5.1.2    The Council is currently producing a Local Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan due to
             be adopted in 2011.

Baseline

     Hackney has 24 Site of Importance for Nature Conservation and 2 Local Nature Reserves.

     As recently as 2005, Hackney only had one Green Flag award for its parks, yet in July 2010 Keep
     Britain Tidy awarded Green Flags to a further three parks in Hackney, which brings the total to 12
     – this is one of the highest numbers in London. (LBH AMR, 2009/2010)

     Green open space accounts for 16.9% of the boroughs area. This is four times as much as in
     Waltham Forest (4.2%) and three times as much as Haringey (5.5%). There are 255 Open
     Spaces in Hackney. The actual level of Green Space varies significantly between wards with
     open space deficiency experienced in Dalston. (Atkins Open Space Assessment, June 2005)


Likely future conditions
    5.1.3    It is anticipated that performance levels will be higher next year as work continues to
             incorporate biodiversity into management plans and wider park maintenance work. The
             targets for future monitoring years are set at 60% (2010/11) 65% (2011/12) and 70%
             respectively. (LBH AMR, 2009/2010)

    5.1.4    The new Green Flag awards illustrate an increase in the quality of open space however
             there may be a reduction in the net amount due to development pressures.

Issues and problems
    5.1.5    Development pressures and increases in densities that are predicted in some wards are
             likely to pose a threat to some habitats and species and open space provision.




                                                                                                       25
5.2       Air quality
Key plans and programmes

  Hackney’s Sustainable Community Strategy 2008-2018 core priority on air quality is to: be a
  sustainable community, where all citizens take pride in and take care of Hackney and its
  environment, for future generations.

  5.2.1    The Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) underwent a public consultation to review a
           variety of issues. It is expected that the CSH will be formally updated during 2011. The
           Lifetime Homes standards were also updated in July 2010.

  5.2.2    The Climate Change Act promotes decentralised energy and energy efficiency through
           the planning process. This is supported by these include the draft Planning Policy
           Statement ‘Planning for a Low Carbon Future in a Changing Climate’, its predecessors
           Planning Policy Statement 22 on Renewable Energy and the Planning Policy 1
           Supplement on planning and climate change, the Energy Act 2008 and the London Plan.

  5.2.3    During 2009/10, Hackney finalised its climate change strategy; this was adopted by
           Cabinet in September 2009. This sets targets to cut carbon emissions 3% by 2013,
           15.9% by 2019, 49.2% by 2035, and 80.1 % by 2050, thus meeting obligations under the
           2008 Climate Change Act.

Baseline

   In Hackney, domestic energy use accounts for 45% of all CO2 emissions in the borough. The
   majority of direct investment to improve the energy efficiency of housing stock has been through
   incorporation of energy measures within planned investment schemes undertaken by Hackney
   Homes, rather than stand alone energy projects. (Hackney Climate Change Strategy, 2009)

   Hackney Council was one of 10 local authorities across Britain to join the 10:10 agreement on
   carbon emissions. This agreement was signed on 1 September 2009 and committed signatory
   councils to a simple idea: the delivery of a 10% cut in carbon emissions during calendar year
   2010. (DECC data, November 2009 )

   In 2009/10, the average SAP rating on a Council property was 74. (Hackney Homes Delivery
   Plan 2010/11)

   The Hackney SAP rating is now in the top quartile (25%) for London and has improved steadily
   from 2003 when the average rating was just 50. (Hackney Climate Change Strategy, 2009)

   Hackney and our inner London neighbours share air quality which is among the worst in Europe.
   The principal threat to clean air in London comes from road traffic. (LBH, AMR 2009/2010)

Likely future conditions
  5.2.4    Hackney is meeting its targets for the reduction of CO2 levels.

  5.2.5    Air quality is extremely poor and with increased densities and population growth is not
           likely to decrease.




                                                                                                      26
  5.2.6    The average SAP rating of housing is continuing to improve.

  5.2.7    Progress will be made in improving the design and quality of new developments.

Issues and problems
  5.2.8    Poor air quality may have a significant impact on local heath in the borough.


5.3       Flood risk
Key plans and policies

  Hackney’s Sustainable Community Strategy 2008-2018 core priority relating to flood risk is to:
  make the borough safer, and help people feel safe in Hackney.

  5.3.1    The ODA, Cumulative Flood Risk Impact Assessment, October 2008 identified potential
           increases in flood risk to some buildings in the Clapton/Hackney Wick Area resulting
           from proposals.

  5.3.2    The LBH Strategic Flood Risk Assessment, Level 2 Exception Test October 2010
           identifies that Hackney Wick contains pocket of flood risk 3a. The velocities and flood
           depths could generate a threat including to human life if an event were to occur. It was
           prepared in consultation with the Environment Agency.

Baseline

   The main source of flood risk to Hackney is from fluvial flooding associated with the Lower Lee
   Valley. The Lee flows along the eastern edge of Hackney. It is one of the largest tributaries of the
   River Thames and drains a rural catchments of around 1400 km2, extending as far north as Luton
   and covers large parts of Hertfordshire and Essex.. (LBH, SFRA L2, 2010)

   Approximately 2650 homes lie within Flood Zone 2. There are approximately 1400 homes an a
   school in Flood Zone 3. There are pockets of extreme risk in this area. (LBH, SFRA L2, 2010)

Likely future conditions
  5.3.3    Extreme danger in a flooding event to homes, property and human life will remain in
           absence of flood mitigation.

Issues and problems
  5.3.4    Waste and extreme danger in a flooding event to homes, property and human life.

  5.3.5    Development pressures for additional housing and employment in the areas of high flood
           risk.

  5.3.6     Flood mitigation measures in the form of the construction of a wall at Hackney Wick
           along the Lee Navigation and the increase of floodplain storage capacity in Hackney
           Marshes is required.

  5.3.7    A site emergency plan is required to deal with warning, evacuation and other relevant
           procedures if an event were to occur.



                                                                                                      27
5.4       Waste and recycling
Key plans and policies

  Hackney’s Sustainable Community Strategy 2008-2018 core priority on waste and recycling is to:
  be a sustainable community, where all citizens take pride in and take care of Hackney.

  5.4.1    The North London Waste Plan is currently being prepared. The proposed submission
           draft is due to be published early in the New Year. The NLWP sets out strategic planning
           policy to ensure that north London meets the Greater London Authorities waste
           management targets. It sets out the policy to safeguard existing sites and identifies new
           sites (although not in Hackney) for waste management over the lifetime in the plan to
           assist in making North London self sufficient in managing its waste. When finalised it will
           constitute part of the Local Development Framework.

  5.4.2    Sixty new litter recycling bins with separate compartments for recyclable materials and
           waste are being trialled in Hackney Central, Stoke Newington and Shoreditch. If
           successful, these will be made available throughout the borough. (LBH, AMR
           2009/2010)


Baseline

   Recycling rates have continued to increase year-on-year in Hackney. Back in 2002, only 1% of
   waste was recycled by residents. Hackney exceeded the Government target of 20% recycling for
   the first time in 2007/08. (LBH AMR, 2009/2010)

   By 2008/09, the performance improved to almost 23% and for monitoring year 2009/10, Hackney
   achieved 24.35%. (LBH AMR, 2009/2010)

   In advance of new EU laws coming into force in 2012 (which require 25% of household batteries
   to be recycled), eight battery recycling bins have also been placed in libraries across the borough
   to enable all residents to conveniently deposit their household batteries for recycling. (LBH AMR,
   2009/2010)

Likely future conditions
  5.4.3    Hackney has improved its performance for recycling residual waste per household. It is
           predicted this will continue.

  5.4.4    The NLWP identifies that North London has sufficient capacity to manage was self-
           sufficiently.

Issues and problems
  5.4.5    There are residential areas in close proximity to the two safeguarded sites for waste
           management. Impacts need to be monitored.

  5.4.6    Fly-tipping and other dumping in the borough can cause issues in regard to water
           pollution and other adverse effects.




                                                                                                     28
5.5           Hackney’s historic assets and environment
Key Plans and policies

     The Sustainable Community Strategy 2008-2018 core priority on historic assets and environment
     is to: be a sustainable community, where all citizens take pride in and take care of Hackney and
     its environment for future generations.

     5.5.1       Planning Policy Statement 5: Planning for the Historic Environment was adopted in
                 March 2010. It places a new focus on protecting designated heritage assets and
                 undesignated areas of historic significance. It outlines that the historic environment
                 should play a practice role in regeneration.

Baseline

       There are approximately 1300 listed buildings in Hackney. Hackney also has 29 Conservation
       Areas. (LBH Annual Monitoring Report 2009/10)

       In July 2010, there were a total of 34 entries on the ‘Heritage at Risk’ register for Hackney2,
       comprising 33 building entries, and one Conservation Area at Risk. (LBH, State of the Historic
       Environment, 2008)

       Hackney’s archaeology is considerable and includes finds from the Palaeolithic era near Stoke
       Newington, and medieval and Elizabethan remains. (LBH, State of the Historic Environment,
       2008)

Likely future conditions
     5.5.2       Hackney’s historic environment will remain protected and reserved. However it is
                 predicted there will be increased pressures for higher density development where these
                 and the Boroughs growth areas overlap.

Issues and problems
     5.5.3       The Boroughs conservation areas are predominately located next to the key areas of
                 predicted growth i.e. Dalston, Hackney Central, Shoreditch, Railway Corridors. Potential
                 for adverse impacts as a result of this.

     5.5.4       The urban character may be threatened by the cumulative effects of piecemeal and
                 small scale changes, such as replacement windows, unsympathetic extensions, and
                 alterations to street frontages.


5.6           Transport and travel
Key plans and policies


     Hackney’s Sustainable Community Strategy 2008-2018 core priority on transport and travel is to
     improve access to services and facilities. The key priorities are to promote mixed communities in
2
    Source: www.english-heritage.org.uk/publications/HAR-2010-regional-registers/lon-HAR-register-2010.pdf/




                                                                                                              29
     well-designed neighbourhoods where people can access high quality, affordable housing; to be a
     sustainable community, where all citizens take pride in and care of hackney and its environment
     for future generations.

     5.6.1       Hackney’s Infrastructure Assessment, 2009 sets out that the borough is well served by
                 National Rail, with stations in Clapton, London Fields, Hackney Downs, Rectory Road,
                 Stoke Newington and Stamford Hill. These stations all offer direct services to Liverpool
                 Street, while the largest of these stations, Hackney Downs, offers connections to a range
                 of other destinations within North London and Hertfordshire including Stansted Airport.

     5.6.2       Transport for London’s Investment Plan is continuing its £1.4 billion upgrade of the East
                 London line. In May 2011, the service will be extended north from Dalston to Canonbury
                 and Highbury and Islington. A new timetable will be introduced in May 2011 with 8 trains
                 per hour in each direction in the peaks (4 to/from Richmond and 4 to/from Clapham
                 Junction), compared to the current 6 train per hour service in each direction. New trains
                 introduced on the North London Line during late 2009 and early 2010 also increased the
                 carrying capacity per service by 12% (from 511 to 572). By May 2012 the service will be
                 extended southwards to Clapham Junction. The extension works will create further
                 journey opportunities and increase the service frequency at the East London Line
                 stations in Hackney from 12 trains per hour to 16 trains per hour in each direction3 (TfL
                 websource, July 2010)

Baseline

       Rates of car ownership are very low in Hackney at 44% of households. This is low in comparison
       to surrounding boroughs, while the percentage of resident trips starting in Hackney by bicycle as
       a main mode is 8% - the highest in London.

       Hackney is served by 49 bus routes during the daytime and a further 23 night bus routes. 7 of the
       12 most heavily used bus routes operate through Hackney. These routes provide easy and low-
       cost methods of travelling to numerous destinations within London, including some of Central
       London’s famous tourist attractions and interchanges with both National Rail services and
       London Underground at Seven Sisters, Finsbury Park, Stratford, Victoria and London Bridge
       stations. (LBH, AMR, 2009/2010)

       Hackney is seen as one of the leading boroughs for cycling in London, and levels of cycling
       continue to increase. As with walking, it can help in promoting a healthy and active lifestyle. The
       London-wide average is 2% of journeys made by cycle, while rates of usage vary from 3% by
       residents of Springfield ward to 9% in Stoke Newington. Work is continuing to promote cycle use
       in the borough. (LBH, AMR, 2009/2010)

       The national road safety target is for a 50% reduction in the level of people Killed or Seriously
       Injured (KSI) by 2010, against a baseline average from 1994 -1998. The average for those years
       was 209 KSI and for 11 of the 12 years from 1998 to 2010 the level was below the 209 average.
       This has been achieved in Hackney . (LBH AMR, 2009/2010)

       The Council has had its own travel plan in place since 2004. There has been a significant
       increase in the number of staff walking, cycling and using public transport (up from 32% in 2004

3
    Source: TfL data



                                                                                                         30
 to 75.3% in 2007), and a reduction in car usage (down from 37% in 2004 to 23.8% in 2007). (LBH
 AMR, 2009/2010)

 Likely future conditions

5.6.3   The East London Line is now open and bringing benefits in terms of increased tourism.
        This is significantly improving accessibility in the borough. It is anticipated that densities
        will increase around these transport nodes.

5.6.4   Increases in workspace and School Travel Plans encouraging positive trends of
        sustainable transport.

5.6.5   Continued improvements in road safety are anticipated which will be supported by the
        emerging Local Implementation plan anticipated to be adopted in 2011.

Issues and problems

5.6.6   Increases in densities and population growth around transport nodes may result in air
        and noise pollution and other associated impacts.

5.6.7   Increases in accessibility may help to increase property values in the area. This may
        inhibit access to affordable housing in the borough.




                                                                                                         31
6           Economic conditions in Hackney

6.1         Employment
Key plans and policies


    Hackney’s Sustainable Community Strategy, 2008-2018 key priority for economic development is
    to reduce poverty by supporting residents into sustainable employment and promoting
    employment opportunities.

    6.1.1    Hackney Employment Growth Options Update, Atkins 2010 demonstrates an acute need
             for affordable employment and management floorspace for micro, small and medium
             companies and that these types of businesses are often catalyst for the regeneration of
             run down areas. The study showed that there has been a significant amount of
             employment generated uses lost to mainly residential or live-work units. The study
             indicated the type of floorspace that Hackney can provide does not meet the demand.
             And that this is one of the factors that is driving companies away from Hackney
             especially small businesses.

Baseline

     Growth forecasts for 2011 were downgraded by the Office for Budget Responsibility from 3.5% to
     2.6% following the change of Government in May 2010.

     The latest figures for Hackney demonstrate that the percentage of residents in work is still
     increasing, and surpassed 68% over the 12 month period to September 2009, up from 53.2%
     back in 2005/6. The main employers in Hackney are public sector organisations such as the
     NHS Primary Care Trust, Network Rail and Hackney Council. (Borough Profile, 2009)

     From 1999 to the present the national employment rate has remained fairly constant (around
     74%) and London’s has fluctuated between 68 and 71%. Hackney’s employment rate has shown
     considerable variance, averaging 59% between 1999 and 2009, well below the national and
     regional averages. (LBH, AMR, 2009/2010)

     Nationwide, the numbers of people claiming benefit fell in the late 1990s and early 2000s. In
     Hackney Job Seekers Allowance claims fell from 15.9% in 1996 to 5.7% in 2001. (ONS, Annual
     population Survey 2009)

     Hackney’s employment base has altered hugely in the last couple of decades with regard to the
     reduction of manufacturing and related industry and the growth of largely service-based activities.
     Industrial employment has declined from nearly 11,000 in 1991 to 6,000 in 2001. There has been
     a growth in public sector employment and small and medium size businesses. There is also a
     growing presence in the cultural, creative and leisure sectors. (ONS/BERR – vat
     registrations/deregistration by industry, 2007)




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       Analysis carried out by Atkins for the Employment Growth Option Study update of 2010 indicates
       there is a current oversupply of approximately 132000 sq m4 of B1 office space throughout
       Hackney and an undersupply of suitable premises for micro, small and medium businesses.
       (Atkins, 2010)

Likely future conditions
     6.1.2       It is predicted that there will be a continued demand for micro, small and medium sized
                 businesses.

     6.1.3       There is a possible decline of the public sector as a key local employer in the Borough
                 resulting from Government cuts to public spending.

     6.1.4       It is predicted that there will be a continued loss of employment floorspace though mixed
                 use development schemes.

Issues and problems
     6.1.5       Hackney’s high reliance on the public sector for employment could make it particularly
                 vulnerable to the impacts of suggested spending cuts of up to 40% which will be
                 imposed from 2011. (LBH AMR, 2009/2010)

     6.1.6       Hackney currently does not provide quantum of floorspace best suited to micro, small
                 and medium sized businesses.

     6.1.7       Reductions in Central Government funding will have knock-on effects at the local level,
                 as many local authorities now must adjust their own day-to-day operating costs. With
                 this, the potential risks of a reduction in service delivery cannot be discounted. (LBH,
                 AMR, 2009/2010)


6.2           Hackney’s Town Centres
Key plans and policies

     Hackney’s Sustainable Community Strategy, 2008-2018 key priority for economic development is
     broadly to: reduce poverty by supporting residents into sustainable employment, and promoting
     employment opportunities.

     A key outcome is to: ensure that our town centres in Dalston and Hackney central and our areas
     of growth in Shoreditch, Woodberry down and hackney Wick are vibrant places where local
     people and visitors choose to stop and spend leisure time, and make sure these centres remain
     attractive places to do business and invest in.



     6.2.1       On 29 December 2009 the Government published PPS4: Planning for Sustainable
                 Economic Growth, which replaced PPS6 on Town Centres and the previous PPG4 and
                 PPG5.




4
    Atkins 2006 – figure relates to 227674 sq m office space, less the 95000 sq m as part of the Olympic Legacy proposals



                                                                                                                            33
Baseline

  Hackney has one major town centre Dalston, three district town centres Hackney Central, Stoke
  Newington High Street and Finsbury Park and thirteen local centres including Manor House,
  Stamford Hill and Broadway Market. Dalston and Hackney Central currently provide a poor retail
  offer when compared to equivalent level centres elsewhere in London. Smaller businesses,
  independent traders and entrepreneurs tend to dominate the Hackney scene, but on one hand
  while this can contribute to the ‘non-conformist’ label Hackney is noted for, on the other it can
  translate into a weakness from an economic standpoint for the lack of large ‘high street’ retailers
  in many areas of the borough contributes to retail leakage to other areas. (LBH, AMR,
  2009/2010)

  Across London Town Centres, the average vacancy rate is 8.5% of all retail units. This rises to
  12.9% within Central London. Both are below the UK average 14.8%. The average vacancy
  rates within all Hackney centres equate to 10%. (LBH, Retail Survey, 2010)

  Over the period 1999 to 2008 there was a 0.9% decline in the overall level of retail floorspace in
  the borough. However despite this, over the last four years Hackney has seen a net gain of 9,667
  sq m of A1 retail floorspace granted permission in the borough, with a 261 sq m gain in the
  designated town centres. (Retail Floorspace Development 2006/210, London Development
  Database, 2010)

  The evening and night-time economy is vibrant with concentrations in the Shoreditch area. (LBH
  AMR, 2009/2010)


Likely future conditions
 6.2.2     Continued demands for evening and night-time uses especially in the Shoreditch area.

 6.2.3     Continued rise in the demand for A1 retail use and applications for mixed use including
           in areas designated in designated for employment use.

 6.2.4     Probable decline in business start-ups as a result of the economic recession.

Issues and problems
 6.2.5     Concentrations of night-time alcohol related uses will be inhibited even where there is
           continued demand due to impacts on local residents. Licensing arrangements will be put
           in place to assist in managing this.

 6.2.6     Decline in investment and business support may increase the vacancy rates in Hackney.




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6.3       Arts and culture
Key plans and policies

  Hackney’s Sustainable Community Strategy, 2008-2018 key priority for the promotion of arts and
  culture is broadly to broadly: reduce poverty by supporting residents in sustainable employment,
  and prompting employment opportunities. A key outcome is to improve vibrancy of the boroughs
  town centres in Dalston and Hackney Central and our areas of growth in Shoreditch, Woodberry
  Down and hackney wick are vibrant places where local people and visitors choose to shop and
  spend leisure time, and make sure thee centres remain attractive places to do business in.

  6.3.1    The Department of Communities and Local Government (DCLG) announced a £3m
           empty shop revival funding programme in April 2009 as part of its Looking After Our
           Town Centres initiative. The status of this as a result of the National spending review is
           yet to be confirmed.

  6.3.2    Arts Council of England (ACE) supported the empty shops initiative with £500,000 of
           National Lottery funds available through Arts Council England’s Grants for the arts
           programme. Art in Empty Spaces launched in August '09 to help artists and arts
           groups carry out artistic activities in vacant spaces through applying for grants to support
           artistic activity to transform empty retail units into creative spaces.

Baseline

   The contribution of arts, culture and entertainment is significant to Hackney’s economic
   development and regeneration. Hackney Empire, Vortex Jazz Bar, Arcola Theatre, the Geffrye
   Museum, Sutton House and White Cube Art Gallery are all widely recognised attractions and
   cultural homes based in the borough. Hackney is home to a significant number of artists,
   designers and other creative professions, many internationally renowned. Creative Industries
   comprise a significant percentage of the local economy. (LBH, AMR, 2009/2010)

   Tourism was worth £208m to Hackney in 2007 (The London Development Agency’s ‘Local Area
   Tourism Impact Model, 2009)

Likely future conditions

  6.3.3    Creative activity is projected to continue to rise in Hackney.

  6.3.4    Demands for the arts and cultural activity likely to continue and increase. Increases in
           demands may result in higher rents. This could push out the artist population.

  6.3.5    Planning regulations on internal layouts and design standards may restrict the use of
           space for artist who require affordable and flexible spaces.

Issues and problems

  6.3.6    Opportunities to foster creative activities in vacant shops should be maximised.
           Neighbourhood disturbance can be generated from late night related uses.

  6.3.7    Cuts in government spending may result in the decline of grants and other initiatives to
           support the development of local arts and cultural activities.



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