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INFINITIVES

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					INFINITIVES

 İNGİLİZCEDEKİ MASTAR

MADE BY TUĞBA YAZNUR
 Fiilin mastar hali infinitive’dir. Fiil
önüne to alır. Infinitive’le kullanılan
             bazı fiiller ;
to arrange   to agree   to decide to plan



to refuse    to promise to hope     to offer

to prepare    to seem
    Infinitives as subject

To procrastinate causes a lot of problem.

Not to go ahead proved a mistake.

An infinitiveis to plus the base form a verb.

 To graduate from a college is important. I want to do
that.
Infinitives and infinitive phrases often
 perform the same functions as nouns.


a.They act as subjects.
   To finish what you started is advisable.

 NOTE:Using an infinitive as a subject is formal. It +
an infinitive phrase is more common.We often add for
+ a noun or pronoun to say who or what does the
actions.

 It’s advisable to finish what you started.
     It’s important for a student to take good notes in
class.
    Infinitives as object



Not everyone wants to procrastinate.
He decided not to go ahead

b.They act as objects.
     I’d like to invite you to dinner.
Infınıtıves as Subject Complement


His job is to motivate people.
Their real intention not to succeed.

 c.They act as subject complements (phrases that
describe or explain the subject of a sentence
     A teacher’s job is to create a desire to learn.
 To make an infinite negative,
     place not before to

I warned you not to put this off.

BE CAREFUL! Don’t confuse to in an infinitive
 with to as a preposition. To in an infinitive is
 followed by the base form of the verb.To as a
 preposition is followed by a gerund, regular
 noun, or pronoun.
    I plan to work hard.
    I’m used to working hard.
             It + Infinitive


It is foolish for her to procrastinate.
It was wrong of him not to go ahead.
   Verbs Followed by Infinitives


They decided to call him.
He convicted her to call.
She neglected to call her child.
Certain Verb are Followed only
        by Infinitives

She offered to help me.
He learned to be efficent.

 Other verbs are followed by a required noun or
pronoun + an infinitive.
I warned Stan to make the payments.
                  NOTE:


 Still other verbs are followed by an optional noun or
pronoun + an infinitive, depending on the meaning of
the verb.

We expected to finish on time.
We expected Jim to finish on time.
     Adjectives Followed by
          Infinitives

Hal is reluctant to complete his work on time.
He’s careful not to make mistakes.
They’re happy to hear the test has been postponed.
     Certain adjectives can be followed by
 infinitives. These adjectives usually describe
people, not things. They often express feelings
  about the action described in the infinitive.


 George is afraid to make mistakes.
 Mary is not willing to help us.

Common adjectives followed by infinitives:
  afraid, amazed, fortunate, glad, happy, important,
 likely,proud, reluctant, sorry, and willing.
  Nouns Followed by Infinitives


He can always think of reasons to put off studying.
It seems like the thing to do.
She always shows reluctance to finish a job.
A noun is often followed by an infinitive.
 When this occurs, the infinitive gives
     informations about the noun.

Cozumel is a good place to spend a vacation.
Genorocity is a good trait to have.

 A noun + infinitive often expresses advisability or
necessity.
 Starting immediately is the thing to do
  a. Examples of verbs and verb phrases
followed only by inftivesini: appear, decide,
   expect, hope, manage, need, pretend,
          seem, want, would like
They managed to find new jobs.
She pretended to be busy.
   b.Examples of the verbs and phrases
followed only by gerunds: avoid, be worth,
can’t help, consider, enjoy, feel like, have
  trouble, keep, mind, miss, spend(time)

           We considered hiring him.
         I don’t feel like working today
     c.Examples of verbs followed by
 infinitives or gerunds with no change in
meaning:begin, can’t stand, continue, hate,
          like, love, prefer, start.


   They began to encourage her.
   They began encouraging her.
d.Examples of verbs follewed by infinitives or
     gerunds with a significant change in
     meaning:forget, go on, quit, regret,
            remember,stop. try

   I stopped / quit to go to store.
   (= I stopped / quit another activity ,in order to go to
   the store.)‫‏‬
   I stopped / quit going to the store.
   (= I stopped / quit the activity of shopping at the
   store.)‫‏‬
   Too / Enough with Infinitives


Too + adjective / Adverb
 The project is too complicated to finish on time.
 Alice too slowly to meet the deadline.
Too +Adjective / Adverb + Enough
  Steve is intelligent enough to understand the
situation.
  He didn’t call quikly enough to get the job.
Enough + Noun
  They have enough intelligence to pass the test.
  They have intelligence enough to pass the test.
The word too and enough are often used before
  infinitives.Too is used in this pattern: too +
   adjective/ adverb + infinitive .It implies a
                 negative result.

  We’re too tired to do any work today.
  Sam started too late to finish on time.
 Enough + Infinitiveis used
 after an adjective/adverb

Ken is strong enough to lift 80 kilos.
Mia runs fast enough to be first.
 Enough can be used before a
      noun + infinitive

There’s not enough money to pay for the repairs.


  Enough can also used arter a
noun.This usage is formal.
 There is not money enough to pay for the repairs.
NOTE: Add for + a noun or pronoun
 to show who performs the action
         of the infinitive

 There’s not enough money for Jane to pay for the
repairs.
    Infinitives can occur simple or past
 form.We use a simple infinitive(without a
past participle) to indicate an action in the
 same general time frame as the action in
               the main verb.
• I expected you to call.
We use a past infinitive (to + have + past
participle) to show an action that occured
before the action of the main verb in the
                 sentence

• You seem to have forgotten the report that was due
  today.
  Infinitives can occur in passive form. In
    the present, use to + be or get + past
participle.In the past, use to + have + been
   + past participle. Use the past form to
indicate an action that occured before the
           action of the main verb
• The work is supposed to be finished by tomorrow.
• The work was to have been done before now.
     Active and Passive Infinitives

•   She plans to invite them.
•   They expect to be invited.
•   She was glad to have invited them.
•   They were happy to have been invited.
   USAGE NOTE:In formal English, it is
sometimes considered incorrect to split an
infinitive – i.e., to place a word between to
 and the base form of the verb. Place the
   word before or after the infinitive.In
  conversation, it is acceptable to split an
                    infinitive.
 • Not Star Trek explorers are told where no one has
   gone before.
 • Star Trek explorers are told to go boldly where no one
   has gone before.
 • Star Trek explorers are told boldly to go where no one
   has gone before.
  To avoid repeating an infinitive just
 mentioned, simply used to. This is called
                 ellipsis

• Steve knew he had to go to work, but he didn't want
  to.

				
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