DHIS14 Training Manual Draft _BW_ by keralaguest


									1        Overview of the project
The Botswana Health Information System Programme (HISP) has as a goal to implement the
District Health Information System (DHIS) as a central database at the districts. Data from all
health information programs will be integrated and entered into one database. The electronic
reporting from these databases to the national database will constitute the main primary health
information flow in the Ministry of Health. The information flow is shown in Figure 1

The first phase will include the four districts Gaborone, Kgatleng, Okavango, and South East.
The software used is DHIS. The DHIS is used to capture, process, and display routine health
data. Data can be captured with any collection frequency; weekly, monthly, quarterly and

The software is easily customisable, and it is used in a range of different countries; South
Africa, Mozambique, Malawi, Tanzania, India, Ethiopia, Vietnam, China, Swaziland, and
Uganda in addition to Botswana.

DHIS reporting routine
The figure below shows how the current paper forms will be entered at the districts to become
an electronically based reporting system. The DHIS will use the same forms that are currently
in use, but from the district it will be electronically stored instead of on paper. The three steps
to get there are:

    1. Enter data, meaning writing data from the paper forms into the computer database
    2. Validate data, to check that data are entered correctly and catch errors at an early stage
    3. Export data to the national level electronically. This will be done via e-mail (or Flash
       disk, diskette, or CD if e-mail is unavailable)

This facilitates electronic data processing at both the district and national level. The data can
be printed out on reports or exported to Excel pivot tables for easy comparisons and graphs.
For the national level the data will be aggregated on districts.

DHIS chart
                 DHIS at districts                   DHIS at national level
                 1 Enter data from                   1Import data from districts
                 paper reports for each
                                                     2 Use data in reports and
                                                     pivot tables
                 2 Validate data
                                                     3 Give feedback to the
                 3 Export data to                    districts
                 national level
                 4 Use data in reports
                 and pivot tables
                 5 Give feedback to
                 the facilities

                         Enter data
                         from             DHIS                                DHIS
                         facilities at                Send data to
                         the districts                national level

!   DHIS provides:
     Easy entering of data                                  Printing of reports
     Calculation of indicators                              Excel pivot table tools
     Validation rules to ensure high                        Easy linking to Geographical
      quality data                                            Information Systems (GIS)

2        Installing DHIS
To install DHIS, simply insert the DHIS 1.4 CD in your cd drive. Open the content of the CD,
often this will be done automatically, so that you can see the different files there. Double-click
the file “Setup”. This will start the installation process.

A sequence of steps will guide you through the installation process and ask you to verify
When the licence agreement is shown, simply tick the “I accept the licence agreement” to be
able to continue.

You will then be asked for a destination folder, where the DHIS will be installed. The default
folder will be C:\Dhis14. Preferably do not change this, as it will require re-creation of the
Excel Pivot Table.

You will be asked to select the features you want to install. As default, all the DHIS modules
are selected, but none of the Data Files.

Now tick the box next to BW Botswana Data File. This is very important, as failure to do this
will not install the data file for Botswana, and you will not be able to use DHIS. The
installation window should look as the one above before you click Next

The DHIS and the Botswana data file will now be installed. This may take several minutes,
depending on the speed of your computer.

When finished installing DHIS, the installation wizard will install extra applications you need.
A message will inform you of this, as shown below.

You will be allowed to install Adobe "acrobat" Reader version 7 with the latest Service Packs.
This is used for reading PDF (Public Document Format) documents, a common format for
publishing documents.

You MUST install the Free and Open Source compression/archiving utility "7-zip" - it is used
by the XML/TEXT export and import functions in the DHIS 1.4.x.

You can also install WinZip 9.0, as an optional tool for compressing or uncompressing data in
order to e.g. emailing or copying to removable media like diskettes. Note that Winzip is
shareware – you can only evaluate it for 15 days, then it should be removed. A few other
Microsoft updates (e.g. XML Parser, MDAC 2.8, and Jet 4.0 SP8) will also be installed.

All the applications mentioned above can be found in the DHIS_Apps folder on the DHIS CD
- they can be installed separately from there. When the installation is finished, you will have
to restart the computer for all the changes to come into effect. When asked about restarting,
choose “Restart now”.

3        Using the DHIS
In the pilot phase, the district offices will enter data into the DHIS for each unit. This data will
then be exported to the national level. Both at the district and national offices the data will be
used to print reports and analysed with Excel pivot tables.

DHIS is made up of two components: The DHIS software, which is similar in all countries,
and the specific Data Files, which includes the organizational hierarchy, the Data Elements
with values, the indicators, validations etc. that are specific to each country. In Botswana the
Data File is DHIS_#BW_BOTSWANA.mdb. All changes to the Data File can be done with
the DHIS.

The Data File contains all the information that is necessary to use the DHIS for entering and
using data. You will find several terms that may be knew to you when using the DHIS. An
explanation of the different expressions and terms used in DHIS is useful:

Org Unit. This is the short name for an organisational unit. Organisation Units are any
administrative or physical health unit. For instance, the Ministry of health is an org unit, each
district is an org unit, each clinic and each hospital is an org unit. As the name implies, this is
a unit in the larger organisation that the Ministry of Health is. This includes both facilities
reporting data and administrative units such as the District Health Teams and the Ministry.

These organisational units are linked together in DHIS so that each facility is a sub-unit of the
appropriate district. All the districts are again sub-units of the ministry.

Data Element. A Data Element is a name of a diagnosis or condition that is recorded at the
facilities. Examples are “Malaria with severe anaemia < 1 year” and “Malaria with severe
anaemia 1-4 years”. Data Elements can also be other things than medical conditions, like an
address or a telephone number, which might be useful to store for each org unit.

Data Sets. A Data Set in DHIS is a collection of data elements that usually reflect a health
data summary form. It is a selection of data elements that are related and which it thus makes
sense in collecting together. For example, the monthly PMTCT Mother and Child Health
report is known as the PMTCT Monthly MCH data set in DHIS. The other data sets have also
been made in DHIS, like Out-patient and Preventive Health Statistics Monthly summary

Health Programmes. A Health Programme in DHIS has the same meaning as in use today in
Botswana. It means a program with specific focus, made up of several Data Sets. Different
health programmes are PMTCT, Tuberculosis (TB), Surveillance, and others.

So, a Health Programme has different Data Sets, each which is a collection of Data Elements
(Or in other words, a health summary form).

The rest of the document will go stepwise through the how to enter data, run validations,
export/import of data, printing reports, and using pivot tables. The different options are found
as buttons in the main window, the Control Centre.

3.1      Getting started
To start DHIS, click the DHIS14_Core shortcut. The first time you use DHIS, you have to
create a username. The procedure for that is as follows:

1. When asked for a username and password, type in

Name: admin
Password: district

as shown in the figure to the right, and then click ok.

2. You now get to the Control Centre, which is the main window of the DHIS. It contains a
menu on the left side, and displays a map of health centres in Botswana. The background
image can easily be changed.

3. From here, click Maintenance. You will then see a menu on the left side. One of the tabs
reads “HouseKeeping”. Click this to get the different functions under HouseKeeping, as
shown below to the right. The texts bordered in by
red are functions only available when logged on as

4. Click “Users and Groups”. This allows you to
add new users, as shown below. Fill in the name
you want to use in the field next to User Name, and
add a password if you want one. It is not necessary
to have a password, but it is an option in case you
would want one. When you have entered a user
name and a password (if you want one), click the
button labelled “Add User”. As the figure on the
next page shows, the user name “buthu” will be
added. When wanting to enter data into DHIS,
Buthu will log on with this username.

5. A message will now appear telling you that the user name has been added. Click the
“close” button on the top right of the screen to get to the Control Centre. There, use the red
Quit button to exit the DHIS.

6. Start it again, but now log in with the new user name you have created.

You are now logged on with your own user name, and are ready to enter data. The following
steps will go through how to do this.

   3.2 Entering Data

   1. Click the „Health Data – Entry/Edit‟ in the
      Control Centre. You are then asked to
      select Data Programme and Data Set.
      Click the „+‟ box next to the Data
      Programme you want to enter data for.

   2. Now the different forms from that Data
      Programme will be shown. Click the one
      you would like to enter data for.

   3. After choosing Data Programme and Set,
      you will get to the Data Entry window.
      Only Data Elements from the chosen Data
      Set is available. If you want to enter data
      for another Data Set, you can select
      another from the menu in the upper left
      corner of the screen.

   4. Select the period from the menu on the top

   left. This period will be either month, quarter, or week, depending on the report
   frequency of the data form

5. Find and click the appropriate health unit in the menu on the left side. To navigate
   between the units, use the sidebar to scroll up and down. To show or hide the clinics
   under each district, click the „+‟ and „–„ by each district name.

6. When month and health unit is chosen, a list of the elements will show, with any data
   that has been entered before. Depending on the Data Set selected, the elements will
   either be organized in a list, or in a tabular form. As an advanced option the design of
   these forms can be altered.

7. All kinds of forms can be made. Below is first shown the Out-Patient and Preventive
   Health Statistics Monthly summary form, as it appears on paper. This data set can be
   replicated in the DHIS

8. The DHIS version of the OPD/preventive Monthly page has the same layout as the
   paper form. Note that the total fields have been left out, since DHIS can calculate this
   automatically. Below the screenshot shows this data set in a tabular form, for Block 6
   Clinic in Gaborone district, with some data entered.

9. As can be seen, the period Jul-05 has been selected in the top left corner, meaning that
   the data entered will be for July 2005. Also, the org unit Block 6 Clinic has been
   selected from the list on the left side. The org unit is also shown with larger letters
   above the entry form. Thus, with the combination of July 05 and Block 6 Clinic in
   Gaborone district selected, data from that month and facility is shown in the form.

10. Fill in the values for that specific element in the entry field, which is the field in the
    table representing the data element you want to enter for. For instance, the first field to
    the right of Total Malaria M, combines with the column <1 to form the Data Element
    Total Malaria Male <1, just like in the paper form. In this field, fill in the appropriate
    value from the paper form. This is now called an “entry”. Continue filling in the
    elements for that facility and period as you would in a regular paper form.

11. When all the elements have been entered, click „Save‟ to save your entries.

12. Now run validation checks. Validations will check the entries against a set of rules to
    check that there is consistency in the data. Look below for a more throughout
    explanation on validations. You run validations by clicking the “Validate” button.

13. A window will pop up with the results from the validation. Any breaches of
    validations will be shown. Please check these entries again to be sure they are correct.

14. Select another period, data form or facility as explained above to enter something else.

Some data entry screens are not designed with a table-type layout (several columns), but is
just one list of data elements. One example is the PMTCT Monthly Mother and Child
Health, which is shown below. Here the Data Elements are displayed in a descending list,
just as in the paper form.

With a list-type data entry screen, the min/max and comment fields are always visible, but
with a table-type data entry screen, you will have to double-click each entry field to see
these, as there is no space to show them on the screen. The min/max and comment fields
are explained below.

A little about Min and Max values

      The min/max values represent the “normal” range for each data element and facility.
       A larger hospital will therefore have higher min and max values than a small clinic
       because the hospital sees many more patients.

      The min/max values are the first set of Validations. They are set to catch unusually
       low or high values. Note that if a value is outside a normal range, that value might be
       correct or incorrect. It might be correct for instance if it represents a disease outbreak
       or if it represents a situation where the facility was closed during part of the month.
       Alternatively, it might be wrong due to a data collection mistake or a typing error.

      The DHIS can show a list of all entries with the „Check‟ box ticket, so managers can
       monitor outbreaks or increased trends.

      The comment file can either be used to give an explanation of the unusually high or
       low data, or to make a note to check up the data later, if it might be wrong. If for
       example you suspect that a value is incorrect, but cannot be sure before you have
       checked it up with the facility, add a comment. Also, tick the “Check it!” box, which
       makes it easier to find this entry later.

      The min and max values can be automatically calculated based on previous data. For
       now, the range has been set to 0-100 for all elements to facilitate easy entering. If
       values are higher than 100, change the max value.

      If the entry if out of range i.e. lower than Min or greater than Max, a warning pops up.
       Three options are listed, with corresponding buttons beneath. Follow the instructions
       and continue entering.

The pop-up window showing that the value is out of range

       An example of a comment is shown in the figure below. The „Check‟ box will be
        ticked when a comment is added. All entries that are commented can be shown in a list
        under „Maintenance‟.

A little about validations

       Validations are predefined rules to ensure the quality of the data. There are two forms
        of validation rules, absolute and statistical.

       Absolute rules apply when one value cannot be higher than another. If child
        attendance is 234, then the total headcount cannot be 225.

       Statistical rules are more flexible and are designed to ensure that the ratios between
        data elements are not transgressed, e.g. children with diarrhoea is correlated with
        headcount for children under 5 years. If the headcount goes up, one would expect the
        number of cases of diarrhoea to increase as well in the same proportion. The statistical
        rule follows the pattern and will identify outliers.

       In addition, the Min/Max values in the Data Entry window will catch typing errors,
        such as 122 instead of 12.

       The validation rules are defined in DHIS. For now, we will only run the validation
        checks with the current rules, but more rules can be added or edited later.

Miss some elements?
    If the required elements are not listed for the current health unit, you can add elements
      to the list by clicking „More Elements‟. The following window lets you select Data
      Elements from the Data Set. The window automatically pops up if no elements have
      been listed for the unit.

       If the elements are not in the list you can select from, they have to be defined for the
        Data File first. This is an advanced option and will not be covered by this two day

Note on “Data Elements” and “Data Indicators”

Everybody must understand the difference between data elements and indicators. Data
elements are also called raw data, and represents direct counts. Indicators are combinations of
such n contrast to indicators which are processed using several different data elements.
Examples are:

                          Hepatitis B, First dose given 0-11 months
                          Hepatitis B, First dose given 1-4 years
                          Hepatitis B, First dose given 5 years+
                          Female under 1 year (Semi permanent, changed every year)

Indicators are defined for the database using Data Elements, and show relations between two
or more Data Elements. They consist of a numerator and a denominator. An example is:

% of children given Hepatitis B first dose in their first year =

           __Hepatitis B, First dose given 0-11 months__
             Female under 1 year + Male under 1 year

! Note. Indicators are not entered into the database every month, but defined once. Since
they are made up of Data Elements, they are calculated automatically whenever a report is
printed out, based on the values of the relevant data elements.

Some of the indicators defined for the Botswana data file so far are; Antenatal pre-test
counselling rate, Antenatal HIV testing rate, Drop-out delivery to postnatal.

The indicators will be calculated when exporting to pivot tables, where they can be viewed
and used in graphs, reports etc. The table below shows the indicator ANC HIV testing rate

                                                   ANC HIV testing rate










         Jan-04   Feb-04     Mar-04   Apr-04   May-04   Jun-04   Jul-04     Aug-04       Sep-04   Oct-04   Nov-04   Dec-04   Jan-05   Feb-05   Mar-05

                                                                   Antenatal HIV testing rate

The use of indicators is highly encouraged, as, compared to raw data, they contain
information. A raw data value carries no information, only combined and compared with

population or other raw data can you be able to use it for management. For example, a district
manager will usually know if 34 positive HIV tests is a god figure for her district, but only
because she also knows the amount of HIV tests given. The definition of indicators is one of
the main priorities of the Beanish project, and indicators will be the focus of many workshops
held later.

3.3 Exporting and importing data

Since the databases from the districts will be
large, there is a function to export only parts of
the data in another format, which takes much less
space. It will then be possible to send the monthly
data with e-mail to the national office. The export
and import will take place every month, when the
data from the districts will be sent to the national
level, refer to the DHIS chart in the start of the

To Export:
    In the Control Centre, click

      There are several Export and Import
       options. For regular exporting, we will
       click “Export to XML/Text”. This will
       bring up the window below.

      Here you choose which Data Sets to export, which district to export from, from which
       dates, and to which level. In the field “Export to Destination”, select “National”.
       Select the district you are exporting from. The file is set to National.xml by default,
       this should be changed to the name of the district, followed by the month and year, to
       avoid files with similar names at the national office. Data from Okavango from June
       2005 will then be called “Okavango June 2005”. The files from July for the four pilot
       districts are shown below. Also, select which Data Sets you would like to export. To
       save time and space, select only those sets which you have entered data for since last
       time. For example, semi-permanent data and population estimates are not modified
       each month, but maybe yearly, and need thus not to be exported once the national
       level has the current figures.

        Once you are ready to export, click “Export” at the bottom of the page.

       ! Remember to name the export file according to the standard District Month Year
            -   “Okavango August 2005” is thus August 2005 data from Okavango
            -   “Kgatleng February-March 2005” is thus February and March 2006 data from

        When the export is finished, send the exported file as an attachment in a regular e-mail
         to the following address:

To Import
    To import, click “Import from XML/Text”. The following screen lets you choose
      which file to import. By default, it will look in the DHIS14/Transfer folder. The
      screenshot below shows 4 different files in this folder, from the 4 districts, all from
      July 2005 (0705).

        Click “Select Import Archive” to select a file. As mentioned, each of these files will
         contain data from the relevant district.

      DHIS will load the data from the import file. If you want to see what is imported,
       select one of the items from the list as shown in the figure below.

      Clicking each of these buttons will show the different values of that type. i.e. clicking
       DataPeriod will show which months are included in the export, while UserName will
       show the different users who have entered data for these months.

      Click RoutineData to show all data entries from the file. You now have the ability to
       view all incoming, all new, or all matching data entries.

      Then click the “Clean and Match Data” to remove possible duplicates of data (data in
       the import file already in the national database)

      Finally, click “Import” to import all new entries. When the process is done, new data
       that was not in your database from before have been added.

   3.4 Print Reports
DHIS supports reporting on paper. You can use standardized reports or define your own ones
in the Report window. From the Control Centre, click „Standard Reports‟. There are three

   1. Routine Raw Data Report: Select Data Set, Org Unit, source level, and Period to view
      a Raw Data Report. This will show the same as the routine reporting forms currently
      in use to collect data. The Org Unit is the organizational unit you want to report to. If
      you choose Botswana Ministry of Health, data will be aggregated so you get the
      national totals. Source Level is where you will take the data from. In the example, we
      have selected District, which means all data entered on the district level will be used.
      We currently have some data from 2004 in the database from the districts, but as the
      pilot districts now will enter for facilities, this will be the source level there.

   One example is shown below. With more data the report could be several pages long.
   This report can then be printed out.

2. Outstanding Input Forms: This report shows all missing reports for a „parent‟ health
   unit. Select Data Set, Organizational Unit, and Period, and all months missing for the
   health units under this Organizational Unit will be shown. This is useful to check
   which data is not reported to and imported at the Districts and MoH in Gaborone.

3. Data File Setup Reports: Here you find all reports that are made for this Data File. A
   range of reports may be customized to each district. Select Data Source to see which
   reports are made for those data. The figure below shows three example reports for
   Routine Data.

   4 Pivot Tables
Pivot tables are excel files that have been arranged in a specific way to enable data to be
viewed in a specific format. The data will belong to “field buttons”, which can be dragged
around in the Excel worksheet to combine data in different ways. For example, all data can be
sorted on different facilities or districts with easy manipulation of the different fields or
“buttons”, called drop-down lists.

To be able to use pivot tables, we have to export the data to a Data Mart. The Data Mart is the
DHIS storage file for semi-processed raw and indicator data. The Excel Workbooks with
Pivot Tables use the Data Mart file to obtain data

The primary reasons for using a Data Mart are
(a) Performance: Processing all calculated data elements and indicators in one place makes
refreshing pivot tables much faster.
(b) Integration: Data/indicators from several different DHIS data files can be exported into
one Data Mart. A province can for instance combine PHC and hospital data, or a National
Directorate can combine data elements and indicators relevant for their area of responsibility
from all provincial data files. For Botswana however, there will only be one Data File in the
pilot project.

      To export to the Data Mart, click “Export Monthly Data (including export of resource
       tables)”. The first time this is done you need to make a full export. If you only want to
       update the Data Mart with the latest month, choose Partial Export and the relevant
       from/to dates

The Data Mart file is now upgraded with the latest data entered into DHIS.

      If you have made any changes in DHIS (entered data, changed entries, added
       indicators etc), export to Data Mart as explained above

      Open the Excel file DHIS_$BW_BOTSWANA.xls in the DHIS14 folder

The Excel workbook contains the following pivot tables:

Tabs:                    Description
Notes                    Provides information on each worksheet
Overview                 An overview over all the facilities and districts
DataSets Outstanding     Overview over datasets not yet reported from facilities (not yet)
National Raw Data        Raw data aggregated for the whole country
District Raw Data        Raw data aggregated for each district
Facility Raw Data        Raw data from all the facilities
National Indicators      Indicators calculated using nationally aggregated raw data
District Indicators      Indicators calculated using district raw data
Facility Indicators      Indicators calculated using facility raw data
Ind Desc                 Description of the indicators, with numerator and denominator.
POP District             Population figures for the districts (not yet)
POP Facility             Population figures for the facilities. (not yet)

      On the bottom part of the screen you can see a list of the different tables, as shown
       below. Clicking any of these will take you to that table. There are more tables than can
       be shown in this list at the same time, use the arrows to the left of the table-names to
       see more of the list
                                   Click the bars to display the worksheet

                Click the arrows to show more worksheets

Refreshing Data
If a new Data Mart has been made, you need to refresh the data in the pivot table in order to
„bring‟ through the new data that has been entered in the DHIS and exported to the Data Mart.
This can be done in any of two ways.

      Start by putting the cursor anywhere in the data table i.e. where the figures are. Go to
       Data in the Standard Toolbar, select !Refresh Data. If Refresh Data is greyed out, it
       means that the cursor is not in the data table. The Pivot Table is then refreshed., and
       the values in the data area should change to reflect the new data transferred from the
       Data Mart to the pivot table.

      The second method of refreshing the data is to put the cursor in the data table; right
       click and a pop-up menu appears. Select Refresh Data.

Sometimes after refreshing the data it takes a while to appear – please be patient. Each sheet
in the Excel file needs to be refreshed individually. If after refreshing nothing appears, check
to see if the Data Mart was loaded and that the correct Data Mart file is being accessed.

Using the pivot table:

       The drop-down lists
        These are derived from the fields of the database that were exported to the data mart.
        They can be arranged in different ways, as can be seen from the screenshots below.
        The buttons can be dragged and dropped in any of the areas in order to pivot the data

        In the picture below, from the worksheet “Facility Raw Monthly Data”, the following
        fields are:

District                           A list of all the districts
DistShort                          Short names for the districts, used on reports to save space
Facility                           A list of all the facilities
FacShort                           Short names for the facilities
PeriodType                         Weekly, Monthly or Quarterly
Period                             All the different periods, including weeks, months and
PeriodStart                        Months
SortOrder                          The number of the data elements. Elements have numbers
                                   according to their order in the Data Programs
DataElementName                    A list of all data elements.

        The name of these fields can easily be changed. Just right-click a field and select
        “Field Settings”.

The above screenshot shows facilities sorted under each district, the screenshot below will
sort all facilities alphabetically, regardless of which district they belong to, since the District
drop-down list is not used to sort.

      The data table is the area where data is displayed. In the examples above, this is the
       area under the months and to the right of the facilities

      To move the drop-down lists around, simply click and hold when the cursor is on the
       required drop-down list. Then, drag it to the new position and let go the mouse button.
       In the start, pivoting data by moving these lists around can be confusing, but after
       some practice it will be easy to compose the data in such a way that you get the
       desired figures in the data table. For instance, in the example above, dragging the
       District drop-down list away from the data table will display all the facilities for all
       districts alphabetically. Dragging the District list down again, between the
       DataElementName and Facility lists, will sort first alphabetically on districts, then on
       facilities under each district.

       Thus dropping a button on the row area, will result in the fields being displayed out as
       rows along the vertical left axis, while dropping a button on the columns area, will
       result in the fields being displayed in a horizontal axis along the top.

5 Graphs
It is easy to make graphs from the pivot tables. Make a copy of the pivot file by right-clicking
it and selecting “copy”. Then right click in the folder and select “paste”. Since whatever
changes you make to the graphs will alter the pivot table, you will use this copy to make
graphs. Simply click the graph button in the excel toolbar. The graph will be organized in the
same way as the pivot table, with the unused drop-down lists displayed above the graph, the
x-axis lists from the pivot table to the right, and the y-axis lists from the pivot table under the
graph. The data table is now simply the graph, with the same figures displayed graphically
instead of as numbers. You can click and select and drag the different drop-down lists just as
in the normal pivot table.

1 Click the Chart Wizard button as shown below

                               Chart Wizard

2 Select the type of graph you want

3. Add titles and labels

4. Select how the graph should be displayed, either in a new sheet or as an object in one of the
pivot table sheets.

Finally, adjust the different drop-down list to get the desired graph. The finished graph is
shown below. Note the difference from the Chart Wizard step 3, where the graph is so full it
is all black. Restricting the amount of data in the graph can easily be done. In this graph, only
the districts are displayed, so the data are aggregated from the facilities to form the district
totals. Note the other limitations set to get the desired data:

PeriodType Monthly PeriodStart (All) DataElementName Delivery in facility SortOrder (All)

         Sum of EntryNumber




 500                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Period
 400                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Nov-04




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Serowe-Palapye District
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Mahalapye District
          Bobirwa District

                                                                                                                                                   Jwaneng Town District

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Kweneng East District
                                                                 Francistown District
                              Boteti District

                                                Chobe District

                                                                                        Gaborone District

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Kgatleng District
                                                                                                            Gantsi District

                                                                                                                              Good Hope District

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Lobatse District

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Mabutsane District

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    South East District

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Southern District
                                                                                                                                                                           Kgalagadi North District

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Kgalagadi South District

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       North East District

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Okavango District

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Selibe-Phikwe District
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ngamiland District

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Tutume District
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Kweneng West District


                            The only data element chosen is Delivery in facility. The drop-down list
                             DataElementName is moved to the top, where you can choose “all” or tick just one
                             data element.

                            The list Facility is also moved to the top, with “all” selected. Thus, all facilities with
                             data are included in the graph

                            Two periods are selected, Nov-04 and Dec-04. When the drop-down list is put either
                             on the right side or at the bottom, it will be possible to tick “all” or only selected items
                             in that list. The Period list has Nov-04 and Dec-04 ticked, showing only those two

      The drop-down list District has ticked “all” and will thus show all districts in the graph

Note that the pivot table itself will reflect the changes you do in the graph. Also, when editing
the pivot table, the graph will change accordingly too. A way to make a permanent graph is to
arrange the pivot table to show the data you want, then copy those data to a separate
worksheet. Then you can make a regular excel table, without the drop-down lists and pivot
options. This is often better for simple graphs, as it will look less messy and be easier to edit
for less experienced users than pivot graphs.

First, arrange the pivot table as you want it, and then select the data you want, as shown
below. Copy this to a new excel sheet.

Then start the Chart Wizard just as in a pivot table, see above. The finished graph, made as an
object in the same worksheet as the data, is shown below.


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